Sample records for reserved keywords cortical

  1. Cognitive reserve and cortical thickness in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zhu, Yuxin; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Brown, Timothy; Miller, Michael; Albert, Marilyn


    This study examined whether cognitive reserve (CR) alters the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of cortical thickness and risk of progression from normal cognition to the onset of clinical symptoms associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The analyses included 232 participants from the BIOCARD study. Participants were cognitively normal and largely middle aged (M age = 56.5) at their baseline MRI scan. After an average of 11.8 years of longitudinal follow-up, 48 have developed clinical symptoms of MCI or dementia (M time from baseline to clinical symptom onset = 7.0 years). Mean thickness was measured over eight 'AD vulnerable' cortical regions, and cognitive reserve was indexed by a composite score consisting of years of education, reading, and vocabulary measures. Using Cox regression models, CR and cortical thickness were each independently associated with risk of clinical symptom onset within 7 years of baseline, suggesting that the neuronal injury occurring proximal to symptom onset has a direct association with clinical outcomes, regardless of CR. In contrast, there was a significant interaction between CR and mean cortical thickness for risk of progression more than 7 years from baseline, suggesting that individuals with high CR are better able to compensate for cortical thinning that is beginning to occur at the very earliest phase of AD.

  2. Cognitive reserve, cortical plasticity and resistance to Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Esiri, Margaret M; Chance, Steven A


    There are aspects of the ageing brain and cognition that remain poorly understood despite intensive efforts to understand how they are related. Cognitive reserve is the concept that has been developed to explain how it is that some elderly people with extensive neuropathology associated with dementia show little in the way of cognitive decline. Cognitive reserve is intimately related to cortical plasticity but this also, as it relates to ageing, remains poorly understood at the present time. Despite the shortcomings in understanding, we do have some knowledge on which to base efforts to minimise the likelihood of an elderly person developing dementia. For some risks the evidence is far from secure, but resistance to Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears from epidemiological studies to be contributed to by avoiding hypertension in middle life, obesity, depression, smoking and diabetes and head injury and by undertaking extended years of education, physical exercise, and social and intellectual pursuits in middle and late life. Nutritional factors may also promote healthy brain ageing. Resistance to AD is also contributed to by genetic factors, particularly apolipoprotein E2, but some combinations of other genetic polymorphisms as well. Although multiple factors and possible interventions may influence cognitive reserve and susceptibility to dementia, much more work is required on the mechanisms of action in order to determine which, if any, may improve the clinical and epidemiological picture. Understanding of how such factors operate may lead to new initiatives to keep the elderly population in the 21st century able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

  3. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun


    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  4. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.


    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However, the quer......With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However...

  5. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao


    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user...

  6. Cultural Keywords in Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach is used as a unifying framework for the studies. This approach offers an attractive methodology for doing explorative discourse analysis on emic and culturally-sensitive grounds. Cultural Keywords in Discourse will be of interest to researchers and students...

  7. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish


    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  8. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    delivery of PHC services in Sub-Sahara African nations. What is Quality of Health Care? The concept of quality in .... difficulty in getting transport to a health facility. He however noted that the unfriendly attitude of the health ... supervision, and financial and logistics management. Thus they view quality more from a population ...

  9. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Pre-tested structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire patterned after the WHO multi-country study questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.0 software. Bivariate analysis between socio-demographic variables and presence of domestic violence was done.

  10. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    quitting. History of alcohol consumption and use of other psychoactive substances such as cannabis, cocaine, heroin and amphetamines was also obtained. All participants irrespective of smoking status were also assessed for their knowledge of the harmful health effects of tobacco smoking. “Is cigarette smoking dangerous ...

  11. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    system and has the potential to touch the lives of most people, particularly at the grassroots of. Nigerian communities where health needs are most. 3 acute and intense. However, over and over again, this level of health. 4,5 care has been described as the weakest. Recent assessments of our national health indices show.

  12. Keywords:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    prevalence of diabetes, information concerning. Nigerian physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding diabetes care is scarce. The general medical practitioners are front-line healthcare providers in Nigeria. They, therefore, have an important role to play in the management of diabetes mellitus, particularly in this ...

  13. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    tripling since 1990 in Nigeria, the prevalence rate for contraceptive use for any modern method in 2008 and 2013 were 9.7% and 9.8% respectively. Studies ... Family planning. Men. Spousal communication. Reproductive health decision making. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 28(1) 38-44 ...

  14. Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    management of PHC is still a tall dream and current efforts at making PHC more socially relevant all aim to improve utilization and. 7,8 sustainability of the PHC system. An important component of patients' participation in health care in their evaluation of the care they receive. This form of evaluation which had been. 9.

  15. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve in women transplanted with frozen and thawed ovarian cortical tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tine; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry


    To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue.......To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue....

  16. Keywords in musical free improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl


    This article presents some keywords and concepts concerning free improvised music and its recent developments drawing from ongoing bibliographical research. A radical pluralism stems from musicians' backgrounds and the mixtures and fusions of styles and idioms resulting from these mixtures....... Seemingly very different "performance-driven" and "play-driven" attitudes exist, even among musicians who share the practice of performing at concerts. New models of musical analysis aiming specifically at free improvised music provide strategical observations of interaction and structure....

  17. Trademark Licensing in Keyword Advertising


    Zejda, Maciej


    This article examines the use of trademarks as keywords in sponsored links campaigns - in particular the impact of such usage on consumer confusion. It is thus important to highlight that there are a number of reasons why a consumer uses search engines. For example, it may be that a consumer searches for a type of product or service that appeals to them; the consumer may engage in comparison-shopping; or the consumer may already know the specific brand that he or she intends to purchase. Seco...

  18. [Cortical blindness]. (United States)

    Chokron, S


    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. ESIP Documentation Cluster Session: GCMD Keyword Update (United States)

    Stevens, Tyler


    The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords are a hierarchical set of controlled Earth Science vocabularies that help ensure Earth science data and services are described in a consistent and comprehensive manner and allow for the precise searching of collection-level metadata and subsequent retrieval of data and services. Initiated over twenty years ago, the GCMD Keywords are periodically analyzed for relevancy and will continue to be refined and expanded in response to user needs. This talk explores the current status of the GCMD keywords, the value and usage that the keywords bring to different tools/agencies as it relates to data discovery, and how the keywords relate to SWEET (Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology) Ontologies.

  20. Fast Keyword Spotting in Telephone Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza


    Full Text Available In the paper, we present a system designed for detecting keywords in telephone speech. We focus not only on achieving high accuracy but also on very short processing time. The keyword spotting system can run in three modes: a an off-line mode requiring less than 0.1xRT, b an on-line mode with minimum (2 s latency, and c a repeated spotting mode, in which pre-computed values allow for additional acceleration. Its performance is evaluated on recordings of Czech spontaneous telephone speech using rather large and complex keyword lists.

  1. Keyword analysis of community planning documents (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file contains total hits per keyword expressed as percentage of total hits for the eight domains of the human well-being index. Additional categorical data is...

  2. A keyword history of Marketing Science


    Mela, Carl; Roos, Jason; Deng, Yanhui


    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting that keywords and common practical frameworks align. Various trends exist. Some words, like "pricing," remain popular over time. Others, like "game theory" and "hierarchical Bayes," have become mor...

  3. Social keywords in postcolonial melanesian discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol


    In postcolonial Melanesia, cultural discourses are increasingly organised around creole words, i.e. keywords of Bislama (Vanuatu) and Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). These words constitute (or represent) important emerging ethnolinguistic worldviews, which are partly borne out of the colonial era...

  4. A keyword history of Marketing Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. Mela (Carl); J.M.T. Roos (Jason); Y. Deng (Yanhui)


    textabstractThis paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting

  5. The importance of the keyword-generation method in keyword mnemonics. (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Amor, Angeles; González, María Angeles


    Keyword mnemonics is under certain conditions an effective approach for learning foreign-language vocabulary. It appears to be effective for words with high image vividness but not for words with low image vividness. In this study, two experiments were performed to assess the efficacy of a new keyword-generation procedure (peer generation). In Experiment 1, a sample of 363 high-school students was randomly into four groups. The subjects were required to learn L1 equivalents of a list of 16 Latin words (8 with high image vividness, 8 with low image vividness), using a) the rote method, or the keyword method with b) keywords and images generated and supplied by the experimenter, c) keywords and images generated by themselves, or d) keywords and images previously generated by peers (i.e., subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics). Recall was tested immediately and one week later. For high-vivideness words, recall was significantly better in the keyword groups than the rote method group. For low-vividness words, learning method had no significant effect. Experiment 2 was basically identical, except that the word lists comprised 32 words (16 high-vividness, 16 low-vividness). In this experiment, the peer-generated-keyword group showed significantly better recall of high-vividness words than the rote method groups and the subject generated keyword group; again, however, learning method had no significant effect on recall of low-vividness words.

  6. Social keywords in postcolonial melanesian discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol


    , and partly out of postcolonial ethno-rhetoric. This chapter explores the word kastom ‘traditional culture’ in Bislama and pasin bilong tumbuna ‘the ways of the ancestors’ in Tok Pisin. Specific attention is paid to the shift from “negative “ to “positive” semantics, following from the re......In postcolonial Melanesia, cultural discourses are increasingly organised around creole words, i.e. keywords of Bislama (Vanuatu) and Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). These words constitute (or represent) important emerging ethnolinguistic worldviews, which are partly borne out of the colonial era...

  7. Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter


    Bibliographic databases were developed from the traditional library card catalogue in order to enable users to access library documents via various types of bibliographic information, such as title, author, series or conference date. In addition these catalogues sometimes contained some form of indexation by subject, such as the Universal (or Dewey) Decimal Classification used for books. With the introduction of the eprint archives, set up by the High Energy Physics (HEP) Community in the early 90s, huge collections of documents in several fields have been made available on the World Wide Web. These developments however have not yet been followed up from a keywording point of view. We will see in this paper how important it is to attribute keywords to all documents in the area of HEP Grey Literature. As libraries are facing a future with less and less manpower available and more and more documents, we will explore the possibility of being helped by automatic classification software. We will specifically menti...

  8. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis (United States)

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA


    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  9. TX-Kw: An Effective Temporal XML Keyword Search


    Rasha Bin-Thalab; Neamat El-Tazi; Mohamed E.El-Sharkawi


    Inspired by the great success of information retrieval (IR) style keyword search on the web, keyword search on XML has emerged recently. Existing methods cannot resolve challenges addressed by using keyword search in Temporal XML documents. We propose a way to evaluate temporal keyword search queries over Temporal XML documents. Moreover, we propose a new ranking method based on the time-aware IR ranking methods to rank temporal keyword search queries results. Extensive experiments have been ...

  10. Earth Science Keyword Stewardship: Access and Management through NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keyword Management System (KMS) (United States)

    Stevens, T.; Olsen, L. M.; Ritz, S.; Morahan, M.; Aleman, A.; Cepero, L.; Gokey, C.; Holland, M.; Cordova, R.; Areu, S.; Cherry, T.; Tran-Ho, H.


    Discovering Earth science data can be complex if the catalog holding the data lacks structure. Controlled keyword vocabularies within metadata catalogues can improve data discovery. NASA's Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) Keyword Management System (KMS) is a recently released a RESTful web service for managing and providing access to controlled keywords (science keywords, service keywords, platforms, instruments, providers, locations, projects, data resolution, etc.). The KMS introduces a completely new paradigm for the use and management of the keywords and allows access to these keywords as SKOS Concepts (RDF), OWL, standard XML, and CSV. A universally unique identifier (UUID) is automatically assigned to each keyword, which uniquely identifies each concept and its associated information. A component of the KMS is the keyword manager, an internal tool that allows GCMD science coordinators to manage concepts. This includes adding, modifying, and deleting broader, narrower, or related concepts and associated definitions. The controlled keyword vocabulary represents over 20 years of effort and collaboration with the Earth science community. The maintenance, stability, and ongoing vigilance in maintaining mutually exclusive and parallel keyword lists is important for a "normalized" search and discovery, and provides a unique advantage for the science community. Modifications and additions are made based on community suggestions and internal review. To help maintain keyword integrity, science keyword rules and procedures for modification of keywords were developed. This poster will highlight the use of the KMS as a beneficial service for the stewardship and access of the GCMD keywords. Users will learn how to access the KMS and utilize the keywords. Best practices for managing an extensive keyword hierarchy will also be discussed. Participants will learn the process for making keyword suggestions, which subsequently help in building a controlled keyword

  11. Cortical Maps. (United States)

    Bednar, James A; Wilson, Stuart P


    In this article, we review functional organization in sensory cortical regions-how the cortex represents the world. We consider four interrelated aspects of cortical organization: (1) the set of receptive fields of individual cortical sensory neurons, (2) how lateral interaction between cortical neurons reflects the similarity of their receptive fields, (3) the spatial distribution of receptive-field properties across the horizontal extent of the cortical tissue, and (4) how the spatial distributions of different receptive-field properties interact with one another. We show how these data are generally well explained by the theory of input-driven self-organization, with a family of computational models of cortical maps offering a parsimonious account for a wide range of map-related phenomena. We then discuss important challenges to this explanation, with respect to the maps present at birth, maps present under activity blockade, the limits of adult plasticity, and the lack of some maps in rodents. Because there is not at present another credible general theory for cortical map development, we conclude by proposing key experiments to help uncover other mechanisms that might also be operating during map development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Public-key Encryption with Registered Keyword Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    Public-key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) enables a server to test whether a tag from a sender and a trapdoor from a receiver contain the same keyword. In this paper, we highlight some potential security concern, i.e. a curious server is able to answer whether any selected keyword is

  13. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao


    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  14. Attribute-Based Proxy Re-Encryption with Keyword Search (United States)

    Shi, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiqiang; Han, Zhen; Zheng, Qingji; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Shuo


    Keyword search on encrypted data allows one to issue the search token and conduct search operations on encrypted data while still preserving keyword privacy. In the present paper, we consider the keyword search problem further and introduce a novel notion called attribute-based proxy re-encryption with keyword search (), which introduces a promising feature: In addition to supporting keyword search on encrypted data, it enables data owners to delegate the keyword search capability to some other data users complying with the specific access control policy. To be specific, allows (i) the data owner to outsource his encrypted data to the cloud and then ask the cloud to conduct keyword search on outsourced encrypted data with the given search token, and (ii) the data owner to delegate other data users keyword search capability in the fine-grained access control manner through allowing the cloud to re-encrypted stored encrypted data with a re-encrypted data (embedding with some form of access control policy). We formalize the syntax and security definitions for , and propose two concrete constructions for : key-policy and ciphertext-policy . In the nutshell, our constructions can be treated as the integration of technologies in the fields of attribute-based cryptography and proxy re-encryption cryptography. PMID:25549257

  15. Output Keywords in Context in an HTML File with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel


    Full Text Available This lesson builds on Keywords in Context (Using N-grams, where n-grams were extracted from a text. Here, you will learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  16. [Efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults]. (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Pérez-Fabello, María José; Camino, Estefanía


    Two experiments were used to assess the efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults. In Experiment 1, immediate and delayed recall (at a one-day interval) were assessed by comparing the results obtained by a group of adults using the keyword mnemonic method in contrast to a group using the repetition method. The mean age of the sample under study was 59.35 years. Subjects were required to learn a list of 16 words translated from Latin into Spanish. Participants who used keyword mnemonics that had been devised by other experimental participants of the same characteristics, obtained significantly higher immediate and delayed recall scores than participants in the repetition method. In Experiment 2, other participants had to learn a list of 24 Latin words translated into Spanish by using the keyword mnemonic method reinforced with pictures. Immediate and delayed recall were significantly greater in the keyword mnemonic method group than in the repetition method group.

  17. Efficient continuously moving top-k spatial keyword query processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.


    Web users and content are increasingly being geo-positioned. This development gives prominence to spatial keyword queries, which involve both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study the efficient processing of continuously moving top-k spatial keyword (MkSK) queries over spatial...... keyword data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within a zone. However, existing safe zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We propose two algorithms for computing...

  18. Tag cloud generation for results of multiple keywords queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes


    In this paper we study tag cloud generation for retrieved results of multiple keyword queries. It is motivated by many real world scenarios such as personalization tasks, surveillance systems and information retrieval tasks defined with multiple keywords. We adjust the state-of-the-art tag cloud...... generation techniques for multiple keywords query results. Consequently, we conduct the extensive evaluation on top of three distinct collaborative tagging systems. The graph-based methods perform significantly better for the Movielens and Bibsonomy datasets. Tag cloud generation based on maximal coverage...

  19. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA


    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  20. An introduction to XML query processing and keyword search

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jiaheng


    This book systematically and comprehensively covers the latest advances in XML data searching. It presents an extensive overview of the current query processing and keyword search techniques on XML data.

  1. Lecture Video Indexing and Retrieval Using Topic Keywords


    B. J. Sandesh; Saurabha Jirgi; S. Vidya; Prakash Eljer; Gowri Srinivasa


    In this paper, we propose a framework to help users to search and retrieve the portions in the lecture video of their interest. This is achieved by temporally segmenting and indexing the lecture video using the topic keywords. We use transcribed text from the video and documents relevant to the video topic extracted from the web for this purpose. The keywords for indexing are found by applying the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) topic modeling techniques on the web documents. Our prop...

  2. Invited Paper --A Keyword History of Marketing Science


    Carl F. Mela; Jason Roos; Yiting Deng


    This paper considers the history of keywords used in Marketing Science to develop insights on the evolution of marketing science. Several findings emerge. First, "pricing" and "game theory" are the most ubiquitous words. More generally, the three C's and four P's predominate, suggesting that keywords and common practical frameworks align. Various trends exist. Some words, like "pricing," remain popular over time. Others, like "game theory" and "hierarchical Bayes," have become more popular. F...

  3. Keywords in Context (Using n-grams with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel


    Full Text Available Like in Output Data as HTML File, this lesson takes the frequency pairs collected in Counting Frequencies and outputs them in HTML. This time the focus is on keywords in context (KWIC which creates n-grams from the original document content – in this case a trial transcript from the Old Bailey Online. You can use your program to select a keyword and the computer will output all instances of that keyword, along with the words to the left and right of it, making it easy to see at a glance how the keyword is used. Once the KWICs have been created, they are then wrapped in HTML and sent to the browser where they can be viewed. This reinforces what was learned in Output Data as HTML File, opting for a slightly different output. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to extract all possible n-grams from the text. In the next lesson, you will be learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  4. An answer summarization method based on keyword extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Qiaoqing


    Full Text Available In order to reduce the redundancy of answer summary generated from community q&a dataset without topic tags, we propose an answer summarization algorithm based on keyword extraction. We combine tf-idf with word vector to change the influence transferred ratio equation in TextRank. And then during summarizing, we take the ratio of the number of sentences containing any keyword to the total number of candidate sentences as an adaptive factor for AMMR. Meanwhile we reuse the scores of keywords generated by TextRank as a weight factor for sentence similarity computing. Experimental results show that the proposed answer summarization is better than the traditional MMR and AMMR.

  5. Interdisciplinarity of Nano Research Fields : A Keyword Mining Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Notten, A.; Surpatean, A.


    Using a keyword mining approach, this paper explores the interdisciplinary and integrative dynamics in five nano research fields. We argue that the general trend of integration in nano research fields is converging in the long run, although the degree of this convergence depends greatly on the

  6. Joint Top-K Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dinming; Yiu, Man Lung; Cong, Gao


    keyword queries. Empirical studies show that the proposed solution is efficient on real data sets. We also offer analytical studies on synthetic data sets to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solution. Index Terms IEEE Terms Electronic mail , Google , Indexes , Joints , Mobile communication...

  7. Using the Keyword Mnemonics Method among Adult Learners (United States)

    Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose


    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…

  8. Keyword-based Ciphertext Search Algorithm under Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xunyi


    Full Text Available With the development of network storage services, cloud storage have the advantage of high scalability , inexpensive, without access limit and easy to manage. These advantages make more and more small or medium enterprises choose to outsource large quantities of data to a third party. This way can make lots of small and medium enterprises get rid of costs of construction and maintenance, so it has broad market prospects. But now lots of cloud storage service providers can not protect data security.This result leakage of user data, so many users have to use traditional storage method.This has become one of the important factors that hinder the development of cloud storage. In this article, establishing keyword index by extracting keywords from ciphertext data. After that, encrypted data and the encrypted index upload cloud server together.User get related ciphertext by searching encrypted index, so it can response data leakage problem.

  9. The Pollution Effect: Optimizing Keyword Auctions by Favoring Relevant Advertising


    Linden, Greg; Meek, Christopher; Chickering, Max


    Most search engines sell slots to place advertisements on the search results page through keyword auctions. Advertisers offer bids for how much they are willing to pay when someone enters a search query, sees the search results, and then clicks on one of their ads. Search engines typically order the advertisements for a query by a combination of the bids and expected clickthrough rates for each advertisement. In this paper, we extend a model of Yahoo's and Google's advertising auctions to inc...

  10. Visualization as Seen through its Research Paper Keywords. (United States)

    Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias; Sedlmair, Michael; Chen, Jian; Moller, Torsten


    We present the results of a comprehensive multi-pass analysis of visualization paper keywords supplied by authors for their papers published in the IEEE Visualization conference series (now called IEEE VIS) between 1990-2015. From this analysis we derived a set of visualization topics that we discuss in the context of the current taxonomy that is used to categorize papers and assign reviewers in the IEEE VIS reviewing process. We point out missing and overemphasized topics in the current taxonomy and start a discussion on the importance of establishing common visualization terminology. Our analysis of research topics in visualization can, thus, serve as a starting point to (a) help create a common vocabulary to improve communication among different visualization sub-groups, (b) facilitate the process of understanding differences and commonalities of the various research sub-fields in visualization, (c) provide an understanding of emerging new research trends, (d) facilitate the crucial step of finding the right reviewers for research submissions, and (e) it can eventually lead to a comprehensive taxonomy of visualization research. One additional tangible outcome of our work is an online query tool ( that allows visualization researchers to easily browse the 3952 keywords used for IEEE VIS papers since 1990 to find related work or make informed keyword choices.

  11. Cortical Visual Impairment (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  12. Keyword Search over Data Service Integration for Accurate Results

    CERN Document Server

    Zemleris, Vidmantas; Robert Gwadera


    Virtual data integration provides a coherent interface for querying heterogeneous data sources (e.g., web services, proprietary systems) with minimum upfront effort. Still, this requires its users to learn the query language and to get acquainted with data organization, which may pose problems even to proficient users. We present a keyword search system, which proposes a ranked list of structured queries along with their explanations. It operates mainly on the metadata, such as the constraints on inputs accepted by services. It was developed as an integral part of the CMS data discovery service, and is currently available as open source.

  13. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying


    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  14. Quicky location determination based on geographic keywords of natural language (United States)

    Guo, Danhuai; Cui, Weihong


    In location determination based on natural language, it is common to find the location by describing relationship between the undetermined position and one or several determined position. That indicates that the uncertainty of location determination processing is derived from the one of natural language procedure, the one of spatial position description and the one of spatial relationship description. Most of current researches and regular GIS software take certainty as prerequisite and try to avoid uncertainty and its influence. The research reported in this paper is an attempt to create a new combing method of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Fuzzy set theory and spatial information science named Quickly Location Determination based on Geographic Keywords (QLDGK) to rise to the challenge of location searching technique based on natural language. QLDGK have two technical gists. The first one is geographic-keywords-library and special natural-language-separation-model-library that increases the language processing efficiency. The second one is fuzzy theory based definition of spatial relationship, spatial metric and spatial orientation that extends the searching scope and defines variant confidences on variant searching outcome. QLDGK takes consideration on both higher query efficiency and the lower omission rate. The above method has been proved workable and efficient by QLDGK prototype system which was tested by about 12000 emergency call reports from K-city, Southwest of China, and achieved the test result with 78% accuracy in highest confidence and 8% omitting ration.

  15. PKIS: practical keyword index search on cloud datacenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jae Hyun


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper highlights the importance of the interoperability of the encrypted DB in terms of the characteristics of DB and efficient schemes. Although most prior researches have developed efficient algorithms under the provable security, they do not focus on the interoperability of the encrypted DB. In order to address this lack of practical aspects, we conduct two practical approaches--efficiency and group search in cloud datacenter. The process of this paper is as follows: first, we create two schemes of efficiency and group search--practical keyword index search--I and II; second, we define and analyze group search secrecy and keyword index search privacy in our schemes; third, we experiment on efficient performances over our proposed encrypted DB. As the result, we summarize two major results: (1our proposed schemes can support a secure group search without re-encrypting all documents under the group-key update and (2our experiments represent that our scheme is approximately 935 times faster than Golle's scheme and about 16 times faster than Song's scheme for 10,000 documents. Based on our experiments and results, this paper has the following contributions: (1 in the current cloud computing environments, our schemes provide practical, realistic, and secure solutions over the encrypted DB and (2 this paper identifies the importance of interoperability with database management system for designing efficient schemes.

  16. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments. (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J


    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical visual impairment


    Koželj, Urša


    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  18. Defining Smart City. A Conceptual Framework Based on Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Mosannenzadeh


    Full Text Available “Smart city” is a concept that has been the subject of increasing attention in urban planning and governance during recent years. The first step to create Smart Cities is to understand its concept. However, a brief review of literature shows that the concept of Smart City is the subject of controversy. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework to define Smart City. To this aim, an extensive literature review was done. Then, a keyword analysis on literature was held against main research questions (why, what, who, when, where, how and based on three main domains involved in the policy decision making process and Smart City plan development: Academic, Industrial and Governmental. This resulted in a conceptual framework for Smart City. The result clarifies the definition of Smart City, while providing a framework to define Smart City’s each sub-system. Moreover, urban authorities can apply this framework in Smart City initiatives in order to recognize their main goals, main components, and key stakeholders.

  19. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy


    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  20. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai


    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  1. Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and Their Applications in Earth Science Data Discovery (United States)

    Aleman, A.


    This presentation will provide an overview and discussion of the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Keywords and their applications in Earth science data discovery. The GCMD Keywords are a hierarchical set of controlled keywords covering the Earth science disciplines, including: science keywords, service keywords, data centers, projects, location, data resolution, instruments and platforms. Controlled vocabularies (keywords) help users accurately, consistently and comprehensively categorize their data and also allow for the precise search and subsequent retrieval of data. The GCMD Keywords are a community resource and are developed collaboratively with input from various stakeholders, including GCMD staff, keyword users and metadata providers. The GCMD Keyword Landing Page and GCMD Keyword Community Forum provide access to keyword resources and an area for discussion of topics related to the GCMD Keywords. See

  2. Biomechanics of single cortical neurons. (United States)

    Bernick, Kristin B; Prevost, Thibault P; Suresh, Subra; Socrate, Simona


    This study presents experimental results and computational analysis of the large strain dynamic behavior of single neurons in vitro with the objective of formulating a novel quantitative framework for the biomechanics of cortical neurons. Relying on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique, novel testing protocols are developed to enable the characterization of neural soma deformability over a range of indentation rates spanning three orders of magnitude, 10, 1, and 0.1 μm s(-1). Modified spherical AFM probes were utilized to compress the cell bodies of neonatal rat cortical neurons in load, unload, reload and relaxation conditions. The cell response showed marked hysteretic features, strong non-linearities, and substantial time/rate dependencies. The rheological data were complemented with geometrical measurements of cell body morphology, i.e. cross-diameter and height estimates. A constitutive model, validated by the present experiments, is proposed to quantify the mechanical behavior of cortical neurons. The model aimed to correlate empirical findings with measurable degrees of (hyper)elastic resilience and viscosity at the cell level. The proposed formulation, predicated upon previous constitutive model developments undertaken at the cortical tissue level, was implemented in a three-dimensional finite element framework. The simulated cell response was calibrated to the experimental measurements under the selected test conditions, providing a novel single cell model that could form the basis for further refinements. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Discrimination of cortical laminae using MEG. (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth


    Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based on the same MEG data in the presence of different levels of co-registration noise, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and cortical patch size. We demonstrate that it is possible to make a distinction between superficial and deep cortical laminae for levels of co-registration noise of less than 2mm translation and 2° rotation at SNR > 11 dB. We also show that an incorrect estimate of cortical patch size will tend to bias layer estimates. We then use a 3D printed head-cast (Troebinger et al., 2014) to achieve comparable levels of co-registration noise, in an auditory evoked response paradigm, and show that it is possible to discriminate between these cortical layer models in real data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary features of academic articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence network: Based on two-mode affiliation network (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Wang, Yue; Huang, Jiachen; Gao, Xiangyun


    Keeping abreast of trends in the articles and rapidly grasping a body of article's key points and relationship from a holistic perspective is a new challenge in both literature research and text mining. As the important component, keywords can present the core idea of the academic article. Usually, articles on a single theme or area could share one or some same keywords, and we can analyze topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword networks and keywords co-occurrence networks to realize the in-depth analysis of the articles. This paper seeks to integrate statistics, text mining, complex networks and visualization to analyze all of the academic articles on one given theme, complex network(s). All 5944 ;complex networks; articles that were published between 1990 and 2013 and are available on the Web of Science are extracted. Based on the two-mode affiliation network theory, a new frontier of complex networks, we constructed two different networks, one taking the articles as nodes, the co-keyword relationships as edges and the quantity of co-keywords as the weight to construct articles co-keyword network, and another taking the articles' keywords as nodes, the co-occurrence relationships as edges and the quantity of simultaneous co-occurrences as the weight to construct keyword co-occurrence network. An integrated method for analyzing the topological features and evolution of the articles co-keyword network and keywords co-occurrence networks is proposed, and we also defined a new function to measure the innovation coefficient of the articles in annual level. This paper provides a useful tool and process for successfully achieving in-depth analysis and rapid understanding of the trends and relationships of articles in a holistic perspective.

  5. Wireless cortical implantable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majidzadeh Bafar, Vahid


    Wireless Cortical Implantable Systems examines the design for data acquisition and transmission in cortical implants. The first part of the book covers existing system-level cortical implants, as well as future devices. The authors discuss the major constraints in terms of microelectronic integration. The second part of the book focuses on system-level as well as circuit and system level solutions to the development of ultra low-power and low-noise microelectronics for cortical implants. Existing solutions are presented and novel methods and solutions proposed. The third part of the book focuses on the usage of digital impulse radio ultra wide-band transmission as an efficient method to transmit cortically neural recorded data at high data-rate to the outside world. Original architectural and circuit and system solutions are discussed.

  6. Are the Symptoms of Parkinsonism Cortical in Origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Arbuthnott

    Full Text Available We present three reasons to suspect that the major deleterious consequence of dopamine loss from the striatum is a cortical malfunction. We suggest that it is cortex, rather than striatum, that should be considered as the source of the debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD since: 1. Cortical synapses onto striatal dendritic spines are lost in PD. 2. All known treatments of the symptoms of PD disrupt beta oscillations. Oscillations that are also disrupted following antidromic activation of cortical neurons. 3. The final output of basal ganglia directly modulates thalamic connections to layer I of frontal cortical areas, regions intimately associated with motor behaviour.These three reasons combined with evidence that the current summary diagram of the basal ganglia involvement in PD is imprecise at best, suggest that a re-orientation of the treatment strategies towards cortical, rather than striatal malfunction, is overdue. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Deep brain stimulation, Layer I, Motor cortex

  7. Top-k Keyword Search Over Graphs Based On Backward Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Jia-Hui


    Full Text Available Keyword search is one of the most friendly and intuitive information retrieval methods. Using the keyword search to get the connected subgraph has a lot of application in the graph-based cognitive computation, and it is a basic technology. This paper focuses on the top-k keyword searching over graphs. We implemented a keyword search algorithm which applies the backward search idea. The algorithm locates the keyword vertices firstly, and then applies backward search to find rooted trees that contain query keywords. The experiment shows that query time is affected by the iteration number of the algorithm.

  8. Focal cortical dysplasia alters electrophysiological cortical hubs in the resting-state. (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee


    To test the hypothesis that epilepsy patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) have different electrophysiological functional cortical hubs from those of healthy controls. Resting-state functional networks in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands were evaluated in 35 epilepsy patients with histopathologically verified FCD as a single pathology and in 46 age-matched healthy controls. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated the network differences between the two groups by comparing the nodal efficiency (Enodal) and betweenness centrality (BC) values at the source level. The FCD patients had significant Enodal increases in the functional cortical hubs in the left anterior, middle, and posterior cortices and the medial orbital superior frontal cortex in the beta band. The left posterior cingulate cortex showed significant BC increases in the theta, alpha, and beta bands. There was a negative correlation between Enodal and age at seizure onset. Cortical dysplasia alters whole brain functional cortical hubs compared to healthy controls. The age at seizure onset was negatively correlated with Enodal in the beta band in FCD patients. Our study for the first time investigated the functional cortical hubs and their alteration in the resting-state functional network in epilepsy patients with FCD using noninvasive MEG signals. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The extracellular matrix and diffusion barriers in focal cortical dysplasias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zámečník, J.; Homola, Aleš; Cicanič, Michal; Kuncová, K.; Marusič, P.; Kršek, P.; Syková, Eva; Vargová, Lýdia


    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 2017-2024 ISSN 0953-816X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cortical dysplasia * diffusion * extrecellular space Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.753, year: 2012

  10. Text analysis of MEDLINE for discovering functional relationships among genes: evaluation of keyword extraction weighting schemes. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Navathe, Shamkant B; Pivoshenko, Alex; Dasigi, Venu G; Dingledine, Ray; Ciliax, Brian J


    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the functional links among genes. However, the quality of the keyword lists significantly affects the clustering results. We compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalised z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). Two gene sets were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clustering. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords outperformed those produced from normalised z-score weighted keywords. The optimised algorithms should be useful for partitioning genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  11. A Novel Model for Lattice-Based Authorized Searchable Encryption with Special Keyword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugeng Zeng


    Full Text Available Data stored in the cloud servers, keyword search, and access controls are two important capabilities which should be supported. Public-keyword encryption with keyword search (PEKS and attribute based encryption (ABE are corresponding solutions. Meanwhile, as we step into postquantum era, pairing related assumption is fragile. Lattice is an ideal choice for building secure encryption scheme against quantum attack. Based on this, we propose the first mathematical model for lattice-based authorized searchable encryption. Data owners can sort the ciphertext by specific keywords such as time; data users satisfying the access control hand the trapdoor generated with the keyword to the cloud sever; the cloud sever sends back the corresponding ciphertext. The security of our schemes is based on the worst-case hardness on lattices, called learning with errors (LWE assumption. In addition, our scheme achieves attribute-hiding, which could protect the sensitive information of data user.

  12. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2. Clipboard : Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve ... Keywords. Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ...

  13. Cortical morphology of visual creativity. (United States)

    Gansler, David A; Moore, Dana W; Susmaras, Teresa M; Jerram, Matthew W; Sousa, Janelle; Heilman, Kenneth M


    The volume of cortical tissue devoted to a function often influences the quality of a person's ability to perform that function. Up to now only white matter correlates of creativity have been reported, and we wanted to learn if the creative visuospatial performance on the figural Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) is associated with measurements of cerebral gray matter volume in the regions of the brain that are thought to be important in divergent reasoning and visuospatial processing. Eighteen healthy college educated men (mean age=40.78; 15 right-handers) were recruited (via advertisement) as participants. High-resolution MRI scans were acquired on a 1.5T MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry regression analyses of TTCT to cortical volume were restrained within the anatomic regions identified. One significant positive focus of association with TTCT emerged within the right parietal lobe gray matter (MNI coordinates: 44, -24, 63; 276 voxels). Based on theories of parietal lobe function and the requirements of the TTCT, the area observed may be related due to its dominant role in global aspects of attention and visuospatial processing including the capacity for manipulating spatial representations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P


    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  15. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Thom, M.; Ellison, D. W.; Wilkins, P.; Barnes, D.; Thompson, P. D.; Brown, P.


    OBJECTIVE: To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. BACKGROUND: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  16. Patent Keyword Extraction Algorithm Based on Distributed Representation for Patent Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu


    Full Text Available Many text mining tasks such as text retrieval, text summarization, and text comparisons depend on the extraction of representative keywords from the main text. Most existing keyword extraction algorithms are based on discrete bag-of-words type of word representation of the text. In this paper, we propose a patent keyword extraction algorithm (PKEA based on the distributed Skip-gram model for patent classification. We also develop a set of quantitative performance measures for keyword extraction evaluation based on information gain and cross-validation, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM classification, which are valuable when human-annotated keywords are not available. We used a standard benchmark dataset and a homemade patent dataset to evaluate the performance of PKEA. Our patent dataset includes 2500 patents from five distinct technological fields related to autonomous cars (GPS systems, lidar systems, object recognition systems, radar systems, and vehicle control systems. We compared our method with Frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF, TextRank and Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm provides a promising way to extract keywords from patent texts for patent classification.

  17. Title, Description, and Subject are the Most Important Metadata Fields for Keyword Discoverability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello


    Full Text Available A Review of: Yang, L. (2016. Metadata effectiveness in internet discovery: An analysis of digital collection metadata elements and internet search engine keywords. College & Research Libraries, 77(1, 7-19. Objective – To determine which metadata elements best facilitate discovery of digital collections. Design – Case study. Setting – A public research university serving over 32,000 graduate and undergraduate students in the Southwestern United States of America. Subjects – A sample of 22,559 keyword searches leading to the institution’s digital repository between August 1, 2013, and July 31, 2014. Methods – The author used Google Analytics to analyze 73,341 visits to the institution’s digital repository. He determined that 22,559 of these visits were due to keyword searches. Using Random Integer Generator, the author identified a random sample of 378 keyword searches. The author then matched the keywords with the Dublin Core and VRA Core metadata elements on the landing page in the digital repository to determine which metadata field had drawn the keyword searcher to that particular page. Many of these keywords matched to more than one metadata field, so the author also analyzed the metadata elements that generated unique keyword hits and those fields that were frequently matched together. Main Results – Title was the most matched metadata field with 279 matched keywords from searches. Description and Subject were also significant fields with 208 and 79 matches respectively. Slightly more than half of the results, 195 keywords, matched the institutional repository in one field only. Both Title and Description had significant match rates both independently and in conjunction with other elements, but Subject keywords were the sole match in only three of the sampled cases. Conclusion – The Dublin Core elements of Title, Description, and Subject were the most frequently matched fields in keyword

  18. Cortical cartography and Caret software. (United States)

    Van Essen, David C


    Caret software is widely used for analyzing and visualizing many types of fMRI data, often in conjunction with experimental data from other modalities. This article places Caret's development in a historical context that spans three decades of brain mapping--from the early days of manually generated flat maps to the nascent field of human connectomics. It also highlights some of Caret's distinctive capabilities. This includes the ease of visualizing data on surfaces and/or volumes and on atlases as well as individual subjects. Caret can display many types of experimental data using various combinations of overlays (e.g., fMRI activation maps, cortical parcellations, areal boundaries), and it has other features that facilitate the analysis and visualization of complex neuroimaging datasets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.



  20. Efficient Keyword-Based Search for Top-K Cells in Text Cube (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous studies on supporting free-form keyword queries over RDBMSs provide users with linked-structures (e.g.,a set of joined tuples) that are relevant to a given...

  1. Book Review: Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left by Ian Parker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Z Clyne


    Full Text Available Eyal Clyne reviews Ian Parker's "Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left" (Winchester and Washington: Zero books ISBN: 978-1-78535-642-1, a book that unlocks complex Left-struggle issues in short and accessible essays.

  2. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage. (United States)

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen


    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  3. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns. (United States)

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Juntunen, Tomi; Goncalves, Jorge; Hosio, Simo; Ojala, Timo


    Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE), is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  4. Where am I? Location archetype keyword extraction from urban mobility patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Kostakos

    Full Text Available Can online behaviour be used as a proxy for studying urban mobility? The increasing availability of digital mobility traces has provided new insights into collective human behaviour. Mobility datasets have been shown to be an accurate proxy for daily behaviour and social patterns, and behavioural data from Twitter has been used to predict real world phenomena such as cinema ticket sale volumes, stock prices, and disease outbreaks. In this paper we correlate city-scale urban traffic patterns with online search trends to uncover keywords describing the pedestrian traffic location. By analysing a 3-year mobility dataset we show that our approach, called Location Archetype Keyword Extraction (LAKE, is capable of uncovering semantically relevant keywords for describing a location. Our findings demonstrate an overarching relationship between online and offline collective behaviour, and allow for advancing analysis of community-level behaviour by using online search keywords as a practical behaviour proxy.

  5. Complementary or Discrete Contexts in Online Indexing : A Comparison of User, Creator, and Intermediary Keywords.


    Kipp, Margaret E. I.


    This paper (forthcoming in the Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science) and presented at the CAIS Conference in 2006 examines the context of online indexing from the viewpoint of three different groups: users, authors, and intermediaries. User, author and intermediary keywords were collected from journal articles tagged on citeulike and analysed. Descriptive statistics and thesaural term comparison shows that there are important differences in the context of keywords from the thre...

  6. Cortical control of upright stance in elderly. (United States)

    Ozdemir, Recep A; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L; Paloski, William H


    This study examined differences between young and elderly volunteers in cortical involvement to human posture control during quiet stance with normal and altered sensory stimulation (Experiment-1), and biomechanical perturbations (Experiment-2). The primary focus of the first part was to monitor changes in cortical activity when unexpectedly altering the sensory conditions of upright stance, such as switching from stable (eyes open, fixed support surface) to less-stable (eyes closed, sway-referenced support surface) conditions. Our results demonstrate increased cortical activations in delta (0.2-4 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) oscillations, primarily over central-frontal, central, and central parietal cortices during challenging postural conditions. While increased delta rhythms were observed in both groups during challenging sensory conditions, elderly individuals also showed increased gamma band activity over sensorimotor and parietal cortices, when compared to the younger group. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show age differences in balance related cortical activations during continuous postural tasks with challenging sensory conditions. Preliminary correlations also suggest that increased cerebral activity became more relevant to the control of Center of Mass (COM) dynamics when upright stance is threatened. The results of Experiment-2 also showed for the first time that oscillatory rhythms of the cortex are coherent with muscle firing characteristics suggesting increased corticospinal drive from leg motor cortex to lower limb motoneurons following postural perturbations. Finally, perturbation evoked potential (PEP) analyses suggest that, rather than motor system malfunctioning, impairments in perceptual processing of sensory afference forms the basis of prolonged muscle response delays during perturbed balance in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of abstracts and keywords in Social Sciences: an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lima Gonçalves


    Full Text Available This study aims to make an evaluation of abstracts and keywords used in periodicals published by Brazilian authors in the area of Social Sciences, in order to identify the main characteristics of these practices and how they can affect the information retrieval and representation. About 151 abstracts written by professors of the University of São Paulo were evaluated, with a view to discovering how the authors use the types of abstracts (descriptive, informative or descriptive-informative; As a second topic, we examined keywords, in an attempt to analyse how these keywords complement the abstracts, and to see if keywords can be used as tools to represent concepts in related disciplines. The results showed that the Brazilian social scientistis perfer descriptive abstracts, and that, in spite of the lack of standards, the keywords they supply can be used as a complement to the abstracts, and as indicators of interdisciplinary relations. Our conclusion is that, in spite of the importance of abstracts and keywords as informational tools, they are not properly used in the Social Sciences, and this fact may have negative effects on information retrieval.

  8. Renal cortical scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locher, J.Th.


    In this report the renal cortical scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid) like a 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of pyelonephritis in children is presented. The role of the vesicoureteral reflux, the level of C-reactive protein and other urinary tract anomaly to the pyelonephritis development is considered. The administrated doses for children and adults, procedure of the study and the SPECT possibilities are given. A four-grade scale describing the grade of parenchymal damage is shown. The correlation between the radiopharmaceutical accumulation in the functioning renal cortex and the intrarenal blood flow and proximal tubular cell membrane transport function is discussed. Because of the slow transfer of activity from blood to kidney, imaging should be delayed for 3 hours after injection. The renal cortical scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA is a primary method for an early diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis because animal experiences have demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity for DMSA scanning when correlated with histopathology. The results from several multiple-center study for the specificity and sensitivity of the method are discussed. The necessity for the renal cortical scintigraphy standardization is outlined

  9. Automatic Decision Support for Clinical Diagnostic Literature Using Link Analysis in a Weighted Keyword Network. (United States)

    Li, Shuqing; Sun, Ying; Soergel, Dagobert


    We present a novel approach to recommending articles from the medical literature that support clinical diagnostic decision-making, giving detailed descriptions of the associated ideas and principles. The specific goal is to retrieve biomedical articles that help answer questions of a specified type about a particular case. Based on the filtered keywords, MeSH(Medical Subject Headings) lexicon and the automatically extracted acronyms, the relationship between keywords and articles was built. The paper gives a detailed description of the process of by which keywords were measured and relevant articles identified based on link analysis in a weighted keywords network. Some important challenges identified in this study include the extraction of diagnosis-related keywords and a collection of valid sentences based on the keyword co-occurrence analysis and existing descriptions of symptoms. All data were taken from medical articles provided in the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) clinical decision support track 2015. Ten standard topics and one demonstration topic were tested. In each case, a maximum of five articles with the highest relevance were returned. The total user satisfaction of 3.98 was 33% higher than average. The results also suggested that the smaller the number of results, the higher the average satisfaction. However, a few shortcomings were also revealed since medical literature recommendation for clinical diagnostic decision support is so complex a topic that it cannot be fully addressed through the semantic information carried solely by keywords in existing descriptions of symptoms. Nevertheless, the fact that these articles are actually relevant will no doubt inspire future research.

  10. Development of auditory cortical synaptic receptive fields. (United States)

    Froemke, Robert C; Jones, Bianca J


    The central nervous system is plastic throughout life, but is most sensitive to the statistics of the sensory environment during critical periods of early postnatal development. In the auditory cortex, various forms of acoustic experience have been found to shape the formation of receptive fields and influence the overall rate of cortical organization. The synaptic mechanisms that control cortical receptive field plasticity are beginning to be described, particularly for frequency tuning in rodent primary auditory cortex. Inhibitory circuitry plays a major role in critical period regulation, and new evidence suggests that the formation of excitatory-inhibitory balance determines the duration of critical period plasticity for auditory cortical frequency tuning. Cortical inhibition is poorly tuned in the infant brain, but becomes co-tuned with excitation in an experience-dependent manner over the first postnatal month. We discuss evidence suggesting that this may be a general feature of the developing cortex, and describe the functional implications of such transient excitatory-inhibitory imbalance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal variation in internet keyword searches: a proxy assessment of sex mating behaviors. (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M; Markey, Charlotte N


    The current study investigated seasonal variation in internet searches regarding sex and mating behaviors. Harmonic analyses were used to examine the seasonal trends of Google keyword searches during the past 5 years for topics related to pornography, prostitution, and mate-seeking. Results indicated a consistent 6-month harmonic cycle with the peaks of keyword searches related to sex and mating behaviors occurring most frequently during winter and early summer. Such results compliment past research that has found similar seasonal trends of births, sexually transmitted infections, condom sales, and abortions.

  12. A Mechanistic Link from GABA to Cortical Architecture and Perception. (United States)

    Kolasinski, James; Logan, John P; Hinson, Emily L; Manners, Daniel; Divanbeighi Zand, Amir P; Makin, Tamar R; Emir, Uzay E; Stagg, Charlotte J


    Understanding both the organization of the human cortex and its relation to the performance of distinct functions is fundamental in neuroscience. The primary sensory cortices display topographic organization, whereby receptive fields follow a characteristic pattern, from tonotopy to retinotopy to somatotopy [1]. GABAergic signaling is vital to the maintenance of cortical receptive fields [2]; however, it is unclear how this fine-grain inhibition relates to measurable patterns of perception [3, 4]. Based on perceptual changes following perturbation of the GABAergic system, it is conceivable that the resting level of cortical GABAergic tone directly relates to the spatial specificity of activation in response to a given input [5-7]. The specificity of cortical activation can be considered in terms of cortical tuning: greater cortical tuning yields more localized recruitment of cortical territory in response to a given input. We applied a combination of fMRI, MR spectroscopy, and psychophysics to substantiate the link between the cortical neurochemical milieu, the tuning of cortical activity, and variability in perceptual acuity, using human somatosensory cortex as a model. We provide data that explain human perceptual acuity in terms of both the underlying cellular and metabolic processes. Specifically, higher concentrations of sensorimotor GABA are associated with more selective cortical tuning, which in turn is associated with enhanced perception. These results show anatomical and neurochemical specificity and are replicated in an independent cohort. The mechanistic link from neurochemistry to perception provides a vital step in understanding population variability in sensory behavior, informing metabolic therapeutic interventions to restore perceptual abilities clinically. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Use of Keywords for Delivering Immediate Performance Feedback on Teacher Competence Development (United States)

    Coninx, Nele; Kreijns, Karel; Jochems, Wim


    Literature shows that feedback that is specific, immediate and goal-oriented is effective on (pre-service) teachers' performance. Synchronous coaching gives this kind of feedback. Due to immediateness of feedback, pre-service teachers can suffer from cognitive load. We propose a set of standardised keywords through which this performance feedback…

  14. Using Mnemonic Keywords in General Music Classes: Music History Meets Cognitive Psychology. (United States)

    Brigham, Frederick J.; Brigham, Michele M.


    Sixth graders received music history instruction regarding musical periods and composers over two weeks. They were taught in alternating weeks using either interactive illustrations of mnemonic keywords or realistic line drawing portraits of the composers as recall aids. The mnemonic illustrations produced substantially higher scores on students'…

  15. Identification of Keywords From Twitter and Web Blog Posts to Detect Influenza Epidemics in Korea. (United States)

    Woo, Hyekyung; Sung Cho, Hyeon; Shim, Eunyoung; Lee, Jong Koo; Lee, Kihwang; Song, Gilyoung; Cho, Youngtae


    Social media data are a highly contextual health information source. The objective of this study was to identify Korean keywords for detecting influenza epidemics from social media data. We included data from Twitter and online blog posts to obtain a sufficient number of candidate indicators and to represent a larger proportion of the Korean population. We performed the following steps: initial keyword selection; generation of a keyword time series using a preprocessing approach; optimal feature selection; model building and validation using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest regression (RFR). A total of 15 keywords optimally detected the influenza epidemic, evenly distributed across Twitter and blog data sources. Model estimates generated using our SVM model were highly correlated with recent influenza incidence data. The basic principles underpinning our approach could be applied to other countries, languages, infectious diseases, and social media sources. Social media monitoring using our approach may support and extend the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging influenza. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 8).

  16. MinHash-Based Fuzzy Keyword Search of Encrypted Data across Multiple Cloud Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He


    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a method that aims at improving the efficiency of cipher-text retrieval and lowering storage overhead for fuzzy keyword search. In contrast to traditional approaches, the proposed method can reduce the complexity of Min-Hash-based fuzzy keyword search by using Min-Hash fingerprints to avoid the need to construct the fuzzy keyword set. The method will utilize Jaccard similarity to rank the results of retrieval, thus reducing the amount of calculation for similarity and saving a lot of time and space overhead. The method will also take consideration of multiple user queries through re-encryption technology and update user permissions dynamically. Security analysis demonstrates that the method can provide better privacy preservation and experimental results show that efficiency of cipher-text using the proposed method can improve the retrieval time and lower storage overhead as well.

  17. Leveraging Bibliographic RDF Data for Keyword Prediction with Association Rule Mining (ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kushwaha


    Full Text Available The Semantic Web (Web 3.0 has been proposed as an efficient way to access the increasingly large amounts of data on the internet. The Linked Open Data Cloud project at present is the major effort to implement the concepts of the Seamtic Web, addressing the problems of inhomogeneity and large data volumes. RKBExplorer is one of many repositories implementing Open Data and contains considerable bibliographic information. This paper discusses bibliographic data, an important part of cloud data. Effective searching of bibiographic datasets can be a challenge as many of the papers residing in these databases do not have sufficient or comprehensive keyword information. In these cases however, a search engine based on RKBExplorer is only able to use information to retrieve papers based on author names and title of papers without keywords. In this paper we attempt to address this problem by using the data mining algorithm Association Rule Mining (ARM to develop keywords based on features retrieved from Resource Description Framework (RDF data within a bibliographic citation. We have demonstrate the applicability of this method for predicting missing keywords for bibliographic entries in several typical databases. −−−−− Paper presented at 1st International Symposium on Big Data and Cloud Computing Challenges (ISBCC-2014 March 27-28, 2014. Organized by VIT University, Chennai, India. Sponsored by BRNS.

  18. Discrete Strategies in Keyword Auctions and Their Inefficiency for Locally Aware Bidders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Markakis (Vangelis); O. Telelis (Orestis); A. Saberi


    htmlabstractWe study formally discrete bidding strategies for the game induced by the Generalized Second Price keyword auction mechanism. Such strategies have seen experimental evaluation in the recent literature as parts of iterative best response procedures, which have been shown not to converge.

  19. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction. (United States)

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H


    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction.

  20. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamala Devi Munisamy


    Full Text Available Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider’s premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  1. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud. (United States)

    Munisamy, Shyamala Devi; Chokkalingam, Arun


    Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider's premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization.

  2. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search (United States)

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai


    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

  3. Interest in Anesthesia as Reflected by Keyword Searches using Common Search Engines. (United States)

    Liu, Renyu; García, Paul S; Fleisher, Lee A


    Since current general interest in anesthesia is unknown, we analyzed internet keyword searches to gauge general interest in anesthesia in comparison with surgery and pain. The trend of keyword searches from 2004 to 2010 related to anesthesia and anaesthesia was investigated using Google Insights for Search. The trend of number of peer reviewed articles on anesthesia cited on PubMed and Medline from 2004 to 2010 was investigated. The average cost on advertising on anesthesia, surgery and pain was estimated using Google AdWords. Searching results in other common search engines were also analyzed. Correlation between year and relative number of searches was determined with pSearches for the keyword "anesthesia" or "anaesthesia" diminished since 2004 reflected by Google Insights for Search (psearch for "anesthesia side effects" is trending up over the same time period while the search for "anesthesia and safety" is trending down. The search phrase "before anesthesia" is searched more frequently than "preanesthesia" and the search for "before anesthesia" is trending up. Using "pain" as a keyword is steadily increasing over the years indicated. While different search engines may provide different total number of searching results (available posts), the ratios of searching results between some common keywords related to perioperative care are comparable, indicating similar trend. The peer reviewed manuscripts on "anesthesia" and the proportion of papers on "anesthesia and outcome" are trending up. Estimates for spending of advertising dollars are less for anesthesia-related terms when compared to that for pain or surgery due to relative smaller number of searching traffic. General interest in anesthesia (anaesthesia) as measured by internet searches appears to be decreasing. Pain, preanesthesia evaluation, anesthesia and outcome and side effects of anesthesia are the critical areas that anesthesiologists should focus on to address the increasing concerns.

  4. The endocannabinoid anandamide inhibits potassium conductance in rat cortical astrocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vignali, M.; Benfenati, V.; Caprini, M.; Anděrová, Miroslava; Nobile, M.; Ferroni, S.


    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2009), s. 791-806 ISSN 0894-1491 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/1316; GA ČR GA305/06/1464; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cortical astroglia * potassium conductance * endocannabinoids Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.932, year: 2009

  5. The extracellular matrix and altered diffusion in focal cortical dysplasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homola, Aleš; Vargová, Lýdia; Cicanič, Michal; Zámečník, J.; Marusič, P.; Kršek, P.; Syková, Eva


    Roč. 59, S1 (2011), S106-S106 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glial Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA309/09/1597 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : focal cortical dysplasia * diffusion * extracellular matrix Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  6. Cortical Control of Zona Incerta (United States)

    Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Varga, Viktor; Bokor, Hajnalka; Pinault, Didier; Buzsáki, György; Acsády, László


    The zona incerta (ZI) is at the crossroad of almost all major ascending and descending fiber tracts and targets numerous brain centers from the thalamus to the spinal cord. Effective ascending drive of ZI cells has been described, but the role of descending cortical signals in patterning ZI activity is unknown. Cortical control over ZI function was examined during slow cortical waves (1-3 Hz), paroxysmal high-voltage spindles (HVSs), and 5-9 Hz oscillations in anesthetized rats. In all conditions, rhythmic cortical activity significantly altered the firing pattern of ZI neurons recorded extracellularly and labeled with the juxtacellular method. During slow oscillations, the majority of ZI neurons became synchronized to the depth-negative phase (“up state”) of the cortical waves to a degree comparable to thalamocortical neurons. During HVSs, ZI cells displayed highly rhythmic activity in tight synchrony with the cortical oscillations. ZI neurons responded to short epochs of cortical 5-9 Hz oscillations, with a change in the interspike interval distribution and with an increase in spectral density in the 5-9 Hz band as measured by wavelet analysis. Morphological reconstruction revealed that most ZI cells have mediolaterally extensive dendritic trees and very long dendritic segments. Cortical terminals established asymmetrical synapses on ZI cells with very long active zones. These data suggest efficient integration of widespread cortical signals by single ZI neurons and strong cortical drive. We propose that the efferent GABAergic signal of ZI neurons patterned by the cortical activity can play a critical role in synchronizing thalamocortical and brainstem rhythms. PMID:17301175

  7. Identification of a brainstem circuit regulating visual cortical state in parallel with locomotion. (United States)

    Lee, A Moses; Hoy, Jennifer L; Bonci, Antonello; Wilbrecht, Linda; Stryker, Michael P; Niell, Cristopher M


    Sensory processing is dependent upon behavioral state. In mice, locomotion is accompanied by changes in cortical state and enhanced visual responses. Although recent studies have begun to elucidate intrinsic cortical mechanisms underlying this effect, the neural circuits that initially couple locomotion to cortical processing are unknown. The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) has been shown to be capable of initiating running and is associated with the ascending reticular activating system. Here, we find that optogenetic stimulation of the MLR in awake, head-fixed mice can induce both locomotion and increases in the gain of cortical responses. MLR stimulation below the threshold for overt movement similarly changed cortical processing, revealing that MLR's effects on cortex are dissociable from locomotion. Likewise, stimulation of MLR projections to the basal forebrain also enhanced cortical responses, suggesting a pathway linking the MLR to cortex. These studies demonstrate that the MLR regulates cortical state in parallel with locomotion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Information extraction from full text scientific articles: Where are the keywords?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Iratxeta Carolina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, many of the methods for information extraction of biological information from scientific articles are restricted to the abstract of the article. However, full text articles in electronic version, which offer larger sources of data, are currently available. Several questions arise as to whether the effort of scanning full text articles is worthy, or whether the information that can be extracted from the different sections of an article can be relevant. Results In this work we addressed those questions showing that the keyword content of the different sections of a standard scientific article (abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion is very heterogeneous. Conclusions Although the abstract contains the best ratio of keywords per total of words, other sections of the article may be a better source of biologically relevant data.

  9. Phonetic spelling filter for keyword selection in drug mention mining from social media. (United States)

    Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Patki, Apurv; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela


    Social media postings are rich in information that often remain hidden and inaccessible for automatic extraction due to inherent limitations of the site's APIs, which mostly limit access via specific keyword-based searches (and limit both the number of keywords and the number of postings that are returned). When mining social media for drug mentions, one of the first problems to solve is how to derive a list of variants of the drug name (common misspellings) that can capture a sufficient number of postings. We present here an approach that filters the potential variants based on the intuition that, faced with the task of writing an unfamiliar, complex word (the drug name), users will tend to revert to phonetic spelling, and we thus give preference to variants that reflect the phonemes of the correct spelling. The algorithm allowed us to capture 50.4 - 56.0 % of the user comments using only about 18% of the variants.

  10. [Keywords network analysis of articles in the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine 1997-2006]. (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Chung, Dongjun; Choi, Mankyu


    There are very few researches on North Korea's academic activities. Furthermore, it is doubtful that the available data are reliable. This study investigated research activities and knowledge structure in the field of Preventive Medicine in North Korea with a network analysis using co-authors and keywords. The data was composed of the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine ranged from Vol. 1 of 1997 to Vol. 4 of 2006. It was the matrix of 1,172 articles by 1,567 co-authors. We applied R procedure for keywords abstraction, and then sought for the outcome of network forms by spring-KK and shrinking network. To comprehend the whole networks explicitly demonstrated that the academic activities in North Korea's preventive medicine were predisposed to centralization as similar as South Korea's, but on the other aspect they were prone to one-off intermittent segmentation. The principal co-author networks were formulated around some outstanding medical universities seemingly in addition to possible intervention by major researchers. The knowledge structure of network was based on experimentation judging from keywords such as drug, immunity, virus detection, infection, bacteria, anti-inflammation, etc. Though North Korea is a socialist regime, there were network of academic activities, which were deemed the existence of inducive mechanism affordable for free research. Article keywords has laid greater emphasis on experiment-based bacterial detection, sustainable immune system and prevention of infection. The kind of trend was a consistent characteristic in preventive medicine of North Korea having close correlation with Koryo medical science.

  11. Cortico-cortical communication dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E Roland


    Full Text Available IIn principle, cortico-cortical communication dynamics is simple: neurons in one cortical area communicate by sending action potentials that release glutamate and excite their target neurons in other cortical areas. In practice, knowledge about cortico-cortical communication dynamics is minute. One reason is that no current technique can capture the fast spatio-temporal cortico-cortical evolution of action potential transmission and membrane conductances with sufficient spatial resolution. A combination of optogenetics and monosynaptic tracing with virus can reveal the spatio-temporal cortico-cortical dynamics of specific neurons and their targets, but does not reveal how the dynamics evolves under natural conditions. Spontaneous ongoing action potentials also spread across cortical areas and are difficult to separate from structured evoked and intrinsic brain activity such as thinking. At a certain state of evolution, the dynamics may engage larger populations of neurons to drive the brain to decisions, percepts and behaviors. For example, successfully evolving dynamics to sensory transients can appear at the mesoscopic scale revealing how the transient is perceived. As a consequence of these methodological and conceptual difficulties, studies in this field comprise a wide range of computational models, large-scale measurements (e.g., by MEG, EEG, and a combination of invasive measurements in animal experiments. Further obstacles and challenges of studying cortico-cortical communication dynamics are outlined in this critical review.

  12. An Interval Estimation Method of Patent Keyword Data for Sustainable Technology Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiho Uhm


    Full Text Available Technology forecasting (TF is forecasting the future state of a technology. It is exciting to know the future of technologies, because technology changes the way we live and enhances the quality of our lives. In particular, TF is an important area in the management of technology (MOT for R&D strategy and new product development. Consequently, there are many studies on TF. Patent analysis is one method of TF because patents contain substantial information regarding developed technology. The conventional methods of patent analysis are based on quantitative approaches such as statistics and machine learning. The most traditional TF methods based on patent analysis have a common problem. It is the sparsity of patent keyword data structured from collected patent documents. After preprocessing with text mining techniques, most frequencies of technological keywords in patent data have values of zero. This problem creates a disadvantage for the performance of TF, and we have trouble analyzing patent keyword data. To solve this problem, we propose an interval estimation method (IEM. Using an adjusted Wald confidence interval called the Agresti–Coull confidence interval, we construct our IEM for efficient TF. In addition, we apply the proposed method to forecast the technology of an innovative company. To show how our work can be applied in the real domain, we conduct a case study using Apple technology.

  13. Bibliometric investigation on preventive medicine in North Korea: a coauthor and keyword network analysis. (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo


    This study examined the 2 preventive medicine journals in North Korea by using coauthor and keyword network analysis on the basis of medical informatics and bibliometrics. Used were the Journal of Chosun Medicine (JCM) and the Journal of Preventive Medicine (JPM) (from the first volume of 1997 to the fourth volume of 2006) as data. Extracted were 1734 coauthors from 1104 articles and 1567 coauthors from 1172 articles, respectively. Huge single components were extracted in the coauthor analysis, which indicated a tendency toward structuralization. However, the 2 journals differed in that JPM showed a relative tendency toward specialization, whereas JCM showed one toward generalization. Seventeen and 33 keywords were extracted from each journal in the keyword analysis; JCM mainly concerned pathological research, whereas JPM mainly concerned virus and basic medicine studies that were based on infection and immunity. In contrast to South Korea, North Korea has developed Juche medicine, which came from self-reliance ideology and gratuitous medical service. According to the present study, their ideology was embodied by the discovery of bacteria, study on immune system, and emphasis on pathology, on the basis of experimental epidemiology. However, insufficient research has been conducted thus far on population health and its related determinants.

  14. Using Gazetteers to Extract Sets of Keywords from Free-Flowing Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Crymble


    Full Text Available If you have a copy of a text in electronic format stored on your computer, it is relatively easy to keyword search for a single term. Often you can do this by using the built-in search features in your favourite text editor. However, scholars are increasingly needing to find instances of many terms within a text or texts. For example, a scholar may want to use a gazetteer to extract all mentions of English placenames within a collection of texts so that those places can later be plotted on a map. Alternatively, they may want to extract all male given names, all pronouns, stop words, or any other set of words. Using those same built-in search features to achieve this more complex goal is time consuming and clunky. This lesson will teach you how to use Python to extract a set of keywords very quickly and systematically from a set of texts. It is expected that once you have completed this lesson, you will be able to generalise the skills to extract custom sets of keywords from any set of locally saved files.

  15. Taking Word Clouds Apart: An Empirical Investigation of the Design Space for Keyword Summaries. (United States)

    Felix, Cristian; Franconeri, Steven; Bertini, Enrico


    In this paper we present a set of four user studies aimed at exploring the visual design space of what we call keyword summaries: lists of words with associated quantitative values used to help people derive an intuition of what information a given document collection (or part of it) may contain. We seek to systematically study how different visual representations may affect people's performance in extracting information out of keyword summaries. To this purpose, we first create a design space of possible visual representations and compare the possible solutions in this design space through a variety of representative tasks and performance metrics. Other researchers have, in the past, studied some aspects of effectiveness with word clouds, however, the existing literature is somewhat scattered and do not seem to address the problem in a sufficiently systematic and holistic manner. The results of our studies showed a strong dependency on the tasks users are performing. In this paper we present details of our methodology, the results, as well as, guidelines on how to design effective keyword summaries based in our discoveries.

  16. Hiperostosis cortical infantil


    Salvador Javier Santos Medina; Orelvis Pérez Duerto


    La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco mes...

  17. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  18. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon


    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  19. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Erbis, Serkan; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Kamarthi, Sagar


    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map.

  20. The Recent Trend in a Human Resource Management Journal: A Keyword Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen


    Full Text Available Continuous changes in technology, economic, social and psychological understandings and structures have influence on both Human Resources and their management. Organizations approach their human capital in a more sensitive way in order to win the loyalty and commitment of them, while increasing profit and maximizing the efficiency/effectiveness of its work power. Human Resources Management helps achieving these goals by recruiting, training, developing, motivating and rewarding employees. Therefore, the identification of current research interests is essential to lead them in defining organizational human resources strategies. The main purpose of this research is to identify top rated factors related to Human Resource Management by analyzing all the abstracts of the published papers in a Human Resource Management journal from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2012. As a result of analyzing the keywords of all abstracts, the frequencies of the keyword categories are identified. Except the keywords related to Human Resources (17.6%, it is observed that the studies for the period consider the following: Employee rights and their career (18.3%, management (14.6%, contextual issues (10%, organizational strategies (9.5%, performance measurement and training (9.5%, behavioral issues and employee motivation (5.7, organizational culture (5.4%, technical issues (4.1%, etc. It should be noted that the researchers (a mainly stress on practice more than theory and (b consider the organization less than the individual. Interestingly, employee motivation is found to be less considered by the researchers. This study is believed to be useful for future studies and the industry by identifying the hot and top rated factors related to Human Resource Management.

  1. Statistics of co-occurring keywords in confined text messages on Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Angheluta, L.; Jensen, M. H.


    Online social media such as the micro-blogging site Twitter has become a rich source of real-time data on online human behaviors. Here we analyze the occurrence and co-occurrence frequency of keywords in user posts on Twitter. From the occurrence rate of major international brand names, we provide...... examples of predictions of brand-user behaviors. From the co-occurrence rates, we further analyze the user-perceived relationships between international brand names and construct the corresponding relationship networks. In general the user activity on Twitter is highly intermittent and we show...

  2. Automatische Indexierung auf Basis von Titeln und Autoren-Keywords – ein Werkstattbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Toepfer


    Full Text Available Automatische Verfahren sind für Bibliotheken essentiell, um die Erschliessung stetig wachsender Datenmengen zu stemmen. Die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft sammelt seit Längerem Erfahrungen im Bereich automatischer Indexierung und baut hier eigene Kompetenzen auf. Aufgrund rechtlicher Restriktionen werden unter anderem Ansätze untersucht, die ohne Volltextnutzung arbeiten. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Einblick in ein laufendes Teilprojekt, das unter Verwendung von Titeln und Autoren [1]-Keywords auf eine Nachnormierung der inhaltsbeschreibenden Metadaten auf den Standard-Thesaurus Wirtschaft (STW abzielt. Wir erläutern den Hintergrund der Arbeit, betrachten die Systemarchitektur und stellen erste vielversprechende Ergebnisse eines dokumentenorientierten Verfahrens vor. Automatic systems are indispensable for libraries in order to make the rapidly growing number of publications accessible to their users. In the past the ZBW – German National Library of Economics – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics has gained practical experience in this field. Due to legal constraints it currently investigates methods that solely use author generated descriptive metadata. This article gives an insight into on-going developments and relates them to past activities. We report on a promising document-oriented approach, which uses author keywords and titles in combination to automatically assign subject headings from the STW Thesaurus for Economics to a document.

  3. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system. (United States)

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha


    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  4. Cortical-Cortical Interactions And Sensory Information Processing in Autism (United States)


    Additionally, these cortical areas have been implicated from significantly elevated TOJ thresholds (worse performance) in subjects with dyslexia [5...of the fact that above-average TOJ thresholds occur in subjects with known damage to these same cortical areas ( dyslexia [5], dystonia [6-8], and...Tomma-Halme J, Lahti-Nuuttila P, Service E, Virsu V: Rate of information segregation in developmentally dyslexic children . Brain Lang 2000, 75:66-81

  5. Metadata Effectiveness in Internet Discovery: An Analysis of Digital Collection Metadata Elements and Internet Search Engine Keywords (United States)

    Yang, Le


    This study analyzed digital item metadata and keywords from Internet search engines to learn what metadata elements actually facilitate discovery of digital collections through Internet keyword searching and how significantly each metadata element affects the discovery of items in a digital repository. The study found that keywords from Internet…

  6. A Privacy-Preserving Intelligent Medical Diagnosis System Based on Oblivious Keyword Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Lin


    Full Text Available One of the concerns people have is how to get the diagnosis online without privacy being jeopardized. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving intelligent medical diagnosis system (IMDS, which can efficiently solve the problem. In IMDS, users submit their health examination parameters to the server in a protected form; this submitting process is based on Paillier cryptosystem and will not reveal any information about their data. And then the server retrieves the most likely disease (or multiple diseases from the database and returns it to the users. In the above search process, we use the oblivious keyword search (OKS as a basic framework, which makes the server maintain the computational ability but cannot learn any personal information over the data of users. Besides, this paper also provides a preprocessing method for data stored in the server, to make our protocol more efficient.

  7. A Study of Practical Proxy Reencryption with a Keyword Search Scheme considering Cloud Storage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Lee


    Full Text Available Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  8. A study of practical proxy reencryption with a keyword search scheme considering cloud storage structure. (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Im-Yeong


    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  9. Multi-stream LSTM-HMM decoding and histogram equalization for noise robust keyword spotting. (United States)

    Wöllmer, Martin; Marchi, Erik; Squartini, Stefano; Schuller, Björn


    Highly spontaneous, conversational, and potentially emotional and noisy speech is known to be a challenge for today's automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems, which highlights the need for advanced algorithms that improve speech features and models. Histogram Equalization is an efficient method to reduce the mismatch between clean and noisy conditions by normalizing all moments of the probability distribution of the feature vector components. In this article, we propose to combine histogram equalization and multi-condition training for robust keyword detection in noisy speech. To better cope with conversational speaking styles, we show how contextual information can be effectively exploited in a multi-stream ASR framework that dynamically models context-sensitive phoneme estimates generated by a long short-term memory neural network. The proposed techniques are evaluated on the SEMAINE database-a corpus containing emotionally colored conversations with a cognitive system for "Sensitive Artificial Listening".

  10. Forecasting U.S. Home Foreclosures with an Index of Internet Keyword Searches (United States)

    Webb, G. Kent

    Finding data to feed into financial and risk management models can be challenging. Many analysts attribute a lack of data or quality information as a contributing factor to the worldwide financial crises that seems to have begun in the U.S. subprime mortgage market. In this paper, a new source of data, key word search statistics recently available from Google, are applied in a experiment to develop a short-term forecasting model for the number of foreclosures in the U.S. housing market. The keyword search data significantly improves forecast of foreclosures, suggesting that this data can be useful for financial risk management. More generally, the new data source shows promise for a variety of financial and market analyses.

  11. Testing keywords internationally to define and apply undergraduate assessment standards in art and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harland


    Full Text Available What language should be featured in assessment standards for international students? Have universities adjusted their assessment methods sufficiently to match the increased demand for studying abroad? How might art and design benefit from a more stable definition of standards? These are some questions this paper seeks to address by reporting the results of recent pedagogic research at the School of the Arts, Loughborough University, in the United Kingdom. Language use is at the heart of this issue, yet it is generally overlooked as an essential tool that links assessment, feedback and action planning for international students. The paper reveals existing and new data that builds on research since 2009, aimed at improving students’ assessment literacy. Recommendations are offered to stimulate local and global discussion about keyword use for defining undergraduate assessment standards in art and design.

  12. A Step Beyond Simple Keyword Searches: Services Enabled by a Full Content Digital Journal Archive (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.


    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary ( e . g . , the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools for journal searches, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  13. A step beyond simple keyword searches: Services enabled by a full content digital journal archive (United States)

    Boccippio, D. J.


    The problems of managing and searching large archives of scientific journal articles can potentially be addressed through data mining and statistical techniques matured primarily for quantitative scientific data analysis. A journal paper could be represented by a multivariate descriptor, e.g., the occurrence counts of a number key technical terms or phrases (keywords), perhaps derived from a controlled vocabulary (e.g., the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology) or bootstrapped from the journal archive itself. With this technique, conventional statistical classification tools can be leveraged to address challenges faced by both scientists and professional societies in knowledge management. For example, cluster analyses can be used to find bundles of "most-related" papers, and address the issue of journal bifurcation (when is a new journal necessary, and what topics should it encompass). Similarly, neural networks can be trained to predict the optimal journal (within a society's collection) in which a newly submitted paper should be published. Comparable techniques could enable very powerful end-user tools, all premised on the view of a paper as a data point in a multidimensional descriptor space, e.g.: "find papers most similar to the one I am reading", "build a personalized subscription service, based on the content of the papers I am interested in, rather than preselected keywords", "find suitable reviewers, based on the content of their own published works", etc. Such services may represent the next "quantum leap" beyond the rudimentary search interfaces currently provided to end-users, as well as a compelling value-added component needed to help bridge the print-to-digital-medium gap, and help stabilize professional societies' revenue stream during the print-to-digital transition.

  14. Hiperostosis cortical infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina


    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco meses de edad, atendido en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas” con este diagnóstico, quien ingresó en el servicio de miscelánea B por una celulitis facial. Presentaba aumento de volumen en la región geniana izquierda, febrícola e inapetencia. Se impuso tratamiento con cefazolina y se egresó a los siete días. Acudió nuevamente con tumefacción blanda y difusa de ambas hemicaras, irritabilidad y fiebre. Se interconsultó con cirugía maxilofacial, se indicaron estudios sanguíneos y radiológicos. Se diagnosticó como enfermedad de Caffey, basado en la edad del niño, tumefacción facial sin signos inflamatorios agudos e hiperostosis en ambas corticales mandibulares a la radiografía AP mandíbula; unido a anemia ligera, leucocitosis y eritrosedimentación acelerada. El paciente se trató sintomáticamente y con antinflamatorios no esteroideos. Esta rara entidad se debe tener presente en casos de niños y lactantes con irritabilidad y fiebre inespecífica

  15. Effects of lamotrigine and valproate on cortical epileptic afterdischarges in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsenov, Grygoriy; Mareš, Pavel

    -, - (2005), s. 161-161 [Conference of the Czech Neuroscience Society /5./, The Annual Meeting of the Network of European Neuroscience Institutes. 19.11.2005-21.11.2005, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : lamotrigine * valproate * cortical afterdischarges * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  16. Antagonists of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors and cortical afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lojková-Janečková, Denisa; Ng, Jessica; Mareš, Pavel


    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2009), s. 2123-2129 ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cortical seizures * metabotropic glutamate receptors * development Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.052, year: 2009

  17. GABA-B antagonist potentiates cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel


    Roč. 46, č. S6 (2005), s. 358-358 ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /26./. 28.08.2005-01.09.2005, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : GAGA-B antagonist * cortical afterdischarges * immature rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  18. GABA-A receptors play a minor role in cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tabashidze, Nana; Mareš, Pavel


    Roč. 1412, - (2011), s. 102-107 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1274; GA MŠk(CZ) ME08045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Bicuculline * GABA -A receptors * cortical epileptic afterdischarges * immature rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.728, year: 2011

  19. Familial temporal lobe epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia type IIIa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fábera, Petr; Krijtová, H.; Tomášek, M.; Krýsl, D.; Zámečník, J.; Mohapl, M.; Jiruška, Přemysl; Marusič, P.


    Roč. 31, Sep 2015 (2015), s. 120-123 ISSN 1059-1311 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14489 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : familial temporal lobe epilepsy * focal cortical dysplasia * epilepsy surgery * genetics of epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.109, year: 2015

  20. Developmental patterns of postictal refractoriness and potentiation akin to cortical stimulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana


    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2015), e10-e14 ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11015; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cortical epileptic afterdischarges * ontogeny * postictal period Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2015

  1. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986 (United States)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)


    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  2. Cortical Correlates of Fitts’ Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eIfft


    Full Text Available Fitts' law describes the fundamental trade-off between movement accuracy and speed: It states that the duration of reaching movements is a function of target size and distance. While Fitts' law has been extensively studied in ergonomics and has guided the design of human-computer interfaces, there have been few studies on its neuronal correlates. To elucidate sensorimotor cortical activity underlying Fitts’ law, we implanted two monkeys with multielectrode arrays in the primary motor (M1 and primary somatosensory (S1 cortices. The monkeys performed reaches with a joystick-controlled cursor towards targets of different size. The reaction time, movement time and movement velocity changed with target size, and M1 and S1 activity reflected these changes. Moreover, modifications of cortical activity could not be explained by changes of movement parameters alone, but required target size as an additional parameter. Neuronal representation of target size was especially prominent during the early reaction time period where it influenced the slope of the firing rate rise preceding movement initiation. During the movement period, cortical activity was mostly correlated with movement velocity. Neural decoders were applied to simultaneously decode target size and motor parameters from cortical modulations. We suggest using such classifiers to improve neuroprosthetic control.

  3. The Interaction Network Ontology-supported modeling and mining of complex interactions represented with multiple keywords in biomedical literature. (United States)

    Özgür, Arzucan; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun


    The Interaction Network Ontology (INO) logically represents biological interactions, pathways, and networks. INO has been demonstrated to be valuable in providing a set of structured ontological terms and associated keywords to support literature mining of gene-gene interactions from biomedical literature. However, previous work using INO focused on single keyword matching, while many interactions are represented with two or more interaction keywords used in combination. This paper reports our extension of INO to include combinatory patterns of two or more literature mining keywords co-existing in one sentence to represent specific INO interaction classes. Such keyword combinations and related INO interaction type information could be automatically obtained via SPARQL queries, formatted in Excel format, and used in an INO-supported SciMiner, an in-house literature mining program. We studied the gene interaction sentences from the commonly used benchmark Learning Logic in Language (LLL) dataset and one internally generated vaccine-related dataset to identify and analyze interaction types containing multiple keywords. Patterns obtained from the dependency parse trees of the sentences were used to identify the interaction keywords that are related to each other and collectively represent an interaction type. The INO ontology currently has 575 terms including 202 terms under the interaction branch. The relations between the INO interaction types and associated keywords are represented using the INO annotation relations: 'has literature mining keywords' and 'has keyword dependency pattern'. The keyword dependency patterns were generated via running the Stanford Parser to obtain dependency relation types. Out of the 107 interactions in the LLL dataset represented with two-keyword interaction types, 86 were identified by using the direct dependency relations. The LLL dataset contained 34 gene regulation interaction types, each of which associated with multiple keywords. A

  4. Microenvironments to study migration and somal translocation in cortical neurons. (United States)

    Zhao, Shifang; Fan, Wenqiang; Guo, Xiang; Xue, Longjian; Berninger, Benedikt; Salierno, Marcelo J; Del Campo, Aránzazu


    Migrating post-mitotic neurons of the developing cerebral cortex undergo terminal somal translocation (ST) when they reach their final destination in the cortical plate. This process is crucial for proper cortical layering and its perturbation can lead to brain dysfunction. Here we present a reductionist biomaterials platform that faithfully supports and controls the distinct phases of terminal ST in vitro. We developed microenvironments with different adhesive molecules to support neuronal attachment, neurite extension, and migration in distinct manners. Efficient ST occurred when the leading process of migratory neurons crossed from low-to high-adhesive areas on a substrate, promoting spreading of the leading growth cone. Our results indicate that elementary adhesive cell-substrate interactions strongly influence migratory behavior and the final positioning of neurons during their developmental journey. This in vitro model allows advanced experimentation to reveal the microenvironmental requirements underlying cortical layer development and disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lateral thinking, from the Hopfield model to cortical dynamics. (United States)

    Akrami, Athena; Russo, Eleonora; Treves, Alessandro


    Self-organizing attractor networks may comprise the building blocks for cortical dynamics, providing the basic operations of categorization, including analog-to-digital conversion, association and auto-association, which are then expressed as components of distinct cognitive functions depending on the contents of the neural codes in each region. To assess the viability of this scenario, we first review how a local cortical patch may be modeled as an attractor network, in which memory representations are not artificially stored as prescribed binary patterns of activity as in the Hopfield model, but self-organize as continuously graded patterns induced by afferent input. Recordings in macaques indicate that such cortical attractor networks may express retrieval dynamics over cognitively plausible rapid time scales, shorter than those dominated by neuronal fatigue. A cortical network encompassing many local attractor networks, and incorporating a realistic description of adaptation dynamics, may be captured by a Potts model. This network model has the capacity to engage long-range associations into sustained iterative attractor dynamics at a cortical scale, in what may be regarded as a mathematical model of spontaneous lateral thought. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neural Coding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional reorganization of the forepaw cortical representation immediately after thoracic spinal cord hemisection in rats. (United States)

    Yagüe, J G; Humanes-Valera, D; Aguilar, J; Foffani, G


    Spinal cord injury may produce long-term reorganization of cortical circuits. Little is known, however, about the early neurophysiological changes occurring immediately after injury. On the one hand, complete thoracic spinal cord transection of the spinal cord immediately decreases the level of cortical spontaneous activity and increases the cortical responses to stimuli delivered to the forepaw, above the level of the lesion. On the other hand, a thoracic spinal cord hemisection produces an immediate cortical hyperexcitability in response to preserved spinothalamic inputs from stimuli delivered to the hindpaw, below the level of the lesion. Here we show that a thoracic spinal cord hemisection also produces a bilateral increase of the responses evoked in the forepaw cortex by forepaw stimuli, associated with a bilateral decrease of cortical spontaneous activity. Importantly, the increased cortical forepaw responses are immediate in the cortex contralateral to the hemisection (significant within 30min after injury), but they are progressive in the cortex ipsilateral to the hemisection (reaching significance only 2.5h after injury). Conversely, the decreased cortical spontaneous activity is progressive both ipsilaterally and contralaterally to the hemisection (again reaching significance only 2.5h after injury). In synthesis, the present work reports a functional reorganization of the forepaw cortical representation immediately after thoracic spinal cord hemisection, which is likely important to fully understand the mechanisms underlying long-term cortical reorganization after incomplete spinal cord injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Construction of 4D high-definition cortical surface atlases of infants: Methods and applications. (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang


    of cortical surfaces across infant individuals, in comparison to the infant surface atlases constructed without longitudinal consistency and also the FreeSurfer adult surface atlas. Moreover, based on our 4D infant surface atlases, for the first time, we reveal the spatially-detailed, region-specific correlation patterns of the dynamic cortical developmental trajectories between different cortical regions during early brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mnemonic Encoding and Cortical Organization in Parietal and Prefrontal Cortices. (United States)

    Masse, Nicolas Y; Hodnefield, Jonathan M; Freedman, David J


    Persistent activity within the frontoparietal network is consistently observed during tasks that require working memory. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying persistent neuronal encoding within this network remain unresolved. Here, we ask how neural circuits support persistent activity by examining population recordings from posterior parietal (PPC) and prefrontal (PFC) cortices in two male monkeys that performed spatial and motion direction-based tasks that required working memory. While spatially selective persistent activity was observed in both areas, robust selective persistent activity for motion direction was only observed in PFC. Crucially, we find that this difference between mnemonic encoding in PPC and PFC is associated with the presence of functional clustering: PPC and PFC neurons up to ∼700 μm apart preferred similar spatial locations, and PFC neurons up to ∼700 μm apart preferred similar motion directions. In contrast, motion-direction tuning similarity between nearby PPC neurons was much weaker and decayed rapidly beyond ∼200 μm. We also observed a similar association between persistent activity and functional clustering in trained recurrent neural network models embedded with a columnar topology. These results suggest that functional clustering facilitates mnemonic encoding of sensory information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Working memory refers to our ability to temporarily store and manipulate information. Numerous studies have observed that, during working memory, neurons in higher cortical areas, such as the parietal and prefrontal cortices, mnemonically encode the remembered stimulus. However, several recent studies have failed to observe mnemonic encoding during working memory, raising the question as to why mnemonic encoding is observed during some, but not all, conditions. In this study, we show that mnemonic encoding occurs when a cortical area is organized such that nearby neurons preferentially respond to the same

  9. Cortical columns for quick brains


    Stoop, Ralph L.; Saase, Victor; Wagner, Clemens; Stoop, Britta; Stoop, Ruedi


    It is widely believed that the particular wiring observed within cortical columns boosts neural computation. We use rewiring of neural networks performing real-world cognitive tasks to study the validity of this argument. In a vast survey of wirings within the column we detect, however, no traces of the proposed effect. It is on the mesoscopic inter-columnar scale that the existence of columns - largely irrespective of their inner organization - enhances the speed of information transfer and ...

  10. Use of Cortical Strut Allograft After Extended Trochanteric Osteotomy in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty. (United States)

    Lim, Chin Tat; Amanatullah, Derek F; Huddleston, James I; Hwang, Katherine L; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B


    Cortical strut allografts restore bone stock and improve postoperative clinical scores after revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, use of a cortical strut allograft is implicated in delayed healing of an extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO). To date, there are no reports directly comparing ETO with or without cortical strut allografts. We reviewed prospectively gathered data on 50 revision THAs performed from 2004-2014 using an ETO. We compared the demographic, radiological, and clinical outcome of patients with (16 hips) and without (34 hips) cortical strut allograft after an ETO. There were no significant differences in Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index or Harris Hip Score between the ETOs with and without a cortical strut allograft. Fifteen of the ETOs (94%) with a cortical strut allograft and 31 of the ETOs (91%) without a cortical strut allograft were in situ at final follow-up (P = 1.000). A higher proportion hips with cortical strut allograft (100%, 16 patients) had preoperative Paprosky grade bone loss more than IIIA compared to those without allograft (29%, 10 patients) (P revision THA with ETO does not reduce the rate of union, radiological or clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010). (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni


    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  12. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development. (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E


    paracentral, lateral orbitofrontal, and lateral occipital regions. We suggest that abnormal cortical development in autism spectrum disorders undergoes three distinct phases: accelerated expansion in early childhood, accelerated thinning in later childhood and adolescence, and decelerated thinning in early adulthood. Moreover, cortical thickness abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders are region-specific, vary with age, and may remain dynamic well into adulthood. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Understanding age-induced cortical porosity in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina Møller; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; van der Eerden, Bram C J


    of a histomorphometric analysis of sections of iliac bone specimens from 35 women (age 16-78 years). Firstly, the study shows that the aging-induced cortical porosity reflects an increased pore size rather than an increased pore density. Secondly, it establishes a novel histomorphometric classification of the pores...... initiation of the subsequent bone formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  14. Probing region-specific microstructure of human cortical areas using high angular and spatial resolution diffusion MRI. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Manisha; Nauen, David W; Troncoso, Juan C; Mori, Susumu


    Regional heterogeneity in cortical cyto- and myeloarchitecture forms the structural basis of mapping of cortical areas in the human brain. In this study, we investigate the potential of diffusion MRI to probe the microstructure of cortical gray matter and its region-specific heterogeneity across cortical areas in the fixed human brain. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data at an isotropic resolution of 92-μm and 30 diffusion-encoding directions were acquired using a 3D diffusion-weighted gradient-and-spin-echo sequence, from prefrontal (Brodmann area 9), primary motor (area 4), primary somatosensory (area 3b), and primary visual (area 17) cortical specimens (n=3 each) from three human subjects. Further, the diffusion MR findings in these cortical areas were compared with histological silver impregnation of the same specimens, in order to investigate the underlying architectonic features that constitute the microstructural basis of diffusion-driven contrasts in cortical gray matter. Our data reveal distinct and region-specific diffusion MR contrasts across the studied areas, allowing delineation of intracortical bands of tangential fibers in specific layers-layer I, layer VI, and the inner and outer bands of Baillarger. The findings of this work demonstrate unique sensitivity of diffusion MRI to differentiate region-specific cortical microstructure in the human brain, and will be useful for myeloarchitectonic mapping of cortical areas as well as to achieve an understanding of the basis of diffusion NMR contrasts in cortical gray matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder. (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K; Zai, Alex; Pirnia, Tara; Arienzo, Donatello; Zhan, Liang; Moody, Teena D; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D


    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. Using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we computed vertex-wise gray matter (GM) thickness on the cortical surface and GM volume using voxel-based morphometry. We also computed volumes in cortical and subcortical regions of interest. In addition to group comparisons, we investigated associations with symptom severity, insight, and anxiety within the BDD group. In BDD, greater anxiety was significantly associated with thinner GM in the left superior temporal cortex and greater GM volume in the right caudate nucleus. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, GM volume, or volumes in regions of interest between BDD and control subjects. Subtle associations with clinical symptoms may characterize brain morphometric patterns in BDD, rather than large group differences in brain structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-conductance states in a mean-field cortical network model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, Mandana; Hertz, John


    Measured responses from visual cortical neurons show that spike times tend to be correlated rather than exactly Poisson distributed. Fano factors vary and are usually greater than 1, indicating a tendency toward spikes being clustered. We show that this behavior emerges naturally in a balanced...... of cortical neurons in their natural environment, and variable non-Poissonian spike statistics with Fano factors greater than 1. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Research article Abstract Keywords

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PPP). Our investigation deals ... The University of the Western Cape (UWC) in Cape Town, South Africa, is a public university that was ..... posters in public places informing students about upcoming protest marches and student mass meetings;.

  18. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.


    propose two algorithms for computing safe zones that guarantee correct results at any time and that aim to optimize the server-side computation as well as the communication between the server and the client. We exploit tight and conservative approximations of safe zones and aggressive computational space...

  19. [Infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey's disease)]. (United States)

    Dubovská, M; Stejskal, J; Koutecký, J


    A 3-month old infant was found to suffer from a solid painless soft tissue swelling situated in his left scapular region and accompanied by pronounced anaemia and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The ominous clinical course as well as X-ray pictures of the scapula gave rise to a suspicion of a malignant tumour development. Biopsy from the surface of the bone gave no unambiguous answer. A histological examination of the whole surgically removed shoulder blade revealed the presence of infantile cortical hyperostosis.

  20. MRI of focal cortical dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.C.P.; Hatfield, G.A.; Bourgeois, B.; Park, T.S.


    We studied nine cases of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) by MRI, with surface-rendered 3D reconstructions. One case was also examined using single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS). The histological features were reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. The gyri affected by FCD were enlarged and the signal of the cortex was slightly increased on T1-weighted images. The gray-white junction was indistinct. Signal from the subcortical white matter was decreased on T1- and increased on T2-weighted images in most cases. Contrast enhancement was seen in two cases. Proton MRS showed a spectrum identical to that of normal brain. (orig.) (orig.)

  1. Biosphere reserves – learning sites of sustainable development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael


    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2008), s. 221-234 ISSN 1211-7420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * learning sites * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  2. Communication and wiring in the cortical connectome. (United States)

    Budd, Julian M L; Kisvárday, Zoltán F


    In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimize communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction) and temporal (routing) costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fiber tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for cortical wiring patterns.

  3. Cortical Gyrification Patterns Associated with Trait Anxiety


    Miskovich, Tara A.; Pedersen, Walker S.; Belleau, Emily L.; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Larson, Christine L.


    Dispositional anxiety is a stable personality trait that is a key risk factor for internalizing disorders, and understanding the neural correlates of trait anxiety may help us better understand the development of these disorders. Abnormal cortical folding is thought to reflect differences in cortical connectivity occurring during brain development. Therefore, assessing gyrification may advance understanding of cortical development and organization associated with trait anxiety. Previous liter...

  4. The comparative effects of song, picture and the keyword method on L2 vocabulary recognition and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei


    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of three methods of vocabulary presentation, i.e., picture, song, and the keyword method on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary recognition and production. The participants were 102 Iranian lower-intermediate EFL learners in Zaban Sara English language institute in Kermanshah. To make sure that they had no previous knowledge of the target words, a pretest was administered. Those words about which the participants had prior knowledge were excluded from instruction. After administering the pretest, the participants were divided into three groups. Each group was instructed through a specified method of vocabulary presentation including picture, song, and the keyword method for a whole semester. The participants' receptive vocabulary knowledge was tested through a multiple-choice test and their productive vocabulary knowledge through a fill-in-the blank test. The collected data were analyzed using two separate one-way ANOVA procedures. The results of both tests showed that the group instructed through picture had the best performance, followed closely by the group instructed through the keyword method. The group taught through the song method performed significantly worse than both the picture group and the keyword method group.

  5. The Effects of Keyword Cues and 3R Strategy on Children's e-Book Reading (United States)

    Liang, T.-H.


    Various studies have found that electronic books (e-books) promote learning, but few works have examined the use of e-books along with an adaptive reading strategy for children. The current study implemented a method to extract keyword cues from e-books to support e-book reading with the read, recite and review (3R) strategy, and then examined the…

  6. Reading the World's Classics Critically: A Keyword-Based Approach to Literary Analysis in Foreign Language Studies (United States)

    García, Nuria Alonso; Caplan, Alison


    While there are a number of important critical pedagogies being proposed in the field of foreign language study, more attention should be given to providing concrete examples of how to apply these ideas in the classroom. This article offers a new approach to the textual analysis of literary classics through the keyword-based methodology originally…

  7. Management goals for wildlife reserves in grassveld and bushveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and therefore require control. A means of measuring the success of management is outlined. Keywords: condition; cover; fire; game reserves; genetic diversity; goals; management; management strategy; nature reserves; range; reserves; soil; south africa; species composition; species diversity; veld; veld condition; wildlife ...

  8. Adolescent cortical thickness pre- and post marijuana and alcohol initiation. (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Castro, Norma; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meloy, M J; Brumback, Ty; Huestis, Marilyn A; Tapert, Susan F

    Cortical thickness abnormalities have been identified in youth using both alcohol and marijuana. However, limited studies have followed individuals pre- and post initiation of alcohol and marijuana use to help identify to what extent discrepancies in structural brain integrity are pre-existing or substance-related. Adolescents (N=69) were followed from ages 13 (pre-initiation of substance use, baseline) to ages 19 (post-initiation, follow-up). Three subgroups were identified, participants that initiated alcohol use (ALC, n=23, >20 alcohol use episodes), those that initiated both alcohol and marijuana use (ALC+MJ, n=23, >50 marijuana use episodes) and individuals that did not initiate either substance regularly by follow-up (CON, n=23, marijuana use episodes). All adolescents underwent neurocognitive testing, neuroimaging, and substance use and mental health interviews. Significant group by time interactions and main effects on cortical thickness estimates were identified for 18 cortical regions spanning the left and right hemisphere (pseffect, in cortical thickness by follow-up for individuals who have not initiated regular substance use or alcohol use only by age 19; modest between-group differences were identified at baseline in several cortical regions (ALC and CON>ALC+MJ). Minimal neurocognitive differences were observed in this sample. Findings suggest pre-existing neural differences prior to marijuana use may contribute to initiation of use and observed neural outcomes. Marijuana use may also interfere with thinning trajectories that contribute to morphological differences in young adulthood that are often observed in cross-sectional studies of heavy marijuana users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. GABA(B), not GABA(A) receptors play a role in cortical postictal refractoriness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana


    Roč. 88, Jan 2015 (2015), s. 99-102 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11015; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cortical seizures * postictal refractoriness * GABA receptors * pharmacology Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.936, year: 2015

  10. Effects of caffeine on cortical epileptic afterdischarges in adult rats are modulated by postnatal treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Kubová, Hana; Mareš, Pavel


    Roč. 113, č. 4 (2013), s. 493-500 ISSN 0300-9009 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9184; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : caffeine * perinatal administration * cortical epileptic afterdischarges * adult rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.598, year: 2013

  11. Astrocyte morphology after cortical stab wound revealed by single-cell confocal 3D morphometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvátal, Alexandr; Anděrová, Miroslava; Petřík, David; Syková, Eva

    č. 2 (2003), s. 63 ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glial Cell Function in Health and Disease /6./. Berlín, 03.09.2003-06.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1528; GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111300004 Keywords : cortical stab wound * morphometry Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.677, year: 2003

  12. GABA-B system and cortical epiletic afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel

    -, - (2005), s. 31-31 [Conference of the Czech Neuroscience Society /5./, The Annual Meeting of the Network of European Neuroscience Institutes. 19.11.2005-21.11.2005, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/2581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : GABA -B system * cortical afterdischarges * seizure generation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Does status epilepticus induced at early postnatal period change excitability after cortical epileptic afterdischarges?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana


    Roč. 57, č. 8 (2016), E183-E186 ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11015; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16605S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : status epilepticus * cortical stimulation * epileptic afterdischarges * ontogeny * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.295, year: 2016

  14. The cellular fate of cortical progenitors is not maintained in neurosphere cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machoň, Ondřej; Backman, M.; Krauss, S.; Kozmik, Zbyněk


    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2005), s. 388-397 ISSN 1044-7431 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/04/1358; GA MŠk 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cortical progenitors * neurospheres * fibroblast growth factor FGF Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.641, year: 2005


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes


    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  16. Cognitive reserve in aging. (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  17. Distinct Computational Principles Govern Multisensory Integration in Primary Sensory and Association Cortices. (United States)

    Rohe, Tim; Noppeney, Uta


    Human observers typically integrate sensory signals in a statistically optimal fashion into a coherent percept by weighting them in proportion to their reliabilities. An emerging debate in neuroscience is to which extent multisensory integration emerges already in primary sensory areas or is deferred to higher-order association areas. This fMRI study used multivariate pattern decoding to characterize the computational principles that define how auditory and visual signals are integrated into spatial representations across the cortical hierarchy. Our results reveal small multisensory influences that were limited to a spatial window of integration in primary sensory areas. By contrast, parietal cortices integrated signals weighted by their sensory reliabilities and task relevance in line with behavioral performance and principles of statistical optimality. Intriguingly, audiovisual integration in parietal cortices was attenuated for large spatial disparities when signals were unlikely to originate from a common source. Our results demonstrate that multisensory interactions in primary and association cortices are governed by distinct computational principles. In primary visual cortices, spatial disparity controlled the influence of non-visual signals on the formation of spatial representations, whereas in parietal cortices, it determined the influence of task-irrelevant signals. Critically, only parietal cortices integrated signals weighted by their bottom-up reliabilities and top-down task relevance into multisensory spatial priority maps to guide spatial orienting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods for estimating cortical motor representation size and location in navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation. (United States)

    Julkunen, Petro


    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is used for locating and outlining cortical representation areas, e.g., of motor function and speech. At present there are no standard methods of measuring the size of the cortical representation areas mapped with nTMS. The aim was to compare four computation methods for estimating muscle representation size and location for nTMS studies. The motor cortex of six subjects was mapped to outline the motor cortical representation of hand muscles. Four methods were compared to assess cortical representation size in nTMS. These methods included: (1) spline interpolation method, (2) convex hull method, which outlines all positive motor responses, (3) Voronoi tessellation method, which assigns a specific cortical area for each stimulus location, and (4) average point-area method, which computes an average representation area for each stimulus with the assumption of evenly spaced stimulus locations, i.e., the use of a grid. All applied methods demonstrated good repeatability in measuring muscle representation size and location, while the spline interpolation and the convex hull method demonstrated systematically larger representation areas (pmotor cortical muscle representation size and location with nTMS, e.g., to study cortical plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury Increases Cortical Glutamate Network Activity by Compromising GABAergic Control. (United States)

    Cantu, David; Walker, Kendall; Andresen, Lauren; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Hampton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Dulla, Chris G


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for developing pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Although disruptions in brain circuitry are associated with TBI, the precise mechanisms by which brain injury leads to epileptiform network activity is unknown. Using controlled cortical impact (CCI) as a model of TBI, we examined how cortical excitability and glutamatergic signaling was altered following injury. We optically mapped cortical glutamate signaling using FRET-based glutamate biosensors, while simultaneously recording cortical field potentials in acute brain slices 2-4 weeks following CCI. Cortical electrical stimulation evoked polyphasic, epileptiform field potentials and disrupted the input-output relationship in deep layers of CCI-injured cortex. High-speed glutamate biosensor imaging showed that glutamate signaling was significantly increased in the injured cortex. Elevated glutamate responses correlated with epileptiform activity, were highest directly adjacent to the injury, and spread via deep cortical layers. Immunoreactivity for markers of GABAergic interneurons were significantly decreased throughout CCI cortex. Lastly, spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency decreased and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current increased after CCI injury. Our results suggest that specific cortical neuronal microcircuits may initiate and facilitate the spread of epileptiform activity following TBI. Increased glutamatergic signaling due to loss of GABAergic control may provide a mechanism by which TBI can give rise to post-traumatic epilepsy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Prediction for human intelligence using morphometric characteristics of cortical surface: partial least square analysis. (United States)

    Yang, J-J; Yoon, U; Yun, H J; Im, K; Choi, Y Y; Lee, K H; Park, H; Hough, M G; Lee, J-M


    A number of imaging studies have reported neuroanatomical correlates of human intelligence with various morphological characteristics of the cerebral cortex. However, it is not yet clear whether these morphological properties of the cerebral cortex account for human intelligence. We assumed that the complex structure of the cerebral cortex could be explained effectively considering cortical thickness, surface area, sulcal depth and absolute mean curvature together. In 78 young healthy adults (age range: 17-27, male/female: 39/39), we used the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and the cortical measurements calculated in native space from each subject to determine how much combining various cortical measures explained human intelligence. Since each cortical measure is thought to be not independent but highly inter-related, we applied partial least square (PLS) regression, which is one of the most promising multivariate analysis approaches, to overcome multicollinearity among cortical measures. Our results showed that 30% of FSIQ was explained by the first latent variable extracted from PLS regression analysis. Although it is difficult to relate the first derived latent variable with specific anatomy, we found that cortical thickness measures had a substantial impact on the PLS model supporting the most significant factor accounting for FSIQ. Our results presented here strongly suggest that the new predictor combining different morphometric properties of complex cortical structure is well suited for predicting human intelligence. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cortical complexity in bipolar disorder applying a spherical harmonics approach. (United States)

    Nenadic, Igor; Yotter, Rachel A; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian


    Recent studies using surface-based morphometry of structural magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that some changes in bipolar disorder (BP) might be neurodevelopmental in origin. We applied a novel analysis of cortical complexity based on fractal dimensions in high-resolution structural MRI scans of 18 bipolar disorder patients and 26 healthy controls. Our region-of-interest based analysis revealed increases in fractal dimensions (in patients relative to controls) in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right precuneus, and decreases in right caudal middle frontal, entorhinal cortex, and right pars orbitalis, and left fusiform and posterior cingulate cortices. While our analysis is preliminary, it suggests that early neurodevelopmental pathologies might contribute to bipolar disorder, possibly through genetic mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cortical effect of oxaliplatin associated with sustained neuropathic pain: exacerbation of cortical activity and down-regulation of potassium channel expression in somatosensory cortex. (United States)

    Thibault, Karine; Calvino, Bernard; Dubacq, Sophie; Roualle-de-Rouville, Marie; Sordoillet, Vallier; Rivals, Isabelle; Pezet, Sophie


    Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum-based chemotherapy drug that has gained importance in the treatment of advanced metastatic colorectal cancer. Its dose-limiting side effect is the production of chronic peripheral neuropathy. Using a modified model of oxaliplatin-induced sensory neuropathy, we investigated plastic changes at the cortical level as possible mechanisms underlying the chronicity of pain sensation in this model. Changes in gene expression were studied using DNA microarray which revealed that when oxaliplatin-treated animals displayed clinical neuropathic pain symptoms, including mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity, approximately 900 were down-regulated in the somatosensory cortex. Because of the known role of potassium channels in neuronal excitability, the study further focussed on the down-regulation of these channels as the possible molecular origin of cortical hyperexcitability. Quantification of the magnitude of neuronal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in cortical neurons as a marker of neuronal activity revealed a 10-fold increase induced by oxaliplatin treatment, suggesting that neurons of cortical areas involved in transmission of painful stimuli undergo a chronic cortical excitability. We further demonstrated, using cortical injection of lentiviral vector shRNA against Kv2.2, that down-regulation of this potassium channel in naive animals induced a sustained thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity. In conclusion, although the detailed mechanisms leading to this cortical excitability are still unknown, our study demonstrated that a cortical down regulation of potassium channels could underlie pain chronicity in this model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of skeletal stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy among mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation using absorbable plates and screws. (United States)

    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Hotta, Asami; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuta; Saito, Yuki


    The purpose of this study was to examine skeletal stability and plate breakage after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with the mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation techniques using absorbable plates and screws. A total of 76 Japanese patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with and without maxillary deformity were divided into 3 groups randomly. A total of 28 patients underwent SSRO with mono-cortical plate fixation, 23 underwent SSRO with bi-cortical plate fixation, and 25 underwent SSRO with hybrid fixation. Skeletal stability and horizontal condylar angle were analyzed by axial, frontal, and lateral cephalograms from before the operation to 1 year postoperatively. Breakage of the plate and screws was observed by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) immediately after surgery and after 1 year. Although there was a significant difference between the mono-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group regarding right MeAg in T1 (P = 0.0488) and occlusal plane in T1 (P = 0.0346), there were no significant differences between the groups for the other measurements in each time interval. In 2 cases, namely, 6 sides in the mono-cortical plate fixation group, breakage of the absorbable plate was found by 3DCT. However, there was no breakage in the bi-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group. This study results suggested that there were no significant differences in the postoperative skeletal stability among the 3 groups, and bi-cortical fixation as well as hybrid fixation was a reliable and useful method to prevent plate breakage even if an absorbable material was used. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autaptic self-inhibition of cortical GABAergic neurons: synaptic narcissism or useful introspection? (United States)

    Deleuze, Charlotte; Pazienti, Antonio; Bacci, Alberto


    Fast synaptic inhibition sculpts all forms of cortical activity by means of a specialized connectivity pattern between highly heterogeneous inhibitory interneurons and principal excitatory cells. Importantly, inhibitory neurons connect also to each other extensively, following a detailed blueprint, and, indeed, specific forms of disinhibition affect important behavioral functions. Here we discuss a peculiar form of cortical disinhibition: the massive autaptic self-inhibition of parvalbumin-(PV) positive basket cells. Despite being described long ago, autaptic inhibition onto PV basket cells is rarely included in cortical circuit diagrams, perhaps because of its still elusive function. We propose here a potential dual role of autaptic feedback inhibition in temporally coordinating PV basket cells during cortical network activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning-enhanced coupling between ripple oscillations in association cortices and hippocampus. (United States)

    Khodagholy, Dion; Gelinas, Jennifer N; Buzsáki, György


    Consolidation of declarative memories requires hippocampal-neocortical communication. Although experimental evidence supports the role of sharp-wave ripples in transferring hippocampal information to the neocortex, the exact cortical destinations and the physiological mechanisms of such transfer are not known. We used a conducting polymer-based conformable microelectrode array (NeuroGrid) to record local field potentials and neural spiking across the dorsal cortical surface of the rat brain, combined with silicon probe recordings in the hippocampus, to identify candidate physiological patterns. Parietal, midline, and prefrontal, but not primary cortical areas, displayed localized ripple (100 to 150 hertz) oscillations during sleep, concurrent with hippocampal ripples. Coupling between hippocampal and neocortical ripples was strengthened during sleep following learning. These findings suggest that ripple-ripple coupling supports hippocampal-association cortical transfer of memory traces. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Comparison of cortical responses to the activation of retina by visual stimulation and transcorneal electrical stimulation. (United States)

    Sun, Pengcheng; Li, Heng; Lu, Zhuofan; Su, Xiaofan; Ma, Zengguang; Chen, Jianpin; Li, Liming; Zhou, Chuanqing; Chen, Yao; Chai, Xinyu


    Electrical stimulation has been widely used in many ophthalmic diseases to modulate neuronal activities or restore partial visual function. Due to the different processing pathways and mechanisms, responses to visual and electrical stimulation in the primary visual cortex and higher visual areas might be different. This differences would shed some light on the properties of cortical responses evoked by electrical stimulation. This study's goal was to directly compare the cortical responses evoked by visual and electrical stimulation and investigate the cortical processing of visual information and extrinsic electrical signal. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals (OIS) was used to probe the cortical hemodynamic responses in 11 cats. Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) through an ERG-jet contact lens electrode was used to activate visual cortices. Full-field and peripheral drifting gratings were used as the visual stimuli. The response latency evoked by TES was shorter than that responding to visual stimulation (VS). Cortical responses evoked by VS were retinotopically organized, which was consistent with previous studies. On the other hand, the cortical region activated by TES was preferentially located in the secondary visual cortex (Area 18), while the primary visual cortex (Area 17) was activated by a higher current intensity. Compared with the full-field VS, the cortical response in Area 18 to TES with a current intensity above 1.2 mA was significantly stronger. According to our results, we provided some evidence that the cortical processing of TES was influenced by the distribution of the electrical field in the retina and the activating threshold of different retinal ganglion cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortical plasticity and its implications for focal hand dystonia. (United States)

    Opavsky, Robert; Hlustik, Petr; Kanovsky, Petr


    The exact origin of focal dystonias has not been elucidated so far. Aberrant plasticity of the brain cortex is suspected to be a crucial factor in the development of this group of movement disorders. The aim of this article is to summarize recent findings on the etiopathogenesis of focal hand dystonias with a focus on the role of abnormal cortical plasticity. A search of the literature mainly from 1995 to 2005 was done using the PubMed and Ovid search engines. English-language articles were identified using the following keywords: focal hand dystonia or writer's cramp and cortical plasticity, sensorimotor, imaging. Additional references were found through bibliography reviews of relevant articles. The data from neurophysiological and imaging studies, as well as clinical observation, in focal hand dystonia suggest multiple failures at different levels of the somatosensory and motor systems, particularly in the brain cortex. This disorders lead to attenuation of inhibitory and fortification of excitatory processes. The emerging theory presumes that a maladaptive plasticity of brain cortex with abnormal sensorimotor intergration can evolve in predisposed individuals. Consequent methods of management of focal hand dystonias are outlined.


    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.


    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  10. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja


    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  11. Decreased cortical thickness in central hypoventilation syndrome. (United States)

    Macey, Paul M; Moiyadi, Ammar S; Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary A; Harper, Ronald M


    Central hypoventilation syndrome (CHS) is a rare condition characterized by hypoventilation during sleep, reduced ventilatory responsiveness to CO(2) and O(2), impaired perception of air hunger, and autonomic abnormalities. Neural impairments accompany the condition, including structural injury, impaired cerebral autoregulation, and dysfunctional autonomic control. The hypoventilation may induce cortical hypoxic injury, additional to consequences of maldevelopment from PHOX2B mutations present in most CHS subjects. We assessed cortical injury in clinically diagnosed CHS using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans, collected from 14 CHS (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 17.7 ± 5.0 years; 6 female) and 29 control (mean age ± SD, 17.9 ± 4.3 years; 12 female) subjects. We measured group differences in mean cortical thickness and age-thickness correlations using FreeSurfer software, accounting for age and sex (0.1 false discovery rate). Reduced thickness in CHS appeared in the dorsomedial frontal cortex and anterior cingulate; medial prefrontal, parietal, and posterior cingulate cortices; the insular cortex; anterior and lateral temporal lobes; and mid- and accessory motor strips. Normal age-related cortical thinning in multiple regions did not appear in CHS. The cortical thinning may contribute to CHS cardiovascular and memory deficits and may impair affect and perception of breathlessness. Extensive axonal injury in CHS is paralleled by reduced cortical tissue and absence of normal developmental patterns.

  12. A Turing Reaction-Diffusion Model for Human Cortical Folding Patterns and Cortical Pattern Malformations (United States)

    Hurdal, Monica K.; Striegel, Deborah A.


    Modeling and understanding cortical folding pattern formation is important for quantifying cortical development. We present a biomathematical model for cortical folding pattern formation in the human brain and apply this model to study diseases involving cortical pattern malformations associated with neural migration disorders. Polymicrogyria is a cortical malformation disease resulting in an excessive number of small gyri. Our mathematical model uses a Turing reaction-diffusion system to model cortical folding. The lateral ventricle (LV) and ventricular zone (VZ) of the brain are critical components in the formation of cortical patterning. In early cortical development the shape of the LV can be modeled with a prolate spheroid and the VZ with a prolate spheroid surface. We use our model to study how global cortex characteristics, such as size and shape of the LV, affect cortical pattern formation. We demonstrate increasing domain scale can increase the number of gyri and sulci formed. Changes in LV shape can account for sulcus directionality. By incorporating LV size and shape, our model is able to elucidate which parameters can lead to excessive cortical folding.

  13. Cortical heterotopia in Aicardi's syndrome - CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.; Bosnjak, V.; Ligutic, I.; Marusic-Della Marina, B.


    The case of 5-month-old female infant with Aicardi's syndrome is presented. The main clinical features were severe developmental retardation and intractable epileptic seizures. Ophthalmoscopic examination revealed pathognomonic choriorethinopathy. Ultrasonic examination of the brain detected agenesis of the corpus callosum, whereas CT showed a coexisting malformation of the brain, i.e. cortical heterotopia of the gray matter. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is an entity well-recognized by sonography. However, ultrasonography is an insufficient modality for the visualization of cortical heterotopia which is common to all cases of Aicardi's syndrome. Therefore, in cases of suspected Aicardi's syndrome CT is recommended, as it enables the diagnosis of cortical heterotopia. (orig.)

  14. Reye's syndrome with cortical laminar necrosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Takahashi, S.; Ishii, K.; Higano, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Haginoya, K.; Iinuma, K.


    Serial MRI findings are described in two patients with Reye's syndrome, demonstrating diffuse cortical and white matter changes. In the acute stage, T2-weighted images showed subtle but definite laminar high signal and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images laminar enhancement, along the entire cerebral cortex bilaterally. In the chronic stage, unenhanced T1-weighted images showed diffuse cortical laminar high signal. These characteristic MRI features seemed very similar to those of laminar cortical necrosis in hypoxic brain damage. MRI also displayed delayed white matter changes with cerebral atrophy. (orig.)

  15. Skyline Reservation System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  16. The logistics of afferent cortical specification in mice and men. (United States)

    Borello, Ugo; Kennedy, Henry; Dehay, Colette


    The mechanisms shaping areal specification in the neocortex have been the focus of a sustained interest over the past three decades. Studies in rodents have provided insight in the interplay between intrinsic genetic mechanisms and extrinsic inputs relayed to the cortex by thalamocortical axons. Here we focus on the exploration of the developing primate visual system which points to embryonic thalamic axons exerting a profound, early instructive role on arealisation in the primate cortex, via an influence on cortical progenitor cell-cycle and mode of division. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced motor cortical inhibition in migraine: A blinded transcranial magnetic stimulation study. (United States)

    Neverdahl, J P; Omland, P M; Uglem, M; Engstrøm, M; Sand, T


    To investigate motor cortical excitability, inhibition, and facilitation with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in migraine in a blinded cross-sectional study. Resting motor threshold (RMT), cortical silent period (CSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were compared in 27 interictal migraineurs and 33 controls. 24 female interictal migraineurs and 27 female controls were compared in subgroup analyses. Seven preictal migraineurs were also compared to the interictal group in a hypothesis-generating analysis. Investigators were blinded for diagnosis during recording and analysis of data. SICI was decreased in interictal migraineurs when compared to healthy controls (p=0.013), CSP was shortened in female interictal migraineurs (p=0.041). ICF was decreased in preictal compared to interictal migraineurs (p=0.023). RMT and ICF were not different between interictal migraineurs and controls. Cortical inhibition was decreased in migraineurs between attacks, primarily in a female subgroup, indicating an importance of altered cortical inhibition in migraine. Previous studies on motor cortical excitability in migraineurs have yielded varying results. This relatively large and blinded study provides support for altered cortical inhibition in migraine. Measuring intracortical facilitation in the period preceding migraine attacks may be of interest for future studies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved explanation of human intelligence using cortical features with second order moments and regression. (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Yang, Jin-ju; Seo, Jongbum; Choi, Yu-yong; Lee, Kun-ho; Lee, Jong-min


    Cortical features derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide important information to account for human intelligence. Cortical thickness, surface area, sulcal depth, and mean curvature were considered to explain human intelligence. One region of interest (ROI) of a cortical structure consisting of thousands of vertices contained thousands of measurements, and typically, one mean value (first order moment), was used to represent a chosen ROI, which led to a potentially significant loss of information. We proposed a technological improvement to account for human intelligence in which a second moment (variance) in addition to the mean value was adopted to represent a chosen ROI, so that the loss of information would be less severe. Two computed moments for the chosen ROIs were analyzed with partial least squares regression (PLSR). Cortical features for 78 adults were measured and analyzed in conjunction with the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Our results showed that 45% of the variance of the FSIQ could be explained using the combination of four cortical features using two moments per chosen ROI. Our results showed improvement over using a mean value for each ROI, which explained 37% of the variance of FSIQ using the same set of cortical measurements. Our results suggest that using additional second order moments is potentially better than using mean values of chosen ROIs for regression analysis to account for human intelligence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards an optimal paradigm for simultaneously recording cortical and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M


    Simultaneous recording of brainstem and cortical event-related brain potentials (ERPs) may offer a valuable tool for understanding the early neural transcription of behaviorally relevant sounds and the hierarchy of signal processing operating at multiple levels of the auditory system. To date, dual recordings have been challenged by technological and physiological limitations including different optimal parameters necessary to elicit each class of ERP (e.g., differential adaptation/habitation effects and number of trials to obtain adequate response signal-to-noise ratio). We investigated a new stimulus paradigm for concurrent recording of the auditory brainstem frequency-following response (FFR) and cortical ERPs. The paradigm is "optimal" in that it uses a clustered stimulus presentation and variable interstimulus interval (ISI) to (i) achieve the most ideal acquisition parameters for eliciting subcortical and cortical responses, (ii) obtain an adequate number of trials to detect each class of response, and (iii) minimize neural adaptation/habituation effects. Comparison between clustered and traditional (fixed, slow ISI) stimulus paradigms revealed minimal change in amplitude or latencies of either the brainstem FFR or cortical ERP. The clustered paradigm offered over a 3× increase in recording efficiency compared to conventional (fixed ISI presentation) and thus, a more rapid protocol for obtaining dual brainstem-cortical recordings in individual listeners. We infer that faster recording of subcortical and cortical potentials might allow more complete and sensitive testing of neurophysiological function and aid in the differential assessment of auditory function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reversed cortical over-activity during movement imagination following neurofeedback treatment for central neuropathic pain. (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad Abul; Fraser, Matthew; Conway, Bernard A; Allan, David B; Vučković, Aleksandra


    One of the brain signatures of the central neuropathic pain (CNP) is the theta band over-activity of wider cortical structures, during imagination of movement. The objective of the study was to investigate whether this over-activity is reversible following the neurofeedback treatment of CNP. Five paraplegic patients with pain in their legs underwent from twenty to forty neurofeedback sessions that significantly reduced their pain. In order to assess their dynamic cortical activity they were asked to imagine movements of all limbs a week before the first and a week after the last neurofeedback session. Using time-frequency analysis we compared EEG activity during imagination of movement before and after the therapy and further compared it with EEG signals of ten paraplegic patients with no pain and a control group of ten able-bodied people. Neurofeedback treatment resulted in reduced CNP and a wide spread reduction of cortical activity during imagination of movement. The reduction was significant in the alpha and beta band but was largest in the theta band. As a result cortical activity became similar to the activity of other two groups with no pain. Reduction of CNP is accompanied by reduced cortical over-activity during movement imagination. Understanding causes and consequences mechanism through which CNP affects cortical activity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cortical Release Signs in Patients with Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorders, and Bipolar Affective Disorder]. (United States)

    de la Espriella, Ricardo Andrés; Hernández, José Fernando; Espejo, Lina María


    Determining the presence of cortical release signs associated with white matter damage, is a clinically easy method to perform. The objective of this study is to determine the presence of cortical release signs in patients with mental illnesses and cerebrovascular disease, as well as its clinical usefulness, given that it indicates cortical damage. A review was made of cortical release signs in patients hospitalized in clinical psychiatry and general hospitals with bipolar affective disorder (40), depression (37), schizophrenia (33), cardiovascular disease (33) and dementia (37). The signs of cortical release do not have the same importance as cortical damage. For example, the glabellar reflex was found in all the groups, that of paratonia, particularly in the group with schizophrenia, and others signs in the group of patients with dementia. It is suggested that these signs imply subcortical white matter damage. The appearance of these signs shows the need for a follow up of patients diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Top-down modulation of visual and auditory cortical processing in aging. (United States)

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Eck, Judith; Moerel, Michelle; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Van Gerven, Pascal W M


    Age-related cognitive decline has been accounted for by an age-related deficit in top-down attentional modulation of sensory cortical processing. In light of recent behavioral findings showing that age-related differences in selective attention are modality dependent, our goal was to investigate the role of sensory modality in age-related differences in top-down modulation of sensory cortical processing. This question was addressed by testing younger and older individuals in several memory tasks while undergoing fMRI. Throughout these tasks, perceptual features were kept constant while attentional instructions were varied, allowing us to devise all combinations of relevant and irrelevant, visual and auditory information. We found no top-down modulation of auditory sensory cortical processing in either age group. In contrast, we found top-down modulation of visual cortical processing in both age groups, and this effect did not differ between age groups. That is, older adults enhanced cortical processing of relevant visual information and suppressed cortical processing of visual distractors during auditory attention to the same extent as younger adults. The present results indicate that older adults are capable of suppressing irrelevant visual information in the context of cross-modal auditory attention, and thereby challenge the view that age-related attentional and cognitive decline is due to a general deficits in the ability to suppress irrelevant information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.J.; Tong, F.; Hagoort, P.; van Ee, R.


    We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability

  4. Cortical high-density counterstream architectures. (United States)

    Markov, Nikola T; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Van Essen, David C; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Kennedy, Henry


    Small-world networks provide an appealing description of cortical architecture owing to their capacity for integration and segregation combined with an economy of connectivity. Previous reports of low-density interareal graphs and apparent small-world properties are challenged by data that reveal high-density cortical graphs in which economy of connections is achieved by weight heterogeneity and distance-weight correlations. These properties define a model that predicts many binary and weighted features of the cortical network including a core-periphery, a typical feature of self-organizing information processing systems. Feedback and feedforward pathways between areas exhibit a dual counterstream organization, and their integration into local circuits constrains cortical computation. Here, we propose a bow-tie representation of interareal architecture derived from the hierarchical laminar weights of pathways between the high-efficiency dense core and periphery.

  5. Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus and epilepsy. (United States)

    Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico


    The term 'cortical tremor' was first introduced by Ikeda and colleagues to indicate a postural and action-induced shivering movement of the hands which mimics essential tremor, but presents with the electrophysiological findings of cortical reflex myoclonus. The association between autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME) was first recognized in Japanese families and is now increasingly reported worldwide, although it is described using different acronyms (BAFME, FAME, FEME, FCTE and others). The disease usually takes a benign course, although drug-resistant focal seizures or slight intellectual disability occur in some cases. Moreover, a worsening of cortical tremor and myoclonus is common in advanced age. Although not yet recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), this is a well-delineated epilepsy syndrome with remarkable features that clearly distinguishes it from other myoclonus epilepsies. Moreover, genetic studies of these families show heterogeneity and different susceptible chromosomal loci have been identified.

  6. Cortical electrophysiological network dynamics of feedback learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Wilmes, K.A.; van de Vijver, I.


    Understanding the neurophysiological mechanisms of learning is important for both fundamental and clinical neuroscience. We present a neurophysiologically inspired framework for understanding cortical mechanisms of feedback-guided learning. This framework is based on dynamic changes in systems-level

  7. The Diversity of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKubota


    Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.

  8. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading. (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F


    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  9. Focal Cortical Hypometabolism and Infantile Spasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The occurrence and prognostic significance of focal defects in cerebral cortical glucose metabolism were evaluated in infants with newly diagnosed symptomatic and cryptogenic infantile spasms examined at Turku and Helsinki Universities, Finland.

  10. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis. (United States)

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel


    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called "Discrete Results" (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of "Discrete Results" is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel "Discrete Results" concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast-spiking (FS


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Toghyani Khorasgani


    Full Text Available Early language learning for children is increasingly common, and the majority of parents and the public do not see it as superfluous or overburdening children. Moreover, teaching a foreign language to very young children has been an increasingly dominant trend in most globalized societies. While there is abundant literature that supports teaching a foreign language at an early age through language immersion programs, little is known about the efficiency of strategies used to explicitly teach new vocabulary words in a foreign language to young learners. This empirical investigation aimed to assess and compare the efficiency of two mnemonics that have been traditionally used to explicitly teach new foreign language words: the Keyword Method (KWM and the Total Physical Response (TPR. Results indicate that the KWM is more effective than TPR in teaching new vocabulary words in a foreign language to early elementary school children.

  12. Cognitive reserve and β-amyloid pathology in Parkinson disease. (United States)

    Lucero, Carolyn; Campbell, Meghan C; Flores, Hubert; Maiti, Baijayanta; Perlmutter, Joel S; Foster, Erin R


    Dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with abnormal accumulation of proteins, including β-amyloid, in cortical regions. High cognitive reserve capacity may protect cognition from β-amyloid and delay the onset of dementia. We tested the cognitive reserve theory in PD by determining whether educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve, modifies the correlation between cortical β-amyloid accumulation and cognitive impairment. PD participants (N = 155) underwent MRI to quantify brain volume and [(11)C] PiB PET imaging to quantify fibrillar β-amyloid deposition. Mean cortical binding potentials (MCBP) were calculated for each participant, with higher scores indicating more fibrillar β-amyloid. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine whether education modified the relationship between MCBP and cognitive function after controlling for brain volume. MCBP interacted with educational attainment to predict scores on each of the cognitive outcome measures (ps ≤ 0.02). Post-hoc analysis revealed that the effect of MCBP on cognitive function changed once the level of education reached 16 years. For participants with less than 16 years of education (n = 68), higher MCBP correlated with worse cognitive function, with MCBP accounting for 8-30% of the variance in MMSE and CDR scores (ps ≤ 0.02). For participants with at least 16 years of education (n = 87), MCBP did not correlate with MMSE or CDR scores (R(2)s cognitive reserve theory in PD and suggest that education may protect PD patients' cognition against cortical β-amyloid pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortical swallowing processing in early subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Maren


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication in hemispheric as well as brainstem stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia and increased mortality. Little is known about the recovery from dysphagia after stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the different patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with hemispheric and brainstem stroke with and without dysphagia in the early subacute phase. Methods We measured brain activity by mean of whole-head MEG in 37 patients with different stroke localisation 8.2 +/- 4.8 days after stroke to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced swallowing. An age matched group of healthy subjects served as controls. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry and group analyses were performed using a permutation test. Results Our results demonstrate strong bilateral reduction of cortical swallowing activation in dysphagic patients with hemispheric stroke. In hemispheric stroke without dysphagia, bilateral activation was found. In the small group of patients with brainstem stroke we observed a reduction of cortical activation and a right hemispheric lateralization. Conclusion Bulbar central pattern generators coordinate the pharyngeal swallowing phase. The observed right hemispheric lateralization in brainstem stroke can therefore be interpreted as acute cortical compensation of subcortically caused dysphagia. The reduction of activation in brainstem stroke patients and dysphagic patients with cortical stroke could be explained in terms of diaschisis.

  14. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja


    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  15. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.


    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  16. Cortical layers, rhythms and BOLD signals. (United States)

    Scheeringa, René; Fries, Pascal


    This review investigates how laminar fMRI can complement insights into brain function derived from the study of rhythmic neuronal synchronization. Neuronal synchronization in various frequency bands plays an important role in neuronal communication between brain areas, and it does so on the backbone of layer-specific interareal anatomical projections. Feedforward projections originate predominantly in supragranular cortical layers and terminate in layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed gamma-band influences. Thus, gamma-band synchronization likely subserves feedforward signaling. By contrast, anatomical feedback projections originate predominantly in infragranular layers and terminate outside layer 4, and this pattern is reflected in inter-laminar and interareal directed alpha- and/or beta-band influences. Thus, alpha-beta band synchronization likely subserves feedback signaling. Furthermore, these rhythms explain part of the BOLD signal, with independent contributions of alpha-beta and gamma. These findings suggest that laminar fMRI can provide us with a potentially useful method to test some of the predictions derived from the study of neuronal synchronization. We review central findings regarding the role of layer-specific neuronal synchronization for brain function, and regarding the link between neuronal synchronization and the BOLD signal. We discuss the role that laminar fMRI could play by comparing it to invasive and non-invasive electrophysiological recordings. Compared to direct electrophysiological recordings, this method provides a metric of neuronal activity that is slow and indirect, but that is uniquely non-invasive and layer-specific with potentially whole brain coverage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  18. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.


    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  19. School Shootings Stun Reservation (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean


    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  1. Postnatal period of caffeine treatment and time of testing modulate the effect of acute caffeine on cortical epileptic afterdischarges in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Kubová, Hana; Mareš, Pavel


    Roč. 1356, - (2010), s. 121-129 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : caffeine * ontogeny * cortical seizures Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.623, year: 2010

  2. Different action of a specific NR2B/NMDA antagonist Ro 25-6981 on cortical evoked potentials and epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szczurowska, Ewa; Mareš, Pavel


    Roč. 111, Jan 2015 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 0361-9230 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cortical evoked responses * epileptic afterdischarges * subunits of NMDA receptors * ontogeny * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.572, year: 2015

  3. Osmosis in Cortical Collecting Tubules (United States)

    Schafer, James A.; Troutman, Susan L.; Andreoli, Thomas E.


    The present experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of varying the osmolality of luminal solutions on the antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-independent water and solute permeability properties of isolated rabbit cortical collecting tubules. In the absence of ADH, the osmotic water permeability coefficient (cm s–1) Pfl→b, computed from volume flows from hypotonic lumen to isotonic bath, was 20 ± 4 x 10–4 (SEM); the value of Pfb→l in the absence of ADH, computed from volume flows from isotonic bath to hypertonic lumen, was 88 ± 15 x 10–4 cm s–1. We also measured apparent urea permeability coefficients (cm s–1) from 14C-urea fluxes from lumen to bath (P DDurea l→b) and from bath to lumen (P DDurea b→l). For hypotonic luminal solutions and isotonic bathing solutions, P DDurea l→b was 0.045 ± 0.004 x 10–4 and was unaffected by ADH. The ADH-independent values of P DDurea l→b and P urea b→l were, respectively, 0.216 ± 0.022 x 10–4 cm s–1 and 0.033 ± 0.002 x 10–4 cm s–1 for isotonic bathing solutions and luminal solutions made hypertonic with urea, i.e., there was an absolute increase in urea permeability and asymmetry of urea fluxes. Significantly, P DDurea l→b did not rise when luminal hypertonicity was produced by sucrose; and, bathing fluid hypertonicity did not alter tubular permeability to water or to urea. We interpret these data to indicate that luminal hypertonicity increased the leakiness of tight junctions to water and urea but not sucrose. Since the value of Pfb→l in the absence of ADH, when tight junctions were open to urea, was approximately half of the value of Pfl→b in the presence of ADH, when tight junctions were closed to urea, we conclude that tight junctions are negligible paracellular shunts for lumen to bath osmosis with ADH. These findings, together with those in the preceding paper, are discussed in terms of a solubility-diffusion model for water permeation in which ADH increases water solubility in

  4. Biweekly list of papers on radiation chemistry and photochemistry. Annual cumulation with keyword and author indexes. Volume 16. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Biweekly List of Papers on Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry is a current-awareness service published by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center (RCDC), with special emphasis on the kinetics and other properties of transient ions, radicals, and excited species. Papers are included on the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of organic and inorganic systems, biological molecules and polymers, with references to ESR and luminescence studies. Complete coverage is attempted only for those studies which are initiated by light or ionizing radiation, and which provide quantitative physical chemical data such as quantum yields, specific rates, G values, etc. No attempt is made to cover topics such as mechanistic and preparative photochemistry, photosynthesis, photography, and irradiation of metals. The references listed herein are obtained from scanning about 60 current journals as well as Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex and several other publications listing current references. The reference lists, which are issued biweekly, are cumulated annually with the addition of keyword and author indexes. Indexed cumulations were published semiannually for Vol. 4-6 (1971-73) and are published annually for Vol. 7+ (1974+); back copies are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

  5. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS]. (United States)

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco


    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  6. Comparison Of Keyword Based Clustering Of Web Documents By Using Openstack 4j And By Traditional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiza Anand


    Full Text Available As the number of hypertext documents are increasing continuously day by day on world wide web. Therefore clustering methods will be required to bind documents into the clusters repositories according to the similarity lying between the documents. Various clustering methods exist such as Hierarchical Based K-means Fuzzy Logic Based Centroid Based etc. These keyword based clustering methods takes much more amount of time for creating containers and putting documents in their respective containers. These traditional methods use File Handling techniques of different programming languages for creating repositories and transferring web documents into these containers. In contrast openstack4j SDK is a new technique for creating containers and shifting web documents into these containers according to the similarity in much more less amount of time as compared to the traditional methods. Another benefit of this technique is that this SDK understands and reads all types of files such as jpg html pdf doc etc. This paper compares the time required for clustering of documents by using openstack4j and by traditional methods and suggests various search engines to adopt this technique for clustering so that they give result to the user querries in less amount of time.

  7. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  8. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve]. (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S


    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  9. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism. (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon


    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  10. Which component of treatment is important for changes of cortical epileptic afterdischarges after status epilepticus in immature rats?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubová, Hana; Mareš, Pavel


    Roč. 644, Mar 22 (2017), s. 1-4 ISSN 0304-3940 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16605S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : status epilepticus * immature rats * pilocarpine * lithium chloride * paraldehyde * cortical epileptic afterdischarges Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neuroscience s (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 2.180, year: 2016

  11. Fractional Reserve Banking


    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas


    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  12. A new wavelet transform to sparsely represent cortical current densities for EEG/MEG inverse problems. (United States)

    Liao, Ke; Zhu, Min; Ding, Lei


    The present study investigated the use of transform sparseness of cortical current density on human brain surface to improve electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) inverse solutions. Transform sparseness was assessed by evaluating compressibility of cortical current densities in transform domains. To do that, a structure compression method from computer graphics was first adopted to compress cortical surface structure, either regular or irregular, into hierarchical multi-resolution meshes. Then, a new face-based wavelet method based on generated multi-resolution meshes was proposed to compress current density functions defined on cortical surfaces. Twelve cortical surface models were built by three EEG/MEG softwares and their structural compressibility was evaluated and compared by the proposed method. Monte Carlo simulations were implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed wavelet method in compressing various cortical current density distributions as compared to other two available vertex-based wavelet methods. The present results indicate that the face-based wavelet method can achieve higher transform sparseness than vertex-based wavelet methods. Furthermore, basis functions from the face-based wavelet method have lower coherence against typical EEG and MEG measurement systems than vertex-based wavelet methods. Both high transform sparseness and low coherent measurements suggest that the proposed face-based wavelet method can improve the performance of L1-norm regularized EEG/MEG inverse solutions, which was further demonstrated in simulations and experimental setups using MEG data. Thus, this new transform on complicated cortical structure is promising to significantly advance EEG/MEG inverse source imaging technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PET in malformations of cortical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilleret, V.; O'Brien, T.J.; Bouilleret, V.; Bouilleret, V.; Chiron, C.; Chiron, C.


    Within the group of malformations of cortical development, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are an increasingly recognized cause of intractable epilepsy that can be cured by surgery. The success of cortical resection for intractable epilepsy is highly dependent on the accurate pre-surgical delineation of the regions responsible for generating seizures. [ 18 F]-FDG PET, which images cerebral metabolism studying brain glucose uptake, is the most established functional imaging modality in the evaluation of patients with epilepsy. The aim of this article is to review [ 18 F]-FDG PET usefulness as a pre-surgical tool in the evaluation of medically refractory partial epilepsy. It has an established place in assisting in the localisation and definition of FCD in patients with no lesion, or only a subtle abnormality, on MRI. The role of FDG-PET in defining the extent of the surgical resection is still uncertain and needs to be the focus of future research. (authors)

  14. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion. (United States)

    Fritz, P; Bardin, T; Laredo, J D; Ziza, J M; D'Anglejan, G; Lansaman, J; Bucki, B; Forest, M; Kuntz, D


    To determine the clinical, radiologic, and histologic features of calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion. The records of 6 patients with paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis and adjacent bone cortex erosion were reviewed. Calcific tendinitis involved the linea aspera in 4 patients, the bicipital groove in 1 patient, and the deltoid insertion in another. Calcium deposits were associated with cortical bone erosions, revealed on plain radiographs in 4 patients and computed tomography scans in 2. Bone scans were performed in 2 patients and showed local hyperfixation of the isotope. In 4 patients, suspicion of a neoplasm led to a biopsy. Calcium deposits appeared to be surrounded by a foreign body reaction with numerous giant cells. Apatite crystals were identified by transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis in 1 surgical sample. Paradiaphyseal calcific tendinitis with cortical bone erosion is an uncommon presentation of apatite deposition disease.

  15. Current dipole orientation and distribution of epileptiform activity correlates with cortical thinning in left mesiotemporal epilepsy. (United States)

    Reinsberger, Claus; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Lee, Jong Woo; Dworetzky, Barbara A; Bromfield, Edward B; Hamiwka, Lorie; Bourgeois, Blaise F; Golby, Alexandra J; Madsen, Joseph R; Stufflebeam, Steven M


    To evaluate cortical architecture in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with respect to electrophysiology, we analyze both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 patients with left MTLE. We divide the patients into two groups: 9 patients (Group A) have vertically oriented antero-medial equivalent current dipoles (ECDs). 10 patients (Group B) have ECDs that are diversely oriented and widely distributed. Group analysis of MRI data shows widespread cortical thinning in Group B compared with Group A, in the left hemisphere involving the cingulate, supramarginal, occipitotemporal and parahippocampal gyri, precuneus and parietal lobule, and in the right hemisphere involving the fronto-medial, -central and -basal gyri and the precuneus. These results suggest that regardless of the presence of hippocampal sclerosis, in a subgroup of patients with MTLE a large cortical network is affected. This finding may, in part, explain the unfavorable outcome in some MTLE patients after epilepsy surgery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast increase of motor cortical inhibition following postural changes in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Loriga, Rita; Pompa, Maria Novella; Versace, Viviana; Souchard, Philippe


    Postural reactions are associated with changes in the excitability of the motor system. In the present study we investigated the presence of neurophysiological changes of motor cortical areas targeting muscles of the inferior limbs following treatment with a physiotherapy technique aimed to treat postural dysfunctions by stretching postural muscles, global postural reeducation (GPR). Twenty healthy subjects were evaluated with paired-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and recording of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from peripheral muscles of the inferior limb before and after two GPR manoeuvres applied in different experiments (1 and 2). The effects of GPR were posture- and task-specific: indeed, a GPR manoeuvre applied in standing subjects increased inhibition in cortical areas controlling flexor muscles (Biceps Femoris: ppostural changes on motor cortical disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mean field methods for cortical network dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, J.; Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, M.


    We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases with the stren......We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases...

  18. Cortical networks for visual self-recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Motoaki


    This paper briefly reviews recent developments regarding the brain mechanisms of visual self-recognition. A special cognitive mechanism for visual self-recognition has been postulated based on behavioral and neuropsychological evidence, but its neural substrate remains controversial. Recent functional imaging studies suggest that multiple cortical mechanisms play self-specific roles during visual self-recognition, reconciling the existing controversy. Respective roles for the left occipitotemporal, right parietal, and frontal cortices in symbolic, visuospatial, and conceptual aspects of self-representation have been proposed. (author)

  19. Cortical Thickness Changes Associated with Photoparoxysmal Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Groppa, Stanislav A; Deuschl, Günther


    Photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an EEG trait of spike and spike-wave discharges in response to photic stimulation that is closely linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). In our previous studies we showed that PPR is associated with functional alterations in the occipital and frontal...... cortices. The aim of the present study was to determine structural changes associated with PPR. For this purpose we analysed the cortical thickness as derived from T1 MRI images in PPR-positive-subjects (n = 12; 15.5 ± 8.6 years; 4 males), PPR-positive-IGE-patients (n = 12; 14.9 ± 2.7 years; 4 males...

  20. Cortical spreading depolarization: Pathophysiology, implications, and future directions. (United States)

    Kramer, Daniel R; Fujii, Tatsuhiro; Ohiorhenuan, Ifije; Liu, Charles Y


    Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) is a spreading loss of ion homeostasis, altered vascular response, change in synaptic architecture, and subsequent depression in electrical activity following an inciting neurological injury. First described by Leão in 1944, this disturbance in neuronal electrophysiology has since been demonstrated in a number of animal studies, and recently a few human studies that examine the occurrence of this depolarizing phenomenon in the setting of a variety of pathological states, including migraines, cerebrovascular accidents, epilepsy, intracranial hemorrhages, and traumatic brain injuries. The onset of CSD has been demonstrated experimentally following a disruption in the neuronal environment leading to glutamate-induced toxicity. This initial event leads to pathological changes in the activity of ion channels that maintain membrane potential. Recovery mechanisms such as sodium-potassium pumps that aim to restore homeostasis fail, leading to osmolar shifts of fluid, swelling of the neuron, and ultimately a measurable depression in cortical activity that spreads in the order of millimeters per minute. Equally important is the resulting change in vascular response. In healthy tissue, increased electrical activity is coupled with release of vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide and arachidonic acid metabolites that increase local blood flow to meet increased energy expenditure. In damaged tissue, not only is the restorative vascular response lacking but a vasoconstrictive response is promoted and the ischemia that follows adds to the severity of the initial injury. Tissue threatened by this ischemic response is then at elevated risk for CSD propagation and falls into a vicious cycle of electrical and hemodynamic disturbance. Efforts have been made to halt this spreading cortical depression using N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and other ion channel blockers to minimize the damaging effects of CSD that can persist long

  1. Cortical pattern separation and item-specific memory encoding. (United States)

    Pidgeon, Laura M; Morcom, Alexa M


    Pattern separation and pattern completion are fundamental brain processes thought to be critical for episodic memory encoding and retrieval, and for discrimination between similar memories. These processes are best understood in the hippocampus, but are proposed to occur throughout the brain, in particular in sensory regions. Cortical, as well as hippocampal, pattern separation may therefore support formation of event-unique memory traces. Using fMRI, we investigated cortical pattern separation and pattern completion and their relationship to encoding activity predicting subsequent item-specific compared to gist memory. During scanning, participants viewed images of novel objects, repeated objects, and objects which were both perceptually and conceptually similar to previously presented images, while performing a size judgement task. In a later surprise recognition test, they judged whether test items were 'same' 'similar' or 'new' relative to studied items. Activity consistent with pattern separation - responses to similar items as if novel - was observed in bilateral occipito-temporal cortex. Activity consistent with pattern completion - responses to similar items as if repeated - was observed in left prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Curve fitting analysis further revealed that graded responses to change in image conceptual and perceptual similarity in bilateral prefrontal and right parietal regions met specific computational predictions for pattern separation for one or both of these similarity dimensions. Functional overlap between encoding activity predicting subsequent item-specific recognition and pattern separation activity was also observed in left occipital cortex and bilateral inferior frontal cortex. The findings suggest that extrahippocampal regions including sensory and prefrontal cortex contribute to pattern separation and pattern completion of visual input, consistent with the proposal that cortical pattern separation contributes to formation of

  2. Cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury: always for good? (United States)

    Moxon, K A; Oliviero, A; Aguilar, J; Foffani, G


    Plasticity constitutes the basis of behavioral changes as a result of experience. It refers to neural network shaping and re-shaping at the global level and to synaptic contacts remodeling at the local level, either during learning or memory encoding, or as a result of acute or chronic pathological conditions. 'Plastic' brain reorganization after central nervous system lesions has a pivotal role in the recovery and rehabilitation of sensory and motor dysfunction, but can also be "maladaptive". Moreover, it is clear that brain reorganization is not a "static" phenomenon but rather a very dynamic process. Spinal cord injury immediately initiates a change in brain state and starts cortical reorganization. In the long term, the impact of injury - with or without accompanying therapy - on the brain is a complex balance between supraspinal reorganization and spinal recovery. The degree of cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury is highly variable, and can range from no reorganization (i.e. "silencing") to massive cortical remapping. This variability critically depends on the species, the age of the animal when the injury occurs, the time after the injury has occurred, and the behavioral activity and possible therapy regimes after the injury. We will briefly discuss these dependencies, trying to highlight their translational value. Overall, it is not only necessary to better understand how the brain can reorganize after injury with or without therapy, it is also necessary to clarify when and why brain reorganization can be either "good" or "bad" in terms of its clinical consequences. This information is critical in order to develop and optimize cost-effective therapies to maximize functional recovery while minimizing maladaptive states after spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does status epilepticus modify the effect of ifenprodil on cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abbasova, Kenul; Kubová, Hana; Mareš, Pavel

    Roč. 70, č. 1 ( 2018 ), s. 126-132 ISSN 1734-1140 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16605S; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15032 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : status epilepticus * immature rats * ifenprodil * cortical stimulation * epileptic afterdischarges Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2016

  4. Temporal Control of Mammalian Cortical Neurogenesis by m6A Methylation. (United States)

    Yoon, Ki-Jun; Ringeling, Francisca Rojas; Vissers, Caroline; Jacob, Fadi; Pokrass, Michael; Jimenez-Cyrus, Dennisse; Su, Yijing; Kim, Nam-Shik; Zhu, Yunhua; Zheng, Lily; Kim, Sunghan; Wang, Xinyuan; Doré, Louis C; Jin, Peng; Regot, Sergi; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Canzar, Stefan; He, Chuan; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun


    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A), installed by the Mettl3/Mettl14 methyltransferase complex, is the most prevalent internal mRNA modification. Whether m 6 A regulates mammalian brain development is unknown. Here, we show that m 6 A depletion by Mettl14 knockout in embryonic mouse brains prolongs the cell cycle of radial glia cells and extends cortical neurogenesis into postnatal stages. m 6 A depletion by Mettl3 knockdown also leads to a prolonged cell cycle and maintenance of radial glia cells. m 6 A sequencing of embryonic mouse cortex reveals enrichment of mRNAs related to transcription factors, neurogenesis, the cell cycle, and neuronal differentiation, and m 6 A tagging promotes their decay. Further analysis uncovers previously unappreciated transcriptional prepatterning in cortical neural stem cells. m 6 A signaling also regulates human cortical neurogenesis in forebrain organoids. Comparison of m 6 A-mRNA landscapes between mouse and human cortical neurogenesis reveals enrichment of human-specific m 6 A tagging of transcripts related to brain-disorder risk genes. Our study identifies an epitranscriptomic mechanism in heightened transcriptional coordination during mammalian cortical neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropometric Computed Tomography Reconstruction Identifies Risk Factors for Cortical Perforation in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty. (United States)

    Guild, George N; Runner, Robert P; Rickels, Tracy D; Oldja, Ryan; Faizan, Ahmad


    The incidence of revision hip arthroplasty is increasing with nearly 100,000 annual procedures expected in the near future. Many surgeons use straight modular tapered stems in revisions; however, complications of periprosthetic fracture and cortical perforation occur, resulting in poor outcomes. Our objective was to identify patient demographics and femoral characteristics that predispose patients to cortical perforation when using the straight modular stems. We used a computed tomography database and modeling software to identify patient demographics and morphologic femoral characteristics that predispose patients to cortical perforation during revision hip arthroplasty. Overall, 561 femurs from patients of various backgrounds were used, and statistical analysis was performed via the 2-sample t test. Decreased patient height (mean 163.0 vs 168.8 cm), radius of curvature (818 vs 939 mm), anterior-posterior (8.5 vs 13.8 mm) and medial-lateral (7.9 vs 11.3 mm) width of the isthmus, and distance of the isthmus from the greater trochanter (179 vs 186 mm) were all statistically significant risk factors for cortical perforation (P revision hip arthroplasty using straight modular tapered stems and highlights the importance of preoperative planning especially in patients with shorter stature, proximal location of the femoral isthmus, narrow femoral canal, and smaller radius of curvature. Also, when using a mid-length modular tapered stem without an extended trochanteric osteotomy, consideration should be given to using a kinked stem to avoid anterior cortical perforation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heritability of cortical thickness changes over time in twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia. (United States)

    Hedman, Anna M; van Haren, Neeltje E M; van Baal, G Caroline M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brans, Rachel G H; Schnack, Hugo G; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E


    Cortical thickness and surface area changes have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia. Whether progressive loss in cortical thickness and surface area are mediated by genetic or disease related factors is unknown. Here we investigate to what extent genetic and/or environmental factors contribute to the association between change in cortical thickness and surface area and liability to develop schizophrenia. Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study over a 5-year interval. Monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia were compared with healthy control twin pairs using repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Twins discordant for schizophrenia and healthy control twins were recruited from the twin cohort at the University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. A total of 90 individuals from 46 same sex twin pairs were included: 9 MZ and 10 DZ discordant for schizophrenia and 14 MZ and 13 (11 complete and 2 incomplete) DZ healthy twin-pairs. Age varied between 19 and 57years. Higher genetic liability for schizophrenia was associated with progressive global thinning of the cortex, particularly of the left superior temporal cortex. Higher environmental liability for schizophrenia was associated with global attenuated thinning of the cortex, and including of the left superior temporal cortex. Cortical surface area change was heritable, but not significantly associated with higher genetic or environmental liability for schizophrenia. Excessive cortical thinning, particularly of the left superior temporal cortex, may represent a genetic risk marker for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortical morphometry and cognition in very preterm and term-born children at early school age. (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Rummel, Christian; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula


    Very preterm birth influences brain development and may result in alterations of cortical morphometry. These structural alterations may interact with cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in school-aged very preterm and term-born control children. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 41 very preterm (preterm children>controls). No group differences occurred for cortical surface area. The relationship between cortical morphometry and cognition differed between very preterm and control children. In very preterm children, some cognitive domains correlated positively and others negatively with regional cortical thickness and cortical surface area. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationship in very preterm children and their term-born peers. They add to the notion that this relationship varies depending on the brain region and the cognitive function in question and suggest developmental differences between very preterm and term-born children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures (United States)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  9. Intrinsic optical imaging study on cortical responses to electrical stimulation in ventral posterior medial nucleus of thalamus. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiacheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Yu, Chaonan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Xu, Kedi


    Intracortical electrical micro-stimulation has been applied widely for the attempts on reconstruction of sensory functions. More recently, thalamic electrical stimulation has been proposed as a promising target for somatosensory stimulation. However, the cortical activations and mechanisms evoked by VPM stimulation remained unclear. In this report, the cortical neural responses to electrical stimulations were recorded by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. The impact of stimulation parameters was characterized to illustrate how the VPM stimulation alter cortical activities. Significant increases were found in cortical responses with increased stimulation amplitude or pulse width. However, frequency modulation exhibited significant inhibition with higher frequency stimulation. Our results suggest that optical imaging of intrinsic signals is sensitive and reliable to deep brain stimulations. These results may not only help to understand the modulation effects through thalamocortical pathway, but also show the possibility to use VPM stimulation to evoke frequency-tuned tactile sensations in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Coupling of rotational cortical flow, asymmetric midbody positioning, and spindle rotation mediates dorsoventral axis formation in C. elegans. (United States)

    Singh, Deepika; Pohl, Christian


    Cortical flows mediate anteroposterior polarization in Caenorhabditis elegans by generating two mutually exclusive membrane domains. However, factors downstream of anteroposterior polarity that establish the dorsoventral axis remain elusive. Here, we show that rotational cortical flow orthogonal to the anteroposterior axis during the division of the AB blastomere in the two-cell embryo positions the cytokinetic midbody remnant of the previous division asymmetrically at the future ventral side of the embryo. In the neighboring P1 blastomere, astral microtubules contact a transient PAR-2-dependent actin coat that forms asymmetrically onto the midbody remnant-P1 interface. Ablation of the midbody remnant or perturbation of rotational cortical flow reveals that microtubule-midbody remnant contacts are crucial for P1 spindle rotation and dorsoventral axis formation. Thus, our findings suggest a mechanism for dorsoventral patterning that relies on coupling of anteroposterior polarity, rotational cortical flow, midbody remnant positioning, and spindle orientation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional cortical volume and cognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Spitz, Gershon; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Maller, Jerome J; O'Sullivan, Richard; Ponsford, Jennie L


    There has been limited examination of the effect of brain pathology on subsequent function. The current study examined the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume, age and cognitive impairment using a semi-automated image analysis tool. This study included 69 individuals with mild-to-severe TBI, 41 of whom also completed neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, memory and executive functions. A widespread reduction in grey matter volume was associated with increasing age. Regional volumes that were affected also related to the severity of injury, whereby the most severe TBI participants displayed the most significant pathology. Poorer retention of newly learned material was associated with reduced cortical volume in frontal, parietal, and occipital brain regions. In addition, poorer working memory and executive control performance was found for individuals with lower cortical volume in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. These findings are largely in line with previous literature, which suggests that frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are integral for the encoding of memories into long-term storage, memory retrieval, and working memory. The present study suggests that automated image analysis methods may be used to explore the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume and cognitive function following TBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intersubject consistency of cortical MEG signals during movie viewing. (United States)

    Lankinen, K; Saari, J; Hari, R; Koskinen, M


    According to recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, spectators of a movie may share similar spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity. We aimed to extend these findings of intersubject correlation to temporally accurate single-trial magnetoencephalography (MEG). A silent 15-min black-and-white movie was shown to eight subjects twice. We adopted a spatial filtering model and estimated its parameter values by using multi-set canonical correlation analysis (M-CCA) so that the intersubject correlation was maximized. The procedure resulted in multiple (mutually uncorrelated) time-courses with statistically significant intersubject correlations at frequencies below 10 Hz; the maximum correlation was 0.28 ± 0.075 in the ≤1 Hz band. Moreover, the 24-Hz frame rate elicited steady-state responses with statistically significant intersubject correlations up to 0.29 ± 0.12. To assess the brain origin of the across-subjects correlated signals, the time-courses were correlated with minimum-norm source current estimates (MNEs) projected to the cortex. The time series implied across-subjects synchronous activity in the early visual, posterior and inferior parietal, lateral temporo-occipital, and motor cortices, and in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) bilaterally. These findings demonstrate the capability of the proposed methodology to uncover cortical MEG signatures from single-trial signals that are consistent across spectators of a movie. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory cortical volumes and musical ability in Williams syndrome. (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A; Reutens, David C; Wilson, Sarah J


    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have been shown to have atypical morphology in the auditory cortex, an area associated with aspects of musicality. Some individuals with WS have demonstrated specific musical abilities, despite intellectual delays. Primary auditory cortex and planum temporale volumes were manually segmented in 25 individuals with WS and 25 control participants, and the participants also underwent testing of musical abilities. Left and right planum temporale volumes were significantly larger in the participants with WS than in controls, with no significant difference noted between groups in planum temporale asymmetry or primary auditory cortical volumes. Left planum temporale volume was significantly increased in a subgroup of the participants with WS who demonstrated specific musical strengths, as compared to the remaining WS participants, and was highly correlated with scores on a musical task. These findings suggest that differences in musical ability within WS may be in part associated with variability in the left auditory cortical region, providing further evidence of cognitive and neuroanatomical heterogeneity within this syndrome. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remodeling sensory cortical maps implants specific behavioral memory. (United States)

    Bieszczad, K M; Miasnikov, A A; Weinberger, N M


    Neural mechanisms underlying the capacity of memory to be rich in sensory detail are largely unknown. A candidate mechanism is learning-induced plasticity that remodels the adult sensory cortex. Here, expansion in the primary auditory cortical (A1) tonotopic map of rats was induced by pairing a 3.66-kHz tone with activation of the nucleus basalis, mimicking the effects of natural associative learning. Remodeling of A1 produced de novo specific behavioral memory, but neither memory nor plasticity was consistently at the frequency of the paired tone, which typically decreased in A1 representation. Rather, there was a specific match between individual subjects' area of expansion and the tone that was strongest in each animal's memory, as determined by post-training frequency generalization gradients. These findings provide the first demonstration of a match between the artificial induction of specific neural representational plasticity and artificial induction of behavioral memory. As such, together with prior and present findings for detection, correlation and mimicry of plasticity with the acquisition of memory, they satisfy a key criterion for neural substrates of memory. This demonstrates that directly remodeling sensory cortical maps is sufficient for the specificity of memory formation. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Musical deficits and cortical thickness in people with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Fujito, Ryosuke; Minese, Masayoshi; Hatada, Sanae; Kamimura, Naoto; Morinobu, Shigeru; Lang, Donna J; Honer, William G; Sawada, Ken


    Investigation of acquired amusia caused by brain damage suggested that cortical lesions of the right hemisphere contributed to musical deficits. We previously reported reduced musical ability in schizophrenia; these deficits were correlated with clinical manifestations such as cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms. However, the neural substrate underlying the musical disability in schizophrenia remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between musical deficits and cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia using structural MRI. We recruited 24 patients (13 males; age mean=45.9years old), and 22 controls (14 males, age mean=43.5years old). Musical ability was assessed with the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), cognitive function with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and clinical features of illness with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). MRI Images were acquired and processed using FreeSurfer. Surface-based analysis showed that thinner cortex in left temporal and inferior frontal region was associated with lower musical ability in schizophrenia. In contrast, in controls thicker cortex in the left supramarginal region was correlated with lower musical ability. These results shed light on the clinical pathology underlying the associations of musical ability, cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  17. Cortical Divergent Projections in Mice Originate from Two Sequentially Generated, Distinct Populations of Excitatory Cortical Neurons with Different Initial Axonal Outgrowth Characteristics. (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Namikawa, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Yasuo


    Excitatory cortical neurons project to various subcortical and intracortical regions, and exhibit diversity in their axonal connections. Although this diversity may develop from primary axons, how many types of axons initially occur remains unknown. Using a sparse-labeling in utero electroporation method, we investigated the axonal outgrowth of these neurons in mice and correlated the data with axonal projections in adults. Examination of lateral cortex neurons labeled during the main period of cortical neurogenesis (E11.5-E15.5) indicated that axonal outgrowth commonly occurs in the intermediate zone. Conversely, the axonal direction varied; neurons labeled before E12.5 and the earliest cortical plate neurons labeled at E12.5 projected laterally, whereas neurons labeled thereafter projected medially. The expression of Ctip2 and Satb2 and the layer destinations of these neurons support the view that lateral and medial projection neurons are groups of prospective subcortical and callosal projection neurons, respectively. Consistently, birthdating experiments demonstrated that presumptive lateral projection neurons were generated earlier than medial projection neurons, even within the same layer. These results suggest that the divergent axonal connections of excitatory cortical neurons begin from two types of primary axons, which originate from two sequentially generated distinct subpopulations: early-born lateral (subcortical) and later-born medial (callosal) projection neuron groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  18. Rehabilitation of cortical blindness secondary to stroke. (United States)

    Gaber, Tarek A-Z K


    Cortical blindness is a rare complication of posterior circulation stroke. However, its complex presentation with sensory, physical, cognitive and behavioural impairments makes it one of the most challenging. Appropriate approach from a rehabilitation standpoint was never reported. Our study aims to discuss the rehabilitation methods and outcomes of a cohort of patients with cortical blindness. The notes of all patients with cortical blindness referred to a local NHS rehabilitation service in the last 6~years were examined. Patients' demographics, presenting symptoms, scan findings, rehabilitation programmes and outcomes were documented. Seven patients presented to our service, six of them were males. The mean age was 63. Patients 1, 2 and 3 had total blindness with severe cognitive and behavioural impairments, wandering and akathisia. All of them failed to respond to any rehabilitation effort and the focus was on damage limitation. Pharmacological interventions had a modest impact on behaviour and sleep pattern. The 3 patients were discharged to a nursing facility. Patients 4, 5, 6 and 7 had partial blindness with variable severity. All of them suffered from significant memory impairment. However, none suffered from any behavioural, physical or other cognitive impairment. Rehabilitation efforts on 3 patients were carried out collaboratively between brain injury occupational therapists and sensory disability officers. All patients experienced significant improvement in handicap and they all maintained community placements. This small cohort of patients suggests that the rehabilitation philosophy and outcomes of these 2 distinct groups of either total or partial cortical blindness differ significantly.

  19. Cortical mechanisms of mirror therapy after stroke. (United States)

    Rossiter, Holly E; Borrelli, Mimi R; Borchert, Robin J; Bradbury, David; Ward, Nick S


    Mirror therapy is a new form of stroke rehabilitation that uses the mirror reflection of the unaffected hand in place of the affected hand to augment movement training. The mechanism of mirror therapy is not known but is thought to involve changes in cerebral organization. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure changes in cortical activity during mirror training after stroke. In particular, we examined movement-related changes in the power of cortical oscillations in the beta (15-30 Hz) frequency range, known to be involved in movement. Ten stroke patients with upper limb paresis and 13 healthy controls were recorded using MEG while performing bimanual hand movements in 2 different conditions. In one, subjects looked directly at their affected hand (or dominant hand in controls), and in the other, they looked at a mirror reflection of their unaffected hand in place of their affected hand. The movement-related beta desynchronization was calculated in both primary motor cortices. Movement-related beta desynchronization was symmetrical during bilateral movement and unaltered by the mirror condition in controls. In the patients, movement-related beta desynchronization was generally smaller than in controls, but greater in contralesional compared to ipsilesional motor cortex. This initial asymmetry in movement-related beta desynchronization between hemispheres was made more symmetrical by the presence of the mirror. Mirror therapy could potentially aid stroke rehabilitation by normalizing an asymmetrical pattern of movement-related beta desynchronization in primary motor cortices during bilateral movement. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos


    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  1. Critical fluctuations in cortical models near instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aburn, M.J.; Holmes, C.A.; Roberts, J.A.; Boonstra, T.W.; Breakspear, M.


    Computational studies often proceed from the premise that cortical dynamics operate in a linearly stable domain, where fluctuations dissipate quickly and show only short memory. Studies of human electroencephalography (EEG), however, have shown significant autocorrelation at time lags on the scale

  2. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliarini, Celine; Chaumoitre, Katia; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine; Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique


    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  3. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme


    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  4. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber


    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  5. Socio-economic conditions in selected biosphere reserves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael


    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2006), s. 157-169 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic conditions * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Biosphere reserves - an attempt to form sustainable landscapes (A case study of three biosphere reserves in the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael


    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2008), s. 38-51 ISSN 0169-2046 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biosphere reserve * nature protection * socio-economic development * sustainable development * triangulation Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2008

  7. Focal malformations of cortical development: new vistas for molecular pathogenesis. (United States)

    Lim, K-C; Crino, P B


    Focal malformations of cortical development (FMCD) are highly associated with several neurological disorders including intractable epilepsy and neurocognitive disabilities. Over the past decade, several FMCD subtypes have been linked to hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade. In view of the roles that mTOR plays in cell proliferation, size, motility, and stem cell phenotype, many of the features of FMCD such as cytomegaly, disorganized lamination, and expression of stem cell markers can be explained by enhanced mTOR signaling. FMCD result from several distinct and fascinating molecular mechanisms including biallelic gene inactivation, somatic mutation, and potentially, viral infection. These mechanisms have been directly linked to mTOR activation. Perhaps most compelling, pharmacological inhibition of mTOR has been implemented successfully in clinical trials for select FMCD and provides a new vista for treatment. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decisional impairments in cocaine addiction, reward bias, and cortical oscillation “unbalance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balconi M


    Full Text Available Michela Balconi, Roberta Finocchiaro Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy Abstract: A vast amount of research has suggested that subjects with substance use disorder (SUD might have difficulty making advantageous decisions that opt in favor of a longer-term, larger reward than an immediate, smaller reward. The current research explored the impact of reward bias and cortical frontal asymmetry (left lateralization effect in SUD in response to a decisional task (Iowa Gambling Task. Fifty SUD participants and 40 controls (CG were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task. Electrophysiology (electroencephalography recording was performed during task execution. We measured left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex power activity. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options; frequency band modulation (asymmetry index for delta, theta, alpha, and beta band; and cortical source localization (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography were considered. The SUD group opted in favor of the immediate reward option (loss more frequently than the long-term option (gain when compared to the CG. Secondly, SUD showed increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward choices in comparison with the CG. The left hemispheric unbalance effect and the “reward bias” were adduced to explain the decisional impairment in SUD. Keywords: drug addiction, cortical brain oscillations, left lateralization effect, reward mechanism, Iowa Gambling Task

  9. Serotonin modulation of cortical neurons and networks (United States)

    Celada, Pau; Puig, M. Victoria; Artigas, Francesc


    The serotonergic pathways originating in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively) are critically involved in cortical function. Serotonin (5-HT), acting on postsynaptic and presynaptic receptors, is involved in cognition, mood, impulse control and motor functions by (1) modulating the activity of different neuronal types, and (2) varying the release of other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine. Also, 5-HT seems to play an important role in cortical development. Of all cortical regions, the frontal lobe is the area most enriched in serotonergic axons and 5-HT receptors. 5-HT and selective receptor agonists modulate the excitability of cortical neurons and their discharge rate through the activation of several receptor subtypes, of which the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT3 subtypes play a major role. Little is known, however, on the role of other excitatory receptors moderately expressed in cortical areas, such as 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors are key players and exert opposite effects on the activity of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The activation of 5-HT1A receptors in mPFC hyperpolarizes pyramidal neurons whereas that of 5-HT2A receptors results in neuronal depolarization, reduction of the afterhyperpolarization and increase of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and of discharge rate. 5-HT can also stimulate excitatory (5-HT2A and 5-HT3) and inhibitory (5-HT1A) receptors in GABA interneurons to modulate synaptic GABA inputs onto pyramidal neurons. Likewise, the pharmacological manipulation of various 5-HT receptors alters oscillatory activity in PFC, suggesting that 5-HT is also involved in the control of cortical network activity. A better understanding of the actions of 5-HT in PFC may help to develop treatments for mood and cognitive disorders associated with an abnormal function of the frontal lobe

  10. Diminished ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu


    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory skin disease. Previous data suggests that women with some chronic inflammatory diseases have diminished ovarian reserve. This study explores ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 14 female patients with psoriasis and 35 healthy age and body mass index matched controls. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical history and menstrual characteristics. Psoriatic area severity index (PASI in patients was assessed. Estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone and with gynecologic ultrasonography, ovarian volume and antral follicular count (AFC were measured in both study and control groups. These values were analyzed with changes of the PASI in the patient group. Results: Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of FSH and FSH/LH ratio than healthy controls (p = 0.039, p = 0.005 respectively. AFC of psoriasis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.002.There were no significant difference among other hormone levels and ovarian volumes (p > 0.05. The hormone levels, ovarian volume and AFC were not correlated with PASI of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that patients with psoriasis may have diminished ovarian reserve. Keywords: Psoriasis, Ovarian reserve, Psoriatic area severity index, Antral follicular count, Follicle-stimulating hormone

  11. Effects of teriparatide on cortical histomorphometric variables in postmenopausal women with or without prior alendronate treatment. (United States)

    Ma, Yanfei L; Zeng, Qing Q; Chiang, Alan Y; Burr, David; Li, Jiliang; Dobnig, Harald; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Michalská, Dana; Marin, Fernando; Pavo, Imre; Stepan, Jan J


    Cortical bone, the dominant component of the human skeleton by volume, plays a key role in protecting bones from fracture. We analyzed the cortical bone effects of teriparatide treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who had previously received long-term alendronate (ALN) therapy or were treatment naïve (TN). Tetracycline-labeled paired iliac crest biopsies obtained from 29 ALN-pretreated and 16 TN women were evaluated for dynamic histomorphometric parameters of bone formation at the periosteal, endocortical and intracortical bone compartments, before and after 24months of teriparatide treatment. At baseline, the frequency of specimens without any endocortical and periosteal tetracycline labeling, and the percentage of quiescent osteons, was higher in the ALN than the TN group. Endocortical and periosteal mineralizing surface (MS/BS%), periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS), mineral apposition rate (MAR) and the number of intracortical forming osteons were significantly lower in the ALN-pretreated patients than in the TN group. Following teriparatide treatment, the frequency of endocortical and periosteal unlabeled biopsies decreased; in the ALN-pretreated group the percentage of quiescent osteons decreased and, in contrast, forming and resorbing osteons were increased. Teriparatide treatment resulted in significant increases of MAR in the endocortical, and MS/BS% in the periosteal compartment in the ALN-pretreated group. Most indices of bone formation remained lower in the ALN-pretreated group compared with the TN group at study end. Endocortical wall width was increased in both ALN-pretreated and TN groups. Cortical porosity and cortical thickness were significantly increased in the ALN-pretreated group after teriparatide treatment. Our results suggest that 24months of teriparatide treatment increases cortical bone formation and cortical turnover in patients who were either TN or had previous ALN therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Cortical thickness of neural substrates supporting cognitive empathy in individuals with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Stern, Daniel; Alden, Eva C; Petersen, Julie E; Cobia, Derin J; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; Smith, Matthew J


    Cognitive empathy is supported by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), insula (INS), supplementary motor area (SMA), right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and precuneus (PREC). In healthy controls, cortical thickness in these regions has been linked to cognitive empathy. As cognitive empathy is impaired in schizophrenia, we examined whether reduced cortical thickness in these regions was associated with poorer cognitive empathy in this population. 41 clinically-stable community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia and 46 healthy controls group-matched on demographic variables completed self-report empathy questionnaires, a cognitive empathy task, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. We examined between-group differences in study variables using t-tests and analyses of variance. Next, we used Pearson correlations to evaluate the relationship between cognitive empathy and cortical thickness in the mPFC, IFG, aMCC, INS, SMA, TPJ, and PREC in both groups. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated cortical thinning in the IFG, INS, SMA, TPJ, and PREC (all pempathy across all measures (all pempathy in controls, we did not observe these relationships in individuals with schizophrenia (all p>0.10). Individuals with schizophrenia have reduced cortical thickness in empathy-related neural regions and significant impairments in cognitive empathy. Interestingly, cortical thickness was related to cognitive empathy in controls but not in the schizophrenia group. We discuss other mechanisms that may account for cognitive empathy impairment in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PubstractHelper: A Web-based Text-Mining Tool for Marking Sentences in Abstracts from PubMed Using Multiple User-Defined Keywords. (United States)

    Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang


    While a huge amount of information about biological literature can be obtained by searching the PubMed database, reading through all the titles and abstracts resulting from such a search for useful information is inefficient. Text mining makes it possible to increase this efficiency. Some websites use text mining to gather information from the PubMed database; however, they are database-oriented, using pre-defined search keywords while lacking a query interface for user-defined search inputs. We present the PubMed Abstract Reading Helper (PubstractHelper) website which combines text mining and reading assistance for an efficient PubMed search. PubstractHelper can accept a maximum of ten groups of keywords, within each group containing up to ten keywords. The principle behind the text-mining function of PubstractHelper is that keywords contained in the same sentence are likely to be related. PubstractHelper highlights sentences with co-occurring keywords in different colors. The user can download the PMID and the abstracts with color markings to be reviewed later. The PubstractHelper website can help users to identify relevant publications based on the presence of related keywords, which should be a handy tool for their research. and

  14. Parcellating cortical functional networks in individuals. (United States)

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L; Fox, Michael D; Holt, Daphne J; Holmes, Avram J; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng


    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual's brain is a crucial step toward personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variation in human cognition and behavior. Here we developed a cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types, including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting potential for use in clinical applications.

  15. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Joost Brouwer

    Full Text Available We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry. Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict.

  16. Plasticity of cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance. (United States)

    Froemke, Robert C


    Synapses are highly plastic and are modified by changes in patterns of neural activity or sensory experience. Plasticity of cortical excitatory synapses is thought to be important for learning and memory, leading to alterations in sensory representations and cognitive maps. However, these changes must be coordinated across other synapses within local circuits to preserve neural coding schemes and the organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, i.e., excitatory-inhibitory balance. Recent studies indicate that inhibitory synapses are also plastic and are controlled directly by a large number of neuromodulators, particularly during episodes of learning. Many modulators transiently alter excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibition, and thus disinhibition has emerged as a major mechanism by which neuromodulation might enable long-term synaptic modifications naturally. This review examines the relationships between neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity, focusing on the induction of long-term changes that collectively enhance cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance for improving perception and behavior.

  17. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail:; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail:; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail:; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)


    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  18. Reduced cortical thickness in gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel R


    Gambling disorder has recently been recognized as a prototype 'behavioral addiction' by virtue of its inclusion in the DSM-5 category of 'Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.' Despite its newly acquired status and prevalence rate of 1-3 % globally, relatively little is known regarding...... the neurobiology of this disorder. The aim of this study was to explore cortical morphometry in untreated gambling disorder, for the first time. Subjects with gambling disorder (N = 16) free from current psychotropic medication or psychiatric comorbidities, and healthy controls (N = 17), were entered...... into the study and undertook magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI). Cortical thickness was quantified using automated segmentation techniques (FreeSurfer), and group differences were identified using permutation cluster analysis, with stringent correction for multiple comparisons. Gambling disorder was associated...

  19. Metrics for cortical map organization and lateralization. (United States)

    Alvarez, S A; Levitan, S; Reggia, J A


    Cerebral lateralization refers to the poorly understood fact that some functions are better controlled by one side of the brain than the other (e.g. handedness, language). Of particular concern here are the asymmetries apparent in cortical topographic maps that can be demonstrated electrophysiologically in mirror-image locations of the cerebral cortex. In spite of great interest in issues surrounding cerebral lateralization, methods for measuring the degree of organization and asymmetry in cortical maps are currently quite limited. In this paper, several measures are developed and used to assess the degree of organization, lateralization, and mirror symmetry in topographic map formation. These measures correct for large constant displacements as well as curving of maps. The behavior of the measures is tested on several topographic maps obtained by self-organization of an initially random artificial neural network model of a bihemispheric brain, and the results are compared with subjective assessments made by humans.

  20. Functional cortical mapping of scale illusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-qun; Kuriki, Shinya


    We have studied cortical activation using 1.5 T fMRI during 'Scale Illusion', a kind of auditory illusion, in which subjects perceive smooth melodies while listening to dichotic irregular pitch sequences consisting of scale tones, in repeated phrases composed of eight tones. Four male and four female subjects listened to different stimuli, that including illusion-inducing tone sequence, monaural tone sequence and perceived pitch sequence with a control of white noises delivered to the right and left ears in random order. 32 scans with a repetition time (TR) 3 s Between 3 s interval for each type of the four stimuli were performed. In BOLD signals, activation was observed in the prefrontal and temporal cortices, parietal lobule and occipital areas by first-level group analysis. However, there existed large intersubject variability such that systematic tendency of the activation was not clear. The study will be continued to obtain larger number of subjects for group analysis. (author)

  1. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers. (United States)

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin


    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  2. Mechanical properties of bovine cortical bone based on the automated ball indentation technique and graphics processing method. (United States)

    Zhang, Airong; Zhang, Song; Bian, Cuirong


    Cortical bone provides the main form of support in humans and other vertebrates against various forces. Thus, capturing its mechanical properties is important. In this study, the mechanical properties of cortical bone were investigated by using automated ball indentation and graphics processing at both the macroscopic and microstructural levels under dry conditions. First, all polished samples were photographed under a metallographic microscope, and the area ratio of the circumferential lamellae and osteons was calculated through the graphics processing method. Second, fully-computer-controlled automated ball indentation (ABI) tests were performed to explore the micro-mechanical properties of the cortical bone at room temperature and a constant indenter speed. The indentation defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Finally, the macroscopic mechanical properties of the cortical bone were estimated with the graphics processing method and mixture rule. Combining ABI and graphics processing proved to be an effective tool to obtaining the mechanical properties of the cortical bone, and the indenter size had a significant effect on the measurement. The methods presented in this paper provide an innovative approach to acquiring the macroscopic mechanical properties of cortical bone in a nondestructive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between cortical thickness and body mass index differs between women with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls. (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Mwangi, Benson; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Zunta Soares, Giovana B; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo; Soares, Jair C


    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme underweight. Studies conducted with structural MRI found reductions in brain volumes in several areas, but results are mixed. Cortical thickness has shown in other samples specific correlations with BMI in different BMI ranges. In this study, we applied a well validated procedure implemented in Freesurfer software toolkit to investigate cortical thickness in a sample of 21 patients with AN and 18 healthy controls, focusing on group differences and on the relationship between BMI and cortical thickness. Cortical thickness was reduced in patients with AN, but group differences did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. The relationship between BMI and cortical thickness was significantly different in patients with AN compared to controls in the left superior parietal/occipital cortex and left post central cortex. These findings suggest that the relationship between cortical thickness and BMI in patients with AN with less than two years of illness duration significantly differs from that in controls and possible biological mechanisms that may explain this relationship are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative CBCT evaluation of maxillary and mandibular cortical bone thickness and density variability for orthodontic miniplate placement. (United States)

    Rossi, Margherita; Bruno, Giovanni; De Stefani, Alberto; Perri, Alessandro; Gracco, Antonio


    To assess whether cortical bone thickness and density vary in relation to age, sex and skeletal pattern at the maxillary and mandibular areas suitable for miniplates placement for orthodontic purposes. CBCT of 92 subjects (42 males and 50 females) with skeletal class I, II or III malocclusion, divided between adolescents and adults, were examined. InVivoDental ® software (Anatomage Inc, USA) was used to measure 34 maxillary areas and 40 mandibular areas per side. Values obtained were then compared between the groups of subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test for independent samples. No significant differences were found in the cortical bone thickness values between the three skeletal patterns, and according to sex and age. Both maxilla and mandible showed an increase in cortical bone thickness from the anterior towards the posterior regions, and from the alveolar boneto the basal bone. Cortical bone density significantly varied in relation to the subject's age, with adults always showing higher values. Slight clinically significant differences were found between the three skeletal patterns and sex. In terms of cortical bone thickness, age, sex and skeletal pattern do not represent valid decision criteria for the evaluation of the best insertion areas for miniplates, while in terms of cortical bone density, only age is useful as a decision criterion. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders Through Late Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood: A Large-Scale MRI Study. (United States)

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Lewis, John D; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Carbonell, Felix; Evans, Alan C


    Neuroimaging studies in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have provided inconsistent evidence of cortical abnormality. This is probably due to the small sample sizes used in most studies, and important differences in sample characteristics, particularly age, as well as to the heterogeneity of the disorder. To address these issues, we assessed abnormalities in ASD within the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange data set, which comprises data from approximately 1100 individuals (~6-55 years). A subset of these data that met stringent quality control and inclusion criteria (560 male subjects; 266 ASD; age = 6-35 years) were used to compute age-specific differences in cortical thickness in ASD and the relationship of any such differences to symptom severity of ASD. Our results show widespread increased cortical thickness in ASD, primarily left lateralized, from 6 years onwards, with differences diminishing during adulthood. The severity of symptoms related to social affect and communication correlated with these cortical abnormalities. These results are consistent with the conjecture that developmental patterns of cortical thickness abnormalities reflect delayed cortical maturation and highlight the dynamic nature of morphological abnormalities in ASD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Transient synchronization of hippocampo-striato-thalamo-cortical networks during sleep spindle oscillations induces motor memory consolidation. (United States)

    Boutin, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Boré, Arnaud; Carrier, Julie; Fogel, Stuart M; Doyon, Julien


    Sleep benefits motor memory consolidation. This mnemonic process is thought to be mediated by thalamo-cortical spindle activity during NREM-stage2 sleep episodes as well as changes in striatal and hippocampal activity. However, direct experimental evidence supporting the contribution of such sleep-dependent physiological mechanisms to motor memory consolidation in humans is lacking. In the present study, we combined EEG and fMRI sleep recordings following practice of a motor sequence learning (MSL) task to determine whether spindle oscillations support sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by transiently synchronizing and coordinating specialized cortical and subcortical networks. To that end, we conducted EEG source reconstruction on spindle epochs in both cortical and subcortical regions using novel deep-source localization techniques. Coherence-based metrics were adopted to estimate functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical structures over specific frequency bands. Our findings not only confirm the critical and functional role of NREM-stage2 sleep spindles in motor skill consolidation, but provide first-time evidence that spindle oscillations [11-17 Hz] may be involved in sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by locally reactivating and functionally binding specific task-relevant cortical and subcortical regions within networks including the hippocampus, putamen, thalamus and motor-related cortical regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Chen, Robert


    In Parkinson's disease (PD), there are alterations of the basal ganglia (BG) thalamocortical networks, primarily due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. These changes in subcortical networks lead to plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1), which mediates cortical motor output and is a potential target for treatment of PD. Studies investigating the motor cortical plasticity using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have found altered plasticity in PD, but there are inconsistencies among these studies. This is likely because plasticity depends on many factors such as the extent of dopaminergic loss and disease severity, response to dopaminergic replacement therapies, development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID), the plasticity protocol used, medication, and stimulation status in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). The influences of LID and DBS on BG and M1 plasticity have been explored in animal models and in PD patients. In addition, many other factors such age, genetic factors (e.g., brain derived neurotropic factor and other neurotransmitters or receptors polymorphism), emotional state, time of the day, physical fitness have been documented to play role in the extent of plasticity induced by TMS in human studies. In this review, we summarize the studies that investigated M1 plasticity in PD and demonstrate how these afore-mentioned factors affect motor cortical plasticity in PD. We conclude that it is important to consider the clinical, demographic, and technical factors that influence various plasticity protocols while developing these protocols as diagnostic or prognostic tools in PD. We also discuss how the modulation of cortical excitability and the plasticity with these non-invasive brain stimulation techniques facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD and help design potential therapeutic possibilities in this disorder.

  8. Perinatal cortical growth and childhood neurocognitive abilities (United States)

    Rathbone, R.; Counsell, S.J.; Kapellou, O.; Dyet, L.; Kennea, N.; Hajnal, J.; Allsop, J.M.; Cowan, F.


    Objective: This observational cohort study addressed the hypothesis that after preterm delivery brain growth between 24 and 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) is related to global neurocognitive ability in later childhood. Methods: Growth rates for cerebral volume and cortical surface area were estimated in 82 infants without focal brain lesions born before 30 weeks PMA by using 217 magnetic resonance images obtained between 24 and 44 weeks PMA. Abilities were assessed at 2 years using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale and at 6 years using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence–Revised (WPPSI-R), the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Analysis was by generalized least-squares regression. Results: Mean test scores approximated population averages. Cortical growth was directly related to the Griffiths Developmental Quotient (DQ), the WPPSI-R full-scale IQ, and a NEPSY summary score but not the MABC score and in exploration of subtests to attention, planning, memory, language, and numeric and conceptual abilities but not motor skills. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated reduction in cortical surface area at term corrected age associated with a 1 SD fall in test score was as follows: DQ 7.0 (5.8–8.5); IQ 6.0 (4.9–7.3); and NEPSY 9.1 (7.5–11.0) % · SD−1. Total brain volume growth was not correlated with any test score. Conclusions: The rate of cerebral cortical growth between 24 and 44 weeks PMA predicts global ability in later childhood, particularly complex cognitive functions but not motor functions. PMID:21998316

  9. Cortical spatiotemporal dimensionality reduction for visual grouping


    Cocci, Giacomo; Barbieri, Davide; Citti, Giovanna; Sarti, Alessandro


    The visual systems of many mammals, including humans, are able to integrate the geometric information of visual stimuli and perform cognitive tasks at the first stages of the cortical processing. This is thought to be the result of a combination of mechanisms, which include feature extraction at the single cell level and geometric processing by means of cell connectivity. We present a geometric model of such connectivities in the space of detected features associated with spatiotemporal visua...

  10. Cortical Reorganization following Injury Early in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Artzi


    Full Text Available The brain has a remarkable capacity for reorganization following injury, especially during the first years of life. Knowledge of structural reorganization and its consequences following perinatal injury is sparse. Here we studied changes in brain tissue volume, morphology, perfusion, and integrity in children with hemiplegia compared to typically developing children, using MRI. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated reduced total cerebral volume, with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and reduced total white matter volumes, with no differences in total gray matter volume, compared to typically developing children. An increase in cortical thickness at the hemisphere contralateral to the lesion (CLH was detected in motor and language areas, which may reflect compensation for the gray matter loss in the lesion area or retention of ipsilateral pathways. In addition, reduced cortical thickness, perfusion, and surface area were detected in limbic areas. Increased CSF volume and precentral cortical thickness and reduced white matter volume were correlated with worse motor performance. Brain reorganization of the gray matter within the CLH, while not necessarily indicating better outcome, is suggested as a response to neuronal deficits following injury early in life.

  11. Cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation. (United States)

    Kern, Mark K; Shaker, Reza


    Although brain registration of subliminal somatic stimulations such as masked visual stimuli and their influence on electrical and hemodynamic measures of cerebral activity have been reported previously, there have been no reports on cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation. Because studies evaluating the consequences of subliminal somatic stimulation have shown that subliminal stimulation can effect behavior, it is conceivable that such subliminal messages from the intestine could potentially influence intestinal sensory/motor function or effect the perception/interpretation of sensory signals originating from the gut. We studied the cerebral cortical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to subliminal, liminal, and supraliminal rectal distention in healthy volunteers. Study findings indicate that subliminal afferent signals originating from the gut are registered in the cerebral cortex without reaching the level of awareness. Locations of cortical activity caused by intestinal subliminal stimulation are similar to those of liminal and supraliminal stimulation but their intensity and volume are significantly lower (P Subliminal afferent signals originating from the gut are registered in the cerebral cortex and induce changes in measures of brain activity, such as hemodynamic changes detectable by fMRI.

  12. Rab3A, a possible marker of cortical granules, participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Oscar Daniel; Cappa, Andrea Isabel; Paola, Matilde de; Zanetti, María Natalia [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Fukuda, Mitsunori [Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fissore, Rafael A. [Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 661 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Mayorga, Luis S. [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Michaut, Marcela A., E-mail: [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina)


    Fusion of cortical granules with the oocyte plasma membrane is the most significant event to prevent polyspermy. This particular exocytosis, also known as cortical reaction, is regulated by calcium and its molecular mechanism is still not known. Rab3A, a member of the small GTP-binding protein superfamily, has been implicated in calcium-dependent exocytosis and is not yet clear whether Rab3A participates in cortical granules exocytosis. Here, we examine the involvement of Rab3A in the physiology of cortical granules, particularly, in their distribution during oocyte maturation and activation, and their participation in membrane fusion during cortical granule exocytosis. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis showed that Rab3A and cortical granules have a similar migration pattern during oocyte maturation, and that Rab3A is no longer detected after cortical granule exocytosis. These results suggested that Rab3A might be a marker of cortical granules. Overexpression of EGFP-Rab3A colocalized with cortical granules with a Pearson correlation coefficient of +0.967, indicating that Rab3A and cortical granules have almost a perfect colocalization in the egg cortical region. Using a functional assay, we demonstrated that microinjection of recombinant, prenylated and active GST-Rab3A triggered cortical granule exocytosis, indicating that Rab3A has an active role in this secretory pathway. To confirm this active role, we inhibited the function of endogenous Rab3A by microinjecting a polyclonal antibody raised against Rab3A prior to parthenogenetic activation. Our results showed that Rab3A antibody microinjection abolished cortical granule exocytosis in parthenogenetically activated oocytes. Altogether, our findings confirm that Rab3A might function as a marker of cortical granules and participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs. - Highlights: • Rab3A has a similar migration pattern to cortical granules in mouse oocytes. • Rab3A can be a marker of

  13. Differential impact of partial cortical blindness on gaze strategies when sitting and walking - an immersive virtual reality study. (United States)

    Iorizzo, Dana B; Riley, Meghan E; Hayhoe, Mary; Huxlin, Krystel R


    The present experiments aimed to characterize the visual performance of subjects with long-standing, unilateral cortical blindness when walking in a naturalistic, virtual environment. Under static, seated testing conditions, cortically blind subjects are known to exhibit compensatory eye movement strategies. However, they still complain of significant impairment in visual detection during navigation. To assess whether this is due to a change in compensatory eye movement strategy between sitting and walking, we measured eye and head movements in subjects asked to detect peripherally-presented, moving basketballs. When seated, cortically blind subjects detected ∼80% of balls, while controls detected almost all balls. Seated blind subjects did not make larger head movements than controls, but they consistently biased their fixation distribution towards their blind hemifield. When walking, head movements were similar in the two groups, but the fixation bias decreased to the point that fixation distribution in cortically blind subjects became similar to that in controls - with one major exception: at the time of basketball appearance, walking controls looked primarily at the far ground, in upper quadrants of the virtual field of view; cortically blind subjects looked significantly more at the near ground, in lower quadrants of the virtual field. Cortically blind subjects detected only 58% of the balls when walking while controls detected ∼90%. Thus, the adaptive gaze strategies adopted by cortically blind individuals as a compensation for their visual loss are strongest and most effective when seated and stationary. Walking significantly alters these gaze strategies in a way that seems to favor walking performance, but impairs peripheral target detection. It is possible that this impairment underlies the experienced difficulty of those with cortical blindness when navigating in real life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Precise temporal association between cortical potentials evoked by motor imagination and afference induces cortical plasticity. (United States)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Kristensen, Signe Rom; Niazi, Imran Khan; Farina, Dario


    In monkeys, the repeated activation of somatosensory afferents projecting onto the motor cortex (M1) has a pivotal role in motor skill learning. Here we investigate if sensory feedback that is artificially generated at specific times during imagination of a dorsiflexion task leads to reorganization of the human M1. The common peroneal nerve was stimulated to generate an afferent volley timed to arrive during specific phases of the cortical potential generated when a movement was imagined (50 repetitions). The change in the output of M1 was quantified by applying single transcranial magnetic stimuli to the area of M1 controlling the tibialis anterior muscle. The results demonstrated that the concomitance between the cognitive process of movement (motor imagination) and the ascending volley due to the peripheral nerve stimulation can lead to significant increases in cortical excitability. These increases were critically dependent on the timing between the peripherally generated afferent volley and the cortical potential generated during the imagined movement. Only if the afferent volley arrived during the peak negative deflection of the potential, were significant alterations in motor cortical output attained. These results demonstrate that an artificially generated signal (the peripheral afferent volley) can interact with a physiologically generated signal in humans leading to plastic changes within the M1, the final output stage for movement generation within the human brain. The results presented may have implications in systems for artificially inducing cortical plasticity in patients with motor impairments (neuromodulation).

  15. Cortical spreading depression produces a neuroprotective effect activating mitochondrial uncoupling protein-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggiano E


    Full Text Available Emanuela Viggiano,1,2 Vincenzo Monda,1 Antonietta Messina,1 Fiorenzo Moscatelli,3 Anna Valenzano,3 Domenico Tafuri,4 Giuseppe Cibelli,3 Bruno De Luca,1 Giovanni Messina,1,3 Marcellino Monda1 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology and Unit of Dietetics and Sports Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, 4Department of Motor Sciences and Wellness, University of Naples “Parthenope”, Naples, Italy Abstract: Depression of electrocorticogram propagating over the cortex surface results in cortical spreading depression (CSD, which is probably related to the pathophysiology of stroke, epilepsy, and migraine. However, preconditioning with CSD produces neuroprotection to subsequent ischemic episodes. Such effects require the expression or activation of several genes, including neuroprotective ones. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the expression of the uncoupling proteins (UCPs 2 and 5 is amplified during brain ischemia and their expression exerts a long-term effect upon neuron protection. To evaluate the neuroprotective consequence of CSD, the expression of UCP-5 in the brain cortex was measured following CSD induction. CSD was evoked in four samples of rats, which were sacrificed after 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Western blot analyses were carried out to measure UCP-5 concentrations in the prefrontal cortices of both hemispheres, and immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the localization of UCP-5 in the brain cortex. The results showed a significant elevation in UCP-5 expression at 24 hours in all cortical strata. Moreover, UCP-5 was triggered by CSD, indicating that UCP-5 production can have a neuroprotective effect. Keywords: cortical spreading depression, neuroprotective effect, uncoupling protein-5

  16. Cortical atrophy patterns in multiple sclerosis are non-random and clinically relevant. (United States)

    Steenwijk, Martijn D; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Daams, Marita; Tijms, Betty M; Wink, Alle Meije; Balk, Lisanne J; Tewarie, Prejaas K; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Pouwels, Petra J W


    cortical atrophy in multiple sclerosis occurs largely in a non-random manner and develops (at least partly) according to distinct anatomical patterns. In addition, these cortical atrophy patterns showed stronger associations with clinical (especially cognitive) dysfunction than global cortical atrophy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Education increases reserve against Alzheimer's disease - evidence from structural MRI analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yawu; Julkunen, Valtteri; Paajanen, Teemu; Soininen, Hilkka; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Aitken, Andrew; Sobow, Tomasz; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simon; Simmons, Andrew


    The aim of this study was to determine whether years of schooling influences regional cortical thicknesses and volumes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy age-matched controls. Using an automated image analysis pipeline, 33 regional cortical thickness and 15 regional volumes measures from MRI images were determined in 121 subjects with MCI, 121 patients with AD, and 113 controls from AddNeuroMed study. Correlations with years of schooling were determined and more highly and less highly educated subjects compared, controlling for intracranial volume, age, gender, country of origin, cognitive status, and multiple testing. After controlling for confounding factors and multiple testing, in the control group, subjects with more education had larger regional cortical thickness in transverse temporal cortex, insula, and isthmus of cingulate cortex than subjects with less education. However, in the AD group, the subjects with more education had smaller regional cortical thickness in temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal gyri, and lateral occipital cortex than the subjects with less education. No significant difference was found in the MCI group. Education may increase regional cortical thickness in healthy controls, leading to increased brain reserve, as well as helping AD patients to cope better with the effects of brain atrophy by increasing cognitive reserve. (orig.)

  18. Education increases reserve against Alzheimer's disease - evidence from structural MRI analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yawu [University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Neurology, P.O.Box 1627, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen, Valtteri; Paajanen, Teemu; Soininen, Hilkka [University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Neurology, P.O.Box 1627, Kuopio (Finland); Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Stockholm (Sweden); Aitken, Andrew [South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, London (United Kingdom); Sobow, Tomasz [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychotic Disorders, Lodz (Poland); Mecocci, Patrizia [University of Perugia, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Perugia (Italy); Tsolaki, Magda [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Third Department of Neurology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Vellas, Bruno [Universite Paul Sabatier, INSERM U 558, Toulouse Gerontopole University Hospital, Toulouse (France); Muehlboeck, Sebastian [McGill University, McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal (Canada); Spenger, Christian [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lovestone, Simon; Simmons, Andrew [South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); Collaboration: AddNeuroMed Consortium


    The aim of this study was to determine whether years of schooling influences regional cortical thicknesses and volumes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy age-matched controls. Using an automated image analysis pipeline, 33 regional cortical thickness and 15 regional volumes measures from MRI images were determined in 121 subjects with MCI, 121 patients with AD, and 113 controls from AddNeuroMed study. Correlations with years of schooling were determined and more highly and less highly educated subjects compared, controlling for intracranial volume, age, gender, country of origin, cognitive status, and multiple testing. After controlling for confounding factors and multiple testing, in the control group, subjects with more education had larger regional cortical thickness in transverse temporal cortex, insula, and isthmus of cingulate cortex than subjects with less education. However, in the AD group, the subjects with more education had smaller regional cortical thickness in temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal gyri, and lateral occipital cortex than the subjects with less education. No significant difference was found in the MCI group. Education may increase regional cortical thickness in healthy controls, leading to increased brain reserve, as well as helping AD patients to cope better with the effects of brain atrophy by increasing cognitive reserve. (orig.)

  19. Impaired response inhibition and excess cortical thickness as candidate endophenotypes for trichotillomania. (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katie L; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E


    Trichotillomania is characterized by repetitive pulling out of one's own hair. Impaired response inhibition has been identified in patients with trichotillomania, along with gray matter density changes in distributed neural regions including frontal cortex. The objective of this study was to evaluate impaired response inhibition and abnormal cortical morphology as candidate endophenotypes for the disorder. Subjects with trichotillomania (N = 12), unaffected first-degree relatives of these patients (N = 10), and healthy controls (N = 14), completed the Stop Signal Task (SST), a measure of response inhibition, and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Group differences in SST performance and cortical thickness were explored using permutation testing. Groups differed significantly in response inhibition, with patients demonstrating impaired performance versus controls, and relatives occupying an intermediate position. Permutation cluster analysis revealed significant excesses of cortical thickness in patients and their relatives compared to controls, in right inferior/middle frontal gyri (Brodmann Area, BA 47 & 11), right lingual gyrus (BA 18), left superior temporal cortex (BA 21), and left precuneus (BA 7). No significant differences emerged between groups for striatum or cerebellar volumes. Impaired response inhibition and an excess of cortical thickness in neural regions germane to inhibitory control, and action monitoring, represent vulnerability markers for trichotillomania. Future work should explore genetic and environmental associations with these biological markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional networks in parallel with cortical development associate with executive functions in children. (United States)

    Zhong, Jidan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Ta, Anh Tuan; Yap, Kar Lai; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi


    Children begin performing similarly to adults on tasks requiring executive functions in late childhood, a transition that is probably due to neuroanatomical fine-tuning processes, including myelination and synaptic pruning. In parallel to such structural changes in neuroanatomical organization, development of functional organization may also be associated with cognitive behaviors in children. We examined 6- to 10-year-old children's cortical thickness, functional organization, and cognitive performance. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify areas with cortical thinning, resting-state fMRI to identify functional organization in parallel to cortical development, and working memory/response inhibition tasks to assess executive functioning. We found that neuroanatomical changes in the form of cortical thinning spread over bilateral frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These regions were engaged in 3 functional networks: sensorimotor and auditory, executive control, and default mode network. Furthermore, we found that working memory and response inhibition only associated with regional functional connectivity, but not topological organization (i.e., local and global efficiency of information transfer) of these functional networks. Interestingly, functional connections associated with "bottom-up" as opposed to "top-down" processing were more clearly related to children's performance on working memory and response inhibition, implying an important role for brain systems involved in late childhood. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Technical principles of direct bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping in awake craniotomy. (United States)

    Pallud, J; Mandonnet, E; Corns, R; Dezamis, E; Parraga, E; Zanello, M; Spena, G


    Intraoperative application of electrical current to the brain is a standard technique during brain surgery for inferring the function of the underlying brain. The purpose of intraoperative functional mapping is to reliably identify cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in eloquent functions, especially motor, sensory, language and cognitive functions. The aim of this article is to review the rationale and the electrophysiological principles of the use of direct bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions. Direct electrical stimulation is a window into the whole functional network that sustains a particular function. It is an accurate (spatial resolution of about 5mm) and a reproducible technique particularly adapted to clinical practice for brain resection in eloquent areas. If the procedure is rigorously applied, the sensitivity of direct electrical stimulation for the detection of cortical and subcortical eloquent areas is nearly 100%. The main disadvantage of this technique is its suboptimal specificity. Another limitation is the identification of eloquent areas during surgery, which, however, could have been functionally compensated postoperatively if removed surgically. Direct electrical stimulation is an easy, accurate, reliable and safe invasive technique for the intraoperative detection of both cortical and subcortical functional brain connectivity for clinical purpose. In our opinion, it is the optimal technique for minimizing the risk of neurological sequelae when resecting in eloquent brain areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. High-spatial-resolution mapping of the oxygen concentration in cortical tissue (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Jaswal, Rajeshwer S.; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Fu, Buyin; Boas, David A.; Sakadžic, Sava


    Due to a lack of imaging tools for high-resolution imaging of cortical tissue oxygenation, the detailed maps of the oxygen partial pressure (PO2) around arterioles, venules, and capillaries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we have limited knowledge about the mechanisms that secure sufficient oxygen delivery in microvascular domains during brain activation, and provide some metabolic reserve capacity in diseases that affect either microvascular networks or the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). To address this challenge, we applied a Two-Photon PO2 Microscopy to map PO2 at different depths in mice cortices. Measurements were performed through the cranial window in the anesthetized healthy mice as well as in the mouse models of microvascular dysfunctions. In addition, microvascular morphology was recorded by the two-photon microscopy at the end of each experiment and subsequently segmented. Co-registration of the PO2 measurements and exact microvascular morphology enabled quantification of the tissue PO2 dependence on distance from the arterioles, capillaries, and venules at various depths. Our measurements reveal significant spatial heterogeneity of the cortical tissue PO2 distribution that is dominated by the high oxygenation in periarteriolar spaces. In cases of impaired oxygen delivery due to microvascular dysfunction, significant reduction in tissue oxygenation away from the arterioles was observed. These tissue domains may be the initial sites of cortical injury that can further exacerbate the progression of the disease.

  3. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals. (United States)

    Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E


    We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Age Effects on Cortical Thickness in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Hurtz


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atrophy in both grey and white matter is found in normal aging. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe white matter are thought to be the most affected regions. Our aim was to examine the effects of normal aging on cortical grey matter using a 3D quantitative cortical mapping method. Methods: We analyzed 1.5-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 cognitively normal elderly subjects using cortical pattern matching and cortical thickness analyses. Linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of age on cortical thickness. 3D map-wide correction for multiple comparisons was conducted with permutation analyses using a threshold of p Results: We found a significant negative association between age and cortical thickness in the right hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.009 and a trend level association in the left hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.081. Age-related changes were greatest in the sensorimotor, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortices, and the right posterior middle and inferior frontal gyri. Age effects greater in the medial than lateral visual association cortices were also seen bilaterally. Conclusion: Our novel method further validates that normal aging results in diffuse cortical thinning that is most pronounced in the frontal and visual association cortices.

  5. State-dependent intrinsic predictability of cortical network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fakhraei

    Full Text Available The information encoded in cortical circuit dynamics is fleeting, changing from moment to moment as new input arrives and ongoing intracortical interactions progress. A combination of deterministic and stochastic biophysical mechanisms governs how cortical dynamics at one moment evolve from cortical dynamics in recently preceding moments. Such temporal continuity of cortical dynamics is fundamental to many aspects of cortex function but is not well understood. Here we study temporal continuity by attempting to predict cortical population dynamics (multisite local field potential based on its own recent history in somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats and in a computational network-level model. We found that the intrinsic predictability of cortical dynamics was dependent on multiple factors including cortical state, synaptic inhibition, and how far into the future the prediction extends. By pharmacologically tuning synaptic inhibition, we obtained a continuum of cortical states with asynchronous population activity at one extreme and stronger, spatially extended synchrony at the other extreme. Intermediate between these extremes we observed evidence for a special regime of population dynamics called criticality. Predictability of the near future (10-100 ms increased as the cortical state was tuned from asynchronous to synchronous. Predictability of the more distant future (>1 s was generally poor, but, surprisingly, was higher for asynchronous states compared to synchronous states. These experimental results were confirmed in a computational network model of spiking excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Our findings demonstrate that determinism and predictability of network dynamics depend on cortical state and the time-scale of the dynamics.

  6. Dynamic Causal Modeling of the Cortical Responses to Wrist Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang


    Full Text Available Mechanical perturbations applied to the wrist joint typically evoke a stereotypical sequence of cortical and muscle responses. The early cortical responses (<100 ms are thought be involved in the “rapid” transcortical reaction to the perturbation while the late cortical responses (>100 ms are related to the “slow” transcortical reaction. Although previous studies indicated that both responses involve the primary motor cortex, it remains unclear if both responses are engaged by the same effective connectivity in the cortical network. To answer this question, we investigated the effective connectivity cortical network after a “ramp-and-hold” mechanical perturbation, in both the early (<100 ms and late (>100 ms periods, using dynamic causal modeling. Ramp-and-hold perturbations were applied to the wrist joint while the subject maintained an isometric wrist flexion. Cortical activity was recorded using a 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG. We investigated how the perturbation modulated the effective connectivity for the early and late periods. Bayesian model comparisons suggested that different effective connectivity networks are engaged in these two periods. For the early period, we found that only a few cortico-cortical connections were modulated, while more complicated connectivity was identified in the cortical network during the late period with multiple modulated cortico-cortical connections. The limited early cortical network likely allows for a rapid muscle response without involving high-level cognitive processes, while the complexity of the late network may facilitate coordinated responses.

  7. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction. (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie


    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  8. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  9. Focal cortical dysplasia type IIb: completeness of cortical, not subcortical, resection is necessary for seizure freedom. (United States)

    Wagner, Jan; Urbach, Horst; Niehusmann, Pitt; von Lehe, Marec; Elger, Christian E; Wellmer, Jörg


    Focal cortical dysplasia type IIb (FCD IIb) lesions are highly epileptogenic and frequently cause pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Complete surgical resection leads to seizure freedom in most cases. However, the term "complete" resection is controversial with regard to the necessity of performing resections of the subcortical zone, which is frequently seen in these lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively analyzed 50 epilepsy patients with histologically proven FCD IIb. The extent of surgical resection was determined by SPM5-based coregistration of the preoperative and postoperative MRI scans. Postoperative outcome was analyzed with regard to (1) the completeness of the resection of the cortical abnormality and (2) the completeness of the resection of the subcortical abnormality. Complete resection of the cortical abnormality led to postoperative seizure freedom (Engel class Ia) in 34 of 37 patients (92%), whereas incomplete cortical resection achieved this in only one of 13 patients (8%, p < 0.001). Among the patients with complete cortical resection, 36 had FCDs with a subcortical hyperintensity according to MRI. In this group, complete resection of the subcortical abnormality did not result in a better postoperative outcome than incomplete resection (90% vs. 93% for Engel class Ia, n.s.). Complete resection of the MRI-documented cortical abnormality in FCD IIb is crucial for a favorable postoperative outcome. However, resection of the subcortical hyperintense zone is not essential for seizure freedom. Therefore, sparing of the subcortical white matter may reduce the surgical risk of encroaching on relevant fiber tracts. In addition, these findings give an interesting insight into the epileptogenic propensity of different parts of these lesions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Cortical layers: Cyto-, myelo-, receptor- and synaptic architecture in human cortical areas. (United States)

    Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl


    Cortical layers have classically been identified by their distinctive and prevailing cell types and sizes, as well as the packing densities of cell bodies or myelinated fibers. The densities of multiple receptors for classical neurotransmitters also vary across the depth of the cortical ribbon, and thus determine the neurochemical properties of cyto- and myeloarchitectonic layers. However, a systematic comparison of the correlations between these histologically definable layers and the laminar distribution of transmitter receptors is currently lacking. We here analyze the densities of 17 different receptors of various transmitter systems in the layers of eight cytoarchitectonically identified, functionally (motor, sensory, multimodal) and hierarchically (primary and secondary sensory, association) distinct areas of the human cerebral cortex. Maxima of receptor densities are found in different layers when comparing different cortical regions, i.e. laminar receptor densities demonstrate differences in receptorarchitecture between isocortical areas, notably between motor and primary sensory cortices, specifically the primary visual and somatosensory cortices, as well as between allocortical and isocortical areas. Moreover, considerable differences are found between cytoarchitectonical and receptor architectonical laminar patterns. Whereas the borders of cyto- and myeloarchitectonic layers are well comparable, the laminar profiles of receptor densities rarely coincide with the histologically defined borders of layers. Instead, highest densities of most receptors are found where the synaptic density is maximal, i.e. in the supragranular layers, particularly in layers II-III. The entorhinal cortex as an example of the allocortex shows a peculiar laminar organization, which largely deviates from that of all the other cortical areas analyzed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. PSE: A tool for browsing a large amount of MEDLINE/PubMed abstracts with gene names and common words as the keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoneya Takashi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background MEDLINE/PubMed (hereinafter called PubMed is one of the most important literature databases for the biological and medical sciences, but it is impossible to read all related records due to the sheer size of the repository. We usually have to repeatedly enter keywords in a trial-and-error manner to extract useful records. Software which can reduce such a laborious task is therefore required. Results We developed a web-based software, the PubMed Sentence Extractor (PSE, which parses large number of PubMed abstracts, extracts and displays the co-occurrence sentences of gene names and other keywords, and some information from EntrezGene records. The result links to whole abstracts and other resources such as the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Men and Reference Sequence. While PSE executes at the sentence-level when evaluating the existence of keywords, the popular PubMed operates at the record-level. Therefore, the relationship between the two keywords, a gene name and a common word, is more accurately captured by PSE than PubMed. In addition, PSE shows the list of keywords and considers the synonyms and variations on gene names. Through these functions, PSE would reduce the task of searching through records for gene information. Conclusion We developed PSE in order to extract useful records efficiently from PubMed. This system has four advantages over a simple PubMed search; the reduction in the amount of collected literatures, the showing of keyword lists, the consideration for synonyms and variations on gene names, and the links to external databases. We believe PSE is helpful in collecting necessary literatures efficiently in order to find research targets. PSE is freely available under the GPL licence as additional files to this manuscript.

  12. Cortical dynamics of visual change detection based on sensory memory. (United States)

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Inui, Koji; Yamashiro, Koya; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke


    Detecting a visual change was suggested to relate closely to the visual sensory memory formed by visual stimuli before the occurrence of the change, because change detection involves identifying a difference between ongoing and preceding sensory conditions. Previous neuroimaging studies showed that an abrupt visual change activates the middle occipital gyrus (MOG). However, it still remains to be elucidated whether the MOG is related to visual change detection based on sensory memory. Here we tried to settle this issue using a new method of stimulation with blue and red LEDs to emphasize a memory-based change detection process. There were two stimuli, a standard trial stimulus and a deviant trial stimulus. The former was a red light lasting 500 ms, and the latter was a red light lasting 250 ms immediately followed by a blue light lasting 250 ms. Effects of the trial-trial interval, 250 approximately 2000 ms, were investigated to know how cortical responses to the abrupt change (from red to blue) were affected by preceding conditions. The brain response to the deviant trial stimulus was recorded by magnetoencephalography. Results of a multi-dipole analysis showed that the activity in the MOG, peaking at around 150 ms after the change onset, decreased in amplitude as the interval increased, but the earlier activity in BA 17/18 was not affected by the interval. These results suggested that the MOG is an important cortical area relating to the sensory memory-based visual change-detecting system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tag a keyword, tag two..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning


    Anmendelse af Kyle Nicholas og Jørgen Riber Christensen (red.): Open Windows. Remediation Strategies in Global Film Adaptations. Aalborg Universitetsforlag.......Anmendelse af Kyle Nicholas og Jørgen Riber Christensen (red.): Open Windows. Remediation Strategies in Global Film Adaptations. Aalborg Universitetsforlag....

  14. research article Abstract Keywords Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the application process were communicated to all applicants with a full infographic regarding the process and final score calculation. Successful applicants were offered placement in a specific theme and house, which was not transferable between themes. Applicants who chose to accept the placement offer ...

  15. Fractional Reserve in Banking System


    Valkonen, Maria


    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  16. Critical fluctuations in cortical models near instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Aburn


    Full Text Available Computational studies often proceed from the premise that cortical dynamics operate in a linearly stable domain, where fluctuations dissipate quickly and show only short memory. Studies of human EEG, however, have shown significant autocorrelation at time lags on the scale of minutes, indicating the need to consider regimes where nonlinearities influence the dynamics. Statistical properties such as increased autocorrelation length, increased variance, power-law scaling and bistable switching have been suggested as generic indicators of the approach to bifurcation in nonlinear dynamical systems. We study temporal fluctuations in a widely-employed computational model (the Jansen-Rit model of cortical activity, examining the statistical signatures that accompany bifurcations. Approaching supercritical Hopf bifurcations through tuning of the background excitatory input, we find a dramatic increase in the autocorrelation length that depends sensitively on the direction in phase space of the input fluctuations and hence on which neuronal subpopulation is stochastically perturbed. Similar dependence on the input direction is found in the distribution of fluctuation size and duration, which show power law scaling that extends over four orders of magnitude at the Hopf bifurcation. We conjecture that the alignment in phase space between the input noise vector and the center manifold of the Hopf bifurcation is directly linked to these changes. These results are consistent with the possibility of statistical indicators of linear instability being detectable in real EEG time series. However, even in a simple cortical model, we find that these indicators may not necessarily be visible even when bifurcations are present because their expression can depend sensitively on the neuronal pathway of incoming fluctuations.

  17. Estimation of in vivo cortical bone thickness using ultrasonic waves. (United States)

    Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Hagino, Hiroshi; Miki, Takami; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko


    To verify the measurement of cortical bone thickness at the distal radius in vivo using an ultrasonic method. The method for estimating cortical bone thickness was derived from experiments with in vitro bovine specimens. Propagation time of echo waves and propagation time of slow waves were used for the estimation. The outside diameter of cortical bone and the cortical bone thickness at the distal 5.5 % site of radius were measured with the new ultrasonic bone measurement system, and the results were compared with X-ray pQCT clinical measurements. There was a high positive correlation (r: 0.76) between the cortical bone thickness measured by the new ultrasonic system and the X-ray pQCT results. We will be able to measure not only cancellous bone density but also cortical bone thickness in vivo using ultrasonic waves (without X-ray) safely and repeatedly.

  18. Analysis of cortical thickness in narcolepsy patients with cataplexy. (United States)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Jeon, Seun; Lee, Minjoo; Kim, Sung Tae; Yoon, Uicheul; Koo, Dae Lim; Lee, Jong-Min; Hong, Seung Bong


    To investigate differences in cortical thickness in narcolepsy patients with cataplexy and control subjects. Cortical thickness was measured using a 3-D surface-based method that enables more accurate measurement in deep sulci and localized regional mapping. University hospital. We enrolled 28 patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy and 33 age-and sex-matched control subjects. Cortical thickness was measured using a direct method for calculating the distance between corresponding vertices from inner and outer cortical surfaces. We normalized cortical surfaces using 2-D surface registration and performed diffusion smoothing to reduce the variability of folding patterns and to increase the power of the statistical analysis. Localized cortical thinning in narcolepsy patients with cataplexy was found in orbitofrontal gyri, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortexes, insula, cingulate gyri, middle and inferior temporal gyri, and inferior parietal lobule of the right and left hemispheres at the level of a false discovery rate Pmemory, emotion, and sleepiness.

  19. Cerebral cortices of East african early hominids. (United States)

    Falk, D


    An endocast of the frontal lobe of a reconstructed skull, which is approximately 2 million years old, from the Koobi Fora region of Kenya appears to represent the oldest human-like cortical sulcal pattern in the fossil record, while the endocast from another skull from the same region produces an endocast that appears apelike in its frontal lobe and similar to endocasts from earlier South African australopithecines. New analysis of paleoanatomical evidence thus indicates that at least two taxa of early hominids coexisted in East Africa.

  20. Response variability in balanced cortical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ursta, C.; Hertz, J.


    We study the spike statistics of neurons in a network with dynamically balanced excitation and inhibition. Our model, intended to represent a generic cortical column, comprises randomly connected excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, driven by excitatory input from an external...... factors is possible. We find that the irregularity of spike trains is controlled mainly by the strength of the synapses relative to the difference between the firing threshold and the postfiring reset level of the membrane potential. For moderately strong synapses, we find spike statistics very similar...

  1. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ceschin


    Full Text Available Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4 and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4. Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1 reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2 reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract

  2. Atypical calcific tendinitis with cortical erosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, E.J. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); El-Khoury, G.Y. [Dept. of Radiology and Orthopaedics, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    Objective. To present and discuss six cases of calcific tendinitis in atypical locations (one at the insertion of the pectoralis major and five at the insertion of the gluteus maximus).Patients and results. All cases were associated with cortical erosions, and five had soft tissue calcifications. The initial presentation was confusing and the patients were suspected of having infection or neoplastic disease.Conclusion. Calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting condition. It is important to recognize the imaging features of this condition to avoid unnecessary investigation and surgery. (orig.)

  3. Music and learning-induced cortical plasticity. (United States)

    Pantev, Christo; Ross, Bernhard; Fujioka, Takkao; Trainor, Laurel J; Schulte, Michael; Schulz, Matthias


    Auditory stimuli are encoded by frequency-tuned neurons in the auditory cortex. There are a number of tonotopic maps, indicating that there are multiple representations, as in a mosaic. However, the cortical organization is not fixed due to the brain's capacity to adapt to current requirements of the environment. Several experiments on cerebral cortical organization in musicians demonstrate an astonishing plasticity. We used the MEG technique in a number of studies to investigate the changes that occur in the human auditory cortex when a skill is acquired, such as when learning to play a musical instrument. We found enlarged cortical representation of tones of the musical scale as compared to pure tones in skilled musicians. Enlargement was correlated with the age at which musicians began to practice. We also investigated cortical representations for notes of different timbre (violin and trumpet) and found that they are enhanced in violinists and trumpeters, preferentially for the timbre of the instrument on which the musician was trained. In recent studies we extended these findings in three ways. First, we show that we can use MEG to measure the effects of relatively short-term laboratory training involving learning to perceive virtual instead of spectral pitch and that the switch to perceiving virtual pitch is manifested in the gamma band frequency. Second, we show that there is cross-modal plasticity in that when the lips of trumpet players are stimulated (trumpet players assess their auditory performance by monitoring the position and pressure of their lips touching the mouthpiece of their instrument) at the same time as a trumpet tone, activation in the somatosensory cortex is increased more than it is during the sum of the separate lip and trumpet tone stimulation. Third, we show that musicians' automatic encoding and discrimination of pitch contour and interval information in melodies are specifically enhanced compared to those in nonmusicians in that

  4. Regional cortical and trabecular bone loss after spinal cord injury


    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Shields, Richard K.


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers rapid loss of trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in bone epiphyses and a loss of cortical cross-sectional area (CSA) in bone diaphyses, increasing fracture risk for people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to measure trabecular BMD and cortical CSA loss at several previously unexamined lower-limb sites (4% fibula, 12% femur, 86% tibia, cortical) in individuals with SCI. Using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, we scanned 13 participants wit...

  5. Frontal cortical control of posterior sensory and association cortices through the claustrum. (United States)

    White, Michael G; Mathur, Brian N


    The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter nucleus that is richly interconnected with the neocortex. This structure subserves top-down executive functions that require frontal cortical control of posterior cortical regions. However, functional anatomical support for the claustrum allowing for long-range intercortical communication is lacking. To test this, we performed a channelrhodopsin-assisted long-circuit mapping strategy in mouse brain slices. We find that anterior cingulate cortex input to the claustrum is transiently amplified by claustrum neurons that, in turn, project to parietal association cortex or to primary and secondary visual cortices. Additionally, we observe that claustrum drive of cortical neurons in parietal association cortex is layer-specific, eliciting action potential generation briefly in layers II/III, IV, and VI but not V. These data are the first to provide a functional anatomical substrate through claustrum that may underlie top-down functions, such as executive attention or working memory, providing critical insight to this most interconnected and enigmatic nucleus.

  6. Cortical maturation and myelination in healthy toddlers and young children. (United States)

    Deoni, Sean C L; Dean, Douglas C; Remer, Justin; Dirks, Holly; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan


    The maturation of cortical structures, and the establishment of their connectivity, are critical neurodevelopmental processes that support and enable cognitive and behavioral functioning. Measures of cortical development, including thickness, curvature, and gyrification have been extensively studied in older children, adolescents, and adults, revealing regional associations with cognitive performance, and alterations with disease or pathology. In addition to these gross morphometric measures, increased attention has recently focused on quantifying more specific indices of cortical structure, in particular intracortical myelination, and their relationship to cognitive skills, including IQ, executive functioning, and language performance. Here we analyze the progression of cortical myelination across early childhood, from 1 to 6 years of age, in vivo for the first time. Using two quantitative imaging techniques, namely T1 relaxation time and myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging, we characterize myelination throughout the cortex, examine developmental trends, and investigate hemispheric and gender-based differences. We present a pattern of cortical myelination that broadly mirrors established histological timelines, with somatosensory, motor and visual cortices myelinating by 1 year of age; and frontal and temporal cortices exhibiting more protracted myelination. Developmental trajectories, defined by logarithmic functions (increasing for MWF, decreasing for T1), were characterized for each of 68 cortical regions. Comparisons of trajectories between hemispheres and gender revealed no significant differences. Results illustrate the ability to quantitatively map cortical myelination throughout early neurodevelopment, and may provide an important new tool for investigating typical and atypical development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Overweight is not associated with cortical thickness alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jane Sharkey


    Full Text Available IntroductionSeveral studies report an association between body mass index (BMI and cortical thickness in adults. Some studies demonstrate diffuse cortical thinning in obesity, while others report effects in areas that are associated with self-regulation, such as lateral prefrontal cortex. MethodsThis study used multilevel modelling of data from the NIH Pediatric MRI Data Repository, a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional database, to examine the relationship between cortical thickness and body weight in children. Cortical thickness was computed at 81,942 vertices of 716 MRI scans from 378 children aged between 4 and 18 years. Body mass index Z score for age was computed for each participant. We preformed vertex-wise statistical analysis of the relationship between cortical thickness and BMI, accounting for age and gender. In addition, cortical thickness was extracted from regions of interest in prefrontal cortex and insula.ResultsNo significant association between cortical thickness and BMI was found, either by statistical parametric mapping or by region of interest analysis. Results remained negative when the analysis was restricted to children aged 12-18.ConclusionsThe correlation between BMI and cortical thickness was not found in this large pediatric sample. The association between BMI and cortical thinning develops after adolescence. This has implications for the nature of the relationship between brain anatomy and weight gain.

  8. Cortical compression rapidly trimmed transcallosal projections and altered axonal anterograde transport machinery. (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jin; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang


    Trauma and tumor compressing the brain distort underlying cortical neurons. Compressed cortical neurons remodel their dendrites instantly. The effects on axons however remain unclear. Using a rat epidural bead implantation model, we studied the effects of unilateral somatosensory cortical compression on its transcallosal projection and the reversibility of the changes following decompression. Compression reduced the density, branching profuseness and boutons of the projection axons in the contralateral homotopic cortex 1week and 1month post-compression. Projection fiber density was higher 1-month than 1-week post-compression, suggesting adaptive temporal changes. Compression reduced contralateral cortical synaptophysin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD95) expressions in a week and the first two marker proteins further by 1month. βIII-tubulin and kinesin light chain (KLC) expressions in the corpus callosum (CC) where transcallosal axons traveled were also decreased. Kinesin heavy chain (KHC) level in CC was temporarily increased 1week after compression. Decompression increased transcallosal axon density and branching profuseness to higher than sham while bouton density returned to sham levels. This was accompanied by restoration of synaptophysin, VGLUT1 and PSD95 expressions in the contralateral cortex of the 1-week, but not the 1-month, compression rats. Decompression restored βIII-tubulin, but not KLC and KHC expressions in CC. However, KLC and KHC expressions in the cell bodies of the layer II/III pyramidal neurons partially recovered. Our results show cerebral compression compromised cortical axonal outputs and reduced transcallosal projection. Some of these changes did not recover in long-term decompression. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Caffeine/nutrition interaction in the rat brain: Influence on latent inhibition and cortical spreading depression. (United States)

    de Aguiar, Márlison José Lima; de Aguiar, Cilene Rejane Ramos Alves; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo


    Caffeine, like malnutrition, can produce behavioral and electrophysiological alterations. However, the interaction of both factors remains unclear. Here this interaction has been studied in male Wistar rats previously malnourished during the lactation period by feeding their dams the "regional basic diet" of Northeast Brazil, containing about 8% protein, predominantly from vegetable sources (RBD(8)). At 70-75days of life, a subset of the pups was treated intraperitoneally with 30mg/kg caffeine for 4days while being tested according to the behavioral model of latent inhibition. Another group was subjected to an electrophysiological recording of the phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression, and the effects of caffeine injected during the recording session were evaluated. Caffeine did not affect cortical spreading depression, but antagonized latent inhibition in both the RBD(8)-malnourished rats and in the well-nourished control group fed a chow diet with 22% protein. This effect of caffeine was not seen in malnourished rats fed a protein-supplemented RBD (protein increased to 22% by increasing the proportion of foodstuffs from vegetable origin; RBD(22) group), suggesting that the amino acid imbalance of this diet may modulate the caffeine effects on latent inhibition. The results indicate a differential effect of caffeine in the latent inhibition behavioral model, as compared to the cortical spreading depression phenomenon, and this effect is influenced by the early nutritional status of the animal. We suggest that caffeine may modulate dopaminergic subcortical receptors participating in attention processes, but does not interact at the cortical level, in a way that would affect cortical spreading depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of electrocardiogram interference on cortico-cortical connectivity analysis and a possible solution. (United States)

    Govindan, R B; Kota, Srinivas; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Massaro, An N; Chang, Taeun; du Plessis, Adre


    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are often contaminated by the electrocardiogram (ECG) interference, which affects quantitative characterization of EEG. We propose null-coherence, a frequency-based approach, to attenuate the ECG interference in EEG using simultaneously recorded ECG as a reference signal. After validating the proposed approach using numerically simulated data, we apply this approach to EEG recorded from six newborns receiving therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. We compare our approach with an independent component analysis (ICA), a previously proposed approach to attenuate ECG artifacts in the EEG signal. The power spectrum and the cortico-cortical connectivity of the ECG attenuated EEG was compared against the power spectrum and the cortico-cortical connectivity of the raw EEG. The null-coherence approach attenuated the ECG contamination without leaving any residual of the ECG in the EEG. We show that the null-coherence approach performs better than ICA in attenuating the ECG contamination without enhancing cortico-cortical connectivity. Our analysis suggests that using ICA to remove ECG contamination from the EEG suffers from redistribution problems, whereas the null-coherence approach does not. We show that both the null-coherence and ICA approaches attenuate the ECG contamination. However, the EEG obtained after ICA cleaning displayed higher cortico-cortical connectivity compared with that obtained using the null-coherence approach. This suggests that null-coherence is superior to ICA in attenuating the ECG interference in EEG for cortico-cortical connectivity analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Conduct Disorder and Cortical Structure in Adolescents. (United States)

    Smaragdi, Areti; Cornwell, Harriet; Toschi, Nicola; Riccelli, Roberta; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Wells, Amy; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind; Rogers, Jack; Martin-Key, Nayra; Puzzo, Ignazio; Batchelor, Molly; Sidlauskaite, Justina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Kohls, Gregor; Konrad, Kerstin; Baumann, Sarah; Raschle, Nora; Stadler, Christina; Freitag, Christine; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; De Brito, Stephane; Fairchild, Graeme


    Previous studies have reported reduced cortical thickness and surface area and altered gyrification in frontal and temporal regions in adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Although there is evidence that the clinical phenotype of CD differs between males and females, no studies have examined whether such sex differences extend to cortical and subcortical structure. As part of a European multisite study (FemNAT-CD), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected from 48 female and 48 male participants with CD and from 104 sex-, age-, and pubertal-status-matched controls (14-18 years of age). Data were analyzed using surface-based morphometry, testing for effects of sex, diagnosis, and sex-by-diagnosis interactions, while controlling for age, IQ, scan site, and total gray matter volume. CD was associated with cortical thinning and higher gyrification in ventromedial prefrontal cortex in both sexes. Males with CD showed lower, and females with CD showed higher, supramarginal gyrus cortical thickness compared with controls. Relative to controls, males with CD showed higher gyrification and surface area in superior frontal gyrus, whereas the opposite pattern was seen in females. There were no effects of diagnosis or sex-by-diagnosis interactions on subcortical volumes. Results are discussed with regard to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, and substance abuse comorbidity, medication use, handedness, and CD age of onset. We found both similarities and differences between males and females in CD-cortical structure associations. This initial evidence that the pathophysiological basis of CD may be partly sex-specific highlights the need to consider sex in future neuroimaging studies and suggests that males and females may require different treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Verbal and visuospatial working memory during pregnancy: EEG correlation between the prefrontal and parietal cortices. (United States)

    Almanza-Sepúlveda, Mayra Linné; Hernández-González, Marisela; Hevia-Orozco, Jorge Carlos; Amezcua-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Guevara, Miguel Angel


    Pregnancy is a dynamic process during which significant cognitive changes take place. It has been suggested that working memory (WM) is affected during gestation as a result of functional changes among cortical areas, such as the prefrontal and parietal cortices. This study examined cortical electroencephalographic correlations (rEEG) during performance of WM tasks in each trimester of pregnancy. Forty women were divided into 4 groups: first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) trimester of pregnancy, and a control group of non-pregnant women. Electroencephalographic activity (EEG) was recorded from the frontopolar, dorsolateral and parietal cortices during performance of one verbal and one visuospatial working memory task. Only groups T2 and T3 showed increased onset latency in the visuospatial WM. During the verbal WM task, the T1 group showed a higher correlation between dorsolateral areas in the theta and alpha bands, as well as a lower left prefrontal-parietal correlation in the gamma band. During the visuospatial WM task, the T1 and T3 groups showed a higher left EEG correlation in the delta and alpha1 bands, whereas T2 presented a higher right prefrontal-parietal correlation in the gamma band. Although pregnancy had only a subtle effect on the visuospatial WM task, these different patterns of cortical synchronization in each trimester of pregnancy could represent adaptive mechanisms that enabled the pregnant women to focus their attention and use more cognitive resources and so adequately solve the WM tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional role for cortical-striatal circuitry in modulating alcohol self-administration. (United States)

    Jaramillo, Anel A; Randall, Patrick A; Stewart, Spencer; Fortino, Brayden; Van Voorhies, Kalynn; Besheer, Joyce


    The cortical-striatal brain circuitry is heavily implicated in drug-use. As such, the present study investigated the functional role of cortical-striatal circuitry in modulating alcohol self-administration. Given that a functional role for the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) in modulating alcohol-reinforced responding has been established, we sought to test the role of cortical brain regions with afferent projections to the AcbC: the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the insular cortex (IC). Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer alcohol (15% alcohol (v/v)+2% sucrose (w/v)) during 30 min sessions. To test the functional role of the mPFC or IC, we utilized a chemogenetic technique (hM4D i -Designer Receptors Activation by Designer Drugs) to silence neuronal activity prior to an alcohol self-administration session. Additionally, we chemogenetically silenced mPFC→AcbC or IC→AcbC projections, to investigate the role of cortical-striatal circuitry in modulating alcohol self-administration. Chemogenetically silencing the mPFC decreased alcohol self-administration, while silencing the IC increased alcohol self-administration, an effect absent in mCherry-Controls. Interestingly, silencing mPFC→AcbC projections had no effect on alcohol self-administration. In contrast, silencing IC→AcbC projections decreased alcohol self-administration, in a reinforcer-specific manner as there was no effect in rats trained to self-administer sucrose (0.8%, w/v). Additionally, no change in self-administration was observed in the mCherry-Controls. Together these data demonstrate the complex role of the cortical-striatal circuitry while implicating a role for the insula-striatal circuit in modulating ongoing alcohol self-administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cortical thickness maturation and duration of music training: health-promoting activities shape brain development. (United States)

    Hudziak, James J; Albaugh, Matthew D; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif; Spottswood, Margaret; Crehan, Eileen; Evans, Alan C; Botteron, Kelly N


    To assess the extent to which playing a musical instrument is associated with cortical thickness development among healthy youths. Participants were part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development. This study followed a longitudinal design such that participants underwent MRI scanning and behavioral testing on up to 3 separate visits, occurring at 2-year intervals. MRI, IQ, and music training data were available for 232 youths (334 scans), ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Cortical thickness was regressed against the number of years that each youth had played a musical instrument. Next, thickness was regressed against an "Age × Years of Playing" interaction term. Age, gender, total brain volume, and scanner were controlled for in analyses. Participant ID was entered as a random effect to account for within-person dependence. False discovery rate correction was applied (p ≤ .05). There was no association between thickness and years playing a musical instrument. The "Age × Years of Playing" interaction was associated with thickness in motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, as well as prefrontal and parietal cortices. Follow-up analysis revealed that music training was associated with an increased rate of thickness maturation. Results were largely unchanged when IQ and handedness were included as covariates. Playing a musical instrument was associated with more rapid cortical thickness maturation within areas implicated in motor planning and coordination, visuospatial ability, and emotion and impulse regulation. However, given the quasi-experimental nature of this study, we cannot rule out the influence of confounding variables. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cortical functional hyperconnectivity in a mouse model of depression and selective network effects of ketamine. (United States)

    McGirr, Alexander; LeDue, Jeffrey; Chan, Allen W; Xie, Yicheng; Murphy, Timothy H


    See Huang and Liston (doi:10.1093/awx166) for a scientific commentary on this article.Human depression is associated with glutamatergic dysfunction and alterations in resting state network activity. However, the indirect nature of human in vivo glutamate and activity assessments obscures mechanistic details. Using the chronic social defeat mouse model of depression, we determine how mesoscale glutamatergic networks are altered after chronic stress, and in response to the rapid acting antidepressant, ketamine. Transgenic mice (Ai85) expressing iGluSnFR (a recombinant protein sensor) permitted real-time in vivo selective characterization of extracellular glutamate and longitudinal imaging of mesoscale cortical glutamatergic functional circuits. Mice underwent chronic social defeat or a control condition, while spontaneous cortical activity was longitudinally sampled. After chronic social defeat, we observed network-wide glutamate functional hyperconnectivity in defeated animals, which was confirmed with voltage sensitive dye imaging in an independent cohort. Subanaesthetic ketamine has unique effects in defeated animals. Acutely, subanaesthetic ketamine induces large global cortical glutamate transients in defeated animals, and an elevated subanaesthetic dose resulted in sustained global increase in cortical glutamate. Local cortical inhibition of glutamate transporters in naïve mice given ketamine produced a similar extracellular glutamate phenotype, with both glutamate transients and a dose-dependent accumulation of glutamate. Twenty-four hours after ketamine, normalization of depressive-like behaviour in defeated animals was accompanied by reduced glutamate functional connectivity strength. Altered glutamate functional connectivity in this animal model confirms the central role of glutamate dynamics as well as network-wide changes after chronic stress and in response to ketamine. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  16. Effects of environmental risks and polygenic loading for schizophrenia on cortical thickness. (United States)

    Neilson, Emma; Bois, Catherine; Gibson, Jude; Duff, Barbara; Watson, Andrew; Roberts, Neil; Brandon, Nicholas J; Dunlop, John; Hall, Jeremy; McIntosh, Andrew M; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M


    There are established differences in cortical thickness (CT) in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar (BD) patients when compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown to what extent environmental or genetic risk factors impact on CT in these populations. We have investigated the effect of Environmental Risk Scores (ERS) and Polygenic Risk Scores for SCZ (PGRS-SCZ) on CT. Structural MRI scans were acquired at 3T for patients with SCZ or BD (n=57) and controls (n=41). Cortical reconstructions were generated in FreeSurfer (v5.3). The ERS was created by determining exposure to cannabis use, childhood adverse events, migration, urbanicity and obstetric complications. The PGRS-SCZ were generated, for a subset of the sample (Patients=43, HC=32), based on the latest PGC GWAS findings. ANCOVAs were used to test the hypotheses that ERS and PGRS-SCZ relate to CT globally, and in frontal and temporal lobes. An increase in ERS was negatively associated with CT within temporal lobe for patients. A higher PGRS-SCZ was also related to global cortical thinning for patients. ERS effects remained significant when including PGRS-SCZ as a fixed effect. No relationship which survived FDR correction was found for ERS and PGRS-SCZ in controls. Environmental risk for SCZ was related to localised cortical thinning in patients with SCZ and BD, while increased PGRS-SCZ was associated with global cortical thinning. Genetic and environmental risk factors for SCZ appear therefore to have differential effects. This provides a mechanistic means by which different risk factors may contribute to the development of SCZ and BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Absence of beta-amyloid in cortical cataracts of donors with and without Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Michael, Ralph; Rosandić, Jurja; Montenegro, Gustavo A; Lobato, Elvira; Tresserra, Francisco; Barraquer, Rafael I; Vrensen, Gijs F J M


    Eye lenses from human donors with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) were studied to evaluate the presence of amyloid in cortical cataract. We obtained 39 lenses from 21 postmortem donors with AD and 15 lenses from age-matched controls provided by the Banco de Ojos para Tratamientos de la Ceguera (Barcelona, Spain). For 17 donors, AD was clinically diagnosed by general physicians and for 4 donors the AD diagnosis was neuropathologically confirmed. Of the 21 donors with AD, 6 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities and 15 only minor or no cortical opacities. As controls, 7 donors with pronounced cortical opacities and 8 donors with almost transparent lenses were selected. All lenses were photographed in a dark field stereomicroscope. Histological sections were analyzed using a standard and a more sensitive Congo red protocol, thioflavin staining and beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry. Brain tissue from two donors, one with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and another with advanced AD-related changes and one cornea with lattice dystrophy were used as positive controls for the staining techniques. Thioflavin, standard and modified Congo red staining were positive in the control brain tissues and in the dystrophic cornea. Beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry was positive in the brain tissues but not in the cornea sample. Lenses from control and AD donors were, without exception, negative after Congo red, thioflavin, and beta-amyloid immunohistochemical staining. The results of the positive control tissues correspond well with known observations in AD, amyloid angiopathy and corneas with lattice dystrophy. The absence of staining in AD and control lenses with the techniques employed lead us to conclude that there is no beta-amyloid in lenses from donors with AD or in control cortical cataracts. The inconsistency with previous studies of Goldstein et al. (2003) and Moncaster et al. (2010), both of which demonstrated positive Congo red, thioflavin, and beta

  18. Strain rate influence on human cortical bone toughness: A comparative study of four paired anatomical sites. (United States)

    Gauthier, Rémy; Follet, Hélène; Langer, Max; Meille, Sylvain; Chevalier, Jérôme; Rongiéras, Frédéric; Peyrin, Françoise; Mitton, David


    Bone fracture is a major health issue worldwide and consequently there have been extensive investigations into the fracture behavior of human cortical bone. However, the fracture properties of human cortical bone under fall-like loading conditions remains poorly documented. Further, most published research has been performed on femoral diaphyseal bone, whereas it is known that the femoral neck and the radius are the most vulnerable sites to fracture. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide information on human cortical bone fracture behavior by comparing different anatomical sites including the radius and the femoral neck acquired from 32 elderly subjects (50 - 98 y.o.). In order to investigate the intrinsic fracture behavior of human cortical bone, toughness experiments were performed at two different strain rates: standard quasi-static conditions, and a higher strain rate representative of a fall from a standing position. The tests were performed on paired femoral neck, femoral, tibial and radius diaphyseal samples. Linear elastic fracture toughness and the non-linear J-integral method were used to take into account both the elastic and non-elastic behavior of cortical bone. Under quasi-static conditions, the radius presents a significantly higher toughness than the other sites. At the higher strain rate, all sites showed a significantly lower toughness. Also, at the high strain rate, there is no significant difference in fracture properties between the four anatomical sites. These results suggest that regardless of the anatomical site (femur, femoral neck, tibia and radius), the bone has the same fracture properties under fall loading conditions. This should be considered in biomechanical models under fall-like loading conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Familial Risk for Alcohol Dependence and Brain Morphology: The Role of Cortical Thickness Across the Lifespan. (United States)

    Hill, Shirley Y


    Henderson and colleagues have provided new data from a large cohort demonstrating that cortical thickness, as one index of brain morphology, differs between adolescents with and without a family history of alcohol dependence. Understanding the relationship between brain structure and cognitive ability that differ in those with a family history of alcohol use disorders and those without relatives with AUD may provide clues about the biological substrate of addiction. To date, most of the studies concerning brain morphological differences by familial risk have focused on volumetric differences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success. (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc


    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cortical cartography reveals political and physical maps. (United States)

    Loring, David W; Gaillard, William Davis; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Meador, Kimford J; Ojemann, Jeffrey G


    Advances in functional imaging have provided noninvasive techniques to probe brain organization of multiple constructs including language and memory. Because of high overall rates of agreements with older techniques, including Wada testing and cortical stimulation mapping (CSM), some have proposed that those approaches should be largely abandoned because of their invasiveness, and replaced with noninvasive functional imaging methods. High overall agreement, however, is based largely on concordant language lateralization in series dominated by cases of typical cerebral dominance. Advocating a universal switch from Wada testing and cortical stimulation mapping to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) ignores the differences in specific expertise across epilepsy centers, many of which often have greater skill with one approach rather than the other, and that Wada, CSM, fMRI, and MEG protocols vary across institutions resulting in different outcomes and reliability. Specific patient characteristics also affect whether Wada or CSM might influence surgical management, making it difficult to accept broad recommendations against currently useful clinical tools. Although the development of noninvasive techniques has diminished the frequency of more invasive approaches, advocating their use to replace Wada testing and CSM across all epilepsy surgery programs without consideration of the different skills, protocols, and expertise at any given center site is ill-advised. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Cortical changes in incipient Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Prestia, Annapaola; Drago, Valeria; Rasser, Paul E; Bonetti, Matteo; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B


    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined by memory impairment with no impact on daily activities. 10 to 15% of MCI convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD) per year. While structural changes in the cortex of AD patients have been extensively investigated, fewer studies analyzed changes in the years preceding conversion. 46 MCI patients and 20 healthy controls underwent structural 1.0T-weighted high-resolution MR scans at baseline and after 1.4 (SD 0.3) years. All subjects were assessed yearly for up to 4 years with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Sixteen of the 46 patients converted to AD (cMCI) while 30 remained stable (sMCI). An accurate voxel-based statistical mesh-model technique (cortical pattern matching) with a related region-of-interest analysis based on networks defined from a Brodmann area atlas (BAs) were used to map gray matter changes over time. At baseline, cMCI patients had 10 to 30% less cortical gray matter volume than healthy controls in regions known to be affected by AD pathology (entorhinal, temporoparietal, posterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortex, p=0.0001). Over time, cMCI patients lost more gray matter than sMCI in all brain areas but mainly in the olfactory and in the polysynaptic hippocampal network (more than 8% gray matter loss, pgray matter loss in the olfactory and polysynaptic hippocampal network. These findings are in line with neuropathological knowledge.

  3. Bayesian automated cortical segmentation for neonatal MRI (United States)

    Chou, Zane; Paquette, Natacha; Ganesh, Bhavana; Wang, Yalin; Ceschin, Rafael; Nelson, Marvin D.; Macyszyn, Luke; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Panigrahy, Ashok; Lepore, Natasha


    Several attempts have been made in the past few years to develop and implement an automated segmentation of neonatal brain structural MRI. However, accurate automated MRI segmentation remains challenging in this population because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, large partial volume effects and inter-individual anatomical variability of the neonatal brain. In this paper, we propose a learning method for segmenting the whole brain cortical grey matter on neonatal T2-weighted images. We trained our algorithm using a neonatal dataset composed of 3 fullterm and 4 preterm infants scanned at term equivalent age. Our segmentation pipeline combines the FAST algorithm from the FSL library software and a Bayesian segmentation approach to create a threshold matrix that minimizes the error of mislabeling brain tissue types. Our method shows promising results with our pilot training set. In both preterm and full-term neonates, automated Bayesian segmentation generates a smoother and more consistent parcellation compared to FAST, while successfully removing the subcortical structure and cleaning the edges of the cortical grey matter. This method show promising refinement of the FAST segmentation by considerably reducing manual input and editing required from the user, and further improving reliability and processing time of neonatal MR images. Further improvement will include a larger dataset of training images acquired from different manufacturers.

  4. Comparative cortical bone thickness between the long bones of humans and five common non-human mammal taxa. (United States)

    Croker, Sarah L; Reed, Warren; Donlon, Denise


    The task of identifying fragments of long bone shafts as human or non-human is difficult but necessary, for both forensic and archaeological cases, and a fast simple method is particularly useful. Previous literature suggests there may be differences in the thickness of the cortical bone between these two groups, but this has not been tested thoroughly. The aim of this study was not only to test this suggestion, but also to provide data that could be of practical assistance for future comparisons. The major limb bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) of 50 Caucasoid adult skeletons of known age and sex were radiographed, along with corresponding skeletal elements from sheep, pigs, cattle, large dogs and kangaroos. Measurements were taken from the radiographs at five points along the bone shaft, of shaft diameter, cortical bone thickness, and a cortical thickness index (sum of cortices divided by shaft diameter) in both anteroposterior and mediolateral orientations. Each variable for actual cortical bone thickness as well as cortical thickness indices were compared between the human group (split by sex) and each of the non-human groups in turn, using Student's t-tests. Results showed that while significant differences did exist between the human groups and many of the non-human groups, these were not all in the same direction. That is, some variables in the human groups were significantly greater than, and others were significantly less than, the corresponding variable in the non-human groups, depending on the particular non-human group, sex of the human group, or variable under comparison. This was the case for measurements of both actual cortical bone thickness and cortical thickness index. Therefore, for bone shaft fragments for which the skeletal element is unknown, the overlap in cortical bone thickness between different areas of different bones is too great to allow identification using this method alone. However, by providing extensive cortical bone

  5. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C


    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  6. Analysis of infant cortical synchrony is constrained by the number of recording electrodes and the recording montage. (United States)

    Tokariev, Anton; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Palva, J Matias


    To assess how the recording montage in the neonatal EEG influences the detection of cortical source signals and their phase interactions. Scalp EEG was simulated by forward modeling 20-200 simultaneously active sources covering the cortical surface of a realistic neonatal head model. We assessed systematically how the number of scalp electrodes (11-85), analysis montage, or the size of cortical sources affect the detection of cortical phase synchrony. Statistical metrics were developed for quantifying the resolution and reliability of the montages. The findings converge to show that an increase in the number of recording electrodes leads to a systematic improvement in the detection of true cortical phase synchrony. While there is always a ceiling effect with respect to discernible cortical details, we show that the average and Laplacian montages exhibit superior specificity and sensitivity as compared to other conventional montages. Reliability in assessing true neonatal cortical synchrony is directly related to the choice of EEG recording and analysis configurations. Because of the high conductivity of the neonatal skull, the conventional neonatal EEG recordings are spatially far too sparse for pertinent studies, and this loss of information cannot be recovered by re-montaging during analysis. Future neonatal EEG studies will need prospective planning of recording configuration to allow analysis of spatial details required by each study question. Our findings also advice about the level of details in brain synchrony that can be studied with existing datasets or by using conventional EEG recordings. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The demand for bank reserves and other monetary aggregates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal


    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2004), s. 518-533 ISSN 0095-2583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/02/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : bank reserves * monetary aggregates Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.584, year: 2004

  8. Contralesional Cortical Structural Reorganization Contributes to Motor Recovery after Sub-Cortical Stroke: A Longitudinal Voxel-Based Morphometry Study. (United States)

    Cai, Jianxin; Ji, Qiling; Xin, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Dianping; Na, Xu; Peng, Ruchen; Li, Kuncheng


    Although changes in brain gray matter after stroke have been identified in some neuroimaging studies, lesion heterogeneity and individual variability make the detection of potential neuronal reorganization difficult. This study attempted to investigate the potential structural cortical reorganization after sub-cortical stroke using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV) analysis. Eleven right-handed patients with first-onset, subcortical, ischemic infarctions involving the basal ganglia regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging in addition to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Motricity Index (MI) assessments in the acute (reorganization of the CL "cognitive" cortices might contribute to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke.

  9. Early and phasic cortical metabolic changes in vestibular neuritis onset. (United States)

    Alessandrini, Marco; Pagani, Marco; Napolitano, Bianca; Micarelli, Alessandro; Candidi, Matteo; Bruno, Ernesto; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Di Pietro, Barbara; Schillaci, Orazio


    Functional brain activation studies described the presence of separate cortical areas responsible for central processing of peripheral vestibular information and reported their activation and interactions with other sensory modalities and the changes of this network associated to strategic peripheral or central vestibular lesions. It is already known that cortical changes induced by acute unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) are various and undergo variations over time, revealing different cortical involved areas at the onset and recovery from symptoms. The present study aimed at reporting the earliest change in cortical metabolic activity during a paradigmatic form of UVF such as vestibular neuritis (VN), that is, a purely peripheral lesion of the vestibular system, that offers the opportunity to study the cortical response to altered vestibular processing. This research reports [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain scan data concerning the early cortical metabolic activity associated to symptoms onset in a group of eight patients suffering from VN. VN patients' cortical metabolic activity during the first two days from symptoms onset was compared to that recorded one month later and to a control healthy group. Beside the known cortical response in the sensorimotor network associated to vestibular deafferentation, we show for the first time the involvement of Entorhinal (BAs 28, 34) and Temporal (BA 38) cortices in early phases of symptomatology onset. We interpret these findings as the cortical counterparts of the attempt to reorient oneself in space counteracting the vertigo symptom (Bas 28, 34) and of the emotional response to the new pathologic condition (BA 38) respectively. These interpretations were further supported by changes in patients' subjective ratings in balance, anxiety, and depersonalization/derealization scores when tested at illness onset and one month later. The present findings contribute in expanding knowledge about

  10. Early and phasic cortical metabolic changes in vestibular neuritis onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alessandrini

    Full Text Available Functional brain activation studies described the presence of separate cortical areas responsible for central processing of peripheral vestibular information and reported their activation and interactions with other sensory modalities and the changes of this network associated to strategic peripheral or central vestibular lesions. It is already known that cortical changes induced by acute unilateral vestibular failure (UVF are various and undergo variations over time, revealing different cortical involved areas at the onset and recovery from symptoms. The present study aimed at reporting the earliest change in cortical metabolic activity during a paradigmatic form of UVF such as vestibular neuritis (VN, that is, a purely peripheral lesion of the vestibular system, that offers the opportunity to study the cortical response to altered vestibular processing. This research reports [(18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain scan data concerning the early cortical metabolic activity associated to symptoms onset in a group of eight patients suffering from VN. VN patients' cortical metabolic activity during the first two days from symptoms onset was compared to that recorded one month later and to a control healthy group. Beside the known cortical response in the sensorimotor network associated to vestibular deafferentation, we show for the first time the involvement of Entorhinal (BAs 28, 34 and Temporal (BA 38 cortices in early phases of symptomatology onset. We interpret these findings as the cortical counterparts of the attempt to reorient oneself in space counteracting the vertigo symptom (Bas 28, 34 and of the emotional response to the new pathologic condition (BA 38 respectively. These interpretations were further supported by changes in patients' subjective ratings in balance, anxiety, and depersonalization/derealization scores when tested at illness onset and one month later. The present findings contribute in expanding

  11. Math anxiety: Brain cortical network changes in anticipation of doing mathematics. (United States)

    Klados, Manousos A; Pandria, Niki; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D


    Following our previous work regarding the involvement of math anxiety (MA) in math-oriented tasks, this study tries to explore the differences in the cerebral networks' topology between self-reported low math-anxious (LMA) and high math-anxious (HMA) individuals, during the anticipation phase prior to a mathematical related experiment. For this reason, multichannel EEG recordings were adopted, while the solution of the inverse problem was applied in a generic head model, in order to obtain the cortical signals. The cortical networks have been computed for each band separately, using the magnitude square coherence metric. The main graph theoretical parameters, showed differences in segregation and integration in almost all EEG bands of the HMAs in comparison to LMAs, indicative of a great influence of the anticipatory anxiety prior to mathematical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrocorticography reveals beta desynchronization in the basal ganglia-cortical loop during rest tremor in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Qasim, Salman E; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole C; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Ostrem, Jill L; Starr, Philip A


    The pathophysiology of rest tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well understood, and its severity does not correlate with the severity of other cardinal signs of PD. We hypothesized that tremor-related oscillatory activity in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical loop might serve as a compensatory mechanism for the excessive beta band synchronization associated with the parkinsonian state. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the sensorimotor cortex and local field potentials (LFP) from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients undergoing lead implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We analyzed differences in measures of network synchronization during epochs of spontaneous rest tremor, versus epochs without rest tremor, occurring in the same subjects. The presence of tremor was associated with reduced beta power in the cortex and STN. Cortico-cortical coherence and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) decreased during rest tremor, as did basal ganglia-cortical coherence in the same frequency band. Cortical broadband gamma power was not increased by tremor onset, in contrast to the movement-related gamma increase typically observed at the onset of voluntary movement. These findings suggest that the cortical representation of rest tremor is distinct from that of voluntary movement, and support a model in which tremor acts to decrease beta band synchronization within the basal ganglia-cortical loop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain volumetric analysis and cortical thickness in adults with saccadic intrusions (ocular flutter or opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome). (United States)

    Ibáñez-Juliá, María-José; Pappa, Evangelia; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leclercq, Delphine; Hautefort, Charlotte; Tilikete, Caroline; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Psimaras, Dimitri; Alentorn, Agusti


    Ocular flutter (OF) and opsoclonus are considered a continuum with a similar pathogenesis. Due to the rarity of this disease in the adult population, little is known about the brain morphological changes in the chronic phase of the disease. Six magnetic resonance imaging from adults with previous history of OF/Opsoclonus and 12 healthy patients (paired by age and sex) were analyzed in order to identify the long term cortical thickness pattern in this rare disease by using Freesurfer. Patients with OF/Opsoclonus showed reduced cerebellum cortical volume with a subsequent diminution in total cerebellar volume. White mater cerebellum volume was not modified. In addition, we have also identified a significant supratentorial gray matter volume decrease in OF/Opsoclonus patients, involving both the cortical and the subcortical gray matter. OF/Opsoclonus in adults may be associated with cortical and subcortical gray matter atrophy, as well as decreased cerebellar cortical volume. Further larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations. (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  15. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve? (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico


    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  16. The effect of cortical activation on orthodontic tooth movement. (United States)

    Cho, K-W; Cho, S-W; Oh, C-O; Ryu, Y-K; Ohshima, H; Jung, H-S


    Cortical activation is one of the procedures to accelerate tooth movement by manipulating the cortical bone. In this study, the effect of cortical activation on orthodontic tooth movement was investigated clinically and histologically in the surrounding bony tissue. In the lower and upper jaws of two beagle dogs, cortical activation was applied to the buccal and lingual side of the alveolar bone in the right jaw where 12 holes were made on each cortical plate 4 weeks after the extraction of all the second bicuspids while under deep anesthesia. All third bicuspids on both jaws were forced to move forward by a 150-g force using NiTi coil spring with/without guiding wire. The tooth movement was measured and the animals were killed after tooth movement. Rapid initial tooth movement was apparent after cortical activation. However, after 6 months of cortical activation, the cell number and cellular activity of the surrounding periodontal tissue were decreased. This experiment showed that rapid initial tooth movement was apparent following the application of orthodontic force after cortical activation but the cellular activity and fibroblast structure were abnormal in the surrounding periodontal tissue.

  17. Amygdala activation for eye contact despite complete cortical blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burra, N.; Hervais-Adelman, A.; Kerzel, D.; Tamietto, M.; de Gelder, B.; Pegna, A.J.


    Cortical blindness refers to the loss of vision that occurs after destruction of the primary visual cortex. Although there is no sensory cortex and hence no conscious vision, some cortically blind patients show amygdala activation in response to facial or bodily expressions of emotion. Here we

  18. Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocker, Laurens J.L. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kliniek Sint-Jan Radiologie, Brussels (Belgium); Compter, A.; Kappelle, L.J.; Worp, H.B. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Luijten, P.R.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities are a newly recognised entity associated with atherothromboembolic cerebrovascular disease and worse physical functioning. We aimed to investigate the relationship of cerebellar cortical infarct cavities with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischaemia and with vascular risk factors. We evaluated the MR images of 46 patients with a recent vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke and a symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis ≥50 % from the Vertebral Artery Stenting Trial (VAST) for the presence of cerebellar cortical infarct cavities ≤1.5 cm. At inclusion in VAST, data were obtained on age, sex, history of vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke, and vascular risk factors. Adjusted risk ratios were calculated with Poisson regression analyses for the relation between cerebellar cortical infarct cavities and vascular risk factors. Sixteen out of 46 (35 %) patients showed cerebellar cortical infarct cavities on the initial MRI, and only one of these 16 patients was known with a previous vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke. In patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischaemia, risk factor profiles of patients with cerebellar cortical infarct cavities were not different from patients without these cavities. Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities are seen on MRI in as much as one third of patients with recently symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis. Since patients usually have no prior history of vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke, cerebellar cortical infarct cavities should be added to the spectrum of common incidental brain infarcts visible on routine MRI. (orig.)

  19. Differential effect of visual motion adaption upon visual cortical excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, Astrid J.A.; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Ahmad, Hena; Bos, Jelte E.; Wuyts, Floris L.; Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Arshad, Qadeer


    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an

  20. Differential effect of visual motion adaptation upon visual cortical excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, A.J.A.; Ombergen, A. van; Ahmad, H.; Bos, J.E.; Wuyts, F.L.; Bronstein, A.; Arshad, Q.


    The objectives of this study were 1) to probe the effects of visual motion adaptation on early visual and V5/MT cortical excitability and 2) to investigate whether changes in cortical excitability following visual motion adaptation are related to the degree of visual dependency, i.e., an

  1. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Ramkumar

    Full Text Available Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd and primary motor (M1 neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions.

  2. Magnetoencephalography from signals to dynamic cortical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aine, Cheryl


    "Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a time-accurate view into human brain function. The concerted action of neurons generates minute magnetic fields that can be detected---totally noninvasively---by sensitive multichannel magnetometers. The obtained millisecond accuracycomplements information obtained by other modern brain-imaging tools. Accurate timing is quintessential in normal brain function, often distorted in brain disorders. The noninvasiveness and time-sensitivityof MEG are great assets to developmental studies, as well. This multiauthored book covers an ambitiously wide range of MEG research from introductory to advanced level, from sensors to signals, and from focal sources to the dynamics of cortical networks. Written by active practioners of this multidisciplinary field, the book contains tutorials for newcomers and chapters of new challenging methods and emerging technologies to advanced MEG users. The reader will obtain a firm grasp of the possibilities of MEG in the study of audition, vision...

  3. Superresolution improves MRI cortical segmentation with FACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    Brain cortical surface extraction from MRI has applications for measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy, functional mapping, source localization and preoperative neurosurgical planning. Accurate cortex segmentation requires high resolution morphological images and several methods for extracting...... the cerebral cortex have been developed during the last decade (Dale 1999, Kim 2005, Eskildsen 2006). In many studies, the resolution of the morphological image acquisition sequence is chosen to be relatively low (~1mm3) due to time and equipment constraints. To improve segmentation accuracy, such low...... the ability to effectively increase the image resolution while preserving sharp features of the underlying anatomy. In this study, we investigated the effect of applying superresolution as proposed in (Manjon 2010a) to the accuracy of cerebral cortex segmentation....

  4. Response variability in balanced cortical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ursta, C.; Hertz, J.


    We study the spike statistics of neurons in a network with dynamically balanced excitation and inhibition. Our model, intended to represent a generic cortical column, comprises randomly connected excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, driven by excitatory input from an external...... population. The high connectivity permits a mean field description in which synaptic currents can be treated as gaussian noise, the mean and autocorrelation function of which are calculated self-consistently from the firing statistics of single model neurons. Within this description, a wide range of Fano...... factors is possible. We find that the irregularity of spike trains is controlled mainly by the strength of the synapses relative to the difference between the firing threshold and the postfiring reset level of the membrane potential. For moderately strong synapses, we find spike statistics very similar...

  5. Cortical spatiotemporal dimensionality reduction for visual grouping. (United States)

    Cocci, Giacomo; Barbieri, Davide; Citti, Giovanna; Sarti, Alessandro


    The visual systems of many mammals, including humans, are able to integrate the geometric information of visual stimuli and perform cognitive tasks at the first stages of the cortical processing. This is thought to be the result of a combination of mechanisms, which include feature extraction at the single cell level and geometric processing by means of cell connectivity. We present a geometric model of such connectivities in the space of detected features associated with spatiotemporal visual stimuli and show how they can be used to obtain low-level object segmentation. The main idea is to define a spectral clustering procedure with anisotropic affinities over data sets consisting of embeddings of the visual stimuli into higher-dimensional spaces. Neural plausibility of the proposed arguments will be discussed.

  6. Osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Weaver, James C.; Jensen, Mads Hartmann


    Recently, the roles of osteocytes in bone maintenance have gained increasing attention. Osteocytes reside in lacunae that are interconnected by canaliculi resulting in a vast cellular network within the mineralized bone matrix. As the structure of the lacuno-canalicular network is highly connected......-species but also inter-site variation in lacunar properties. Here, osteocyte lacunae in rat cortical bone have been studied using synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR μCT) and backscattered electron (BE) microscopy. Quantitative lacunar geometric characteristics are reported based on the synchrotron...... radiation data, differentiating between circumferential lamellar bone and a central, more disordered bone type. From these studies, no significant differences were found in lacunar volumes between lamellar and central bone, whereas significant differences in lacunar orientation, shape and density values...

  7. Cortical hubs form a module for multisensory integration on top of the hierarchy of cortical networks. (United States)

    Zamora-López, Gorka; Zhou, Changsong; Kurths, Jürgen


    Sensory stimuli entering the nervous system follow particular paths of processing, typically separated (segregated) from the paths of other modal information. However, sensory perception, awareness and cognition emerge from the combination of information (integration). The corticocortical networks of cats and macaque monkeys display three prominent characteristics: (i) modular organisation (facilitating the segregation), (ii) abundant alternative processing paths and (iii) the presence of highly connected hubs. Here, we study in detail the organisation and potential function of the cortical hubs by graph analysis and information theoretical methods. We find that the cortical hubs form a spatially delocalised, but topologically central module with the capacity to integrate multisensory information in a collaborative manner. With this, we resolve the underlying anatomical substrate that supports the simultaneous capacity of the cortex to segregate and to integrate multisensory information.

  8. Predicting infant cortical surface development using a 4D varifold-based learning framework and local topography-based shape morphing. (United States)

    Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang


    method attained a higher prediction accuracy and better captured the spatiotemporal dynamic change of the highly folded cortical surface than the previous proposed prediction method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contextual control of audiovisual integration in low-level sensory cortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Atteveldt, N.; Peterson, Bradley S; Schroeder, Charles E

    Potential sources of multisensory influences on low-level sensory cortices include direct projections from sensory cortices of different modalities, as well as more indirect feedback inputs from higher order multisensory cortical regions. These multiple architectures may be functionally

  10. Contextual control of audiovisual integration in low-level sensory cortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Peterson, Bradley S; Schroeder, Charles E


    Potential sources of multisensory influences on low-level sensory cortices include direct projections from sensory cortices of different modalities, as well as more indirect feedback inputs from higher order multisensory cortical regions. These multiple architectures may be functionally

  11. The biology and dynamics of mammalian cortical granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Min


    Full Text Available Abstract Cortical granules are membrane bound organelles located in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes. Following fertilization, cortical granules undergo exocytosis to release their contents into the perivitelline space. This secretory process, which is calcium dependent and SNARE protein-mediated pathway, is known as the cortical reaction. After exocytosis, the released cortical granule proteins are responsible for blocking polyspermy by modifying the oocytes' extracellular matrices, such as the zona pellucida in mammals. Mammalian cortical granules range in size from 0.2 um to 0.6 um in diameter and different from most other regulatory secretory organelles in that they are not renewed once released. These granules are only synthesized in female germ cells and transform an egg upon sperm entry; therefore, this unique cellular structure has inherent interest for our understanding of the biology of fertilization. Cortical granules are long thought to be static and awaiting in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes to be stimulated undergoing exocytosis upon gamete fusion. Not till recently, the dynamic nature of cortical granules is appreciated and understood. The latest studies of mammalian cortical granules document that this organelle is not only biochemically heterogeneous, but also displays complex distribution during oocyte development. Interestingly, some cortical granules undergo exocytosis prior to fertilization; and a number of granule components function beyond the time of fertilization in regulating embryonic cleavage and preimplantation development, demonstrating their functional significance in fertilization as well as early embryonic development. The following review will present studies that investigate the biology of cortical granules and will also discuss new findings that uncover the dynamic aspect of this organelle in mammals.

  12. Functional specialisation within the cortical language network: effects of cortical dysfunction. (United States)

    Vandenberghe, R


    In the 1990's neuroanatomical models of language and semantic memory have been mainly based on functional neuroimaging studies of brain activity in healthy volunteers and correlational studies between structural lesions in patients and behavioral deficits. In this paper we present a novel approach where we test models that have been developed in healthy volunteers by means of functional imaging in patients in combination with behavioral studies. Study populations consist of patients with focal cortical stroke (n = 2), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 14) and primary progressive aphasia (n = 18). The experiments provide converging evidence that 1. the integrity of the right mid- and anterior fusiform gyrus is required for full and detailed retrieval of knowledge of visual attributes of concrete entities 2. the left posterior superior temporal sulcus is critically involved in lexical-semantic retrieval 3. the anterior temporal pole to the left functions as an associative structure that links the representations of meaning that are distribured over the cortical brain surface. Our experiments also provide us with new insight into the degradation and re-organisation of the language system in cortical neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim


    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  14. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León


    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  15. Automated landmark identification for human cortical surface-based registration. (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Dierker, Donna L; Harwell, John W; Coalson, Timothy S; Barch, Deanna M; Van Essen, David C


    Volume-based registration (VBR) is the predominant method used in human neuroimaging to compensate for individual variability. However, surface-based registration (SBR) techniques have an inherent advantage over VBR because they respect the topology of the convoluted cortical sheet. There is evidence that existing SBR methods indeed confer a registration advantage over affine VBR. Landmark-SBR constrains registration using explicit landmarks to represent corresponding geographical locations on individual and atlas surfaces. The need for manual landmark identification has been an impediment to the widespread adoption of Landmark-SBR. To circumvent this obstacle, we have implemented and evaluated an automated landmark identification (ALI) algorithm for registration to the human PALS-B12 atlas. We compared ALI performance with that from two trained human raters and one expert anatomical rater (ENR). We employed both quantitative and qualitative quality assurance metrics, including a biologically meaningful analysis of hemispheric asymmetry. ALI performed well across all quality assurance tests, indicating that it yields robust and largely accurate results that require only modest manual correction (<10 min per subject). ALI largely circumvents human error and bias and enables high throughput analysis of large neuroimaging datasets for inter-subject registration to an atlas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortical thickness and low insight into symptoms in enduring schizophrenia. (United States)

    Emami, Seema; Guimond, Synthia; Mallar Chakravarty, M; Lepage, Martin


    Poor insight is a common, multidimensional phenomenon in patients with schizophrenia, associated with poorer outcomes and treatment non-adherence. Yet scant research has investigated the neuronal correlates of insight into symptoms (IS), a dimension of insight that may be particularly significant in enduring schizophrenia. Sixty-six patients with enduring schizophrenia (duration >4years) and 33 healthy controls completed MRI scanning and IQ, depression, and anxiety assessments. The Scale to Assess Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) measured insight into patients' four most prominent symptoms and patients were classified into two groups: low IS (0-2; n=33), and high IS (>2; n=33). We evaluated the association between cortical thickness (CT) and insight into symptoms using two methods: (1) a between-patients region-of-interest analysis in the insula, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and frontal lobe; and (2) a whole-brain exploratory regression between patient and controls. Brain regions were segmented using a neuroanatomical atlas and vertex-wise CT analyses were conducted with CIVET, covaried for age and sex. ROI analysis revealed thinner insula cortex in patients with low IS (pinsight-related differences in CT that has been previously unexplored in enduring schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical tubers, cognition, and epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis. (United States)

    Kassiri, Janani; Snyder, Thomas J; Bhargava, Ravi; Wheatley, B Matt; Sinclair, D Barry


    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder characterized by hamartomatous growth in various organs. Patients who have this disorder exhibit a high rate of epilepsy and cognitive problems. We investigated number of tubers, location, seizure types, and cognitive outcome, and we analyzed the relationships among them in our tuberous sclerosis patients in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at the University of Alberta. We also examined the seizure outcome after tuber resection. Our study cohort included 24 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. We obtained seizure history, electroencephalogram, and neuropsychologic parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine tuber numbers and locations. Ten patients underwent surgical removal of tubers responsible for intractable epilepsy. A negative correlation was found between the number of tubers and intelligent quotient score. Epilepsy surgery led to freedom from seizures in this patient group. We demonstrated that the total number and location of cortical tubers play a significant role in the extent of mental retardation in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. In addition, patients with intractable seizures and well-defined epileptic focus had excellent surgical outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate. (United States)

    Petros, Timothy J; Bultje, Ronald S; Ross, M Elizabeth; Fishell, Gord; Anderson, Stewart A


    Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortical processing of musical sounds in children with Cochlear Implants. (United States)

    Torppa, Ritva; Salo, Emma; Makkonen, Tommi; Loimo, Hannu; Pykäläinen, Johannes; Lipsanen, Jari; Faulkner, Andrew; Huotilainen, Minna


    We studied the neurocognitive mechanisms of musical instrument sound perception in children with Cochlear Implants (CIs) and in children with normal hearing (NH). ERPs were recorded in a new multi-feature change-detection paradigm. Three magnitudes of change in fundamental frequency, musical instrument, duration, intensity increments and decrements, and presence of a temporal gap were presented amongst repeating 295 Hz piano tones. Independent Component Analysis was utilized to remove artifacts caused by the Cochlear Implants. The ERPs were similar in the two groups across all perceptual dimensions except for intensity increment deviants. CI children had smaller and earlier P1 responses compared to controls, and their MMN responses showed less accurate neural detection of changes of musical instrument, sound duration, and temporal structure. P3a responses suggested that poor neural detection of musical instruments affected their involuntary attention shift. The similarities of neurocognitive processing are surprising in the light of the limited auditory input provided by the CI, suggesting that many types of changes are adequately processed by the CI children. Our results indicate that CI children's auditory cortical functioning may be enhanced, and difficulties in auditory perception and in attention switching towards sound events alleviated, by multisensory musical activities. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facilitated early cortical processing of nude human bodies. (United States)

    Alho, Jussi; Salminen, Nelli; Sams, Mikko; Hietanen, Jari K; Nummenmaa, Lauri


    Functional brain imaging has identified specialized neural systems supporting human body perception. Responses to nude vs. clothed bodies within this system are amplified. However, it remains unresolved whether nude and clothed bodies are processed by same cerebral networks or whether processing of nude bodies recruits additional affective and arousal processing areas. We recorded simultaneous MEG and EEG while participants viewed photographs of clothed and nude bodies. Global field power revealed a peak ∼145ms after stimulus onset to both clothed and nude bodies, and ∼205ms exclusively to nude bodies. Nude-body-sensitive responses were centered first (100-200ms) in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas, and subsequently (200-300ms) in affective-motivational areas including insula and anterior cingulate cortex. We conclude that visibility of sexual features facilitates early cortical processing of human bodies, the purpose of which is presumably to trigger sexual behavior and ultimately ensure reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolated cortical vein thrombosis associated with prothrombin gene mutation. (United States)

    Giraldo, Elias A; Arora, Rohan; Koenigsberg, Robert A


    Isolated cortical vein thrombosis (ICVT) accounts for less than 1% of strokes. We report a 47-year-old female patient who had a frontal hemorrhage with headache associated with contralateral hemiparesis and hemisensory deficit on presentation. This hemorrhagic stroke was localized in a nonarterial territory, and it was caused by ipsilateral and isolated thrombosis of the vein of Labbe found on catheter angiogram that demonstrated a filling defect of the vein of Labbe at its connection with the transverse sinus. There were no filling defects in the superficial middle cerebral veins. Our patient had a family history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and factor V Leiden mutation and cigarette smoking as stroke risk factors. Complete prothrombotic state laboratory workup revealed a heterozygous prothrombin G20210 A gene mutation. The patient's hospital course was uneventful. Neurologic exam was normal at stroke clinic follow-up 6 weeks later. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ICVT associated with prothrombin gene mutation. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Joint energy and reserve dispatch in a multi-area competitive market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: Joint energy and reserve dispatch (JERD), Multi-area competitive electricity market, Reserve cost, Energy cost, Total market cost, Time-varying Differential ... In the competitive electricity market, one of the major concerns of the system operator is to achieve the economic efficiency while maintaining the system ...

  3. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles


    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David


    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  4. Assessment of hearing threshold in adults with hearing loss using an automated system of cortical auditory evoked potential detection. (United States)

    Durante, Alessandra Spada; Wieselberg, Margarita Bernal; Roque, Nayara; Carvalho, Sheila; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; de Almeida, Kátia

    behavioral for the group with hearing loss and, on average, 14.5dB higher for the group without hearing loss for all studied frequencies. The cortical electrophysiological thresholds obtained with the use of an automated response detection system were highly correlated with behavioral thresholds in the group of individuals with hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars (United States)


    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  6. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina


    -somatosensory cortex was associated with increased Expanded Disability Status Scale scores in surface-based general linear modelling (P multiple sclerosis, and present mainly focally in cortical lesions, whereas more diffusely in white matter. These results suggest early demyelination with loss of cells and/or cell volumes in cortical and white matter lesions, with additional axonal dispersion in white matter lesions. In the cortex, focal lesion changes might precede diffuse atrophy with cortical thinning. Findings in the normal-appearing white matter reveal early axonal pathology outside inflammatory demyelinating lesions. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. GenCLiP: a software program for clustering gene lists by literature profiling and constructing gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi-Bo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical researchers often want to explore pathogenesis and pathways regulated by abnormally expressed genes, such as those identified by microarray analyses. Literature mining is an important way to assist in this task. Many literature mining tools are now available. However, few of them allows the user to make manual adjustments to zero in on what he/she wants to know in particular. Results We present our software program, GenCLiP (Gene Cluster with Literature Profiles, which is based on the methods presented by Chaussabel and Sher (Genome Biol 2002, 3(10:RESEARCH0055 that search gene lists to identify functional clusters of genes based on up-to-date literature profiling. Four features were added to this previously described method: the ability to 1 manually curate keywords extracted from the literature, 2 search genes and gene co-occurrence networks related to custom keywords, 3 compare analyzed gene results with negative and positive controls generated by GenCLiP, and 4 calculate probabilities that the resulting genes and gene networks are randomly related. In this paper, we show with a set of differentially expressed genes between keloids and normal control, how implementation of functions in GenCLiP successfully identified keywords related to the pathogenesis of keloids and unknown gene pathways involved in the pathogenesis of keloids. Conclusion With regard to the identification of disease-susceptibility genes, GenCLiP allows one to quickly acquire a primary pathogenesis profile and identify pathways involving abnormally expressed genes not previously associated with the disease.

  8. Sleep influences the intracerebral EEG pattern of focal cortical dysplasia. (United States)

    Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Zazubovits, Natalja; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean; Frauscher, Birgit


    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is able to generate an intrinsic pathological EEG activity characterized by a continuous or near-continuous spiking. Different patterns of discharge were described. We examined quantitatively the distribution of the intracerebral FCD patterns in relation to sleep in order to investigate whether this activity is independent of thalamocortical influences. We analyzed the first sleep cycle of 5 patients with a diagnosis of FCD type II who underwent combined scalp-intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), and showed an intracranial EEG pattern typical for FCD. Three patterns of FCD intracranial EEG activity were identified in all 5 patients, and visually marked for a maximum of 30min of each stage (wake, N1, N2, N3, REM): spike or polyspike exceeding 2Hz (pattern 1), spike or polyspike interrupted by flat periods below 2Hz (pattern 2) and discharges of >15Hz low-voltage rhythmic activity with regular morphology (pattern 3). After marking, the percentages of the three patterns across the different stages were calculated. The three patterns of FCD were present between 45% and 97% of the total time analyzed. Pattern 1 was the predominant pattern in wakefulness (73-100%), N1 (76-97%) and N2 (58-88.5%) in all patients, and in REM in 4 of 5 patients (91-100%). During N2 and N3, there was an increase in pattern 2 in all patients, becoming the predominant pattern in 3 of the 5 patients during N3 (63-89%). Pattern 3 was rare and only sporadically observed during N2 and N3. Wakefulness and REM sleep showed a similar pattern (pattern 1) with a slight amplitude reduction in REM sleep. Despite the presence of an almost continuous discharge, sleep is an important modulator of the pathological EEG patterns found in FCD type II. This might suggest that dysplastic tissue is influenced by the thalamo-cortical control mechanisms involved in the generation of sleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.


    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  10. The cortical signature of impaired gesturing: Findings from schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Verena Viher


    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in gesturing that is important for nonverbal communication. Research in healthy participants and brain-damaged patients revealed a left-lateralized fronto-parieto-temporal network underlying gesture performance. First evidence from structural imaging studies in schizophrenia corroborates these results. However, as of yet, it is unclear if cortical thickness abnormalities contribute to impairments in gesture performance. We hypothesized that patients with deficits in gesture production show cortical thinning in 12 regions of interest (ROIs of a gesture network relevant for gesture performance and recognition. Forty patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls performed hand and finger gestures as either imitation or pantomime. Group differences in cortical thickness between patients with deficits, patients without deficits, and controls were explored using a multivariate analysis of covariance. In addition, the relationship between gesture recognition and cortical thickness was investigated. Patients with deficits in gesture production had reduced cortical thickness in eight ROIs, including the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior and inferior parietal lobes, and the superior and middle temporal gyri. Gesture recognition correlated with cortical thickness in fewer, but mainly the same, ROIs within the patient sample. In conclusion, our results show that impaired gesture production and recognition in schizophrenia is associated with cortical thinning in distinct areas of the gesture network.

  11. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training. (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  12. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.


    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  13. Cortical mechanisms underlying sensorimotor enhancement promoted by walking with haptic inputs in a virtual environment. (United States)

    Sangani, Samir; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce


    Sensorimotor integration is a complex process in the central nervous system that produces task-specific motor output based on selective and rapid integration of sensory information from multiple sources. This chapter reviews briefly the role of haptic cues in postural control during tandem stance and locomotion, focusing on sensorimotor enhancement of locomotion post stroke. The use of mixed-reality systems incorporating both haptic cues and virtual reality technology in gait rehabilitation post stroke is discussed. Over the last decade, researchers and clinicians have shown evidence of cerebral reorganization that underlies functional recovery after stroke based on results from neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. These imaging modalities are however limited in their capacity to measure cortical changes during extensive body motions in upright stance. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on the other hand provides a unique opportunity to measure cortical activity associated with postural control during locomotion. Evidence of cortical changes associated with sensorimotor enhancement induced by haptic touch during locomotion is revealed through fNIRS in a pilot study involving healthy individuals and a case study involving a chronic stroke patient. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced cortical thickness and increased surface area in antisocial personality disorder. (United States)

    Jiang, Weixiong; Li, Gang; Liu, Huasheng; Shi, Feng; Wang, Tao; Shen, Celina; Shen, Hui; Lee, Seong-Whan; Hu, Dewen; Wang, Wei; Shen, Dinggang


    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), one of whose characteristics is high impulsivity, is of great interest in the field of brain structure and function. However, little is known about possible impairments in the cortical anatomy in ASPD, in terms of cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), as well as their possible relationship with impulsivity. In this neuroimaging study, we first investigated the changes of CTh and SA in ASPD patients, in comparison to those of healthy controls, and then performed correlation analyses between these measures and the ability of impulse control. We found that ASPD patients showed thinner cortex while larger SA in several specific brain regions, i.e., bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), orbitofrontal and triangularis, insula cortex, precuneus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and left bank of superior temporal sulcus (STS). In addition, we also found that the ability of impulse control was positively correlated with CTh in the SFG, MFG, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), pars triangularis, superior temporal gyrus (STG), and insula cortex. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal simultaneous changes in CTh and SA in ASPD, as well as their relationship with impulsivity. These cortical structural changes may introduce uncontrolled and callous behavioral characteristic in ASPD patients, and these potential biomarkers may be very helpful in understanding the pathomechanism of ASPD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dance Experience and Associations with Cortical Gray Matter Thickness in the Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Porat


    Full Text Available Introduction: We investigated the effect dance experience may have on cortical gray matter thickness and cognitive performance in elderly participants with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: 39 cognitively normal and 48 MCI elderly participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifetime experience with music, dance, and song. Participants identified themselves as either dancers or nondancers. All participants received structural 1.5-tesla MRI scans and detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluations. An advanced 3D cortical mapping technique was then applied to calculate cortical thickness. Results: Despite having a trend-level significantly thinner cortex, dancers performed better in cognitive tasks involving learning and memory, such as the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II short delay free recall (p = 0.004, the CVLT-II long delay free recall (p = 0.003, and the CVLT-II learning over trials 1-5 (p = 0.001. Discussion: Together, these results suggest that dance may result in an enhancement of cognitive reserve in aging, which may help avert or delay MCI.

  16. Aphasia with left occipitotemporal hypometabolism: a novel presentation of posterior cortical atrophy? (United States)

    Wicklund, Meredith R; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Machulda, Mary M; Josephs, Keith A


    Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease often characterized by initial episodic memory loss. Atypical focal cortical presentations have been described, including the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) which presents with language impairment, and posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) which presents with prominent visuospatial deficits. Both lvPPA and PCA are characterized by specific patterns of hypometabolism: left temporoparietal in lvPPA and bilateral parietoccipital in PCA. However, not every patient fits neatly into these categories. We retrospectively identified two patients with progressive aphasia and visuospatial deficits from a speech and language based disorders study. The patients were further characterized by MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose F18 and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography. Two women, aged 62 and 69, presented with a history of a few years of progressive aphasia characterized by fluent output with normal grammar and syntax, anomia without loss of word meaning, and relatively spared repetition. They demonstrated striking deficits in visuospatial function for which they were lacking insight. Prominent hypometabolism was noted in the left occipitotemporal region and diffuse retention of PiB was noted. Posterior cortical atrophy may present focally with left occipitotemporal metabolism characterized clinically with a progressive fluent aphasia and prominent ventral visuospatial deficits with loss of insight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dance Experience and Associations with Cortical Gray Matter Thickness in the Aging Population. (United States)

    Porat, Shai; Goukasian, Naira; Hwang, Kristy S; Zanto, Theodore; Do, Triet; Pierce, Jonathan; Joshi, Shantanu; Woo, Ellen; Apostolova, Liana G


    We investigated the effect dance experience may have on cortical gray matter thickness and cognitive performance in elderly participants with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). 39 cognitively normal and 48 MCI elderly participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifetime experience with music, dance, and song. Participants identified themselves as either dancers or nondancers. All participants received structural 1.5-tesla MRI scans and detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluations. An advanced 3D cortical mapping technique was then applied to calculate cortical thickness. Despite having a trend-level significantly thinner cortex, dancers performed better in cognitive tasks involving learning and memory, such as the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) short delay free recall (p = 0.004), the CVLT-II long delay free recall (p = 0.003), and the CVLT-II learning over trials 1-5 (p = 0.001). Together, these results suggest that dance may result in an enhancement of cognitive reserve in aging, which may help avert or delay MCI.

  18. Activation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors reduces the excitability of cultured cortical neurons. (United States)

    Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Dang, Minyan; Luo, Bin; Guo, Yiping; Wang, Haitao


    The abundant forebrain serotonergic projections are believed to modulate the activities of cortical neurons. 5-HT2 receptor among multiple subtypes of serotonin receptors contributes to the modulation of excitability, synaptic transmissions and plasticity. In the present study, whole-cell patch-clamp recording was adopted to examine whether activation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors would have any impact on the excitability of cultured cortical neurons. We found that 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, rapidly and reversibly depressed spontaneous action potentials mimicking the effect of serotonin. The decreased excitability was also observed for current-evoked firing. Additionally DOI increased neuronal input resistance. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cationic channels (HCN) did not account for the inhibition of spontaneous firing. The synaptic contribution was ruled out in that DOI augmented excitation and attenuated inhibition to actually favor an increase in the excitability. Our findings revealed that activation of 5-HT2A/2C receptors reduces neuronal excitability, which would deepen our understanding of serotonergic modulation of cortical activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortical contractility triggers a stochastic switch to fast amoeboid cell motility. (United States)

    Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp


    3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of hyperelastic models for nonlinear elastic behavior of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone. (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, M; Ghoreishi, M; Narooei, K


    In this study, the hyperelastic models of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone were investigated and appropriate models were developed. Using uniaxial compression test data, the strain energy versus stretch was calculated and the appropriate hyperelastic strain energy functions were fitted on data in order to calculate the material parameters. To obtain the mechanical behavior in other loading conditions, the hyperelastic strain energy equations were investigated for pure shear and equi-biaxial tension loadings. The results showed the Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden models cannot predict the mechanical response of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone accurately, while the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models have a good agreement with the experimental results. To investigate the sensitivity of the hyperelastic models, a variation of 10% in material parameters was performed and the results indicated an acceptable stability for the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models. Finally, the uniaxial tension and compression of cortical femur bone were studied using the finite element method in VUMAT user subroutine of ABAQUS software and the computed stress-stretch curves were shown a good agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve. (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D


    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))


    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  3. Cortical activity in tinnitus patients and its modification by phonostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to observe spontaneous cortical activity and cortical activity modulated by tinnitus-matched sound in tinnitus patients and healthy subjects with no otoneurologic symptoms. METHOD: Data were prospectively collected from 50 tinnitus patients and 25 healthy subjects. Cortical activity was recorded in all subjects with eyes closed and open and during photostimulation, hyperventilation and acoustic stimulation using 19-channel quantitative electroencephalography. The sound applied in the tinnitus patients was individually matched with the ability to mask or equal the tinnitus. The maximal and mean amplitude of the delta, theta, alpha and beta waves and the type and amount of the pathologic EEG patterns were noted during each recording. Differences in cortical localization and the influence of sound stimuli on spontaneous cortical activity were evaluated between the groups. RESULTS: The tinnitus group exhibited decreased delta activity and increased alpha and beta activity. Hyperventilation increased the intensity of the differences. The tinnitus patients had more sharp-slow waves and increased slow wave amplitude. Sound stimuli modified the EEG recordings; the delta and beta wave amplitudes were increased, whereas the alpha-1 wave amplitude was decreased. Acoustic stimulation only slightly affected the temporal region. CONCLUSION: Cortical activity in the tinnitus patients clearly differed from that in healthy subjects, i.e., tinnitus is not a “phantom” sign. The changes in cortical activity included decreased delta wave amplitudes, increased alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-h wave amplitudes and pathologic patterns. Cortical activity modifications occurred predominantly in the temporal region. Acoustic stimulation affected spontaneous cortical activity only in tinnitus patients, and although the applied sound was individually matched, the pathologic changes were only slightly improved.

  4. The changing roles of neurons in the cortical subplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Friedlander


    Full Text Available Neurons may serve different functions over the course of an organism’s life. Recent evidence suggests that cortical subplate neurons including those that reside in the white matter may perform longitudinal multi-tasking at different stages of development. These cells play a key role in early cortical development in coordinating thalamocortical reciprocal innervation. At later stages of development, they become integrated within the cortical microcircuitry. This type of longitudinal multi-tasking can enhance the capacity for information processing by populations of cells serving different functions over the lifespan. Subplate cells are initially derived when cells from the ventricular zone underlying the cortex migrate to the cortical preplate that is subsequently split by the differentiating neurons of the cortical plate with some neurons locating in the marginal zone and others settling below in the subplate (SP. While the cortical plate neurons form most of the cortical layers (layers 2-6, the marginal zone neurons form layer 1 and the SP neurons become interstitial cells of the white matter as well as forming a compact sublayer along the bottom of layer 6. After serving as transient innervation targets for thalamocortical axons, most of these cells die and layer 4 neurons become innervated by thalamic axons. However, 10-20% survives, remaining into adulthood along the bottom of layer 6 and as a scattered population of interstitial neurons in the white matter. Surviving subplate cells’ axons project throughout the overlying laminae, reaching layer 1 and issuing axon collaterals within white matter and in lower layer 6. This suggests that they participate in local synaptic networks, as well. Moreover, they receive excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, potentially monitoring outputs from axon collaterals of cortical efferents, from cortical afferents and/or from each other. We explore our understanding of the functional connectivity of

  5. Does bilingualism contribute to cognitive reserve? Cognitive and neural perspectives. (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel


    Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were used as keywords for study retrieval: "bilingual AND reserve," "reserve AND neural mechanisms," and "reserve AND multilingualism." Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency, and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  7. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  8. Bilateral Cerebellar Cortical Dysplasia without Other Malformations: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Seok; Ahn Kook Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Sun Jin; Park, Jeong Mi [Catholic University Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Recent advances in MRI have revealed congenital brain malformations and subtle developmental abnormalities of the cerebral and cerebellar cortical architecture. Typical cerebellar cortical dysplasia as a newly categorized cerebellar malformation, has been seen in patients with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy. Cerebellar cortical dysplasia occurs at the embryonic stage and is often observed in healthy newborns. It is also incidentally and initially detected in adults without symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, cerebellar dysplasia without any related disorders is very rare. We describe the MRI findings in one patient with disorganized foliation of both cerebellar hemispheres without a related disorder or syndrome

  9. Adult Astrogenesis and the Etiology of Cortical Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal C. Mohn


    Full Text Available As more evidence points to a clear role for astrocytes in synaptic processing, synaptogenesis and cognition, continuing research on astrocytic function could lead to strategies for neurodegenerative disease prevention. Reactive astrogliosis results in astrocyte proliferation early in injury and disease states and is considered neuroprotective, indicating a role for astrocytes in disease etiology. This review describes the different types of human cortical astrocytes and the current evidence regarding adult cortical astrogenesis in injury and degenerative disease. A role for disrupted astrogenesis as a cause of cortical degeneration, with a focus on the tauopathies and synucleinopathies, will also be considered.

  10. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael


    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  11. Polygenic Risk for Schizophrenia Influences Cortical Gyrification in 2 Independent General Populations. (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Cui, Yue; Qin, Wen; Tao, Yan; Li, Jin; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi


    Schizophrenia is highly heritable, whereas the effect of each genetic variant is very weak. Since clinical heterogeneity and complexity of schizophrenia is high, considerable effort has been made to relate genetic variants to underlying neurobiological aspects of schizophrenia (endophenotypes). Given the polygenic nature of schizophrenia, our goal was to form a measure of additive genetic risk and explore its relationship to cortical morphology. Utilizing the data from a recent genome-wide association study that included nearly 37 000 cases of schizophrenia, we computed a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each subject in 2 independent and healthy general populations. We then investigated the effect of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on cortical gyrification calculated from 3.0T structural imaging data in the discovery dataset (N = 315) and replication dataset (N = 357). We found a consistent effect of the polygenic risk for schizophrenia on cortical gyrification in the inferior parietal lobules in 2 independent general-population samples. A higher PGRS was significantly associated with a lower local gyrification index in the bilateral inferior parietal lobles, where case-control differences have been reported in previous studies on schizophrenia. Our findings strongly support the effectiveness of both PGRSs and endophenotypes in establishing the genetic architecture of psychiatry. Our findings may provide some implications regarding individual differences in the genetic risk for schizophrenia to cortical morphology and brain development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  12. The cortical connectivity of the prefrontal cortex in the monkey brain. (United States)

    Yeterian, Edward H; Pandya, Deepak N; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael


    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and also with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal corticocortical

  13. [Reconstruction of periprosthetic fractures of hip with cortical bone plates allografts]. (United States)

    Zhou, Zong-ke; Pei, Fu-xing; Tu, Chong-qi; Yang, Jing; Shen, Bin; Liu, Lei; Fatou, Camara-yagouba


    To observe clinical results for reconstruction of periprosthetic fractures of hip with cortical bone plates allografts by deep-freezing and ethylene oxide treatment. Seven patients with periprosthetic fractures of hip underwent cortical bone plates allografts by deep-freezing at -70 degrees C after being treatment of 48 degrees C ethylene oxide. And evaluate clinical outcome by examining T lymphocytes, Harris scores, X-rays photograph, and bone scintigraphy. There were not activity of immune rejection and infection in all patients. Harris scores of patients increased 21, 32, 40, 40 scores at 3, 6, 12, 24 months after surgery. T-lymphocytes, antibody and immunocomplex in blood was normal postoperation. X-ray film indicated that fracture was healed at 3 months and there was partially bone conjunction between allograft strut and host bone. There was incorporation of 85% allograft strut to host bone, and 15% allograft strut was partially absorbed at 12 months after surgery. The size of femur of host was added 3 mm to 5 mm, averaged 4.3 mm at 12 months postoperation. Density of 80% allograft plates was as same as host bone after remodeling and the absorbtion of 10% allograft plates stopped at 24 months after surgery. There was thick of nuclein in the area of allograft cortical bone plates by bone scintigraphy examination at 3 months postoperation, and the thick of nuclein was stronger at 6, and 12 months after surgery. Allograft cortical bone plates by deep frozen at -70 degrees C after being treatment of 48 degrees C ethylene oxide is suitable for mechanical fixation and biological bone transplantation, and it can increase bone reservation, augment strength of femur once the allograft strut incorporates to host bone, and avoid removing metal implant in second operation when being applied into reconstruction femoral fracture in joint replacement.

  14. Cortical Strut Allograft Support of Modular Femoral Junctions During Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty. (United States)

    Lim, Chin Tat; Amanatullah, Derek F; Huddleston, James I; Hwang, Katherine L; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B


    There is risk of junction failure when using modular femoral stems for revision total hip arthroplasty (THA), especially with loss of bone stock in the proximal femur. Using a cortical strut allograft may provide additional support of a modular femoral construct in revision THA. We reviewed prospectively gathered clinical and radiographic data for 28 revision THAs performed from 2004 to 2014 using cementless modular femoral components with cortical strut allograft applied to supplement proximal femoral bone loss: 5 (18%) were fluted taper designs and 23 (82%) were porous cylindrical designs All the patients had a Paprosky grade IIIA or greater femoral defect. The mean follow-up was 5.4 ± 3.9 years. The Harris Hip Scores improved from 26 ± 10 points preoperatively to 71 ± 10 points at final follow-up (P hips) of all revision or conversion THAs were in place at final follow-up. Three (11%) patients underwent reoperations, 2 for infection and 1 for periprosthetic fracture. There was no statistical significant change in femoral component alignment (P = .161) at final follow-up. Mean subsidence was 1.8 ± 1.3 mm at final follow-up. Femoral diameter increased from initial postoperative imaging to final follow-up imaging by a mean of 9.1 ± 5.1 mm (P hips (96%) achieved union between the cortical strut allograft and the host femur. The use of a modular femoral stem in a compromised femur with a supplementary cortical strut allgraft is safe and provides satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early clinical results with cortically based pedicle screw trajectory for fusion of the degenerative lumbar spine. (United States)

    Glennie, R Andrew; Dea, Nicolas; Kwon, Brian K; Street, John T


    This study reviews the outcomes and revision rates of degenerative lumbar fusion surgery using cortical trajectory pedicle screws in lieu of traditional pedicle screw instrumentation. Pedicle screw fixation can be a challenge in patients with low bone mineral density. Wide posterior approaches to the lumbar spine exposing lateral to the facet joints and onto transverse processes causes an additional degree of muscular damage and blood loss not present with a simple laminectomy. A cortical bone trajectory pedicle screw has been proposed as an alternative to prevent screw pullout and decrease the morbidity associated with the wide posterior approach to the spine. We present a series of eight consecutive patients using a cortical bone trajectory instead of traditional pedicle screw fixation for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. A retrospective review of our institutional registry data identified eight patients who had cortical screws placed with the assistance of O-arm Stealth navigation (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) from 2010-2013. We analyzed the need for revision, the maintenance of reduction and the incidence of screw pullout or breakage. Our review demonstrated that two of eight patients were revised at an average of 12months. The reasons for these revisions were pseudarthrosis and caudal adjacent segment failure. All patients who were revised had frank screw loosening. We present early clinical results of a new technique that has been shown to have a better fixation profile in laboratory testing. Our less than favorable early clinical results should be interpreted with caution and highlight important technical issues which should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical perfusion in response to thalamic deep brain stimulation. (United States)

    Noor, M Sohail; Murari, Kartikeya; McCracken, Clinton B; Kiss, Zelma H T


    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has revolutionized the treatment of movement disorders. The parameters of electrical stimulation are important to its therapeutic effect and remain a source of clinical controversy. DBS exerts its actions not only locally at the site of stimulation but also remotely through afferent and efferent connections, which are vital to its clinical effects. Yet, only a few studies have examined how cortical activity changes in response to various electrical parameters. Here, we investigated how the parameters of thalamic DBS alter cortical perfusion in rats using intrinsic optical imaging. We hypothesized that thalamic DBS will increase perfusion in primary motor cortex (M1), proportional to amplitude, pulse width, or frequency of the stimulation applied. We applied 45 different combinations of amplitude, pulse width and frequency in the ventro-lateral (VL) nucleus of the thalamus in anesthetized rats while measuring perfusion in M1. VL thalamic DBS reduced cortical reflectance, which corresponds to an increase in cortical perfusion. We computed the maximum change in reflectance (MCR) as well as the spatial spread of MCR in each trial. Both MCR and spatial spread increased linearly with increases in current amplitude or pulse width of stimulation; however, the effect of frequency was non-linear. Stimulation at 20 Hz was significantly different from that at higher frequencies while stimulation at higher frequencies did not differ significantly from each other. Moreover, the effect of pulse width on MCR was larger than the effect of amplitude. The proportional increase in M1 perfusion due to increase in amplitude or pulse width suggests that both activate more neural elements and increase the volume of tissue activated. These results should help clinicians set parameters of DBS. The use of optical imaging to monitor effects of DBS on M1 may not only help understand DBS mechanisms, but may also provide feedback for closed loop DBS devices

  17. Learning in AN Oscillatory Cortical Model (United States)

    Scarpetta, Silvia; Li, Zhaoping; Hertz, John

    We study a model of generalized-Hebbian learning in asymmetric oscillatory neural networks modeling cortical areas such as hippocampus and olfactory cortex. The learning rule is based on the synaptic plasticity observed experimentally, in particular long-term potentiation and long-term depression of the synaptic efficacies depending on the relative timing of the pre- and postsynaptic activities during learning. The learned memory or representational states can be encoded by both the amplitude and the phase patterns of the oscillating neural populations, enabling more efficient and robust information coding than in conventional models of associative memory or input representation. Depending on the class of nonlinearity of the activation function, the model can function as an associative memory for oscillatory patterns (nonlinearity of class II) or can generalize from or interpolate between the learned states, appropriate for the function of input representation (nonlinearity of class I). In the former case, simulations of the model exhibits a first order transition between the "disordered state" and the "ordered" memory state.

  18. Minimally conscious state or cortically mediated state? (United States)

    Naccache, Lionel


    Durable impairments of consciousness are currently classified in three main neurological categories: comatose state, vegetative state (also recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state. While the introduction of minimally conscious state, in 2002, was a major progress to help clinicians recognize complex non-reflexive behaviours in the absence of functional communication, it raises several problems. The most important issue related to minimally conscious state lies in its criteria: while behavioural definition of minimally conscious state lacks any direct evidence of patient's conscious content or conscious state, it includes the adjective 'conscious'. I discuss this major problem in this review and propose a novel interpretation of minimally conscious state: its criteria do not inform us about the potential residual consciousness of patients, but they do inform us with certainty about the presence of a cortically mediated state. Based on this constructive criticism review, I suggest three proposals aiming at improving the way we describe the subjective and cognitive state of non-communicating patients. In particular, I present a tentative new classification of impairments of consciousness that combines behavioural evidence with functional brain imaging data, in order to probe directly and univocally residual conscious processes.

  19. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  20. Cortical activation following a balance disturbance. (United States)

    Quant, S; Adkin, A L; Staines, W R; McIlroy, W E


    Although recent work suggests that cortical processing can be involved in the control of balance responses, the central mechanisms involved in these reactions remain unclear. We presently investigated the characteristics of scalp-recorded perturbation-evoked responses (PERs) following a balance disturbance. Eight young adults stabilized an inverted pendulum using their ankle musculature while seated. When perturbations were applied to the pendulum, subjects were instructed to return (active condition) or not return (passive condition) the pendulum to its original stable position. Primary measures included peak latency and amplitude of early PERs (the first negative peak between 100 and 150 ms, N1), amplitude of late PERs (between 200 and 400 ms) and onset and initial amplitude of ankle muscle responses. Based on the timing of PERs, we hypothesized that N1 would represent sensory processing of the balance disturbance and that late PERs would be linked to the sensorimotor processing of balance corrections. Our results revealed that N1 was maximal over frontal-central electrode sites (FCz and Cz). Average N1 measures at FCz, Cz, and CPz were comparable between active and passive tasks ( p>0.05). In contrast, the amplitude of late PERs at Cz was less positive for the active condition than for the passive ( psensory representation of early PERs. Differences in late PERs may represent sensorimotor processing related to the execution of balance responses.

  1. Workbench surface editor of brain cortical surface (United States)

    Dow, Douglas E.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Serra, Luis


    We have developed a 3D reach-in tool to manually reconstruct 3D cortical surface patches from 2D brain atlas images. The first application of our cortex editor is building 3D functional maps, specifically Brodmann's areas. This tool may also be useful in clinical practice to adjust incorrectly mapped atlas regions due to the deforming effect of lesions. The cortex editor allows a domain expert to control the correlation of control points across slices. Correct correlation has been difficult for 3D reconstruction algorithms because the atlas slices are far apart and because of the complex topology of the cortex which differs so much from slice to slice. Also, higher precision of the resulting surfaces is demanded since these define 3D brain atlas features upon which future stereotactic surgery may be based. The cortex editor described in this paper provides a tool suitable for a domain expert to use in defining the 3D surface of a Brodmann's area.

  2. Canonical Coordinates for Retino-Cortical Magnification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Florack


    Full Text Available A geometric model for a biologically-inspired visual front-end is proposed, based on an isotropic, scale-invariant two-form field. The model incorporates a foveal property typical of biological visual systems, with an approximately linear decrease of resolution as a function of eccentricity, and by a physical size constant that measures the radius of the geometric foveola, the central region characterized by maximal resolving power. It admits a description in singularity-free canonical coordinates generalizing the familiar log-polar coordinates and reducing to these in the asymptotic case of negligibly-sized geometric foveola or, equivalently, at peripheral locations in the visual field. It has predictive power to the extent that quantitative geometric relationships pertaining to retino-cortical magnification along the primary visual pathway, such as receptive field size distribution and spatial arrangement in retina and striate cortex, can be deduced in a principled manner. The biological plausibility of the model is demonstrated by comparison with known facts of human vision.

  3. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy. (United States)

    Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J


    We report (1) the quantitative investigation of text reading in posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and (2) the effects of 2 novel software-based reading aids that result in dramatic improvements in the reading ability of patients with PCA. Reading performance, eye movements, and fixations were assessed in patients with PCA and typical Alzheimer disease and in healthy controls (experiment 1). Two reading aids (single- and double-word) were evaluated based on the notion that reducing the spatial and oculomotor demands of text reading might support reading in PCA (experiment 2). Mean reading accuracy in patients with PCA was significantly worse (57%) compared with both patients with typical Alzheimer disease (98%) and healthy controls (99%); spatial aspects of passages were the primary determinants of text reading ability in PCA. Both aids led to considerable gains in reading accuracy (PCA mean reading accuracy: single-word reading aid = 96%; individual patient improvement range: 6%-270%) and self-rated measures of reading. Data suggest a greater efficiency of fixations and eye movements under the single-word reading aid in patients with PCA. These findings demonstrate how neurologic characterization of a neurodegenerative syndrome (PCA) and detailed cognitive analysis of an important everyday skill (reading) can combine to yield aids capable of supporting important everyday functional abilities. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with PCA, 2 software-based reading aids (single-word and double-word) improve reading accuracy. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Incidental Transient Cortical Blindness after Lung Resection (United States)

    Oncel, Murat; Sunam, Guven Sadi; Varoglu, Asuman Orhan; Karabagli, Hakan; Yildiran, Huseyin


    Transient vision loss after major surgical procedures is a rare clinical complication. The most common etiologies are cardiac, spinal, head, and neck surgeries. There has been no report on vision loss after lung resection. A 65-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with lung cancer. Resection was performed using right upper lobectomy with no complications. Cortical blindness developed 12 hours later in the postoperative period. Results from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted investigations were normal. The neurologic examination was normal. The blood glucose level was 92 mg/dL and blood gas analysis showed a PO 2 of 82 mm Hg. After 24 hours, the patient began to see and could count fingers, and his vision was fully restored within 72 hours after this point. Autonomic dysfunction due to impaired microvascular structures in diabetes mellitus may induce posterior circulation dysfunction, even when the hemodynamic state is normal in the perioperative period. The physician must keep in mind that vision loss may occur after lung resection due to autonomic dysfunction, especially in older patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28824977

  5. Cortical oscillatory activity during spatial echoic memory. (United States)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Walker, Florian; Leiberg, Susanne; Lutzenberger, Werner


    In human magnetoencephalogram, we have found gamma-band activity (GBA), a putative measure of cortical network synchronization, during both bottom-up and top-down auditory processing. When sound positions had to be retained in short-term memory for 800 ms, enhanced GBA was detected over posterior parietal cortex, possibly reflecting the activation of higher sensory storage systems along the hypothesized auditory dorsal space processing stream. Additional prefrontal GBA increases suggested an involvement of central executive networks in stimulus maintenance. The present study assessed spatial echoic memory with the same stimuli but a shorter memorization interval of 200 ms. Statistical probability mapping revealed posterior parietal GBA increases at 80 Hz near the end of the memory phase and both gamma and theta enhancements in response to the test stimulus. In contrast to the previous short-term memory study, no prefrontal gamma or theta enhancements were detected. This suggests that spatial echoic memory is performed by networks along the putative auditory dorsal stream, without requiring an involvement of prefrontal executive regions.

  6. Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, P E; Friberg, L


    These experiments were undertaken to demonstrate that pure mental activity, thinking, increases the cerebral blood flow and that different types of thinking increase the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in different cortical areas. As a first approach, thinking was defined as brain work in the....... The activation of the right midtemporal cortex was attributed to the retrieval of the nonverbal auditory memory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...... study was taken with the subjects at rest. Then the rCBF was measured during three different simple algorithm tasks, each consisting of retrieval of a specific memory followed by a simple operation on the retrieved information. Once started, the information processing went on in the brain without any......CBF increases extended over a few square centimeters of the cortex. The activation of the superior prefrontal cortex was attributed to the organization of thinking. The activation of the angular cortex in 50-3 thinking was attributed to the retrieval of the numerical memory and memory for subtractions...

  7. Pathogenetic mechanisms of focal cortical dysplasia. (United States)

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Guerrini, Renzo; Gleeson, Joseph G


    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) constitute a prevalent cause of intractable epilepsy in children, and is one of the leading conditions requiring epilepsy surgery. Despite recent advances in the cellular and molecular biology of these conditions, the pathogenetic mechanisms of FCDs remain largely unknown. The purpose if this work is to review the molecular underpinnings of FCDs and to highlight potential therapeutic targets. A systematic review of the literature regarding the histologic, molecular, and electrophysiologic aspects of FCDs was conducted. Disruption of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling comprises a common pathway underlying the structural and electrical disturbances of some FCDs. Other mechanisms such as viral infections, prematurity, head trauma, and brain tumors are also posited. mTOR inhibitors (i.e., rapamycin) have shown positive results on seizure management in animal models and in a small cohort of patients with FCD. Encouraging progress has been achieved on the molecular and electrophysiologic basis of constitutive cells in the dysplastic tissue. Despite the promising results of mTOR inhibitors, large-scale randomized trials are in need to evaluate their efficacy and side effects, along with additional mechanistic studies for the development of novel, molecular-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account (United States)


    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  9. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  10. Hyperconnective and hypoconnective cortical and subcortical functional networks in multiple system atrophy. (United States)

    Rosskopf, Johannes; Gorges, Martin; Müller, Hans-Peter; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan


    In multiple system atrophy (MSA), the organization of the functional brain connectivity within cortical and subcortical networks and its clinical correlates remains to be investigated. Whole-brain based 'resting-state' fMRI data were obtained from 22 MSA patients (11 MSA-C, 11 MSA-P) and 22 matched healthy controls, together with standardized clinical assessment and video-oculographic recordings (EyeLink ® ). MSA patients vs. controls showed significantly higher ponto-cerebellar functional connectivity and lower default mode network connectivity (p hyperconnectivity) and a function disconnection syndrome (hypoconnectivity) that may occur in a consecutive sequence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood markers of fatty acids and vitamin D, cardiovascular measures, body mass index, and physical activity relate to longitudinal cortical thinning in normal aging. (United States)

    Walhovd, Kristine B; Storsve, Andreas B; Westlye, Lars T; Drevon, Christian A; Fjell, Anders M


    We hypothesized that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, and physical activity relate to cortical sparing, whereas higher levels of cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) relate to increased atrophy in the adult lifespan. Longitudinal measures of cortical thickness were derived from magnetic resonance imaging scans acquired (mean interval 3.6 years) from 203 healthy persons aged 23-87 years. At follow-up, measures of BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity were obtained. Blood levels of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, vitamin D, and cholesterol were measured in a subsample (n = 92). Effects were tested in cortical surface-based analyses, with sex, age, follow-up interval, and the interactions between each included as covariates. Higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid, vitamin D, and physical activity related to cortical sparing. Higher cholesterol and BMI related to increased cortical thinning. Effects were independent, did not interact with age, and the cholesterol effect was restricted to males. Eicosapentaenoic acid and blood pressure showed no effects. The observed effects show promise for potential factors to reduce cortical atrophy in normal aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cortical desmoid of the humerus: radiographic and MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Matthew; Counsel, Peter [Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Perth (Australia); Perth Radiological Clinic, Perth (Australia); Wood, David [Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Perth (Australia); Breidahl, William [Perth Radiological Clinic, Perth (Australia)


    Cortical desmoids are self-limiting fibro-osseous lesions commonly occurring at the medial supracondylar femur in active adolescents, at either the origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius or at the insertion of the adductor magnus aponeurosis. Less commonly, in a similar demographic, cortical desmoids may occur in the proximal humerus medially at the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle or laterally at the insertion of the deltoid. The radiographic appearance of the proximal humerus cortical desmoid has been described previously, but not the MRI appearance. We present the radiographic and MRI appearances of a proximal humerus cortical desmoid in a young adolescent who presented for investigation of right shoulder pain. (orig.)

  13. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: chronological changes on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan); Nishikawa, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan); Yasui, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22, Miyakojima-Hondouri, Miyakojima, Osaka 534 (Japan)


    We studied the MRI characteristics of cortical laminar necrosis in ischaemic stroke. We reviewed 13 patients with cortical laminar high signal on T1-weighted images to analyse the chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-density cortical lesions began to appear on T1-weighted images about 2 weeks after the ictus. At 1-2 months they were prominent. They began to fade from 3 months but could be seen up to 11 months. These cortical lesions showed isointensity or high intensity on T2-weighted images and did not show low intensity at any stage. Contrast enhancement of the laminar lesions was prominent at 1-2 months and became less apparent from 3 months, but could be seen up to 8 months. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Hippocampo-cortical coupling mediates memory consolidation during sleep. (United States)

    Maingret, Nicolas; Girardeau, Gabrielle; Todorova, Ralitsa; Goutierre, Marie; Zugaro, Michaël


    Memory consolidation is thought to involve a hippocampo-cortical dialog during sleep to stabilize labile memory traces for long-term storage. However, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. We dynamically manipulated the temporal coordination between the two structures during sleep following training on a spatial memory task specifically designed to trigger encoding, but not memory consolidation. Reinforcing the endogenous coordination between hippocampal sharp wave-ripples, cortical delta waves and spindles by timed electrical stimulation resulted in a reorganization of prefrontal cortical networks, along with subsequent increased prefrontal responsivity to the task and high recall performance on the next day, contrary to control rats, which performed at chance levels. Our results provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first direct evidence for a causal role of a hippocampo-cortical dialog during sleep in memory consolidation, and indicate that the underlying mechanism involves a fine-tuned coordination between sharp wave-ripples, delta waves and spindles.

  15. Cortical blindness in a boy with acute glomerulonephritis. (United States)

    Yang, Min-Hsien; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Wang, Shuoh-Jyh


    Post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis with hypertensive encephalopathy is characterized by episodic hypertension with headache, vomiting, and hematuria. The association between hypertensive encephalopathy and cortical blindness in children with acute glomerulonephritis is extremely rare. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with acute glomerulonephritis who presented with gross hematuria, headache, vomiting, and oliguria, and developed transient cortical blindness as a complication of hypertensive encephalopathy. No occurrence of seizure was observed during the clinical course. T2-weighted cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a high-intensity signal over cortical and subcortical areas of bilateral occipital regions. His vision recovered fully, 2 days after receiving antihypertensive therapy. The patient was well without complaint at 1-year follow-up. This case highlights the possibility that cortical blindness may develop as a complication of acute glomerulonephritis in children. Prevention of the occurrence of neurological deficits in children with acute glomerulonephritis and hypertensive encephalopathy requires careful evaluation and appropriate management of hypertension.

  16. Cortical desmoid of the humerus: radiographic and MRI correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Matthew; Counsel, Peter; Wood, David; Breidahl, William


    Cortical desmoids are self-limiting fibro-osseous lesions commonly occurring at the medial supracondylar femur in active adolescents, at either the origin of the medial head of the gastrocnemius or at the insertion of the adductor magnus aponeurosis. Less commonly, in a similar demographic, cortical desmoids may occur in the proximal humerus medially at the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle or laterally at the insertion of the deltoid. The radiographic appearance of the proximal humerus cortical desmoid has been described previously, but not the MRI appearance. We present the radiographic and MRI appearances of a proximal humerus cortical desmoid in a young adolescent who presented for investigation of right shoulder pain. (orig.)

  17. Flow of cortical activity underlying a tactile decision in mice


    Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Huber, Daniel; Ophir, Eran; Gutnisky, Diego; Ting, Jonathan T.; Feng, Guoping; Svoboda, Karel


    Perceptual decisions involve distributed cortical activity. Does information flow sequentially from one cortical area to another, or do networks of interconnected areas contribute at the same time? Here we delineate when and how activity in specific areas drives a whisker-based decision in mice. A short-term memory component temporally separated tactile “sensation” and “action” (licking). Using optogenetic inhibition (spatial resolution, 2 mm; temporal resolution, 100 ms), we surveyed the neo...

  18. Cortical spreading depression in migraine-time to reconsider?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J McComas


    Full Text Available New evidence concerning the pathophysiology of migraine has come from the results of therapeutic transcranial magnetic stimulation (tTMS. The instantaneous responses to single pulses applied during the aura or headache phase, together with a number of other observations, make it unlikely that cortical spreading depression is involved in migraine. tTMS is considered to act by abolishing abnormal impulse activity in cortical pyramidal neurons and a suggestion is made as to how this activity could arise.

  19. Working memory and left medial temporal cortical thickness


    Pastura, Giuseppe; Kubo, Tadeu Takao Almodovar; Regalla, Maria Angélica; Mesquita, Cíntia Machado; Coutinho, Gabriel; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Figueiredo, Otávio; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prüfer de Queiroz Campos


    ABSTRACT Objective To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. ...

  20. Loading and plotting of cortical surface representations in Nilearn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Huntenburg


    Full Text Available Processing neuroimaging data on the cortical surface traditionally requires dedicated heavy-weight software suites. Here, we present an initial support of cortical surfaces in Python within the neuroimaging data processing toolbox Nilearn. We provide loading and plotting functions for different surface data formats with minimal dependencies, along with examples of their application. Limitations of the current implementation and potential next steps are discussed.

  1. The double cortical line: a sign of osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.


    The double cortical line is a radiographic sign of osteopenia which results from intracortical resorption of bone. This sign is frequently seen in humans with osteopenia but has received minimal attention in the veterinary literature. This report describes the double cortical line in cases of senile osteopenia, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, suspected renal secondary hyperparathyroidism and in the acetabulum following triple pelvic osteotomy for hip dysplasia

  2. Auditory midbrain processing is differentially modulated by auditory and visual cortices: An auditory fMRI study. (United States)

    Gao, Patrick P; Zhang, Jevin W; Fan, Shu-Juan; Sanes, Dan H; Wu, Ed X


    gain modulation is mediated primarily through direct projections and they point to future investigations of the differential roles of the direct and indirect projections in corticofugal modulation. In summary, our imaging findings demonstrate the large-scale descending influences, from both the auditory and visual cortices, on sound processing in different IC subdivisions. They can guide future studies on the coordinated activity across multiple regions of the auditory network, and its dysfunctions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.


    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  4. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.


    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  5. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.


    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  6. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations


    Musto, Richard J.


    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  7. Neurodevelopmental origins of abnormal cortical morphology in dissociative identity disorder. (United States)

    Reinders, A A T S; Chalavi, S; Schlumpf, Y R; Vissia, E M; Nijenhuis, E R S; Jäncke, L; Veltman, D J; Ecker, C


    To examine the two constitutes of cortical volume (CV), that is, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), in individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) with the view of gaining important novel insights into the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating DID. This study included 32 female patients with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Between-group differences in CV, thickness, and SA, the degree of spatial overlap between differences in CT and SA, and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV were assessed using a novel spatially unbiased vertex-wise approach. Whole-brain correlation analyses were performed between measures of cortical anatomy and dissociative symptoms and traumatization. Individuals with DID differed from controls in CV, CT, and SA, with significantly decreased CT in the insula, anterior cingulate, and parietal regions and reduced cortical SA in temporal and orbitofrontal cortices. Abnormalities in CT and SA shared only about 3% of all significantly different cerebral surface locations and involved distinct contributions to the abnormality of CV in DID. Significant negative associations between abnormal brain morphology (SA and CV) and dissociative symptoms and early childhood traumatization (0 and 3 years of age) were found. In DID, neuroanatomical areas with decreased CT and SA are in different locations in the brain. As CT and SA have distinct genetic and developmental origins, our findings may indicate that different neurobiological mechanisms and environmental factors impact on cortical morphology in DID, such as early childhood traumatization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The cortical representation of sensory inputs arising from bone. (United States)

    Ivanusic, Jason J; Sahai, Vineet; Mahns, David A


    In the present study, we show that sensory information from bone reaches the discriminative areas of the somatosensory cortices by electrically stimulating the nerve to the cat humerus and recording evoked potentials on the surface of the primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortex. The SI focus was located over the rostral part of the postcruciate cortex, caudal to the lateral aspect of the cruciate sulcus. The SII focus was identified on the anterior ectosylvian gyrus, lateral to the suprasylvian sulcus. These foci were located adjacent to, or within areas that responded to stimulation of the median, ulnar and/or musculocutaneous nerves. The latency (6-11 ms) to onset of cortical responses in SI and SII were indistinguishable (unpaired t-test; P>0.05), and were consistent with activation of A delta fibers in the peripheral nerve. The amplitudes of the cortical responses were graded as a function of stimulus intensity, and may reflect a mechanism for intensity coding. We did not observe long latency cortical responses (50-300 ms) that would be consistent with C fiber activation in the peripheral nerve, and provide evidence that this may be attributable to inhibition of cortical responsiveness following the initial A delta response. Our finding of discrete, short latency evoked potentials (presumably of A delta origin) in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, following stimulation of a nerve innervating bone, may reflect a mechanism for the discriminative component of bone pain.

  9. Somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in cortical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Yavorska


    Full Text Available Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles. SOM cells can be differentially modulated by behavioral state depending on their class, sensory system, and behavioral paradigm. The functional effects of such modulation have been studied with optogenetic manipulation of SOM cells, which produces effects on learning and memory, task performance, and the integration of cortical activity. Different classes of SOM cells participate in distinct disinhibitory circuits with different inhibitory partners and in different cortical layers. Through these disinhibitory circuits, SOM cells help encode the behavioral relevance of sensory stimuli by regulating the activity of cortical neurons based on subcortical and intracortical modulatory input. Associative learning leads to long-term changes in the strength of connectivity of SOM cells with other neurons, often influencing the strength of inhibitory input they receive. Thus despite their heterogeneity and variability across cortical areas, current evidence shows that SOM neurons perform unique neural computations, forming not only distinct molecular but also functional subclasses of cortical inhibitory interneurons.

  10. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kitaura

    detailed level, decreased flow from right inferior frontal gyrus to anterior cingulate cortex for theta, and low and high alpha oscillations, and increased feedback (bidirectional flow between left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, were observed during the arithmetic task. Conclusions: Task related medial prefrontal increase in theta oscillations possibly corresponds to frontal midline theta, while parietal decreased alpha1 activity indicates the active role of this region in the numerical task. Task related decrease of intracortical right hemispheric connectivity support the notion that these nodes need to disengage from one another in order to not interfere with the ongoing numerical processing. The bidirectional feedback between left frontal-temporal-parietal regions in the arithmetic task is very likely to be related to attention network working memory function. Significance: The methods of analysis and the results presented here will hopefully contribute to clarify the roles of the different EEG oscillations during sustained attention, both in terms of their functional localization and in terms of how they integrate brain function by supporting information flow between different cortical regions. The methodology presented here might be clinically relevant in evaluating abnormal attention function. Keywords: Quantitative EEG, sLORETA, iCoh, Directional connectivity, Frontal midline theta, Attention network, Mental arithmetic, Fronto-parietal network, Directional flow, Attention task, Granger causality

  11. Computational Study of Subdural Cortical Stimulation: Effects of Simulating Anisotropic Conductivity on Activation of Cortical Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seo

    Full Text Available Subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS is an appealing method in the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of SuCS have been applied to determine the optimal design for electrotherapy. To achieve a better understanding of computational modeling on the stimulation effects of SuCS, the influence of anisotropic white matter conductivity on the activation of cortical neurons was investigated in a realistic head model. In this paper, we constructed pyramidal neuronal models (layers 3 and 5 that showed primary excitation of the corticospinal tract, and an anatomically realistic head model reflecting complex brain geometry. The anisotropic information was acquired from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI and then applied to the white matter at various ratios of anisotropic conductivity. First, we compared the isotropic and anisotropic models; compared to the isotropic model, the anisotropic model showed that neurons were activated in the deeper bank during cathodal stimulation and in the wider crown during anodal stimulation. Second, several popular anisotropic principles were adapted to investigate the effects of variations in anisotropic information. We observed that excitation thresholds varied with anisotropic principles, especially with anodal stimulation. Overall, incorporating anisotropic conductivity into the anatomically realistic head model is critical for accurate estimation of neuronal responses; however, caution should be used in the selection of anisotropic information.

  12. Changes in cortical plasticity across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina eFreitas


    Full Text Available Deterioration of motor and cognitive performance with advancing age is well documented, but its cause remains unknown. Animal studies dating back to the late 1970’s reveal that age-associated neurocognitive changes are linked to age-dependent changes in synaptic plasticity, including alterations of long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques enable measurement of LTP- and LTD-like mechanisms of plasticity, in vivo, in humans, and may thus provide valuable insights. We examined the effects of a 40-second train of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS to the motor cortex (600 stimuli, 3 pulses at 50 Hz applied at a frequency of 5 Hz on cortico-spinal excitability as measured by the motor evoked potentials (MEPs induced by single-pulse TMS before and after cTBS in the contralateral first dorsal interosseus muscle. Thirty-six healthy individuals aged 19 to 81 years old were studied in two sites (Boston, USA and Barcelona, Spain. The findings did not differ across study sites. We found that advancing age is negatively correlated with the duration of the effect of cTBS (r = -0.367; p = 0.028 and the overall amount of corticomotor suppression induced by cTBS (r = -0.478; p = 0.003, and positively correlated with the maximal suppression of amplitude on motor evoked responses in the target muscle (r = 0.420; p = 0.011. We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based individual morphometric analysis in a subset of subjects to demonstrate that these findings are not explained by age-related brain atrophy or differences in scalp-to-brain distance that could have affected the TBS effects. Our findings provide empirical evidence that the mechanisms of cortical plasticity area are altered with aging and their efficiency decreases across the human lifespan. This may critically contribute to motor and possibly cognitive decline.

  13. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Timme


    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  14. Visual neglect in posterior cortical atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Katia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In posterior cortical atrophy (PCA, there is a progressive impairment of high-level visual functions and parietal damage, which might predict the occurrence of visual neglect. However, neglect may pass undetected if not assessed with specific tests, and might therefore be underestimated in PCA. In this prospective study, we aimed at establishing the side, the frequency and the severity of visual neglect, visual extinction, and primary visual field defects in an unselected sample of PCA patients. Methods Twenty-four right-handed PCA patients underwent a standardized battery of neglect tests. Visual fields were examined clinically by the confrontation method. Results Sixteen of the 24 patients (66% had signs of visual neglect on at least one test, and fourteen (58% also had visual extinction or hemianopia. Five patients (21% had neither neglect nor visual field defects. As expected, left-sided neglect was more severe than right-sided neglect. However, right-sided neglect resulted more frequently in this population (29% than in previous studies on focal brain lesions. Conclusion When assessed with specific visuospatial tests, visual neglect is frequent in patients with PCA. Diagnosis of neglect is important because of its negative impact on daily activities. Clinicians should consider the routine use of neglect tests to screen patients with high-level visual deficits. The relatively high frequency of right-sided neglect in neurodegenerative patients supports the hypothesis that bilateral brain damage is necessary for right-sided neglect signs to occur, perhaps because of the presence in the right hemisphere of crucial structures whose damage contributes to neglect.

  15. On the homogeneity and heterogeneity of cortical thickness profiles in Homo sapiens sapiens. (United States)

    Koten, Jan Willem; Schüppen, André; Morozova, Maria; Lehofer, Agnes; Koschutnig, Karl; Wood, Guilherme


    Cortical thickness has been investigated since the beginning of the 20th century, but we do not know how similar the cortical thickness profiles among humans are. In this study, the local similarity of cortical thickness profiles was investigated using sliding window methods. Here, we show that approximately 5% of the cortical thickness profiles are similarly expressed among humans while 45% of the cortical thickness profiles show a high level of heterogeneity. Therefore, heterogeneity is the rule, not the exception. Cortical thickness profiles of somatosensory homunculi and the anterior insula are consistent among humans, while the cortical thickness profiles of the motor homunculus are more variable. Cortical thickness profiles of homunculi that code for muscle position and skin stimulation are highly similar among humans despite large differences in sex, education, and age. This finding suggests that the structure of these cortices remains well preserved over a lifetime. Our observations possibly relativize opinions on cortical plasticity.

  16. Surgical management of cortical dysplasia in infancy and early childhood. (United States)

    Otsuki, Taisuke; Honda, Ryoko; Takahashi, Akio; Kaido, Takanobu; Kaneko, Yu; Nakai, Tetsuji; Saito, Yuko; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki


    To describe operative procedures, seizure control and complications of surgery for cortical dysplasia (CD) causing intractable epilepsy in infancy and early childhood. Fifty-six consecutive children (less than 6years old) underwent resective epilepsy surgery for CD from December 2000 to August 2011. Age at surgery ranged from 2 to 69months (mean 23months) and the follow-up was from 1 to 11years (mean 4years 4months). Half of the children underwent surgery during infancy at an age less than 10months, and the majority (80%) of these infants needed extensive surgical procedures, such as hemispherotomy and multi-lobar disconnection. Seizure free (ILAE class 1) outcome was obtained in 66% of the cases (class 1a; 55%): 85% with focal resection (n=13), 50% with lobar resection (n=18), 71% with multilobar disconnection (n=7) and 67% with hemispherotomy (n=18). Peri-ventricular and insular structures were resected in 23% of focal and 61% of lobar resections. Repeated surgery was performed in 9 children and 5 (56%) became seizure free. Histological subtypes included hemimegalencephaly (16 patients), polymicrogyria (5 patients), and FCD type I (6 patients), type IIA (19 patients), type IIB (10 patients). Polymicrogyria had the worst seizure outcome compared to other pathologies. Surgical complications included 1 post-operative hydrocephalus, 1 chronic subdural hematoma, 2 intracranial cysts, and 1 case of meningitis. No mortality or severe morbidities occurred. Early surgical intervention in children with CD and intractable seizures in infancy and early childhood can yield favorable seizure outcome without mortality or severe morbidities although younger children often need extensive surgical procedures. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam


    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  18. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo


    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  19. Cognition in multiple sclerosis: Between cognitive reserve and brain volume. (United States)

    Fenu, G; Lorefice, L; Arru, M; Sechi, V; Loi, L; Contu, F; Cabras, F; Coghe, G; Frau, J; Fronza, M; Sbrescia, G; Lai, V; Boi, M; Mallus, S; Murru, S; Porcu, A; Barracciu, M A; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E


    Several correlations between cognitive impairment (CI), radiologic markers and cognitive reserve (CR) have been documented in MS. To evaluate correlation between CI and brain volume (BV) considering CR as possibile mitigating factor. 195 relapsing MS patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment using BICAMS. BV was estimated using SIENAX to obtain normalized volume of brain (NBV), white matter (NWV), gray matter (NGV) and cortical gray matter (CGV). CR was estimated using a previously validated tool. Pearson test showed a correlation between the symbol digit modality test (SDMT) score and NBV (r=0.38; pcognitive impaired and preserved patients regarding mean of NBV(p=0.002), NGV(p=0.007), CGV(p=0.002) and CR Scores (p=0.007). Anova showed a association between the presence of CI (dependent variable) and the interaction term CRIQ × CGV (p=0.004) whit adjustment for age and disability evaluated by EDSS. Our study shows a correlation between cognition and BV, in particular gray matter volume. Cognitive reserve is also confirmed as an important element playing a role in the complex interaction to determine the cognitive functions in MS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Bilingualism Contribute to Cognitive Reserve? Cognitive and Neural Perspectives (United States)

    Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel


    Objective Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology in order to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve in order to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. Method Pubmed and PsychINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were employed as keywords for study retrieval: ‘bilingual AND reserve’, ‘reserve AND neural mechanisms’, and ‘reserve AND multilingualism’. Results Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Conclusions Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PMID:24933492

  1. Empirical evidence for the relationship between cognitive workload and attentional reserve. (United States)

    Jaquess, Kyle J; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Lo, Li-Chuan; Oh, Hyuk; Zhang, Jing; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Miller, Matthew W; Tan, Ying Ying; Hatfield, Bradley D


    While the concepts of cognitive workload and attentional reserve have been thought to have an inverse relationship for some time, such a relationship has never been empirically tested. This was the purpose of the present study. Aspects of the electroencephalogram were used to assess both cognitive workload and attentional reserve. Specifically, spectral measures of cortical activation were used to assess cognitive workload, while amplitudes of the event-related potential from the presentation of unattended "novel" sounds were used to assess attentional reserve. The relationship between these two families of measures was assessed using canonical correlation. Twenty-seven participants performed a flight simulator task under three levels of challenge. Verification of manipulation was performed using self-report measures of task demand, objective task performance, and heart rate variability using electrocardiography. Results revealed a strong, negative relationship between the spectral measures of cortical activation, believed to be representative of cognitive workload, and ERP amplitudes, believed to be representative of attentional reserve. This finding provides support for the theoretical and intuitive notion that cognitive workload and attentional reserve are inversely related. The practical implications of this result include improved state classification using advanced machine learning techniques, enhanced personnel selection/recruitment/placement, and augmented learning/training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Juxtacortical Lesions and Cortical Thinning in Multiple Sclerosis. (United States)

    Pareto, D; Sastre-Garriga, J; Auger, C; Vives-Gilabert, Y; Delgado, J; Tintoré, M; Montalban, X; Rovira, A


    The role of juxtacortical lesions in brain volume loss in multiple sclerosis has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the role of juxtacortical lesions on cortical atrophy and to investigate whether the presence of juxtacortical lesions is related to local cortical thinning in the early stages of MS. A total of 131 patients with clinically isolated syndrome or with relapsing-remitting MS were scanned on a 3T system. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome were classified into 3 groups based on the presence and topography of brain lesions: no lesions (n = 24), only non-juxtacortical lesions (n = 33), and juxtacortical lesions and non-juxtacortical lesions (n = 34). Patients with relapsing-remitting MS were classified into 2 groups: only non-juxtacortical lesions (n = 10) and with non-juxtacortical lesions and juxtacortical lesions (n = 30). A juxtacortical lesion probability map was generated, and cortical thickness was measured by using FreeSurfer. Juxtacortical lesion volume in relapsing-remitting MS was double that of patients with clinically isolated syndrome. The insula showed the highest density of juxtacortical lesions, followed by the temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes. Patients with relapsing-remitting MS with juxtacortical lesions showed significantly thinner cortices overall and in the parietal and temporal lobes compared with those with clinically isolated syndrome with normal brain MR imaging. The volume of subcortical structures (thalamus, pallidum, putamen, and accumbens) was significantly decreased in relapsing-remitting MS with juxtacortical lesions compared with clinically isolated syndrome with normal brain MR imaging. The spatial distribution of juxtacortical lesions was not found to overlap with areas of cortical thinning. Cortical thinning and subcortical gray matter volume loss in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing-remitting MS was related to the presence of juxtacortical

  3. Abnormalities of cortical structures in adolescent-onset conduct disorder. (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Guo, X; Zhang, J; Gao, J; Wang, X; Situ, W; Yi, J; Zhang, X; Zhu, X; Yao, S; Huang, B


    Converging evidence has revealed both functional and structural abnormalities in adolescents with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD). The neurological abnormalities underlying EO-CD may be different from that of adolescent-onset conduct disorder (AO-CD) patients. However, the cortical structure in AO-CD patients remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortical alterations in AO-CD patients. We investigated T1-weighted brain images from AO-CD patients and age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched controls. Cortical structures including thickness, folding and surface area were measured using the surface-based morphometric method. Furthermore, we assessed impulsivity and antisocial symptoms using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD). Compared with the controls, we found significant cortical thinning in the paralimbic system in AO-CD patients. For the first time, we observed cortical thinning in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in AO-CD patients which has not been reported in EO-CD patients. Prominent folding abnormalities were found in the paralimbic structures and frontal cortex while diminished surface areas were shown in the precentral and inferior temporal cortex. Furthermore, cortical thickness of the paralimbic structures was found to be negatively correlated with impulsivity and antisocial behaviors measured by the BIS and APSD, respectively. The present study indicates that AO-CD is characterized by cortical structural abnormalities in the paralimbic system, and, in particular, we highlight the potential role of deficient structures including the precuneus and PCC in the etiology of AO-CD.

  4. Preserved ability to recognize keywords related to remote events in the absence of retrieval of relevant knowledge: a case of postencephalitic amnesia. (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Ohtake, Hiroya; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Miura, Rina; Ogawa, Tatsuji; Yamadori, Atsushi


    We describe a case of severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia resulting from herpes simplex encephalitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pathological changes in the bilateral hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, fusiform gyri, medial temporal poles, posterior part of the cingulate gyri, and insula. The patient showed severe amnesia for autobiographical episodic memory in relation to events that had occurred throughout her life, but temporally graded amnesia for autobiographical semantic memory, and severe amnesia without a temporal gradient for public events and famous people. However, using a multiple-choice method, she showed a high level of accuracy when choosing keywords related to public or personal events, although this did not prompt her recollection of the events. An important indication of these results is that, even with severe retrograde amnesia, memories of past events are not completely lost. We propose that an event may be stored in a fragmented form, consisting of many components, and that normal recall of an event may require recombination or reconstruction of these components. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)

  5. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.


    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  6. Immunodissection and culture of rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, W.S.; Sonnenburg, W.K.; Allen, M.L.; Arend, L.J.; Gerozissis, K.; Smith, W.L.


    A mouse monoclonal antibody designated IgG 3 (rct-30) has been prepared that reacts specifically with an antigen on the surface of all cells comprising the cortical and medullary rabbit renal collecting tubule including the arcades. Plastic culture dishes coated with IgG 3 (rct-30) were used to isolate collecting tubule cells from collagenase dispersions of rabbit renal cortical cells by immunoadsorption. Typically, 10 6 rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT) cells were obtained from 5 g of renal cortex (2 kidneys). Between 20 and 30% of the RCCT cells were reactive with peanut lectin suggesting that RCCT cells are a mixture of principal and intercalated cells. Approximately 10 7 RCCT cells were obtained after 4 to 5 days in primary culture. Moreover, RCCT cells continued to proliferate after passaging with a doubling time of ∼32 h. RCCT cells passaged once and then cultured 4-5 days were found 1) to synthesize cAMP in response to arginine vasopressin (AVP), prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), isoproterenol, and parathyroid hormone, but not calcitonin, prostaglandin D 2 , or prostaglandin I, and 2) to release PGE 2 in response to bradykinin but not arginine vasopressin or isoproterenol. The results indicate that cultured RCCT cells retain many of the hormonal, histochemical, and morphological properties expected for a mixture of principal and intercalated rabbit cortical collecting tubule epithelia. RCCT cells should prove useful both for studying hormonal interactions in the cortical collecting tubule and as a starting population for isolating intercalated collecting tubule epithelia

  7. Cortical plasticity as a new endpoint measurement for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min


    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models of chronic pain are widely used to investigate basic mechanisms of chronic pain and to evaluate potential novel drugs for treating chronic pain. Among the different criteria used to measure chronic pain, behavioral responses are commonly used as the end point measurements. However, not all chronic pain conditions can be easily measured by behavioral responses such as the headache, phantom pain and pain related to spinal cord injury. Here I propose that cortical indexes, that indicate neuronal plastic changes in pain-related cortical areas, can be used as endpoint measurements for chronic pain. Such cortical indexes are not only useful for those chronic pain conditions where a suitable animal model is lacking, but also serve as additional screening methods for potential drugs to treat chronic pain in humans. These cortical indexes are activity-dependent immediate early genes, electrophysiological identified plastic changes and biochemical assays of signaling proteins. It can be used to evaluate novel analgesic compounds that may act at peripheral or spinal sites. I hope that these new cortical endpoint measurements will facilitate our search for new, and more effective, pain medicines, and help to reduce false lead drug targets.

  8. Buccal cortical bone thickness on CBCT for mini-implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Lim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jin; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Cortical bone thickness is one of the important factor in mini-implant stability. This study was performed to investigate the buccal cortical bone thickness at every interdental area as an aid in planning mini-implant placement. Two-dimensional slices at every interdental area were selected from the cone-beam computed tomography scans of 20 patients in third decade. Buccal cortical bone thickness was measured at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the alveolar crest in the interdental bones of posterior regions of both jaws using the plot profile function of Ez3D2009TM (Vatech, Yongin, Korea). The results were analyzed using by Mann-Whitney test. Buccal cortical bone was thicker in the mandible than in the maxilla. The thickness increased with further distance from the alveolar crest in the maxilla and with coming from the posterior to anterior region in the mandible (p?0.01). The maximum CT value showed an increasing tendency with further distance from the alveolar crest and with coming from posterior to anterior region in both jaws. Interdental buccal cortical bone thickness varied in both jaws, however our study showed a distinct tendency. We expect that these results could be helpful for the selection and preparation of mini-implant sites.

  9. Cortical Thickness and Episodic Memory Impairment in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. (United States)

    Bizzo, Bernardo Canedo; Sanchez, Tiago Arruda; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Netto, Tania Maria; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro


    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in brain cortical thickness of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without episodic memory impairment and healthy controls. We studied 51 patients divided in 2 groups (SLE with episodic memory deficit, n = 17; SLE without episodic memory deficit, n = 34) by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and 34 healthy controls. Groups were paired based on sex, age, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and accumulation of disease burden. Cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging scans was determined using the FreeSurfer software package. SLE patients with episodic memory deficits presented reduced cortical thickness in the left supramarginal cortex and superior temporal gyrus when compared to the control group and in the right superior frontal, caudal, and rostral middle frontal and precentral gyri when compared to the SLE group without episodic memory impairment considering time since diagnosis of SLE as covaried. There were no significant differences in the cortical thickness between the SLE without episodic memory and control groups. Different memory-related cortical regions thinning were found in the episodic memory deficit group when individually compared to the groups of patients without memory impairment and healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  10. Reduced frontal cortical thickness and increased caudate volume within fronto-striatal circuits in young adult smokers. (United States)

    Li, Yangding; Yuan, Kai; Cai, Chenxi; Feng, Dan; Yin, Junsen; Bi, Yanzhi; Shi, Sha; Yu, Dahua; Jin, Chenwang; von Deneen, Karen M; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie


    Smoking during early adulthood results in neurophysiological and brain structural changes that may promote nicotine dependence later in life. Previous studies have revealed the important roles of fronto-striatal circuits in the pathology of nicotine dependence; however, few studies have focused on both cortical thickness and subcortical striatal volume differences between young adult smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-seven young male adult smokers and 22 age-, education- and gender-matched nonsmokers were recruited in the present study. The cortical thickness and striatal volume differences of young adult smokers and age-matched nonsmokers were investigated in the present study and then correlated with pack-years and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). The following results were obtained: (1) young adult smokers showed significant cortical thinning in the frontal cortex (left caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)), left insula, left middle temporal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, and right parahippocampus; (2) in regards to subcortical striatal volume, the volume of the right caudate was larger in young adult smokers than nonsmokers; and (3) the cortical thickness of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and OFC were associated with nicotine dependence severity (FTND) and cumulative amount of nicotine intake (pack-years) in smokers, respectively. This study revealed reduced frontal cortical thickness and increased caudate volume in the fronto-striatal circuits in young adult smokers compared to nonsmokers. These deficits suggest an imbalance between cognitive control (reduced protection factors) and reward drive behaviours (increased risk factors) associated with nicotine addiction and relapse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel approach for monitoring writing interferences during navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation mappings of writing related cortical areas. (United States)

    Rogić Vidaković, Maja; Gabelica, Dragan; Vujović, Igor; Šoda, Joško; Batarelo, Nikolina; Džimbeg, Andrija; Zmajević Schönwald, Marina; Rotim, Krešimir; Đogaš, Zoran


    It has recently been shown that navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is useful in preoperative neurosurgical mapping of motor and language brain areas. In TMS mapping of motor cortices the evoked responses can be quantitatively monitored by electromyographic (EMG) recordings. No such setup exists for monitoring of writing during nTMS mappings of writing related cortical areas. We present a novel approach for monitoring writing during nTMS mappings of motor writing related cortical areas. To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of quantitative monitoring of motor evoked responses from hand by EMG, and of pen related activity during writing with our custom made pen, together with the application of chronometric TMS design and patterned protocol of rTMS. The method was applied in four healthy subjects participating in writing during nTMS mapping of the premotor cortical area corresponding to BA 6 and close to the superior frontal sulcus. The results showed that stimulation impaired writing in all subjects. The corresponding spectra of measured signal related to writing movements was observed in the frequency band 0-20 Hz. Magnetic stimulation affected writing by suppressing normal writing frequency band. The proposed setup for monitoring of writing provides additional quantitative data for monitoring and the analysis of rTMS induced writing response modifications. The setup can be useful for investigation of neurophysiologic mechanisms of writing, for therapeutic effects of nTMS, and in preoperative mapping of language cortical areas in patients undergoing brain surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cortical excitability changes following grasping exercise augmented with electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsi, Gergely Istvan; Popovic, Dejan B.; Tarkka, Ina M.


    Rehabilitation with augmented electrical stimulation can enhance functional recovery after stroke, and cortical plasticity may play a role in this process. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three training paradigms on cortical excitability in healthy subjects. Cortical......) functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the finger flexors and extensors, (2) voluntary movement (VOL) with sensory stimulation, and (3) therapeutic FES (TFES) where the electrical stimulation augmented voluntary activation. TFES training produced a significant increase in MEP magnitude throughout...... excitability was evaluated by analysing the input-output relationship between transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the flexor muscles of the fingers. The study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers who underwent 20-min simulated therapy sessions of: (1...

  13. Toward more versatile and intuitive cortical brain machine interfaces (United States)

    Andersen, Richard A.; Kellis, Spencer; Klaes, Christian; Aflalo, Tyson


    Brain machine interfaces have great potential in neuroprosthetic applications to assist patients with brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. One type of BMI is a cortical motor prosthetic which is used to assist paralyzed subjects. Motor prosthetics to date have typically used the motor cortex as a source of neural signals for controlling external devices. The review will focus on several new topics in the arena of cortical prosthetics. These include using 1) recordings from cortical areas outside motor cortex; 2) local field potentials (LFPs) as a source of recorded signals; 3) somatosensory feedback for more dexterous control of robotics; and 4) new decoding methods that work in concert to form an ecology of decode algorithms. These new advances hold promise in greatly accelerating the applicability and ease of operation of motor prosthetics. PMID:25247368


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin


    Full Text Available In spite of a notable advance made in epileptology, resistant epilepsies account for approximately 30 % of all forms of epilepsy particularly in patients with focal seizures. One of the main causes of therapy-resistant focal epilepsies is focal cortical dysplasias (FCD. This term was first introduced by D. Taylor et al. in 1971. FCD belongs to abnormal cortical development. Among all abnormalities of cortical development, FCD in surgically treated children amounts to 75 %. FCD is the most common cause of resistant epilepsy in children and the most frequent reason for diagnosing cryptogenic focal epilepsy with intractable seizures. The author gives a detailed literature review dedicated to FCD as a cause of resistant epilepsy, including the classification and histologic characteristics of FCD, its clinical manifestations and prognosis, and approaches to medical and surgical treatments. 

  15. Cortical laminar necrosis in brain infarcts: serial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskas, N.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Ioannidis, I.; Charitandi, A.; Dimitriadis, A.S. [Radiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki (Greece)


    High-signal cortical lesions are observed on T1-weighted images in cases of brain infarct. Histological examination has demonstrated these to be ''cortical laminar necrosis'', without haemorrhage or calcification. We report serial MRI in this condition in 12 patients with brain infarcts. We looked at high-signal lesions on T1-weighted images, chronological changes in signal intensity and contrast enhancement. High-signal cortical lesions began to appear about 2 weeks after the ictus, were prominent at 1 - 2 months, then became less evident, but occasionally remained for up to 1.5 years. They gave high signal or were isointense on T2-weighted images and did not give low signal at any stage. Contrast enhancement of these lesions was prominent at 1 - 2 months, and less apparent from 3 months, but was seen up to 5 months. (orig.)

  16. Glycine Receptor α2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Avila


    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis.

  17. Is More Cortical Bone Decortication Effective on Guided Bone Augmentation? (United States)

    Acar, Ahmet Hüseyin; Alan, Hilal; Özgür, Cem; Vardi, Nigar; Asutay, Fatih; Güler, Çiğdem


    This study aims to evaluate the possible effect of more cortical bone decortication (CBD) on guided bone augmentation. A total of 16 New Zealand rabbits and 32 titanium domes were used. No cortical bone decortication was applied to the control group and in the study groups, the cortical bones were decorticated with a round burr (Group A: 1 hole with bleeding, Group B: 5 holes with bleeding, Group C: a thin layer of compact bone was completely removed with no bleeding). Then 2 titanium domes were placed on the calvarium of each rabbit with hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate. After 3 months, the animals were sacrificed and specimens were sent for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological and histomorphometric analysis showed that bone decortication with burr significantly increased new bone regeneration in all the experimental groups compared with the control group (P guided bone augmentation. However, a greater amount of CBD does not have a greater effect.

  18. [Cortical representation of nonclassical parts of the visual system]. (United States)

    Lukanidina, V E; Zagorul'ko, T M


    Cortical evoked potentials and extracellular evoked neuronal activity have been investigated in unanesthetized d-curarine immobilized rats during stimulation of the superior colliculi. The focus of responses was found in the lateral part of the visual neocortex (area 18a according to Krieg [5]). The evoked potential includes a negative and subsequent positive waves, its latency being equal to 7.9 +/- 2.8 msec. With deepening the electrode the amplitude of the response decreases, although its polarity remains unchanged. The neuronal activity is of phasic character. During simultaneous record of the evoked potentials and neuronal activity, temporal correlation between impulse activity and the ascending part of the main negative wave of the EP is observed. The data obtained indicate imcomplete overlapping of the retino-geniculo-cortical and retino-tecto-thalamo-cortical channels in the visual system of rats.

  19. Adolescent THC Exposure Causes Enduring Prefrontal Cortical Disruption of GABAergic Inhibition and Dysregulation of Sub-Cortical Dopamine Function. (United States)

    Renard, Justine; Szkudlarek, Hanna J; Kramar, Cecilia P; Jobson, Christina E L; Moura, Kyra; Rushlow, Walter J; Laviolette, Steven R


    Chronic adolescent marijuana use has been linked to the later development of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. GABAergic hypofunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a cardinal pathological feature of schizophrenia and may be a mechanism by which the PFC loses its ability to regulate sub-cortical dopamine (DA) resulting in schizophrenia-like neuropsychopathology. In the present study, we exposed adolescent rats to Δ-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component in marijuana. At adulthood, we characterized the functionality of PFC GABAergic neurotransmission and its regulation of sub-cortical DA function using molecular, behavioral and in-vivo electrophysiological analyses. Our findings revealed a persistent attenuation of PFC GABAergic function combined with a hyperactive neuronal state in PFC neurons and associated disruptions in cortical gamma oscillatory activity. These PFC abnormalities were accompanied by hyperactive DAergic neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and behavioral and cognitive abnormalities similar to those observed in psychiatric disorders. Remarkably, these neuronal and behavioral effects were reversed by pharmacological activation of GABA A receptors in the PFC. Together, these results identify a mechanistic link between dysregulated frontal cortical GABAergic inhibition and sub-cortical DAergic dysregulation, characteristic of well-established neuropsychiatric endophenotypes.

  20. Investigation of cortical thickness abnormalities in lithium-free adults with bipolar type I disorder using cortical pattern matching (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Shen, Jim K.; Penfold, Conor; Ahlf, Kyle; Rasser, Paul E.; Fischer, Jeffrey; Yang, Yilan; Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Altshuler, Lori L.


    Objective Several lines of evidence implicate gray matter abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in patients with bipolar disorder. Findings however, have been largely inconsistent across studies. Differences in patients’ medication status or mood state, or the application of traditional volumetric methods that are insensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences may have contributed to these inconsistent findings. Given this, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with cortical pattern matching methods to assess cortical thickness abnormalities in euthymic bipolar subjects who were not treated with lithium. Method Sixty-five subjects, including 34 lithium-free euthymic subjects with bipolar (type I) disorder and 31 healthy subjects were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were processed to measure cortical gray matter thickness. Cortical pattern matching methods associated homologous brain regions across subjects. Spatially normalized thickness maps were analyzed to assess illness effects and associations with clinical variables. Results Relative to healthy subjects, euthymic bipolar I subjects had significantly thinner gray matter in bilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Areas 11, 10, 8 and 44) and left anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann Areas 24/32). Additionally, thinning in these regions was more pronounced in patients with a history of psychosis. No areas of thicker cortex were detected in bipolar subjects versus healthy subjects. Conclusions Using a technique that is highly sensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences, significant regional cortical thinning was found in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21285139

  1. Resonance in subthalamo-cortical circuits in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Pogosyan, Alek; Wang, Shouyan; Averbeck, Bruno; Gaynor, Louise Doyle; Cantiniaux, Stéphanie; Witjas, Tatiana; Limousin, Patricia; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Peter


    Neuronal activity within and across the cortex and basal ganglia is pathologically synchronized, particularly at approximately 20 Hz in patients with Parkinson's disease. Defining how activities in spatially distributed brain regions overtly synchronize in narrow frequency bands is critical for understanding disease processes like Parkinson's disease. To address this, we studied cortical responses to electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) at various frequencies between 5 and 30 Hz in two cohorts of eight patients with Parkinson's disease from two different surgical centres. We found that evoked activity consisted of a series of diminishing waves with a peak latency of 21 ms for the first wave in the series. The cortical evoked potentials (cEPs) averaged in each group were well fitted by a damped oscillator function (r > or = 0.9, P < 0.00001). Fits suggested that the natural frequency of the subthalamo-cortical circuit was around 20 Hz. When the system was forced at this frequency by stimulation of the STN at 20 Hz, the undamped amplitude of the modelled cortical response increased relative to that with 5 Hz stimulation in both groups (P < or = 0.005), consistent with resonance. Restoration of dopaminergic input by treatment with levodopa increased the damping of oscillatory activity (as measured by the modelled damping factor) in both patient groups (P < or = 0.001). The increased damping would tend to limit resonance, as confirmed in simulations. Our results show that the basal ganglia-cortical network involving the STN has a tendency to resonate at approximately 20 Hz in Parkinsonian patients. This resonance phenomenon may underlie the propagation and amplification of activities synchronized around this frequency. Crucially, dopamine acts to increase damping and thereby limit resonance in this basal ganglia-cortical network.

  2. Functional imaging of cortical feedback projections to the olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eRothermel


    Full Text Available Processing of sensory information is substantially shaped by centrifugal, or feedback, projections from higher cortical areas, yet the functional properties of these projections are poorly characterized. Here, we used genetically-encoded calcium sensors (GCaMPs to functionally image activation of centrifugal projections targeting the olfactory bulb (OB. The OB receives massive centrifugal input from cortical areas but there has been as yet no characterization of their activity in vivo. We focused on projections to the OB from the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, a major source of cortical feedback to the OB. We expressed GCaMP selectively in AON projection neurons using a mouse line expressing Cre recombinase (Cre in these neurons and Cre-dependent viral vectors injected into AON, allowing us to image GCaMP fluorescence signals from their axon terminals in the OB. Electrical stimulation of AON evoked large fluorescence signals that could be imaged from the dorsal OB surface in vivo. Surprisingly, odorants also evoked large signals that were transient and coupled to odorant inhalation both in the anesthetized and awake mouse, suggesting that feedback from AON to the OB is rapid and robust across different brain states. The strength of AON feedback signals increased during wakefulness, suggesting a state-dependent modulation of cortical feedback to the OB. Two-photon GCaMP imaging revealed that different odorants activated different subsets of centrifugal AON axons and could elicit both excitation and suppression in different axons, indicating a surprising richness in the representation of odor information by cortical feedback to the OB. Finally, we found that activating neuromodulatory centers such as basal forebrain drove AON inputs to the OB independent of odorant stimulation. Our results point to the AON as a multifunctional cortical area that provides ongoing feedback to the OB and also serves as a descending relay for other neuromodulatory

  3. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  4. Cortical representation of different motor rhythms during bimanual movements. (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Arning, K; Govindan, R B; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J


    The cortical control of bimanual and unimanual movements involves complex facilitatory and inhibitory interhemispheric interactions. We analysed the part of the cortical network directly related to the motor output by corticomuscular (64 channel EEG-EMG) and cortico-cortical (EEG-EEG) coherence and delays at the frequency of a voluntarily maintained unimanual and bimanual rhythm and in the 15-30-Hz band during isometric contractions. Voluntary rhythms of each hand showed coherence with lateral cortical areas in both hemispheres and occasionally in the frontal midline region (60-80 % of the recordings and 10-30 %, respectively). They were always coherent between both hands, and this coherence was positively correlated with the interhemispheric coherence (p < 0.01). Unilateral movements were represented mainly in the contralateral cortex (60-80 vs. 10-30 % ipsilateral, p < 0.01). Ipsilateral coherence was more common in left-hand movements, paralleled by more left-right muscle coherence. Partial corticomuscular coherence most often disappeared (p < 0.05) when the contralateral cortex was the predictor, indicating a mainly indirect connection of ipsilateral/frontomesial representations with the muscle via contralateral cortex. Interhemispheric delays had a bimodal distribution (1-10 and 15-30 ms) indicating direct and subcortical routes. Corticomuscular delays (mainly 12-25 ms) indicated fast corticospinal projections and musculocortical feedback. The 15-30-Hz corticomuscular coherence during isometric contractions (60-70 % of recordings) was strictly contralaterally represented without any peripheral left-right coherence. Thus, bilateral cortical areas generate voluntary unimanual and bimanual rhythmic movements. Interhemispheric interactions as detected by EEG-EEG coherence contribute to bimanual synchronization. This is distinct from the unilateral cortical representation of the 15-30-Hz motor rhythm during isometric movements.

  5. Molecular Disorganization of Axons Adjacent to Human Cortical Microinfarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Coban


    Full Text Available Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs are microscopically identified wedge-shaped ischemic lesions that occur at or near the cortical surface and result from occlusion of penetrating arterioles. These microscopic lesions can be observed with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in aging brains and in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Recent studies have suggested that strategically located microinfarcts strongly correlate with cognitive deficits, which can contribute to Alzheimer’s disease as well as other forms of dementia. We have recently shown that the molecular organization of axons into functional microdomains is altered in areas adjacent to white matter lacunar and microinfarcts, creating a peri-infarct penumbral injury in surviving axons. Whether similar changes in nodal, adjacent paranodal, and proximal axon initial segment molecular organization occur in the cortex adjacent to human CMIs is not known. Paraffin-embedded sections of autopsy brain tissue from five patients with CMIs were immunofluorescently labeled for nodal and paranodal markers including beta-IV spectrin, ankyrin-G, and contactin-associated protein. High magnification images from the peri-infarct cortical tissue were generated using confocal microscopy. In surviving cortical tissue adjacent to microinfarcts, we observed a dramatic loss of axon initial segments, suggesting that neuronal firing capacity in adjacent cortical tissue is likely compromised. The number of identifiable nodal/paranodal complexes in surviving cortical tissue is reduced adjacent to microinfarcts, while the average paranodal length is increased indicating a breakdown of axoglial contact. This axonal microdomain disorganization occurs in the relative absence of changes in the structural integrity of myelinated axons as measured by myelin basic protein and neurofilament staining. These findings indicate that the molecular organization of surviving axons adjacent to human CMIs is abnormal

  6. Evaluation of Electroencephalography Source Localization Algorithms with Multiple Cortical Sources. (United States)

    Bradley, Allison; Yao, Jun; Dewald, Jules; Richter, Claus-Peter


    Source localization algorithms often show multiple active cortical areas as the source of electroencephalography (EEG). Yet, there is little data quantifying the accuracy of these results. In this paper, the performance of current source density source localization algorithms for the detection of multiple cortical sources of EEG data has been characterized. EEG data were generated by simulating multiple cortical sources (2-4) with the same strength or two sources with relative strength ratios of 1:1 to 4:1, and adding noise. These data were used to reconstruct the cortical sources using current source density (CSD) algorithms: sLORETA, MNLS, and LORETA using a p-norm with p equal to 1, 1.5 and 2. Precision (percentage of the reconstructed activity corresponding to simulated activity) and Recall (percentage of the simulated sources reconstructed) of each of the CSD algorithms were calculated. While sLORETA has the best performance when only one source is present, when two or more sources are present LORETA with p equal to 1.5 performs better. When the relative strength of one of the sources is decreased, all algorithms have more difficulty reconstructing that source. However, LORETA 1.5 continues to outperform other algorithms. If only the strongest source is of interest sLORETA is recommended, while LORETA with p equal to 1.5 is recommended if two or more of the cortical sources are of interest. These results provide guidance for choosing a CSD algorithm to locate multiple cortical sources of EEG and for interpreting the results of these algorithms.

  7. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  8. Revisiting urban refuges: Changes of butterfly and burnet fauna in Prague reserves over three decades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, T.; Beneš, Jiří; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Konvička, Martin


    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-11 ISSN 0169-2046 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : butterfly conservation * reserve design * species loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2008

  9. Alien plants in urban nature reserves: from red-list species to future invaders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Kadlec, T.


    Roč. 10, - (2011), s. 27-46 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * nature reserve * threatened species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Visual Census of the Reef Fishes in the Natural Reserve of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: visual census, reef fishes, natural reserve, Glorieuses Islands, western Indian Ocean This paper constitutes the first qualitative study of coral reef fish populations in the archipelago of the Glorieuses Islands (northern Mozambique Channel). Sampling by visual census techniques, at depths between 0 and 15 ...

  11. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.


    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  12. Hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD in subacute cortical infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kweon, Sun Uck; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    It has been known that hyperfixation of Tc-99m ECD (HF) is not shown in subacute cerebral infarction because the brain distribution of Tc-99m ECD reflects not only perfusion but also the metabolic status of brain tissue. However, we observed several cases with HF in the subacute pure cortical infarction. To find out the cause of HF in subacute cortical infarction. We assessed the difference in associated cerebral hemodynamics and clinical findings between the subacute cortical infarctions with and without HF. We reviewed 16 patients (63.8{+-}8.6 yr, M/F: 15/1) with pure cortical infarction not involving adjacent subcortical white matter on MRI. All patients underwent acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m ECD and MRI at subacute period (7.3{+-}4.4 days from ictus). Uptake of Tc-99m ECD in infarcted cortex was assessed visually comparing the contralateral side. To assess the difference in associate clinical findings between the infarctions with and without HF, rCVR of the cerebral territory including infarcted cortex, extent of Gd-enhancement on MRI. Intervals between SPECT and ictus, and the presence of associated ICA stenosis were evaluated. Infarctions were focal (n=8) or multifocal (n=8) and located in frontoparietal cortices on MRI. Twelve patients were accompanied with ipsilateral ICA stenosis. Resting SPECT showed increased cortical uptake (=HF) in 7 patients and decreased in 9. rCVR of the MCA territory was preserved in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with 4 of the 9 patients without HF (p=0.03). Gd-enhancement was minimal in all of the 7 patients with HF, compared with of the 0 patients without HF (p=0.03). Presence of ipsilateral ICA stenosis and intervals from ictus were not different (p>0.1) Subacute cerebral cortical infarction with HF was more frequently associated with preserved rCVR and minimal destruction of the blood-brain barrier than that without HF. Our findings suggest that HF may result from luxury perfusion of

  13. CSF tau correlates with the degree of cortical involvement in E200K familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. (United States)

    Cohen, Oren S; Chapman, Joab; Korczyn, Amos D; Siaw, Oliver L; Warman-Alaluf, Naama; Nitsan, Zeev; Appel, Shmuel; Kahana, Esther; Rosenmann, Hanna; Hoffmann, Chen


    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau was found to correlate with disease severity and cognitive status in E200K familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD) patients. The objective of the present study was to test whether tau levels in the CSF also correlate with the disease burden as reflected by the degree of cortical involvement in DWI MRI. Forty-four consecutive E200K fCJD patients (25 males, mean age 58.6±7.5, range 48-75 years) were recruited to the study and had a CSF tau examination as well as measurements of the extent of the cortical involvement in the DWI axial MRI. Correlation was tested using Pearson test. A significant correlation (r=0.617 pdisease burden reinforce the notion that tau can be used as a biomarker reflecting the extent of disease in patients with E200K fCJD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Left frontal cortical activation and spreading of alternatives: tests of the action-based model of dissonance. (United States)

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Fearn, Meghan; Sigelman, Jonathan D; Johnson, Peter


    The action-based model of dissonance predicts that following decisional commitment, approach-oriented motivational processes occur to assist in translating the decision into effective and unconflicted behavior. Therefore, the modulation of these approach-oriented processes should affect the degree to which individuals change their attitudes to be more consistent with the decisional commitment (spreading of alternatives). Experiment 1 demonstrated that a neurofeedback-induced decrease in relative left frontal cortical activation, which has been implicated in approach motivational processes, caused a reduction in spreading of alternatives. Experiment 2 manipulated an action-oriented mindset following a decision and demonstrated that the action-oriented mindset caused increased activation in the left frontal cortical region as well as increased spreading of alternatives. Discussion focuses on how this integration of neuroscience and dissonance theory benefits both parent literatures. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Motor cortical activity during motor tasks is normal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. (United States)

    van Velzen, Gijsbrecht A J; Marinus, Johan; van Dijk, J Gert; van Zwet, Erik W; Schipper, Inger B; van Hilten, Jacobus J


    Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is often considered a functional movement disorder. Earlier studies in patients with functional movement disorders found evidence of cortical inhibition during explicit but not implicit motor tasks, suggesting active inhibition from other brain areas. In this study, we explored whether active inhibition occurs in CRPS patients. We compared patients with CRPS with 2 control groups: healthy controls matched for age and sex, and patients whose hand was immobilized to treat a scaphoid fracture. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability at rest and during motor imagery (explicit motor task) and motor observation (implicit motor task). Motor corticospinal excitation measured at rest and during implicit and explicit motor tasks was similar for CRPS patients and healthy controls. Patients with an immobilized hand showed an absence of motor cortical excitation of the corresponding hemisphere during motor imagery of tasks involving the immobilized hand, but not during motor observation. The normal motor cortical processing during motor imagery and motor observation found in the corresponding hemisphere of CPRS patients suggests that the nature of motor dysfunction in this condition differs from that described in literature for patients with functional paresis or under circumstances of limb immobilization. This study shows that the nature of motor dysfunction in CRPS patients differs from that encountered in patients with functional paresis or under circumstances of limb immobilization. This information is important for patients and pain clinicians and could help prevent implementation of therapeutic strategies based on incorrect assumptions. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct motor evoked potentials and cortical mapping using the NIM® nerve monitoring system: A technical note. (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Suparna; Haji, Faizal; Hebb, Matthew; Chui, Jason


    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are commonly used to prevent neurological injury when operating in close proximity to the motor cortex or corticospinal pathway. We report a novel application of the NIM® nerve monitoring system (Medtronic@ NIM response 3.0) for intraoperative direct cortical (dc)-MEPs monitoring. A 69-year-old female patient presented with a 4month history of progressive left hemiparesis resulting from a large right sided posterior frontal meningioma that abutted and compressed the motor cortex. Motor cortical mapping and MEPs were indicated. The patient was anesthetized and maintained on total intravenous anesthetics. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of the right upper limb were monitored using the NIM system. After a craniotomy was performed, we first used the Ojemann stimulator (monopolar) for dc-stimulation and then switched to use the monopolar nerve stimulator probe of the NIM system. The CMAP response was successfully elicited using the NIM stimulating probe (pulse width=250s, train frequency=7pulses/s, current=20mA). A gross total resection of the tumor was achieved with intermittent cortical mapping of MEPs. There were no intraoperative complications and the patient's motor function was preserved after the surgery. In this case, we reported the successful use of the NIM nerve monitoring system to elicit dc-MEPs under general anesthesia. The advantages of using this system include a simple set up and application, neurosurgeon familiarity, wide availability and lower cost. dc-MEPs can be achieved using the NIM system. We conclude that the NIM nerve monitoring system is a feasible alternative to standard neurophysiological monitoring systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical thinness and volume differences associated with marijuana abuse in emerging adults. (United States)

    Mashhoon, Y; Sava, S; Sneider, J T; Nickerson, L D; Silveri, M M


    The prevalence of marijuana (MJ) use among youth and its legalization for medical or recreational use has intensified public health endeavors of understanding MJ effects on brain structure and function. Studies indicate that MJ use is related to impaired cognitive performance, and altered functional brain activation and chemistry in adolescents and adults, but MJ effects on brain morphology in emerging adults are less understood. Fifteen MJ users (age 21.8±3.6, 2 females) and 15 non-user (NU) participants (age 22.3±3.5, 2 females) were included, demographically matched on age, education and alcohol use. High-resolution structural MR images were acquired at 3Tesla. Cortical thickness (CT) and volumetric analyses were performed using Freesurfer. A priori regions of interest (ROI) included orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices, amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. Whole brain CT analysis did not result in significant group differences in a priori ROIs but revealed MJ users had significantly less CT (i.e., thinness) in right fusiform gyrus (rFG) compared to NU (p<0.05). Thalamic volume was significantly smaller in MJ users compared to NU (right, p=0.05; left, p=0.01) and associated with greater non-planning (p<0.01) and overall impulsivity (p=0.04). There were no other group differences. RFG cortical thinness and smaller thalamic volume in emerging adults is associated with MJ abuse. Furthermore, smaller thalamic volume associated with greater impulsivity contributes to growing evidence that the thalamus is neurobiologically perturbed by MJ use. Collectively, altered thalamic and rFG structural integrity may interfere with their known roles in regulating visuoperceptual and object information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prefrontal connections of the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices in the rat. (United States)

    Hwang, Eunkyu; Willis, Bailey S; Burwell, Rebecca D


    Knowing how prefrontal regions interact with medial temporal lobe structures is important for understanding memory and cognition. Using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods in the rat, we report a detailed study of the perirhinal (PER) and postrhinal (POR) connections with the lateral, ventrolateral, and medial orbitofrontal cortices (ORBl, ORBvl, ORBm), infralimbic and prelimbic cortices (IL, PL), ventral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices (ACAv, ACAd), and secondary motor cortex (MOs). Our analyses included the topography and laminar patterns of these connections. The PER and POR showed reciprocal connectivity with all prefrontal regions examined, but the patterns of connections differed. In general, PER areas 36 and 35 showed patterns of connectivity that were more similar to each other than to those of the POR. Analysis of anterograde tracers showed that PER areas 36 and 35 provide the strongest projections to prefrontal regions. The heaviest fiber labeling was in IL and PL, closely followed by orbital regions. Fiber labeling arising from injections in POR was weaker overall. The strongest POR efferents targeted MOs, ACAv, and ORBvl. For return projections, analysis of retrograde tracers showed that PER areas 36 and 35 receive strong inputs from orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal regions. Interestingly, PER also received substantial inputs from MOs and ACAd. The POR receives a very strong input from MOs, followed by ACAd, and ORBvl. Based on comparison of our findings with those obtained in monkeys, we argue that the rodent ACAd and MOs may be a functional homolog of the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Superior cortical screw in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae: A biomechanics and microstructure-based study. (United States)

    Yu, Tianming; Zhang, Xuyang; Liu, Junhui; Li, Shengyun; Shan, Zhi; Fan, Shunwu; Zhao, Fengdong


    Osteoporosis reduces the bone-screw purchase, potentially reducing pullout strength and other biomechanical properties. However, the existing pedicle screw approach may not compensate for the detrimental effects of decreased vertebral bone mineral density. Two methods of screw insertion were performed in thirteen cadaveric osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae: Magerl's method in the left pedicle, and superior cortical screw method in the right (its entry point located vertically 3 mm above Magerl's point). Before screw fixations, the pedicle and its corresponding vertebral body were divided into six equal layers from cranial to caudal by performing micro-CT and tested for microstructure properties, such as bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation and trabecular number. Further, pedicle was horizontally divided into three regions and tested. After screw fixations, microstructure properties of the bone surrounding the screws were analyzed. Finally, the screw pullout strength was tested biomechanically. The bone structure is denser in the upper third of the pedicle and its corresponding vertebral body. A similar microstructure is seen within the pedicle. This study reveals that the pullout strength is significantly correlated to the bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness. Biomechanical test showed pullout strength in the superior cortical screw group with mean 613.3 N (SD 200.4) was 22.4% higher than that in the Magerl group with mean 501.2 N (SD 256.6). The superior cortical screw method can be a reliable alternative, to provide better pullout strength for posterior lumbar instrumentation, especially in osteoporotic patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Indexing cortical entrainment to natural speech at the phonemic level: Methodological considerations for applied research. (United States)

    Di Liberto, Giovanni M; Lalor, Edmund C


    Speech is central to human life. As such, any delay or impairment in receptive speech processing can have a profoundly negative impact on the social and professional life of a person. Thus, being able to assess the integrity of speech processing in different populations is an important goal. Current standardized assessment is mostly based on psychometric measures that do not capture the full extent of a person's speech processing abilities and that are difficult to administer in some subjects groups. A potential alternative to these tests would be to derive "direct", objective measures of speech processing from cortical activity. One such approach was recently introduced and showed that it is possible to use electroencephalography (EEG) to index cortical processing at the level of phonemes from responses to continuous natural speech. However, a large amount of data was required for such analyses. This limits the usefulness of this approach for assessing speech processing in particular cohorts for whom data collection is difficult. Here, we used EEG data from 10 subjects to assess whether measures reflecting phoneme-level processing could be reliably obtained using only 10 min of recording time from each subject. This was done successfully using a generic modeling approach wherein the data from a training group composed of 9 subjects were combined to derive robust predictions of the EEG signal for new subjects. This allowed the derivation of indices of cortical activity at the level of phonemes and the disambiguation of responses to specific phonetic features (e.g., stop, plosive, and nasal consonants) with limited data. This objective approach has the potential to complement psychometric measures of speech processing in a wide variety of subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.