WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserve spr storage

  1. Selling the SPR [Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in the USA was created in 1975, in conjunction with the wider reserve programme of the International Energy Agency, following the 1973/74 Arab oil embargo. The only source of funding for the SPR has been annual appropriations bills from Congress. In 1994, however, Congress, seeking ways to balance the nation's budget and given the perception by many free market economists that the danger of serious oils supply disruption has passed, refused to allocate funds for SPR oil purchases. No crude oil stocks have been added to the reserve since then. In 1996, congress took the further step of requiring sales of oil from the reserve in order to pay for the programme's running costs and to meet the costs of maintaining the reserve's storage facilities. The reserve oil is stored in caverns under salt domes in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico and some of these are beginning to fracture to the extent that they are having to be decommissioned. The SPR has been investigating ways of raising money in order to lessen its dependence on Congress. These include leasing pipelines and a marine terminal, and allowing the storage of foreign owned oil in underused caverns. (author)

  2. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  5. Assessment of the Available Drawdowns for Oil Storage Caverns at the West Hackberry SPR Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology and Engineering Dept.

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy, in response to requests from the U.S. Congress, wishes to maintain an up-to-date table documenting the number of available full drawdowns of each of the caverns owned by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This information is important for assessing the SPR’s ability to deliver oil to domestic oil companies expeditiously if national or world events dictate a rapid sale and deployment of the oil reserves. What factors go into assessing available drawdowns? The evaluation of drawdown risks require the consideration of several factors regarding cavern and wellbore integrity and stability, including stress states caused by cavern geometry and operations, salt damage caused by dilatant and tensile stresses, the effect on enhanced creep on wellbore integrity, the sympathetic stress effect of operations on neighboring caverns. Based on the work over the past several months, a consensus has been built regarding the assessment of drawdown capabilities and risks for the SPR caverns. This paper draws upon the recently West Hackberry model upgrade and analyses to reevaluate and update the available drawdowns for each of those caverns. Similar papers for the Bryan Mound, Big Hill, and Bayou Choctaw papers will be developed as the upgrades to those analyses are completed. The rationale and documentation of the methodology is described in the remainder of this report, as are the updated estimates of available drawdowns for the West Hackberry caverns.

  6. Differential SPR immunosensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Charles E.H.; Berger, C.E.H.; Greve, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this work we describe a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with a differential detection of the SPR angle, and demonstrate it. The angle of incidence is modulated by a simple piezo-electric actuator, and the reflectance signal is measured with a lockin-amplifier. When the conditions for SPR

  7. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified

  8. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-09-01

    The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

  9. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  10. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  11. Exploring the economic consequences of letting a supplier hold reserve storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We consider a single-item, periodic review inventory control problem with discrete non-stationary stochastic demand. The time horizon is finite and all shortages at the downstream level are backordered. There are two modes of supply: a normal supplier and a reserve storage supply. The reserve...... storage is capacitated and the downstream buyer can only order the entire inventory in the reserve storage or nothing. If the reserve storage is empty, it takes a fixed time interval before it is replenished again. Provided that the reserve storage is fully replenished it can be used at any time period...

  12. Walks on SPR neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009.

  13. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  14. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  15. SPR 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.

  16. Fragment screening by SPR and advanced application to GPCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Claire A; Hopkins, Andrew L; Navratilova, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is one of the primary biophysical methods for the screening of low molecular weight 'fragment' libraries, due to its low protein consumption and 'label-free' methodology. SPR biosensor interaction analysis is employed to both screen and confirm the binding of compounds in fragment screening experiments, as it provides accurate information on the affinity and kinetics of molecular interactions. The most advanced application of the use of SPR for fragment screening is against membrane protein drug targets, such G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Biophysical GPCR assays using SPR have been validated with pharmacological measurements approximate to cell-based methods, yet provide the advantage of biophysical methods in their ability to measure the weak affinities of low molecular weight fragments. A number of SPR fragment screens against GPCRs have now been disclosed in the literature. SPR fragment screening is proving versatile to screen both thermostabilised GPCRs and solubilised wild type receptors. In this chapter, we discuss the state-of-the-art in GPCR fragment screening by SPR and the technical considerations in performing such experiments. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Developments in SPR Fragment Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanieu, Alain; Pugnière, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Fragment-based approaches have played an increasing role alongside high-throughput screening in drug discovery for 15 years. The label-free biosensor technology based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is now sensitive and informative enough to serve during primary screens and validation steps. In this review, the authors discuss the role of SPR in fragment screening. After a brief description of the underlying principles of the technique and main device developments, they evaluate the advantages and adaptations of SPR for fragment-based drug discovery. SPR can also be applied to challenging targets such as membrane receptors and enzymes. The high-level of immobilization of the protein target and its stability are key points for a relevant screening that can be optimized using oriented immobilized proteins and regenerable sensors. Furthermore, to decrease the rate of false negatives, a selectivity test may be performed in parallel on the main target bearing the binding site mutated or blocked with a low-off-rate ligand. Fragment-based drug design, integrated in a rational workflow led by SPR, will thus have a predominant role for the next wave of drug discovery which could be greatly enhanced by new improvements in SPR devices.

  18. Fundamentals of Using Battery Energy Storage Systems to Provide Primary Control Reserves in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of stationary battery storage systems to German electrical grids can help with various storage services. This application requires controlling the charge and discharge power of such a system. For example, photovoltaic (PV home storage, uninterruptible power supply, and storage systems for providing ancillary services such as primary control reserves (PCRs represent battery applications with positive profitability. Because PCRs are essential for stabilizing grid frequency and maintaining a robust electrical grid, German transmission system operators (TSOs released strict regulations in August 2015 for providing PCRs with battery storage systems as part of regulating the International Grid Control Cooperation (IGCC region in Europe. These regulations focused on the permissible state of charge (SoC of the battery during nominal and extreme conditions. The concomitant increased capacity demand oversizing may result in a significant profitability reduction, which can be attenuated only by using an optimal parameterization of the control algorithm for energy management of the storage systems. In this paper, the sizing optimization is achieved and a recommendation for a control algorithm that includes the appropriate parameters for the requirements in the German market is given. Furthermore, the storage cost is estimated, including battery aging simulations for different aging parameter sets to allow for a realistic profitability calculation.

  19. A Bilevel Model for Participation of a Storage System in Energy and Reserve Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Jalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    We develop a decision-making tool based on a bilevel complementarity model for a merchant price-maker energy storage system to determine the most beneficial trading actions in pool-based markets, including day-ahead (as joint energy and reserve markets) and balancing settlements. The uncertainty...... of net load deviation in real-time is incorporated into the model using a set of scenarios generated from the available forecast in the day-ahead. The objective of this energy storage system is to maximize its expected profit. The day-ahead products of energy storage system include energy as well...... system into clearing process of multiple markets and enables such a facility to possibly affect the outcomes of those markets to its own benefit through strategic price and quantity offers. The validity of the proposed approach is evaluated using a numerical study....

  20. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  1. Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2010-05-01

    The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is

  2. On the Profitability of Variable Speed Pump-Storage-Power in Frequency Restoration Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe, Jorge; Bessa, Ricardo; Moreira, Carlos; Silva, Bernardo

    2017-04-01

    The increase penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) into the European power system has introduced a significant amount of variability and uncertainty in the generation profiles raising the needs for ancillary services as well as other tools like demand response, improved generation forecasting techniques and changes to the market design. While RES is able to replace energy produced by the traditional centralized generation, it cannot displace its capacity in terms of ancillary services provided. Therefore, centralized generation capacity must be retained to perform this function leading to over-capacity issues and underutilisation of the assets. Large-scale reversible hydro power plants represent the majority of the storage solution installed in the power system. This technology comes with high investments costs, hence the constant search for methods to increase and diversify the sources of revenue. Traditional fixed speed pump storage units typically operate in the day-ahead market to perform price arbitrage and, in some specific cases, provide downward replacement reserve (RR). Variable speed pump storage can not only participate in RR but also contribute to FRR, given their ability to control its operating point in pumping mode. This work does an extended analysis of a complete bidding strategy for Pumped Storage Power, enhancing the economic advantages of variable speed pump units in comparison with fixed ones.

  3. Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2007-07-01

    The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

  4. Tailoring Grain Storage Reserves for a Healthier Rice Diet and its Comparative Status with Other Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butardo, Vito M; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2016-01-01

    A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sprækket kalks kompaktionsegenskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Havmøller, Ole

    2000-01-01

    I mange geologiske og geotekniske sammenhænge bliver de relevante materialeparametre bestemt på små prøver i laboratoriet. Resultaterne bliver efterfølgende brugt til at analysere problemer i langt større skala. For sprækket kalk giver dette særlige problemer, fordi sprækkerne yderst sjældent er ...

  6. Deriving Optimal End of Day Storage for Pumped-Storage Power Plants in the Joint Energy and Reserve Day-Ahead Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chazarra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology to maximise the income and derive the optimal end of day storage of closed-loop and daily-cycle pumped-storage hydropower plants. The plants participate in the day-ahead energy market as a price-taker and in the secondary regulation reserve market as a price-maker, in the context of the Iberian electricity system. The real-time use of the committed reserves is considered in the model formulation. The operation of the plants with the proposed methodology is compared to the ones that use an end of day storage of an empty reservoir or half of the storage capacity. Results show that the proposed methodology increases the maximum theoretical income in all the plants analysed both if they only participate in the day-ahead energy market and if they also participate in the secondary regulation service. It is also shown that the increase in the maximum theoretical income strongly depends on the size of the plant. In addition, it is proven that the end of day storages change notably in the new reserve-driven strategies of pumped-storage hydropower plants and that the proposed methodology is even more recommended if the secondary regulation service is considered.

  7. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  9. Machine concept optimization for pumped-storage plants through combined dispatch simulation for wholesale and reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Klaus; Harasta, Michaela; Braitsch, Werner; Moser, Albert; Schaefer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In Germany's energy markets of today, pumped-storage power plants offer excellent business opportunities due to their outstanding flexibility. However, the energy-economic simulation of pumped-storage plants, which is necessary to base the investment decision on a sound business case, is a highly complex matter since the plant's capacity must be optimized in a given plant portfolio and between two relevant markets: the scheduled wholesale and the reserve market. This mathematical optimization problem becomes even more complex when the question is raised as to which type of machine should be used for a pumped-storage new build option. For the first time, it has been proven possible to simulate the optimum dispatch of different pumped-storage machine concepts within two relevant markets - the scheduled wholesale and the reserve market - thereby greatly supporting the investment decision process. The methodology and findings of a cooperation study between E.ON and RWTH Aachen University in respect of the German pumped-storage extension project 'Waldeck 2+' are described, showing the latest development in dispatch simulation for generation portfolios. (authors)

  10. A molecular imprinted SPR biosensor for sensitive determination of citrinin in red yeast rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Necip; Eren, Tanju; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi

    2015-10-01

    A novel and sensitive molecular imprinted surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was developed for selective determination of citrinin (CIT) in red yeast rice. Firstly, the gold surface of SPR chip was modified with allyl mercaptane. Then, CIT-imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-methacryloylamidoglutamic acid) (p(HEMA-MAGA)) film was generated on the gold surface modified with allyl mercaptane. The unmodified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. The linearity range and the detection limit were obtained as 0.005-1.0 ng/mL and 0.0017 ng/mL, respectively. The SPR biosensor was applied to determination of CIT in red yeast rice sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Provision of frequency restoration reserves by possible energy storage systems in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassheim, A.; Haan, de J.E.S.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Current developments in generation portfolios and market design urge the need to attract additional balancing services in the form of frequency restoration reserves (FRR). This work elaborates on the opportunities and constraints of current balancing markets in the Netherlands and Germany to harness

  12. Tiger Team Assessment of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) located in Louisiana and Texas, which consists of a project management office in New Orleans, a marine terminal located on the Mississippi River in Louisiana, and five crude oil storage sites in Louisiana and Texas. SPR is operated by Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). DOE's Office of Fossil Energy (FE) is the responsible program organization and the Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office (SPRPMO) in Louisiana provides local oversight. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from March 9 to April 10, 1992, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, States of Louisiana and Texas, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal SPR requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of SPRPMO and BPS management of the ES ampersand H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. 6 fig., 22 tab

  13. Issues relating to spent nuclear fuel storage on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.A.; Turner, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, about 2,800 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in the US, 1,000 kg of SNF (or about 0.03% of the nation's total) are stored at the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. However small the total quantity of material stored at Oak Ridge, some of the material is quite singular in character and, thus, poses unique management concerns. The various types of SNF stored at Oak Ridge will be discussed including: (1) High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and future Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) fuels; (2) Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuels, including Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) fuels; (3) Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel; (4) Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) fuel; (5) Miscellaneous SNF stored in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Solid Waste Storage Areas (SWSAs); (6) SNF stored in the Y-12 Plant 9720-5 Warehouse including Health. Physics Reactor (HPRR), Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP-) 10A, and DOE Demonstration Reactor fuels

  14. Metakognisjon om språk og språklæring i et flerspråklighetsperspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsta Haukås

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen drøfter jeg betydningen av elevers refleksjon om språk og språklæring. Artikkelens første del gir en kort introduksjon til forskningsfeltet metakognisjon. Deretter presenterer jeg to underkategorier av metakognisjon som er særlig relevante i språkundervisningen, metalingvistisk bevissthet og bevissthet om språklæringsstrategier. I artikkelens andre del introduserer jeg hovedprinsippene i flerspråklighetsdidaktikken, gir eksempler på hvordan elevene kan reflektere over språk og språklæring i språkfagene og argumenterer for at økt vekt på metakognisjon i og på tvers av språkfagene er en nøkkel til bedre språkkompetanse hos fremtidige elever. Dette krever imidlertid et sterkere samarbeid mellom språkfagene i skole, lærerutdanning og forskning.

  15. Prepare for an SpR interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J P; Heppell, P S J

    2003-03-01

    By the time you attend an interview for a military SpR number you should have no real problems but it pays to be prepared. Begin preparations early, reading widely and talk to as many people as possible. Your consultants will have a useful viewpoint on the proceedings and may be able to help you refine your answers to the common questions. Arrive at your interview in a smart and timely fashion and answer questions with confidence and common sense. Avoid confrontation and bluff and be courteous at all times, whatever you may be feeling inside and thank the interview panel as you leave.

  16. Special awards lighten up SPR banquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickl, Ron; Baker, Dan; Reiff, Pat

    On December 8, 1982, Marcia Neugebauer, then president of the Solar and Planetary Relationships section, held the “First Occasional Awards Ceremony” in conjunction with the annual dinner banquet at the Fall AGU meeting. These awards were an attempt to add a little humor to our usually somber gatherings. This year we reincarnated Neugebauer's successful concept and presented a number of new and novel awards to our fellow scientists at the Fall AGU SPR dinner. Summarized for your enjoyment are the categories and the official winners, as announced at the December 6 banquet.

  17. Historical Cavern Floor Rise for All SPR Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) contains the largest supply is the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The oil is stored in multiple salt caverns spread over four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Cavern infrastructure near the bottom of the cavern can be damaged from vertical floor movement. This report presents a comprehensive history of floor movements in each cavern. Most of the cavern floor rise rates ranged from 0.5-3.5 ft/yr, however, there were several caverns with much higher rise rates. BH103, BM106, and BH105 had the three highest rise rates. Information from this report will be used to better predict future vertical floor movements and optimally place cavern infrastructure. The reasons for floor rise are not entirely understood and should be investigated.

  18. Enhanced antibody recognition with a magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance (MO-SPR) sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Maria Grazia; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; Garcia-Martin, José Miguel; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Rella, Roberto

    2014-08-15

    A comparison between sensing performance of traditional SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) and magneto-optic SPR (MOSPR) transducing techniques is presented in this work. MOSPR comes from an evolution of traditional SPR platform aiming at modulating Surface Plasmon wave by the application of an external magnetic field in transverse configuration. Previous work demonstrated that, when the Plasmon resonance is excited in these structures, the external magnetic field induces a modification of the coupling of the incident light with the Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP). Besides, these structures can lead to an enhancement in the magneto-optical (MO) activity when the SPP is excited. This phenomenon is exploited in this work to demonstrate the possibility to use the enhanced MO signal as proper transducer signal for investigating biomolecular interactions in liquid phase. To this purpose, the transducer surface was functionalized by thiol chemistry and used for recording the binding between Bovine Serum Albumin molecules immobilized onto the surface and its complementary target. Higher sensing performance in terms of sensitivity and lower limit of detection of the MOSPR biosensor with respect to traditional SPR sensors is demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time ligation chain reaction for DNA quantification and identification on the FO-SPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Karel; Spasic, Dragana; Delport, Filip; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2015-05-15

    Different assays have been developed in the past years to meet point-of-care diagnostic tests requirements for fast and sensitive quantification and identification of targets. In this paper, we developed the ligation chain reaction (LCR) assay on the Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance (FO-SPR) platform, which enabled simultaneous quantification and cycle-to-cycle identification of DNA during amplification. The newly developed assay incorporated FO-SPR DNA melting assay, previously developed by our group. This required establishment of several assay parameters, including buffer ionic strength and thermal ramping speed as these parameters both influence the ligation enzyme performance and the hybridization yield of the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the FO-SPR sensor. Quantification and identification of DNA targets was achieved over a wide concentration range with a calibration curve spanning 7 orders of magnitude and LOD of 13.75 fM. Moreover, the FO-SPR LCR assay could discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) without any post reaction analysis, featuring thus all the essential requirements of POC tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural Gas Hydrate as a Storage Mechanism for Safe, Sustainable and Economical Production from Offshore Petroleum Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Kezirian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Century Fathom presents an innovative process to utilize clathrate hydrates for the production, storage and transportation of natural gas from off-shore energy reserves in deep ocean environments. The production scheme was developed by considering the preferred state of natural gas in the deep ocean and addressing the hazards associated with conventional techniques to transport natural gas. It also is designed to mitigate the significant shipping cost inherent with all methods. The resulting proposed scheme restrains transport in the hydrate form to the ocean and does not attempt to supply energy to the residential consumer. Instead; the target recipients are industrial operations. The resulting operational concept is intrinsically safer by design; environmentally sustainable and significantly cost-effective compared with currently proposed schemes for the use of natural gas hydrates and has the potential to be the optimal solution for new production of reserves; depending on the distance to shore and capacity of the petroleum reserve. A potential additional benefit is the byproduct of desalinated water.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program stewardship report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-03

    This report is a managerial evaluation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program conducted by the SPR program director and project manager. Current capabilities and goals of the program have been assessed resulting in an achievable SPR baseline for performance and measurement of this program. Projections and recommendations are based on available technical, schedule, and cost information, taking into account known influencing factors. The SPR Baseline incorporates current critical factors and deviations from the FY 1980 budget data bases. Data on existing sites, expansion sites, turnkey sites, program cost, and withdrawal are included.

  2. Desirable Strategic Petroleum Reserves policies in response to supply uncertainty: A stochastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Zhou, Peng; Tian, Lixin; Meng, Fanyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic model is proposed to study Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) policy. • The model aims to find desirable SPR size, acquisition, drawdown and refilling policy. • The impact of SPR policy and supply disruption on oil price has been examined. - Abstract: The paper proposes a survey on three issues related to Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) policy. Firstly, what are the optimal SPR acquisition, drawdown and refilling policy in response to various market risks? Secondly, how SPR policy or actions will affect the market factors, i.e. oil demand or price. Thirdly, in what extend a disruption may induce price shock. For the purpose, the study proposed a Markov Decision Process model (SPR-MDP). In the model, oil supply, disruption size and duration are considered to be highly stochastic. Oil price is determined by market fundamentals exclusively. According to the empirical study, we come to some interesting conclusions. Firstly, oil price and disruption risk show different ways in influencing the desirable SPR size. It is found that the SPR size increases with the decrease of oil price while increase of disruption risk. Secondly, SPR acquisition may increase oil price slightly by influencing the basic fundamentals. In given case, we find acquisition of 7 million barrels per month increase the price by 2.6%. But the influence weakens with decrease of acquisition size. Thirdly, disruption duration shows significant impact on SPR drawdown policy. In a two-month disruption case, it is found that 51% of SPR should be released in the first month. Another 40% is released in the following month. The other 9% SPR is left for forthcoming disruptions. Meanwhile, SPR drawdown shows high efficient in damping oil price in the disruption. In given case, after drawdown of SPR, the oil prices only increases by 0.7% in the second month though continue disruption.

  3. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Coal is the energy source with the largest geological availability worldwide. Of all non-renewable energies coal and lignite accounting for 55 % of the reserves and some 76 % of the resources represent the largest potential. Reserves are those geological quantities of a mineral which can currently be mined under technically and economically viable conditions. Resources are those quantities which are either proven but currently not economically recoverable or quantities which can still be expected or explored on the basis of geological findings. The global availability of energy source does not only depend on geological and economic factors. The technical availability, e.g. mining and preparation capacities, the sufficient availability of land and sea-borne transportation as well as transloading capacities and also a political availability are required likewise. The latter may be disturbed by domestic-policy disputes like strikes or unrest or by foreign-policy disputes like embargos, trade conflicts or even tensions and wars in the producing regions. In the energy-economic discussion the reach of fossil primary energies plays a central role with the most important questions being: when will which energy source be exhausted, which impact will future developments have on the energy price, what does the situation of the other energies look like and which alternatives are there? The reach of coal can only be estimated because of the large deposits on the one hand and the uncertain future coal use and demand on the other. The stronger growth of population and the economic catching-up process in the developing and threshold countries will result in a shift of the production and demand centres in the global economy. However, also in case of further increases the geological potential will be sufficient to reliably cover the global coal demand for the next 100 years. The conventional mining of seams at great depths or of thin seams reaches its technical and economic limits

  4. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  5. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  6. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  7. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  8. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Gram, Inc. Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  9. Nano Sensing and Energy Conversion Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltai (Isaac Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanophotonic technique has been attracting much attention in applications of nano-bio-chemical sensing and energy conversion of solar energy harvesting and enhanced energy transfer. One approach for nano-bio-chemical sensing is surface plasmon resonance (SPR imaging, which can detect the material properties, such as density, ion concentration, temperature, and effective refractive index in high sensitivity, label-free, and real-time under ambient conditions. Recent study shows that SPR can successfully detect the concentration variation of nanofluids during evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Spoof surface plasmon resonance based on multilayer metallo-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate SPR dispersion control, which can be combined with SPR imaging, to characterize high refractive index materials because of its exotic optical properties. Furthermore, nano-biophotonics could enable innovative energy conversion such as the increase of absorption and emission efficiency and the perfect absorption. Localized SPR using metal nanoparticles show highly enhanced absorption in solar energy harvesting. Three-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial cavity nanostructure shows enhanced spontaneous emission. Recently ultrathin film perfect absorber is demonstrated with the film thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating wavelength using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ phenomena at the wavelength close to SPR. It is expected to provide a breakthrough in sensing and energy conversion applications using the exotic optical properties based on the nanophotonic technique.

  10. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is

  11. The behavior of crude oil spot and futures prices around OPEC and SPR announcements: An event study perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirer, Riza; Kutan, Ali M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the informational efficiency of crude oil spot and futures markets with respect to OPEC conference and U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) announcements. We employ the event study methodology to examine the abnormal returns in crude oil spot and futures markets around OPEC conference and SPR announcement dates between 1983 and 2008. Our findings regarding OPEC announcements indicate an asymmetry in that only OPEC production cut announcements yield a statistically significant impact with the impact diminishing for longer maturities. We also find that the persistence of returns following OPEC production cut announcements creates substantial excess returns to investors who take long positions on the day following the end of OPEC conferences. In the case of SPR announcements, we find that the government's use of this program initiates a short-run market reaction following the announcement date. Furthermore, our tests of cumulative abnormal returns suggest that the market reacts efficiently to SPR announcements providing support for the use of the strategic reserves as a tool to stabilize the oil market. Our findings have significant policy implications for investors and are useful in designing effective energy policy strategies.

  12. Functional Conducting Polymers in the Application of SPR Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapiphun Janmanee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymers have emerged as one of the most promising transducers for both chemical, sensors and biosensors owing to their unique electrical, electrochemical and optical properties that can be used to convert chemical information or biointeractions into electrical or optical signals, which can easily be detected by modern techniques. Different approaches to the application of conducting polymers in chemo- or biosensing applications have been extensively studied. In order to enhance the application of conducting polymers into the area of biosensors, one approach is to introduce functional groups, including carboxylic acid, amine, sulfonate, or thiol groups, into the conducting polymer chain and to form a so-called “self-doped” or by doping with negatively charged polyelectrolytes. The functional conducting polymers have been successfully utilized to immobilize enzymes for construction of biosensors. Recently, the combination of SPR and electrochemical, known as electrochemical-surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR, spectroscopy, has been used for in situ investigation of optical and electrical properties of conducting polymer films. Moreover, EC-SPR spectroscopy has been applied for monitoring the interaction between biomolecules and electropolymerized conjugated polymer films in biosensor and immunosensor applications. In this paper, recent development and applications on EC-SPR in biosensors will be reviewed.

  13. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for the disposal of fast reserve energy at the electrical energy supply. Supraleitende Energiespeicher zur Bereitstellung schneller Reserveleistung in der elektrischen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, W [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Bittihn, R [Varta AG, Hagen (Germany); Kuerten, H [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Radtke, U [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Taube, W [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Vollmar, H E [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Willmes, H [Varta Batterie AG, Hagen (Germany)

    1994-04-05

    The authors investigate the economic efficiency of the application of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the field of electrical energy supply taking as example a network of 10 000 MW which is operated in an European interconnected power system. In case of this network the supply of the second reserve energy has become an interesting example of application, especially combined with the disconnection of the pre-heater. The application of SMES could lead to a better utilisation of existing power stations and the fuels along with a reduction of emissions. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  15. UV-SPR biosensor for biomolecular interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, F. A.; Fossati, S.; Khan, I.; Gisbert Quilis, N.; Knoll, W.; Dostalek, J.

    2017-05-01

    UV surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for direct in situ detection of protein binding events is reported. A crossed relief aluminum grating was employed for diffraction coupling to surface plasmons as an alternative to more commonly used attenuated total reflection method. Wavelength interrogation of SPR was carried out by using transmission measurements in order to probe odorant-binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). The native oxide layer on the top of an aluminum grating sensor chip allows for covalent coupling of protein molecules by using regular silane-based linkers. The probing of bound OBP14 protein at UV with confined field of surface plasmons holds potential for further studies of interaction with recently developed artificial fluorescent odorants.

  16. Heating of aluminum by SPR-III burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Real time temperature measurements were made on an aluminum cylinder exposed to radiation bursts at SPR-III at neutron levels from 10 11 cm -2 to 4.5 x 10 14 cm -2 . Precision thermistors and high speed A/D converters were used to measure temperature with .0025 degree C resolution at 20ms intervals following the burst. Temperature data is presented as a function of neutron fluence

  17. Správa nemovitosti versus facility management

    OpenAIRE

    Rázga, Štěpán

    2008-01-01

    Problematiku facility managementu a správy nemovitostí práce uceleně shrnuje a porovnává teoretické předpoklady a metodické postupy plynoucí z výuky facility managementu na VŠE v Praze s výkonem daných činností v praxi.

  18. Molecular self assembly of mixed comb-like dextran surfactant polymers for SPR virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Ngam, Katanchalee; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Arunrut, Narong; Sansatsadeekul, Jitlada

    2014-11-04

    The synthesis of two comb-like dextran surfactant polymers, that are different in their dextran molecular weight (MW) distribution and the presence of carboxylic groups, and their characterization are reported. A bimodal carboxylic dextran surfactant polymer consists of poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone with carboxyl higher MW dextran, non-functionalized lower MW dextran and hydrophobic hexyl branches; while a monomodal dextran surfactant polymer is PVAm grafted with non-functionalized lower MW dextran and hexyl branches. Layer formation of non-covalently attached dextran chains with bimodal MW distributions on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip was investigated from the perspective of mixed physisorption of the bimodal and monomodal surfactant polymers. Separation distances between the carboxylic longer dextran side chains within the bimodal surfactant polymer and between the whole bimodal surfactant molecules on the chip surface could be well-controlled. SPR analysis of shrimp yellow head virus using our mixed surfactant chips showed dependence on synergetic adjustment of these separation distances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  20. Enhanced gas sensing performance of TiO2 functionalized magneto-optical SPR sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Maria Grazia; Montagna, G.; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; González-García, Lola; Sánchez-Valencia, J.R.; González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, José Miguel; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Rella, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Porous TiO2 thin films deposited by glancing angle deposition are used as sensing layers to monitor their sensing capabilities towards Volatile Organic Compounds both in a standard Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor and in Magneto-Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (MO-SPR) configuration in order to compare their sensing performances. Here our results on the enhanced sensing capability of these TiO2 functionalized MO-SPR sensors with Au/Co/Au transducers with respect to traditional SPR gas...

  1. SPR imaging combined with cyclic voltammetry for the detection of neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR detects changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. In this study, SPR imaging (SPRi combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV was applied to detect neural activity in isolated bullfrog sciatic nerves. The neural activities induced by chemical and electrical stimulation led to an SPR response, and the activities were recorded in real time. The activities of different parts of the sciatic nerve were recorded and compared. The results demonstrated that SPR imaging combined with CV is a powerful tool for the investigation of neural activity.

  2. Fatigue strength of a single lap joint SPR-bonded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, G.; Fratini, L.; Pasta, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, hybrid joints, meaning with this the joints which consist in combining a traditional mechanical joint to a layer of adhesive, are gradually attracting the attention of various sectors of the construction of vehicles and transportation industries, for their better performance compared to just mechanical joints (self-piercing riveting SPR, riveting, and so on) or just to bonded joints.The paper investigates the fatigue behavior of a single lap joint self-piercing riveted (SPR) and bonded throughout fatigue tests. The considered geometric configuration allowed the use of two rivets placed longitudinally; an epoxy resin was used as adhesive. In the first part of the work static characterization of the joints was carried out through tensile tests. Then fatigue tests were made with the application of different levels of load. The fatigue curves were also obtained at the varying the distance between the two rivets in order to better assess the joint strength for a given length of overlap.

  3. Feasibility study on superconducting energy storages for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. Final report; Machbarkeitsuntersuchung von supraleitenden Energiespeichern zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockl, V [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Koetschau, S [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Nick, W [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Peschel, H [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Prescher, K [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Rzezonka, B [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Thiel, C [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Voelzke, R [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Zaviska, O [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Radtke, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Kleimaier, M [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Uttich, R [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present integrated research project conducted by Siemens AG in cooperation with the power supply companies PreussenElektra AG and RWE Energie AG was started in March 1994 and finally concluded in March 1996 after a run time of 25 months. On the strength of their know-how as manufacturers of electrotechnical installations and power plants the cooperating partners were fully equipped to examine the technical and economic conditions relevant to the practical application of superconducting energy storages. The aim of the study was to examine the feasibility and economic efficiency of superconducting magnetic energy storages (SMES) for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. The SMES is also to provide the power for primary regulation, a function effected by slight throttling of live steam valves in conventional thermal power plants. A basic cost estimation was made for economic assessment purposes. The estimated cost of the first plant (including development costs and component testing) and subsequent (series produced) plants is to serve as a basis for the ensuing decision on prototype construction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Maerz 1994 wurde das vorliegende Forschungsverbundprojekt von der Siemens AG in Zusammenarbeit mit den Energieversorgungsunternehmen PreussenElektra AG und RWE Energie AG begonnen und nach einer Laufzeit von 25 Monaten im Maerz 1996 abgeschlossen. Die beteiligten Unternehmen bringen durch ihr Know-how als Hersteller von elektrotechnischen Anlagen und Kraftwerken und als Betreiber von Stromversorgungsnetzen und Kraftwerken alle Voraussetzungen mit, die technischen und wirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen fuer den Anwendungsfall zu untersuchen. Das Ziel der Untersuchung war, die technische Machbarkeit und die Wirtschaftlichkeit eines supraleitenden magnetischen Energiespeichers (SMES) fuer den Einsatz zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung zu untersuchen. Hierbei soll der SMES die Primaerregelleistung liefern, die bisher in thermischen

  4. Fabrication and characterization of SPR chips with the modified bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Lu-lu; Cui, Da-fu

    2016-03-01

    A facile surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip is developed for small molecule determination and analysis. The SPR chip was prepared based on a self assembling principle, in which the modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) was directly self-assembled onto the bare gold surface. The surface morphology of the chip with the modified BSA was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and its optical properties were characterized. The surface binding capacity of the bare facile SPR chip with a uniform morphology is 8 times of that of the bare control SPR chip. Based on the experiments of immune reaction between cortisol antibody and cortisol derivative, the sensitivity of the facile SPR chip with the modified BSA is much higher than that of the control SPR chip with the un-modified BSA. The facile SPR chip has been successfully used to detect small molecules. The lowest detection limit is 5 ng/mL with a linear range of 5—100 ng/mL for cortisol analysis. The novel facile SPR chip can also be applied to detect other small molecules.

  5. Dehumidification effects in the superheated region (SPR) of a direct expansion (DX) air cooling coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liang; Chan Mingyin; Deng Shiming; Xu Xiangguo

    2009-01-01

    A DX air cooling coil may normally be assumed to have two regions in its refrigerant side, according to refrigerant status, a two-phase region (TPR) and a superheated region (SPR). Dry air side surface of the SPR in a DX air cooling coil has been normally assumed in lumped-parameter mathematical models previously developed without however being validated. Therefore, an experimental study has been carried out to examine such an assumption under different operating conditions. The experimental results suggested that the air side surface of the SPR in a DX air cooling coil was either fully or partially wet under all experimental conditions and assuming dry air side of the SPR could lead to an underestimated total amount of water vapor condensed on the entire DX coil surface. Therefore, it is recommended that the assumption of dry air side in a SPR be no longer used in future lumped-parameter models to be developed for improved modeling accuracy.

  6. System-Level Operational and Adequacy Impact Assessment of Photovoltaic and Distributed Energy Storage, with Consideration of Inertial Constraints, Dynamic Reserve and Interconnection Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems requires a fundamental understanding of its impact at a system-level. Furthermore, distributed energy storage (DES technologies, such as batteries, are attracting great interest owing to their ability to provide support to systems with large-scale renewable generation, such as PV. In this light, the system-level impacts of PV and DES are assessed from both operational and adequacy perspectives. Different control strategies for DES are proposed, namely: (1 centralised, to support system operation in the presence of increasing requirements on system ramping and frequency control; and (2 decentralised, to maximise the harnessing of solar energy from individual households while storing electricity generated by PV panels to provide system capacity on request. The operational impacts are assessed by deploying a multi-service unit commitment model with consideration of inertial constraints, dynamic reserve allocation, and interconnection flexibility, while the impacts on adequacy of supply are analysed by assessing the capacity credit of PV and DES through different metrics. The models developed are then applied to different future scenarios for the Great Britain power system, whereby an electricity demand increase due to electrification is also considered. The numerical results highlight the importance of interconnectors to provide flexibility. On the other hand, provision of reserves, as opposed to energy arbitrage, from DES that are integrated into system operation is seen as the most effective contribution to improve system performance, which in turn also decreases the role of interconnectors. DES can also contribute to providing system capacity, but to an extent that is limited by their individual and aggregated energy availability under different control strategies.

  7. A SPR-based immunosensor for the detection of isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzy, Marie-Françoise; Kess, Melanie; Krämer, Petra M

    2009-02-15

    The proof of principle of a reusable surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based immunosensor for the monitoring of isoproturon (IPU), a selective and systemic herbicide, is presented. The detecting rat monoclonal anti-isoproturon antibody (mAb IOC 7E1) was reversibly immobilized through the use of a capture mouse anti-rat (kappa-chain) monoclonal antibody (mAb TIB 172), which was covalently immobilized on the sensor chip surface. Such strategy features a controlled binding of the captured detecting antibody as well as facilitates the surface regeneration. The capture of the anti-IPU mAb by the antibody (TIB 172) coated sensor surface could be carried out up to 120 times (immobilization/regeneration cycles) without any evidence of activity loss. With a high test midpoint and a low associated SPR signal, the direct detection format was shown to be unsuitable for the routine analysis of isoproturon. However, the limit of detection (LOD) could be easily enhanced by using a strategy based on a surface competition assay, which improved all immunosensor parameters. Moreover, the sensitivity and working range of the indirect format were found to be dependent on the surface density of the anti-IPU mAb IOC 7E1. As expected for competitive formats, the lowest surface coverage (0.5 ng/mm(2)) allowed a lower detection of the herbicide isoproturon with a calculated LOD of 0.1 microg/l, an IC(50) (50% inhibition) of 5.3+/-0.6 microg/l, and a working range (20-80% inhibition) of 1.3-16.3 microg/l.

  8. Continuity of care of emergency surgical admissions: impact on SpR training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwidge, S F C; Bryden, E; Halestrap, P; Galland, R B

    2008-06-01

    Continuity of patient care is an important component of surgical education. This study assesses continuity of care in the current working climate. Data were collected prospectively on consecutive emergency general surgical admissions during one month. Our SpR rota is a partial shift 24 hour on call with the SpR's own consultant. The SpR is free of commitments the next day following post-take work. The on call general surgery SpR was designated the 'assessor'. Data were analysed according to involvement of the 'assessor' at subsequent stages of the admission--consent, operation, review during admission and review on discharge. Data were also collected defining whether the 'assessor' and operator followed-up the patient. There were 200 admissions; 108 female and 92 male. Overall 23% admissions had the same 'assessor' for all stages of patient care. The 'assessor' dealt with an aspect of patient care in 11% of admissions who underwent an operation and 29% of admissions who were conservatively managed. SpR follow-up of admissions on whom they operated was 70% but only 41% of admissions who were conservatively managed were followed-up by the assessing SpR. Complete in-hospital continuity of care was poor, although SpR follow-up of patients on whom they had operated was better. Introduction of shift patterns has reduced continuity of patient care. This will have a negative impact on both surgical training and patient care.

  9. Environmental Assessment on the leasing of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, St. James Terminal, St. James Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease the Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s (SPR) St. James Terminal to private industry. The St. James Terminal consists of six storage tanks, a pumping station, two maine docks and ancillary facilities. DOE believes that the St. James Terminal presents an opportunity to establish a government- industry arrangement that could more effectively use this asset to serve the nations`s oil distribution needs, reduce the operational cost of the SPR, and provide a source of revenue for the Government. DOE solicited interest in leasing its distribution facilities in a notice published March 16, 1994. In response, industry has expressed interest in leasing the St. James Terminal, as well as several DOE pipelines, to enhance the operation of its own facilities or to avoid having to construct new ones. Under such a lease, industry use would be subordinate to DOE use in the event of a national energy emergency. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed leasing operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) OF 1969 and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. Experimental results for characterization of a tapered plastic optical fiber sensor based on SPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, N.; Galatus, R.; Zeni, L.

    2015-05-01

    The experimental results obtained with two different Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) geometries, tapered and not-tapered, for a sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) are presented. SPR is used for determining the refractive index variations at the interface between a gold layer and a dielectric medium (aqueous medium). In this work SPR sensors in POF configurations, useful for bio-sensing applications, have been realized for the optimization of the sensitivity and experimentally tested. The results show as the sensitivity increases with the tapered POF configuration, when the refractive index of aqueous medium increases.

  11. Combinations of SPR and MS for Characterizations of Native and Recombinant Proteins in Cell Lysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jonas; Roepstorff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance and mass spectrometry (SPR-MS) has been combined for quality check of recombinant 6xHis-tagged 14-3-3 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. Lysates were injected over an SPR sensorchip with immobilized Ni2+ for SPR analysis of the specific Ni2+ binding response...... and stability. To validate the identity, intactness and homogeneity of the captured proteins were eluted for mass spectrometric analysis of intact molecular weight and peptide mass mapping. Additionally, the captured recombinant proteins were investigated for specific binding to known phosphorylated ligands...... of 14-3-3 proteins in order to test their activity. Specific binding of recombinant and native 14-3-3 proteins in complex mixtures to immobilized phosphopeptides and subsequent elution was also tested by SPR-MS. Ammonium sulfate precipitate fractions from lysates of E. coli expressing 14-3-3 protein...

  12. Recent operational history of the new Sandia Pulsed Reactor III (SPR III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.R.; Estes, B.F.; Reuscher, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Sandia Pulsed Reactor III (SPR III) is a fast-pulse research reactor which was designed and built at Sandia Laboratories and achieved criticality in August 1975. The reactor is now characterized and is in an operational configuration. The core consists of 18 fuel plates (258 kg fuel mass) of fully enriched uranium alloyed with 10 wt.% molybdenum. It is arranged in an annular configuration with an inside diameter of 17.78 cm, an outside diameter of 29.72 cm, and a height of 35.9 cm. The reactor core uses reflectors of copper and aluminum for control and an external bolting arrangement to secure the fuel plates. SPR III and SPR II are operated on an interchangeable basis using the same facility and control system. As of June 1977, SPR III has had over 240 operations with core temperatures up to 541 0 C

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The SER, provided annually in accordance with DOE order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the SPR impacts the environment. The SER provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a describe of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1997. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island site, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 12.6 million m{sup 3} (79.3 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound facilities.

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The SER, provided annually in accordance with DOE order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the SPR impacts the environment. The SER provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a describe of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1997. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island site, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m 3 (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 12.6 million m 3 (79.3 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound facilities

  15. Enhanced magneto-optical SPR platform for amine sensing based on Zn porphyrin dimers

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, M. G.; Ferreiro-Vila, E.; Garcia-Martin, J. M.; Cebollada, A.; Garcia-Martin, A.; Giancane, G.; Valli, L.; Rella, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethane-bridged Zn porphyrins dimers (ZnPP) have been deposited by Langmuir-Schäfer (LS) deposition technique onto proper transducer layers for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and magneto-optical surface plasmon resonance (MO-SPR) characterization techniques performed in controlled atmosphere. This last tool has emerged as a novel and very performing sensing technique using as transducer layers a combination of noble and magnetic layers deposited onto glass substrates. A magnetic actuation all...

  16. Label-free SPR detection of gluten peptides in urine for non-invasive celiac disease follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Moreno, Maria de Lourdes; Cebolla, Angel; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-05-15

    Motivated by the necessity of new and efficient methods for dietary gluten control of celiac patients, we have developed a simple and highly sensitive SPR biosensor for the detection of gluten peptides in urine. The sensing methodology enables rapid and label-free quantification of the gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) by using G12 mAb. The overall performance of the biosensor has been in-depth optimized and evaluated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility, reaching a limit of detection of 0.33 ng mL(-1). Besides, the robustness and stability of the methodology permit the continuous use of the biosensor for more than 100 cycles with excellent repeatability. Special efforts have been focused on preventing and minimizing possible interferences coming from urine matrix enabling a direct analysis in this fluid without requiring extraction or purification procedures. Our SPR biosensor has proven to detect and identify gluten consumption by evaluating urine samples from healthy and celiac individuals with different dietary gluten conditions. This novel biosensor methodology represents a novel approach to quantify the digested gluten peptides in human urine with outstanding sensitivity in a rapid and non-invasive manner. Our technique should be considered as a promising opportunity to develop Point-of-Care (POC) devices for an efficient, simple and accurate gluten free diet (GFD) monitoring as well as therapy follow-up of celiac disease patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  18. Fast and sensitive detection of ochratoxin A in red wine by nanoparticle-enhanced SPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Hageneder, Simone; Dubiak-Szepietowska, Monika; Dostálek, Jakub; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-21

    Herein, we present a fast and sensitive biosensor for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in a red wine that utilizes gold nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By combining an indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay and signal enhancement by secondary antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), highly sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds (such as OTA) was achieved. The reported biosensor allowed for OTA detection at concentrations as low as 0.75 ng mL(-1) and its limit of detection was improved by more than one order of magnitude to 0.068 ng mL(-1) by applying AuNPs as a signal enhancer. The study investigates the interplay of size of AuNPs and affinity of recognition elements affecting the efficiency of the signal amplification strategy based on AuNP. Furthermore, we observed that the presence of polyphenolic compounds in wine samples strongly interferes with the affinity binding on the surface. To overcome this limitation, a simple pre-treatment of the wine sample with the binding agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was successfully applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Assessment on the leasing of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, St. James Terminal, St. James Parish, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's (SPR) St. James Terminal to private industry. The St. James Terminal consists of six storage tanks, a pumping station, two maine docks and ancillary facilities. DOE believes that the St. James Terminal presents an opportunity to establish a government- industry arrangement that could more effectively use this asset to serve the nations's oil distribution needs, reduce the operational cost of the SPR, and provide a source of revenue for the Government. DOE solicited interest in leasing its distribution facilities in a notice published March 16, 1994. In response, industry has expressed interest in leasing the St. James Terminal, as well as several DOE pipelines, to enhance the operation of its own facilities or to avoid having to construct new ones. Under such a lease, industry use would be subordinate to DOE use in the event of a national energy emergency. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed leasing operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) OF 1969 and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  20. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  1. Effekten af sprøjtemiddelafdrift på buske og træer i læhegn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Strandberg, M. T.; Erlandsen, M.

    Forsøg med sprøjtning af tjørn med ukrudtsmidlet metsul-furon-methyl har vist effekter både i samme år som sprøjtning og året efter. Sprøjtemidlet, som anvendes til bekæmpelse af bredbladet ukrudt i kornmarker, kan formentlig ved afdrift til markomgivelser som hegn og skovkanter medføre en længer...

  2. Two-Channel SPR Sensor Combined Application of Polymer- and Vitreous-Clad Optic Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Su, Yudong; Liu, Chunlan; Nie, Xiangfei; Liu, Zhihai; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yonghui

    2017-12-09

    By combining a polymer-clad optic fiber and a vitreous-clad optic fiber, we proposed and fabricated a novel optic fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor to conduct two-channel sensing at the same detection area. The traditional optic fiber SPR sensor has many disadvantages; for example, removing the cladding requires corrosion, operating it is dangerous, adjusting the dynamic response range is hard, and producing different resonance wavelengths in the sensing area to realize a multi-channel measurement is difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we skillfully used bare fiber grinding technology and reverse symmetry welding technology to remove the cladding in a multi-mode fiber and expose the evanescent field. On the basis of investigating the effect of the grinding angle on the dynamic range change of the SPR resonance valley wavelength and sensitivity, we combined polymer-clad fiber and vitreous-clad fiber by a smart design structure to realize at a single point a two-channel measurement fiber SPR sensor. In this paper, we obtained a beautiful spectral curve from a multi-mode fiber two-channel SPR sensor. In the detection range of the refractive rate between 1.333 RIU and 1.385 RIU, the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅰ shifted from 622 nm to 724 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 1961 nm/RIU and the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅱ shifted from 741 nm to 976 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 4519 nm/RIU.

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, annual site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report, provided annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, summarizes monitoring data collected to assess Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts on the environment. The report serves as a management tool for mitigating such impacts, thus serving the public interest by ensuring environmentally sound operation of the SPR. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1990. The active permits and the results of the environmental monitoring program (i.e., air, surface vater, groundwater, and water discharges) are discussed within each section by site. The quality assurance program is presented which includes results from laboratory and field audits and studies performed internally and by regulatory agencies. In general, no significant adverse environmental impact resulted from any SPR activities during 1990. Environmental areas of concern, such as potential groundwater contamination, are fully addressed in the applicable section by site. The SPR continues to maintain an overall excellent environmental record

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report, provided annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, summarizes monitoring data collected to assess Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts on the environment. The report serves as a management tool for mitigating such impacts, thus serving the public interest by ensuring environmentally sound operation of the SPR. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1992. The active permits and the results of the environmental monitoring program (i.e., air, surface water, ground water, and water discharges) are discussed within each section by site. The quality assurance program is presented which includes results from laboratory and field audits and studies performed internally and by regulatory agencies. In general, no significant adverse environmental impact resulted from any SPR activities during 1992. Environmental areas of concern, such as potential ground water contamination, are fully addressed in the applicable section by site. The SPR continues to maintain an overall excellent environmental record

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report, provided annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, summarizes monitoring data collected to assess Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts on the environment. The report serves as a management tool for mitigating such impacts, thus serving the public interest by ensuring environmentally sound operation of the SPR. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1992. The active permits and the results of the environmental monitoring program (i.e., air, surface water, ground water, and water discharges) are discussed within each section by site. The quality assurance program is presented which includes results from laboratory and field audits and studies performed internally and by regulatory agencies. In general, no significant adverse environmental impact resulted from any SPR activities during 1992. Environmental areas of concern, such as potential ground water contamination, are fully addressed in the applicable section by site. The SPR continues to maintain an overall excellent environmental record.

  6. Surface functionalization of SPR chip for specific molecular interaction analysis under flow condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface functionalization of sensor chip for probe immobilization is crucial for the biosensing applications of surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors. In this paper, we report a method circulating the dopamine aqueous solution to coat polydopamine film on sensing surface for surface functionalization of SPR chip. The polydopamine film with available thickness can be easily prepared by controlling the circulation time and the biorecognition elements can be immobilized on the polydopamine film for specific molecular interaction analysis. These operations are all performed under flow condition in the fluidic system, and have the advantages of easy implementation, less time consuming, and low cost, because the reagents and devices used in the operations are routinely applied in most laboratories. In this study, the specific absorption between the protein A probe immobilized on the sensing surface and human immunoglobulin G in the buffer is monitored based on this surface functionalization strategy to demonstrated its feasibility for SPR biosensing applications.

  7. SPR based immunosensor for detection of Legionella pneumophila in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrico, De Lorenzis; Manera, Maria G.; Montagna, Giovanni; Cimaglia, Fabio; Chiesa, Maurizio; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Santino, Angelo; Rella, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Detection of legionellae by water sampling is an important factor in epidemiological investigations of Legionnaires' disease and its prevention. To avoid labor-intensive problems with conventional methods, an alternative, highly sensitive and simple method is proposed for detecting L. pneumophila in aqueous samples. A compact Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) instrumentation prototype, provided with proper microfluidics tools, is built. The developed immunosensor is capable of dynamically following the binding between antigens and the corresponding antibody molecules immobilized on the SPR sensor surface. A proper immobilization strategy is used in this work that makes use of an important efficient step aimed at the orientation of antibodies onto the sensor surface. The feasibility of the integration of SPR-based biosensing setups with microfluidic technologies, resulting in a low-cost and portable biosensor is demonstrated.

  8. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Wan Maisarah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP. This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI, namely n=1.51(type BK7 and n=1.77(type SF11. Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape as light couplers.

  9. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisarah Mukhtar, Wan; Halim, Razman Mohd; Hassan, Hazirah

    2017-11-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI), namely n=1.51(type BK7) and n=1.77(type SF11). Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical) able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape) as light couplers.

  10. Pleiotropic Regulation of Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans by the Conserved Small Protein SprV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Biswas, Indranil

    2017-04-15

    Streptococcus mutans , an oral pathogen associated with dental caries, colonizes tooth surfaces as polymicrobial biofilms known as dental plaque. S. mutans expresses several virulence factors that allow the organism to tolerate environmental fluctuations and compete with other microorganisms. We recently identified a small hypothetical protein (90 amino acids) essential for the normal growth of the bacterium. Inactivation of the gene, SMU.2137, encoding this protein caused a significant growth defect and loss of various virulence-associated functions. An S. mutans strain lacking this gene was more sensitive to acid, temperature, osmotic, oxidative, and DNA damage-inducing stresses. In addition, we observed an altered protein profile and defects in biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, and natural competence development, possibly due to the fitness defect associated with SMU.2137 deletion. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that nearly 20% of the S. mutans genes were differentially expressed upon SMU.2137 deletion, thereby suggesting a pleiotropic effect. Therefore, we have renamed this hitherto uncharacterized gene as sprV ( s treptococcal p leiotropic r egulator of v irulence). The transcript levels of several relevant genes in the sprV mutant corroborated the phenotypes observed upon sprV deletion. Owing to its highly conserved nature, inactivation of the sprV ortholog in Streptococcus gordonii also resulted in poor growth and defective UV tolerance and competence development as in the case of S. mutans Our experiments suggest that SprV is functionally distinct from its homologs identified by structure and sequence homology. Nonetheless, our current work is aimed at understanding the importance of SprV in the S. mutans biology. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus mutans employs several virulence factors and stress resistance mechanisms to colonize tooth surfaces and cause dental caries. Bacterial pathogenesis is generally controlled by regulators of fitness that are

  11. Gold nanoparticle-enhanced multiplexed imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) detection of Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, sensitive and multiplexed imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) biosensor assay was developed and validated for three Fusarium toxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and T-2 toxin. The iSPR assay was based on a competitive inhibition format with secondary antibodies (Ab2) conjug...

  12. Geologic technical assessment of the Stratton Ridge salt dome, Texas, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The Stratton Ridge salt dome is a large salt diapir located only some ten miles from the currently active Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site at Bryan Mound, Texas. The dome is approximately 15 miles south-southwest of Houston. The Stratton Ridge salt dome has been intensively developed, in the desirable central portions, with caverns for both brine production and product storage. This geologic technical assessment indicates that the Stratton Ridge salt dome may be considered a viable, if less-than-desirable, candidate site for potential expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Past development of underground caverns significantly limits the potential options for use by the SPR. The current conceptual design layout of proposed caverns for such an expansion facility is based upon a decades-old model of salt geometry, and it is unacceptable, according to this reinterpretation of salt dome geology. The easternmost set of conceptual caverns are located within a 300-ft buffer zone of a very major boundary shear zone, fault, or other structural feature of indeterminate origin. This structure transects the salt stock and subdivides it into an shallow western part and a deeper eastern part. In places, the distance from this structural boundary to the design-basis caverns is as little as 150 ft. A 300-ft distance from this boundary is likely to be the minimum acceptable stand-off, from both a geologic and a regulatory perspective. Repositioning of the proposed cavern field is possible, as sufficient currently undeveloped salt acreage appears to be available. However, such reconfiguration would be subject to limitations related to land-parcel boundaries and other existing infrastructure and topographic constraints. More broadly speaking, the past history of cavern operations at the Stratton Ridge salt dome indicates that operation of potential SPR expansion caverns at this site may be difficult, and correspondingly expensive. Although detailed information is

  13. Nanoscale Affinity Chip Interface for Coupling Inhibition SPR Immunosensor Screening with Nano-LC TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Buijs, J.; Haasnoot, W.; Hooijerink, H.; Jansson, O.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    The on-line nanoscale coupling of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition biosensor immunoassay (iBIA) for the screening of low molecular weight molecules with nano-liquid-chromatography electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano-LC ESI TOF MS) for identification is

  14. Detection of mycotoxins using imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect mycotoxins. One technology that has been extensively tested is surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In 2003 a multi-toxin method was reported that detected aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 ...

  15. 10 CFR 1049.8 - Training of SPR Protective Force Officers and qualification to carry firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sufficient to maintain at least the minimum level of competency required for the successful performance of... competence to perform tasks associated with their responsibilities. The basic course shall include the...) Operating in such a manner as to preserve SPR sites and facilities; (9) Communications, including methods...

  16. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR Phenomenon of the Oxidizing and Reducing Polypyrrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaila Rajabiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR phenomenon of the oxidizing and reducing polypyrrole (PPy have been observed using a modified Au/PPy Kretschmann configuration. The observation was carried out through simulation Winspall 3.02 software and compared with some experimental data refractive index (n, absorbance index (, and thickness (τ reported in other literatures with spectroscopy ellipsometry. This simulation assumed that the SPR system use BK-7 halfcylinder prism (n= 1,515 and the laser beam was generated by HeNe (λ= 632,8 nm. The result showed that the optimum layer thickness of polypyrrole with neutral electrolyte solution in the reduction state is of about 20 nm. The polypyrrole with an acid solution in the oxidation state showed that the reflectivity curve is sharper and the width of the curve is smaller than the neutral electrolyte solution in the reduction state with the SPR angle of about 46,810 and the reflectivity value of about 0,217. Polypyrrole in a state of oxidation and reduction, related to the absorption, film thickness, and dielectric constant of materials, affected to the SPR angle shift and dip curve

  17. Development of a β-Lactoglobulin Sensor Based on SPR for Milk Allergens Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; D'Aurelio, Roberta; Piekarska, Monika

    2018-01-01

    A sensitive and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensor was developed in this work for the detection of milk allergens. β-lactoglobulin (BLG) protein was used as the biomarker for cow milk detection. This is to be used directly in final rinse samples of cleaning in-place (CIP) sys...

  18. Effect of sulfasalazine on human neuroblastoma: analysis of sepiapterin reductase (SPR) as a new therapeutic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yco, Lisette P.; Geerts, Dirk; Mocz, Gabor; Koster, Jan; Bachmann, André S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive childhood malignancy in children up to 5 years of age. High-stage tumors frequently relapse even after aggressive multimodal treatment, and then show therapy resistance, typically resulting in patient death. New molecular-targeted compounds that effectively suppress tumor growth and prevent relapse with more efficacy are urgently needed. We and others previously showed that polyamines (PA) like spermidine and spermine are essential for NB tumorigenesis and that DFMO, an inhibitor of the key PA synthesis gene product ODC, is effective both in vitro and in vivo, securing its evaluation in NB clinical trials. To find additional compounds interfering with PA biosynthesis, we tested sulfasalazine (SSZ), an FDA-approved salicylate-based anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory drug, recently identified to inhibit sepiapterin reductase (SPR). We earlier presented evidence for a physical interaction between ODC and SPR and we showed that RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPR expression significantly reduced native ODC enzyme activity and impeded NB cell proliferation. Human NB mRNA expression datasets in the public domain were analyzed using the R2 platform. Cell viability, isobologram, and combination index analyses as a result of SSZ treatment with our without DFMO were carried out in NB cell cultures. Molecular protein-ligand docking was achieved using the GRAMM algorithm. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test, 2log Pearson test, and Student’s t test. In this study, we show the clinical relevance of SPR in human NB tumors. We found that high SPR expression is significantly correlated to unfavorable NB characteristics like high age at diagnosis, MYCN amplification, and high INSS stage. SSZ inhibits the growth of NB cells in vitro, presumably due to the inhibition of SPR as predicted by computational docking of SSZ into SPR. Importantly, the combination of SSZ with DFMO produces synergistic antiproliferative effects

  19. Effect of sulfasalazine on human neuroblastoma: analysis of sepiapterin reductase (SPR) as a new therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yco, Lisette P; Geerts, Dirk; Mocz, Gabor; Koster, Jan; Bachmann, André S

    2015-06-21

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive childhood malignancy in children up to 5 years of age. High-stage tumors frequently relapse even after aggressive multimodal treatment, and then show therapy resistance, typically resulting in patient death. New molecular-targeted compounds that effectively suppress tumor growth and prevent relapse with more efficacy are urgently needed. We and others previously showed that polyamines (PA) like spermidine and spermine are essential for NB tumorigenesis and that DFMO, an inhibitor of the key PA synthesis gene product ODC, is effective both in vitro and in vivo, securing its evaluation in NB clinical trials. To find additional compounds interfering with PA biosynthesis, we tested sulfasalazine (SSZ), an FDA-approved salicylate-based anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory drug, recently identified to inhibit sepiapterin reductase (SPR). We earlier presented evidence for a physical interaction between ODC and SPR and we showed that RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPR expression significantly reduced native ODC enzyme activity and impeded NB cell proliferation. Human NB mRNA expression datasets in the public domain were analyzed using the R2 platform. Cell viability, isobologram, and combination index analyses as a result of SSZ treatment with our without DFMO were carried out in NB cell cultures. Molecular protein-ligand docking was achieved using the GRAMM algorithm. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test, 2log Pearson test, and Student's t test. In this study, we show the clinical relevance of SPR in human NB tumors. We found that high SPR expression is significantly correlated to unfavorable NB characteristics like high age at diagnosis, MYCN amplification, and high INSS stage. SSZ inhibits the growth of NB cells in vitro, presumably due to the inhibition of SPR as predicted by computational docking of SSZ into SPR. Importantly, the combination of SSZ with DFMO produces synergistic antiproliferative effects

  20. Two-Channel SPR Sensor Combined Application of Polymer- and Vitreous-Clad Optic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By combining a polymer-clad optic fiber and a vitreous-clad optic fiber, we proposed and fabricated a novel optic fiber surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor to conduct two-channel sensing at the same detection area. The traditional optic fiber SPR sensor has many disadvantages; for example, removing the cladding requires corrosion, operating it is dangerous, adjusting the dynamic response range is hard, and producing different resonance wavelengths in the sensing area to realize a multi-channel measurement is difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we skillfully used bare fiber grinding technology and reverse symmetry welding technology to remove the cladding in a multi-mode fiber and expose the evanescent field. On the basis of investigating the effect of the grinding angle on the dynamic range change of the SPR resonance valley wavelength and sensitivity, we combined polymer-clad fiber and vitreous-clad fiber by a smart design structure to realize at a single point a two-channel measurement fiber SPR sensor. In this paper, we obtained a beautiful spectral curve from a multi-mode fiber two-channel SPR sensor. In the detection range of the refractive rate between 1.333 RIU and 1.385 RIU, the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅰ shifted from 622 nm to 724 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 1961 nm/RIU and the resonance valley wavelength of channel Ⅱ shifted from 741 nm to 976 nm with a mean average sensitivity of 4519 nm/RIU.

  1. A model based on stochastic dynamic programming for determining China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobing; Fan Ying; Wei Yiming

    2009-01-01

    China's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is currently being prepared. But how large the optimal stockpile size for China should be, what the best acquisition strategies are, how to release the reserve if a disruption occurs, and other related issues still need to be studied in detail. In this paper, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming model based on a total potential cost function of establishing SPRs to evaluate the optimal SPR policy for China. Using this model, empirical results are presented for the optimal size of China's SPR and the best acquisition and drawdown strategies for a few specific cases. The results show that with comprehensive consideration, the optimal SPR size for China is around 320 million barrels. This size is equivalent to about 90 days of net oil import amount in 2006 and should be reached in the year 2017, three years earlier than the national goal, which implies that the need for China to fill the SPR is probably more pressing; the best stockpile release action in a disruption is related to the disruption levels and expected continuation probabilities. The information provided by the results will be useful for decision makers.

  2. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    In the Autumn of 1996, consumers and Members of Congress from the Northeast expressed concern about high prices for heating oil and historically low levels of inventories. Some Members of Congress advocated building a Federal inventory of heating oil as part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Regional reserves are authorized as part of the SPR for import dependent regions by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. In response, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed a series of studies related to heating fuels, including a study of the desirability, feasibility, and cost of creating a Federal reserve containing distillate fuel. This report documents that study.

  3. Comparative SPR study on the effect of nanomaterials on the biological activity of adsorbed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Q.; Chen, Y.; Hong, J.; Chen, H.; Ding, X.; Yin, Y.; Koh, K.; Lee, J.

    2012-01-01

    Bioactivity of proteins is evaluated to test the adverse effects of nanoparticles interjected into biological systems. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy detects binding affinity that is normally related to biological activity. Utilizing SPR spectroscopy, a concise testing matrix is established by investigating the adsorption level of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA on the surface covered with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA); magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), respectively. The immunoactivity of BSA on MNPs and SWCNT decreased by 18 % and 5 %, respectively, compared to that on the gold film modified with MUA. This indicates that MNPs cause a considerable loss of biological activity of adsorbed protein. This effect can be utilized for practical applications on detailed biophysical research and nanotoxicity studies. (author)

  4. SPR based hybrid electro-optic biosensor for β-lactam antibiotics determination in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatus, Ramona; Feier, Bogdan; Cristea, Cecilia; Cennamo, Nunzio; Zeni, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    The present work aims to provide a hybrid platform capable of complementary and sensitive detection of β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin in particular. The use of an aptamer specific to ampicillin assures good selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of ampicillin from different matrice. This new approach is dedicated for a portable, remote sensing platform based on low-cost, small size and low-power consumption solution. The simple experimental hybrid platform integrates the results from the D-shape surface plasmon resonance plastic optical fiber (SPR-POF) and from the electrochemical (bio)sensor, for the analysis of ampicillin, delivering sensitive and reliable results. The SPR-POF already used in many previous applications is embedded in a new experimental setup with fluorescent fibers emitters, for broadband wavelength analysis, low-power consumption and low-heating capabilities of the sensing platform.

  5. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), located in Louisiana and Texas, and conducted in two segments from November 30 through December 11, 1987, and February 1 through 10, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SPR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involved the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SPR, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the SPR Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the SPR Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 200 refs., 50 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Binding behavior of CRP and anti-CRP antibody analyzed with SPR and AFM measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Cho, Sang-Joon; Jeong, Sang Won; Jeon, Won Bae

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) was exploited to take picture of the molecular topology of C-reactive protein (CRP) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. An explicit molecular image of CRP demonstrated a pentagonal structure composed of five subunits. Dimensions of the doughnut-shaped CRP molecule measured by AFM were about 25 nm in outside diameter and 10 nm in central pore diameter, and the height of CRP molecule was about 4 nm which was comparable to the value determined by X-ray crystallography. Bis(N-succinimido)-11,11'-dithiobis (undecyl succinate) (DSNHS) was synthesized for use as a linker for immobilizing anti-CRP antibody (anti-CRP) onto the gold surface of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chip. DSNHS formed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the gold surface. By use of an AFM tip, a pattern of ditch was engraved within the SAM of DSNHS, and anti-CRP was immobilized on the engraved SAM through replacement of N-hydroxysuccinimide group on the outside surface of DSNHS by the amine group of anti-CRP. Formation of CRP/anti-CRP complex on the gold surface of SPR sensor chip was clearly demonstrated by measuring SPR angle shift. A consecutive series of SAM, SAM/anti-CRP, and SAM/anti-CRP/CRP complexes was generated on a SPR sensor chip, and the changes in depth of the ditch were monitored by taking AFM images of the complexes. Comparative analysis of the depth differences indicates that binding of CRP to anti-CRP occurs in a planar mode

  7. The SPR detection of Salmonella enteritidis in food using aptamers as recongnition elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, W. T.; Du, X. W.; Pan, M. F.; Wang, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this experiment, a fast, accurate, non-destructive, unmarked and simple-operation detection method for Salmonella enteritidis in food was established by the BI-3000 plasma resonance biosensor (SPR). This article establishes a method of using nucleic acid aptamer as immune recognition element in SPR which can be employed to detect Salmonella enteritidis in food for the first time. The experimental conditions were screened and the experimental scheme was validated and applied. The best flow rate was 5μL/min, the best concentration of the aptamers was 180mM, and the best regenerating solution was the 20mM NaOH. This method had almost no cross-reactivity. Besides, we established a standard curve of Salmonella enteritidis and SPR signal, with the detection limit of 2 cfu/mL. Finally, we tested the samples of chicken, pork, shrimp and fish purchased from supermarkets. The method has the advantages of short time, low detection limit and easy operation, which can be used for a large number of food samples.

  8. Estimation of optical constants of a bio-thin layer (onion epidermis), using SPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Saif-ur-; Hayashi, Shinji; Sekkat, Zouheir; Mumtaz, Huma; Shaukat, S F

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the optical constants of a biological thin layer (Allium cepa) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. For this study, the fresh inner thin epidermis of an onion bulb was used and stacked directly on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) film surfaces in order to identify the shift in SPR mode of each metal film at an operating wavelength of 632.8 nm. The thickness and dielectric constants of the biological thin layer were determined by matching the experimental SPR curves to theoretical ones. The thickness and roughness of bare Au and Ag thin films were also measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM); the results of which are in good agreement with those obtained through experiment. Due to the high surface roughness of the natural onion epidermis layer, AFM could not measure the exact thickness of an onion epidermis. It is estimated that the value of the real part of the dielectric constant of an onion epidermis is between the dielectric constants of water and air. (paper)

  9. Vurdering af omfang og konsekvenser af sprøjtning og gødskning af § 3-beskyttede naturarealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Morten Tune; Bak, Jesper Leth; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft

    2012-01-01

    Det er overvejende de ferske enge, der gødskes og sprøjtes, hvorimod dette kun undtagelsesvist er konstateret på andre naturtyper som overdrev og heder m.m. De ferske enge er samtidig den mest udbredte § 3-naturtype. Behandling i form af gødskning og sprøjtning foregår anslået på op til 20 % af a...

  10. Report to the Congress on alternative methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to fulfill the requirements of Public Law No. 101-46, approved June 30, 1989. The study describes and evaluates alternative methods for financing the future expansion of the Strategic petroleum Reserve (SPR), both to the current target level of 750 million barrels and to potential future levels of up to one billion barrels.

  11. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  12. Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

  13. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  14. Språkpolitikk og (usynleggjering i det semiotiske landskapet på Universitetet i Tromsø

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Mette Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen analyserer vi det semiotiske landskapet som famnar om og er ein del av staden Universitetet i Tromsø (UiT, inkludert Universitetssykehuset Nord-Norge (UNN. Analysen bygger på eit todelt datamateriale som om­fattar fotografi frå universitets­området i tillegg til relevante dokument om språk­lovgjeving og andre offisielle vedtak om språkbruk. Dei aktuelle språka er norsk (bokmål og nynorsk, nord­samisk, engelsk og kvensk/finsk. I tillegg blir ymse slag visuelle symbol under­kasta analyse. Også kunstnarleg utsmykking blir kort omtala. Vi viser korleis synleggjering av ulike språk på UiT er eit resultat av språkpolitikk på ulike nivå, men også er påverka av meir implisitte faktorar som lokale og nasjonale språkhierarki og, ikkje minst, konstruksjonen av ein regional institusjons­identitet som blir uttrykt gjennom det semiotiske landskapet meir generelt. Som ramme rundt denne analysen gjer vi dessutan ein ekskurs til det som i 2011 utløyste ein intens debatt i Tromsø kommune, nemleg spørsmålet om kommunen burde eller ikkje burde bli innlemma i forvaltningsområdet for samisk språk. Den måten denne problemstillinga er blitt takla på av politiske organ i kommunen, og ikkje minst debatten om den i medieoffentlegheita, står i skarp kontrast til den fleirspråklege freden som omgjev universitetet og universitets­sjukehuset.

  15. Grating coupled SPR microarray analysis of proteins and cells in blood from mice with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A; Torrisi, D M; Sell, S; Cady, N C; Lawrence, D A

    2016-01-21

    Biomarker discovery for early disease diagnosis is highly important. Of late, much effort has been made to analyze complex biological fluids in an effort to develop new markers specific for different cancer types. Recent advancements in label-free technologies such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors have shown promise as a diagnostic tool since there is no need for labeling or separation of cells. Furthermore, SPR can provide rapid, real-time detection of antigens from biological samples since SPR is highly sensitive to changes in surface-associated molecular and cellular interactions. Herein, we report a lab-on-a-chip microarray biosensor that utilizes grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GCSPR) and grating-coupled surface plasmon coupled fluorescence (GCSPCF) imaging to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from a mouse model (FVB-MMTV-PyVT). GCSPR and GCSPCF analysis was accomplished by spotting antibodies to surface cell markers, cytokines and stress proteins on a nanofabricated GCSPR microchip and screening blood samples from FVB control mice or FVB-MMTV-PyVT mice with developing mammary carcinomas. A transgenic MMTV-PyVT mouse derived cancer cell line was also analyzed. The analyses indicated that CD24, CD44, CD326, CD133 and CD49b were expressed in both cell lines and in blood from MMTV-PyVT mice. Furthermore, cytokines such as IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, along with heat shock proteins HSP60, HSP27, HSc70(HSP73), HSP90 total, HSP70/HSc70, HSP90, HSP70, HSP90 alpha, phosphotyrosine and HSF-1 were overexpressed in MMTV-PyVT mice.

  16. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts. The SER, provided annually in accordance with Department of Energy DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts the environment. This report (SER) provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1994. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island facility (disposition of 73 million barrels of crude oil inventory) as well as the degasification of up to 144 million barrels of crude oil inventory at the Bayou Choctaw, Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry facilities. The decision to decommission the Weeks Island facility is a result of diminishing mine integrity from ground water intrusion. Degasifying the crude oil is required to reduce potentially harmful emissions that would occur during oil movements. With regard to still another major environmental action, 43 of the original 84 environmental findings from the 1992 DOE Tiger Team Assessment were closed by the end of 1994. Spills to the environment, another major topic, indicates a positive trend. Total volume of oil spilled in 1994 was only 39 barrels, down from 232 barrels in 1993, and the total volume of brine spilled was only 90 barrels, down from 370 barrels in 1993. The longer term trend for oil and brine spills has declined substantially from 27 in 1990 down to nine in 1994

  18. Geomechanical Simulation of Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve - Model Calibration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A finite element numerical analysis model has been constructed that consists of a realistic mesh capturing the geometries of Bayou Choctaw (BC) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and multi - mechanism deformation ( M - D ) salt constitutive model using the daily data of actual wellhead pressure and oil - brine interface. The salt creep rate is not uniform in the salt dome, and the creep test data for BC salt is limited. Therefore, the model calibration is necessary to simulate the geomechanical behavior of the salt dome. The cavern volumetric closures of SPR caverns calculated from CAVEMAN are used for the field baseline measurement. The structure factor, A 2 , and transient strain limit factor, K 0 , in the M - D constitutive model are used for the calibration. The A 2 value obtained experimentally from the BC salt and K 0 value of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt are used for the baseline values. T o adjust the magnitude of A 2 and K 0 , multiplication factors A2F and K0F are defined, respectively. The A2F and K0F values of the salt dome and salt drawdown skins surrounding each SPR cavern have been determined through a number of back fitting analyses. The cavern volumetric closures calculated from this model correspond to the predictions from CAVEMAN for six SPR caverns. Therefore, this model is able to predict past and future geomechanical behaviors of the salt dome, caverns, caprock , and interbed layers. The geological concerns issued in the BC site will be explained from this model in a follow - up report .

  19. Geomechanical Model Calibration Using Field Measurements for a Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven R.; Herrick, Courtney G.

    2018-03-01

    A finite element numerical analysis model has been constructed that consists of a mesh that effectively captures the geometries of Bayou Choctaw (BC) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and multimechanism deformation (M-D) salt constitutive model using the daily data of actual wellhead pressure and oil-brine interface location. The salt creep rate is not uniform in the salt dome, and the creep test data for BC salt are limited. Therefore, the model calibration is necessary to simulate the geomechanical behavior of the salt dome. The cavern volumetric closures of SPR caverns calculated from CAVEMAN are used as the field baseline measurement. The structure factor, A 2, and transient strain limit factor, K 0, in the M-D constitutive model are used for the calibration. The value of A 2, obtained experimentally from BC salt, and the value of K 0, obtained from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant salt, are used for the baseline values. To adjust the magnitude of A 2 and K 0, multiplication factors A 2 F and K 0 F are defined, respectively. The A 2 F and K 0 F values of the salt dome and salt drawdown skins surrounding each SPR cavern have been determined through a number of back analyses. The cavern volumetric closures calculated from this model correspond to the predictions from CAVEMAN for six SPR caverns. Therefore, this model is able to predict behaviors of the salt dome, caverns, caprock, and interbed layers. The geotechnical concerns associated with the BC site from this analysis will be explained in a follow-up paper.

  20. Development of low cost and accurate homemade sensor system based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, F. D.; Supardianningsih; Arifin, M.; Abraha, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we developed homemade and computerized sensor system based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The developed systems consist of mechanical system instrument, laser power sensor, and user interface. The mechanical system development that uses anti-backlash gear design was successfully able to enhance the angular resolution angle of incidence laser up to 0.01°. In this system, the laser detector acquisition system and stepper motor controller utilizing Arduino Uno which is easy to program, flexible, and low cost, was used. Furthermore, we employed LabView’s user interface as the virtual instrument for facilitating the sample measurement and for transforming the data recording directly into the digital form. The test results using gold-deposited half-cylinder prism showed the Total Internal Reflection (TIR) angle of 41,34°± 0,01° and SPR angle of 44,20°± 0,01°, respectively. The result demonstrated that the developed system managed to reduce the measurement duration and data recording errors caused by human error. Also, the test results also concluded that the system’s measurement is repeatable and accurate.

  1. Gold nanoparticles decorated on BaTiO3 as photocatalyst: effect of SPR and ferroelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhilei; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Rongchun; Zhou, Fang; Lv, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wang, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    BaTiO3(BTO) powders with cubic(C) and tetragonal(T) crystalline structures were prepared by sol-gel method followed by calcination at different temperatures, and they were decorated with gold nanoparticles(AuNPs) to form Au-T-BTO and Au-C-BTO respectively. All the samples (C-BTO, T-BTO, Au-C-BTO and Au-T-BTO) were used as photo-catalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). Au-T-BTO exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity due to thecombined effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the ferroelectricity of the tetragonalphase BTO. The light absorption peaks at 500 to 600 nm verify the presence of SPR effect from Au NPs. Based on density functional theory (DFC) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach, it was demonstrated that the tetragonal phase BaTiO3 shows a spontaneous polarization with the calculated value of 0.34 C m-2, which is absent in thecubic phase. The internal space charge layer in tetragonal phase BTO enhances the separation of photoexcited carriers due to the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization, which also benefits photocatalytic activities.

  2. Stability Modification of SPR Silver Nano-Chips by Alkaline Condensation of Aminopropyltriethoxysilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Silver SPR chip was modified by alkaline-silane condensation with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES in NaOH aqueous solution at different times. Silver sputtered slides coated with APTES were immersed in NaOH solution, enabling us to produce silver surfaces homogeneously covered with APTES. The surface properties of grafted APTES on sputtered silver surface as a occasion of time were studied using SPR analysis, AFM and contact angle measurement. The mechanical and chemical stability of samples was assayed by tape test and NaCl test. The answers show that hydrolysis and condensation of APTES are activated in alkaline solution and lead to formation of a protective APTES layer on the surface of silver. The morphology of APTES on silver surface is a function of coverage density that is altered by changing time. At short times (< 30 min, APTES molecules physically adsorb to the surface leads to weak protection. At higher condensation times, APTES molecules chemically bond to the surface and each other leads to better protection.

  3. LUSH-based SPR sensor for the detection of alcohols and pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Kwon, Jae-Young; Sohn, Young-Soo; Lim, Jeong Ok

    2013-05-01

    Protein is a widely used sensing substrate in the biosensing technology. In the study conducted here, we used odorant binding protein, LUSH from Drosophila as a biosensing substrate in a miniaturized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. LUSH contains the specific alcohols binding sites, which mediates the detection of alcohols and pheromone. We first modified the surface of the gold sensor chip using the self assembled monolayer in the chloroform solution. The saturated concentration was determined prior to the detection of alcohols and pheromone at various concentrations. The results showed that the LUSH was saturated at 1000 μg/ml on the gold sensor chip. The detection response of LUSH was significant at higher concentration of alcohols. LUSH detected ethanol at concentration >=50% propanol was detected at >=25% whereas pheromone was detected at >=1.25 μg/μl. The results provide some fundamental information on the potential use of LUSH-based SPR as a simple and easy protein-based sensor in the near future.

  4. Development of a β-Lactoglobulin Sensor Based on SPR for Milk Allergens Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Ashley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR based sensor was developed in this work for the detection of milk allergens. β-lactoglobulin (BLG protein was used as the biomarker for cow milk detection. This is to be used directly in final rinse samples of cleaning in-place (CIP systems of food manufacturers. The affinity assay was optimised and characterised before a standard curve was performed in pure buffer conditions, giving a detection limit of 0.164 µg mL−1 as a direct binding assay. The detection limit can be further enhanced through the use of a sandwich assay and amplification with nanomaterials. However, this was not required here, as the detection limit achieved exceeded the required allergen detection levels of 2 µg mL−1 for β-lactoglobulin. The binding affinities of the polyclonal antibody for BLG, expressed by the dissociation constant (KD, were equal to 2.59 × 10−9 M. The developed SPR-based sensor offers several advantages in terms of label-free detection, real-time measurements, potential on-line system and superior sensitivity when compared to ELISA-based techniques. The method is novel for this application and could be applied to wider food allergen risk management decision(s in food manufacturing.

  5. SFG and SPR Study of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Film Assembly on Positively Charged Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sanghun; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew; Castner, David

    2012-02-01

    This study uses sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing to investigate the structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films formed on positively charged and hydrophilic surfaces. The SPR signals show a good surface coverage suggesting that full monolayer coverage is reached at 1 mM. SFG spectra of SDS adsorbed exhibits well resolved CH3 peaks and OH peaks. At both 0.2 mM and 1 mM SDS concentration the intensity of both the CH3 and OH peaks decreased close to background levels. We found that the loss of SFG signal at 0.2 mM occurs at this concentration independent of surface charge density. It is more likely that the loss of signal is related to structural inhomogeneity induced by a striped phase - stand-up phase transition. This is supported by a distinct change of the relative SFG phase between CH3/OH near 0.2 mM. The second intensity minimum might be related to charge compensation effects. We observed a substrate dependence for the high concentration transition. We also observed distinct SFG signal phase changes for water molecules associated with SDS layers at different SDS solution concentrations indicating that the orientation of bound water changed with SDS surface structure.

  6. Dynamic SPR monitoring of yeast nuclear protein binding to a cis-regulatory element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Grace; Brody, James P.

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by protein complexes binding to short specific sequences of DNA, called cis-regulatory elements. Expression of most eukaryotic genes is controlled by dozens of these elements. Comprehensive identification and monitoring of these elements is a major goal of genomics. In pursuit of this goal, we are developing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based assay to identify and monitor cis-regulatory elements. To test whether we could reliably monitor protein binding to a regulatory element, we immobilized a 16 bp region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome 5 onto a gold surface. This 16 bp region of DNA is known to bind several proteins and thought to control expression of the gene RNR1, which varies through the cell cycle. We synchronized yeast cell cultures, and then sampled these cultures at a regular interval. These samples were processed to purify nuclear lysate, which was then exposed to the sensor. We found that nuclear protein binds this particular element of DNA at a significantly higher rate (as compared to unsynchronized cells) during G1 phase. Other time points show levels of DNA-nuclear protein binding similar to the unsynchronized control. We also measured the apparent association complex of the binding to be 0.014 s -1 . We conclude that (1) SPR-based assays can monitor DNA-nuclear protein binding and that (2) for this particular cis-regulatory element, maximum DNA-nuclear protein binding occurs during G1 phase

  7. Floating Chip Mounting System Driven by Repulsive Force of Permanent Magnets for Multiple On-Site SPR Immunoassay Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Tobita, Tatsuya; Miura, Toru; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Seyama, Michiko; Inoue, Suzuyo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Haga, Tsuneyuki; Tamechika, Emi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a measurement chip installation/removal mechanism for a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay analysis instrument designed for frequent testing, which requires a rapid and easy technique for changing chips. The key components of the mechanism are refractive index matching gel coated on the rear of the SPR chip and a float that presses the chip down. The refractive index matching gel made it possible to optically couple the chip and the prism of the SPR instrument easily via elastic deformation with no air bubbles. The float has an autonomous attitude control function that keeps the chip parallel in relation to the SPR instrument by employing the repulsive force of permanent magnets between the float and a float guide located in the SPR instrument. This function is realized by balancing the upward elastic force of the gel and the downward force of the float, which experiences a leveling force from the float guide. This system makes it possible to start an SPR measurement immediately after chip installation and to remove the chip immediately after the measurement with a simple and easy method that does not require any fine adjustment. Our sensor chip, which we installed using this mounting system, successfully performed an immunoassay measurement on a model antigen (spiked human-IgG) in a model real sample (non-homogenized milk) that included many kinds of interfering foreign substances without any sample pre-treatment. The ease of the chip installation/removal operation and simple measurement procedure are suitable for frequent on-site agricultural, environmental and medical testing. PMID:23202030

  8. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  9. Comparison of different photoresist buffer layers in SPR sensors based on D-shaped POF and gold film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Pesavento, Maria; De Maria, Letizia; Galatus, Ramona; Mattiello, Francesco; Zeni, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    A comparative analysis of two optical fiber sensing platforms is presented. The sensors are based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a D-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) with a photoresist buffer layer between the exposed POF core and the thin gold film. We show how the sensor's performances change when the photoresist layer changes. The photoresist layers proposed in this analysis are SU-8 3005 and S1813. The experimental results are congruent with the numerical studies and it is instrumental for chemical and bio-chemical applications. Usually, the photoresist layer is required in order to increase the performance of the SPR-POF sensor.

  10. Production of a broad specificity antibody for the development and validation of an optical SPR screening method for free and intracellular microcystins and nodularin in cyanobacteria cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Campbell, Katrina; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Elliott, Christopher T

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive broad specificity monoclonal antibody was produced and characterised for microcystin detection through the development of a rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensor based immunoassay. The antibody displayed the following cross-reactivity: MC-LR 100%; MC-RR 108%; MC-YR 68%; MC-LA 69%; MC-LW 71%; MC-LF 68%; and Nodularin 94%. Microcystin-LR was covalently attached to a CM5 chip and with the monoclonal antibody was employed in a competitive 4 min injection assay to detect total microcystins in water samples below the WHO recommended limit (1 µg/L). A 'total microcystin' level was determined by measuring free and intracellular concentrations in cyanobacterial culture samples as this toxin is an endotoxin. Glass bead beating was used to lyse the cells as a rapid extraction procedure. This method was validated according to European Commission Decision 96/23/EC criteria. The method was proven to measure intracellular microcystin levels, the main source of the toxin, which often goes undetected by other analytical procedures and is advantageous in that it can be used for the monitoring of blooms to provide an early warning of toxicity. It was shown to be repeatable and reproducible, with recoveries from spiked samples ranging from 74 to 123%, and had % CVs below 10% for intra-assay analysis and 15% for inter-assay analysis. The detection capability of the assay was calculated as 0.5 ng/mL for extracellular toxins and 0.05 ng/mL for intracellular microcystins. A comparison of the SPR method with LC-MS/MS was achieved by testing six Microcystis aeruginosa cultures and this study yielded a correlation R(2) value of 0.9989. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. «[…] en enkel og saklig innføring i norsk språkhistorie» Språkhistorie som norskdidaktisk emne – et faghistorisk utsyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Hårstad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar for seg språkhistorie som norskdidaktisk emne i et faghistorisk perspektiv. På grunnlag av en lang rekke styringsdokumenter (læreplaner og studieplaner og fagdidaktisk og disiplinfaglig litteratur undersøkes hvordan språkets historiske dimensjoner har blitt tematisert som kunnskapsområde. Et hovedfunn i denne gjennomgangen er at det historiske (eller historiserende lengdesnittet har vært til stede gjennom hele 1900-tallet og fortsatt finnes i gjeldende læreplan – om enn med temmelig varierende vektlegging og detaljering. Læreplanene har i stor grad overlatt til praktikerne (lærerne og lærerutdannerne å avgrense hva de språkhistoriske emnene skal romme. Litteraturanalysen viser videre at den didaktiske refleksjonen på dette feltet bare unntaksvis har kommet på trykk, og denne begrensete språkhistorie-didaktiske debatten må forstås på bakgrunn av tilstanden i forsknings- og studiefaget.Nøkkelord: språkhistorie-didaktikk, språkdidaktikk, språkhistorie, norskdidaktikkAbstractThis article deals with language history as a didactic topic in the subject Norwegian as L1. On the basis of a wide range of documents (curricula and syllabi and didactic and disciplinary literature, the article seeks to examine how the historical dimensions of language have been treated as an area of knowledge. A main finding is that the historic (or historicizing perspective has been present through the entire 20th century and still can be found in the current curriculum – though the emphasis and itemization have varied significantly. The curricula have largely entrusted the practicians (the teachers and teacher educators with the powers to delineate the language history topics. The research review further shows that the didactic reflections within this field only sporadically have appeared in print, and this limited didactic discussion of language history must be understood on the background of the condition of the discipline

  12. Preparation and characterization of thin organosilicon films deposited on SPR chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szunerits, Sabine [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: sabine.szunerits@lepmi.inpg.fr; Rich, Sami Abou [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interaction de Fluides Reactifs-Materiaux U.S.T.L., Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Coffinier, Yannick [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), FRE CNRS 2963, Institut d' lectronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Languille, Marie-Angelique [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS-8181, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Bat. C3, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Supiot, Philippe [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interaction de Fluides Reactifs-Materiaux U.S.T.L., Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), FRE CNRS 2963, Institut d' lectronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)], E-mail: rabah.boukherroub@iemn.univ-lille1.fr

    2008-04-20

    The paper reports on the preparation and characterization of organosilicon thin polymer films deposited on glass slides coated with 5 nm adhesion layer of titanium and 50 nm of gold. The polymer was obtained by the decomposition of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane precursor (TMDSO) premixed with oxygen induced in a N{sub 2} plasma afterglow using remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The film thickness was controlled by laser interferometry and was 9 nm. The chemical stability of the gold substrate coated with the organosilicon polymer film (p-TMDSO) was studied in different acidic and basic solutions (pH 1-14). While the gold/polymer interface showed a high stability in acidic media, the film was almost completely removed in basic solutions. The resulting surfaces were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurements, cyclic voltammetry, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

  13. Preparation and characterization of thin organosilicon films deposited on SPR chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Rich, Sami Abou; Coffinier, Yannick; Languille, Marie-Angelique; Supiot, Philippe; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the preparation and characterization of organosilicon thin polymer films deposited on glass slides coated with 5 nm adhesion layer of titanium and 50 nm of gold. The polymer was obtained by the decomposition of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane precursor (TMDSO) premixed with oxygen induced in a N 2 plasma afterglow using remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The film thickness was controlled by laser interferometry and was 9 nm. The chemical stability of the gold substrate coated with the organosilicon polymer film (p-TMDSO) was studied in different acidic and basic solutions (pH 1-14). While the gold/polymer interface showed a high stability in acidic media, the film was almost completely removed in basic solutions. The resulting surfaces were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurements, cyclic voltammetry, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

  14. Screening and analysis of beyond design basis accident of 49-2 SPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yadong; Guo Yue; Wu Yuanyuan; Zou Yao

    2015-01-01

    The beyond design basis accident was analyzed to ensure safe operation of 49-2 Swimming Pool Reactor (SPR) after design life. Because it's difficult to use PSA method, the unconditional assumed severe accidents were adopted to obtain a conservative result. The main conclusions were obtained by analyzing anticipated transients without scram in station blackout (SBO ATWS), horizontal channel rupture, core uncovering after shutdown and emergency response capacity. The results show that the core is safe in SBO ATWS, and the fuel elements will not melt as long as the core are not exposed in 2.5 h in loss of coolant accident caused by horizontal channel rupture and other factors. The passive siphon breaker function and various ways of emergency core makeup can ensure that the core is not exposed. (authors)

  15. Development of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for use in the diagnostics of malignant and infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, S.; Anwar, S.; Rafya, R.

    2018-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become an important optical biosensing technology due to its real-time, label-free, and noninvasive nature. These techniques allow for rapid and ultra-sensitive detection of biological analytes, with applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and agriculture. SPR is widely used in the detection of biomolecular interactions, and improvements are required for both sensitivity and in vivo uses for practical applications. In this study, we developed an SPR biosensor to provide a highly sensitive and specific approach to early-stage detection of viral and malignant diseases, such as cancer tumors, for which biomarker detection is very important. A cancer cell line (HeLa cells) with biomarker Rodamine 6G was experimentally analyzed in vitro with our constructed SPR biosensor. It was observed that the biosensor can offer a potentially powerful solution for tumor screening with dominant angular shift. The angular shift for both regents is dominant with a time curve at a wavelength of 632.8 nm of a He–Ne laser. We have successfully captured and detected a biomarker in vitro for cancer diagnostics using the developed instrument.

  16. Multiplexed imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) biosensor assay for the detection of Fusarium toxins in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain Fusarium species (F. graminearum and F. verticilloides in particular) infest grains and can produce a wide range of fungal (myco)-toxins, causing huge economic losses worldwide. A reproducible and sensitive imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) assay was developed and validated for three ...

  17. Cloning, expression and structural stability of a cold-adapted ß-Galactosidase from Rahnella sp.R3

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel gene was isolated for the first time from a psychrophilic gram-negative bacterium Rahnella sp.R3. It encoded a cold-adapted ß-galactosidase (R-ß-Gal). Recombinant R-ß-Gal was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purified, and characterized. R-ß-Gal belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase fami...

  18. Spall formation in solution mined storage caverns based on a creep and fracture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2000-01-01

    Because of limited direct observation, understanding of the interior conditions of the massive storage caverns constructed in Gulf Coast salt domes is realizable only through predictions of salt response. Determination of the potential for formation of salt spans, leading to eventual salt falls, is based on salt creep and fracture using the Multimechanism-Deformation Coupled Fracture (MCDF) model. This is a continuum model for creep, coupled to continuum damage evolution. The model has been successfully tested against underground results of damage around several test rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Model simulations, here, evaluate observations made in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, namely, the accumulation of material on cavern floors and evidence of salt falls. A simulation of a smooth cavern wall indicates damage is maximum at the surface but diminishes monotonically into the salt, which suggests the source of salt accumulation is surface sluffing. If a protuberance occurs on the wall, fracture damage can form beneath the protuberance, which will eventually cause fracture, and lead to a salt fall

  19. Investigation of SnSPR1, a novel and abundant surface protein of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deqing; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-04-15

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project has produced over 15,000 partial cDNA sequences from the equine pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. While many of the sequences are clear homologues of previously characterized genes, a significant number of the S. neurona ESTs do not exhibit similarity to anything in the extensive sequence databases that have been generated. In an effort to characterize parasite proteins that are novel to S. neurona, a seemingly unique gene was selected for further investigation based on its abundant representation in the collection of ESTs and the predicted presence of a signal peptide and glycolipid anchor addition on the encoded protein. The gene was expressed in E. coli, and monospecific polyclonal antiserum against the recombinant protein was produced by immunization of a rabbit. Characterization of the native protein in S. neurona merozoites and schizonts revealed that it is a low molecular weight surface protein that is expressed throughout intracellular development of the parasite. The protein was designated Surface Protein 1 (SPR1) to reflect its display on the outer surface of merozoites and to distinguish it from the ubiquitous SAG/SRS surface antigens of the heteroxenous Coccidia. Interestingly, infection assays in the presence of the polyclonal antiserum suggested that SnSPR1 plays some role in attachment and/or invasion of host cells by S. neurona merozoites. The work described herein represents a general template for selecting and characterizing the various unidentified gene sequences that are plentiful in the EST databases for S. neurona and other apicomplexans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the value of investigating these novel sequences since it can offer new candidates for diagnostic or vaccine development while also providing greater insight into the biology of these parasites.

  20. Empirical analysis of optimal strategic petroleum reserve in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yi-Ming; Wu, Gang; Liu, Lan-Cui; Fan, Ying

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government began to prepare for the establishment of strategic petroleum reserve in March 2004. Therefore, answering the question of what level of strategic petroleum reserve would be suitable for China's future economic development becomes essential. Using a decision tree model based on a cost function, this paper quantifies China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2005-2020. This approach provides a methodology reference for further quantified discussion on China's SPR. Our results show that: for economic development and security of the energy supply, the strategic petroleum reserve should be the equivalent of 30-60 days of net oil import for an optimal solution, when the oil price is $ 50/bbl; with a reserve of an equivalent of 60-90 days of net oil import to have an optimal solution when oil price is $20-35/bbl. (author)

  1. The Development of a Portable SPR Bioanalyzer for Sensitive Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR bioanalyzer for the sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in comparison with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The experimental setup mainly consisted of an integrated biosensor and a homemade microfluidic cell with a three-way solenoid valve. In order to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 using the SPR immunoassay, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA was chemisorbed onto a gold surface via covalent bond for the immobilization of biological species. 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS were used as crosslinker reagents to enable the reaction between 3-MPA and Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibodies by covalent –CO–NH– amide bonding. The experimental results were obtained from the Escherichia coli O157:H7 positive samples prepared by 10-, 20-, 40-, 80-, and 160-fold dilution respectively, which show that a good linear relationship with the correlation coefficient R of 0.982 existed between the response units from the portable SPR bioanalyzer and the concentration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 positive samples. Moreover, the theoretical detection limit of 1.87 × 103 cfu/mL was calculated from the positive control samples. Compared with the Escherichia coli O157:H7 ELISA kit, the sensitivity of this portable SPR bioanalyzer is four orders of magnitude higher than the ELISA kit. The results demonstrate that the portable SPR bioanalyzer could provide an alternative method for the quantitative and sensitive determination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in field.

  2. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  3. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

  4. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022

  5. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  6. Reflectance spectra characteristics from an SPR grating fabricated by nano-imprint lithography technique for biochemical nanosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiya Pradana, Jalu; Hidayat, Rahmat

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we report our research work on developing a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) element with sub-micron (hundreds of nanometers) periodicity grating structure. This grating structure was fabricated by using a simple nano-imprint lithography technique from an organically siloxane polymers, which was then covered by nanometer thin gold layer. The formed grating structure was a very well defined square-shaped periodic structure. The measured reflectance spectra indicate the SPR wave excitation on this grating structure. For comparison, the simulations of reflectance spectra have been also carried out by using Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) method. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the simulation results.

  7. SPR Characteristics Curve and Distribution of Residual Stress in Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwanul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction was used to describe the residual stress distributions in self-piercing riveted (SPR joints. The sheet material displayed a compressive residual stress near the joint, and the stress gradually became tensile in the sheet material far away from the joint. The stress in the rivet leg was lower in the thick joint of the softer steel sheet than in the thin joint of the harder steel sheet. This lower magnitude was attributed to the lower force gradient during the rivet flaring stage of the SPR process curve. This study shows how the residual stress results may be related to the physical occurrences that happened during joining, using the characteristics curve. The study also shows that neutron diffraction technique enabled a crack in the rivet tip to be detected which was not apparent from a cross-section.

  8. Facility management - efektivní správa stavebních objektů

    OpenAIRE

    Helekalová, Denisa

    2013-01-01

    Diplomová práce „ Facility management – efektivní správa stavebních objektů“ je zaměřena na stavební objekty a přínos pro ně při využívání služeb facility managementu. Práce se snaží přiblížit, co je facility management kdo ho poskytuje v České republice a jak přispívá k úsporám. Zmíněny jsou také informační technologie využívané ve facility managementu, protože bez těch se v dnešní době téměř žádný obor neobejde. První část je též zaměřena na stavbu, její životní cyklus a náklady s ním spoje...

  9. Comparative study of SPR and ELISA methods based on analysis of CD166/ALCAM levels in cancer and control human sera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaisocherová, Hana; Faca, V.M.; Taylor, A. D.; Hanash, S.; Jiang, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2009), s. 2143-2148 ISSN 0956-5663 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : SPR * ELISA * Cancer biomarkers Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  10. Study of Immobilization Procedure on Silver Nanolayers and Detection of Estrone with Diverged Beam Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdulhalim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An immobilization protocol was developed to attach receptors on smooth silver thin films. Dense and packed 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA was used to avoid uncontrolled sulfidization and harmful oxidation of silver nanolayers. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS were added to make the silver surfaces reactive. A comparative study was carried out with different immersion times of silver samples in 11-MUA solutions with different concentrations to find the optimum conditions for immobilization. The signals, during each step of the protocol, were analyzed with a refractometer based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect and luminescence techniques. Molecular interactions at the surfaces between the probe and target at the surface nanolayer shift the SPR signal, thus indicating the presence of the substance. To demonstrate specific biosensing, rabbit anti-estrone polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody was immobilized through a linker on 47 nm silver layer deposited on SF11 glass. At the final stage, the representative endocrine disruptor—estrone—was attached and detected in deionized water with a diverging beam SPR imaging sensor.

  11. Immobilization of flavan-3-ols onto sensor chips to study their interactions with proteins and pectins by SPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrelot, Aude A.; Tran, Dong Tien; Buffeteau, Thierry; Deffieux, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flavanol-macromolecule interactions were determined using SPR. • Flavanols were chemically modified with a linker bearing a thiol group. • Flavanols were immobilized onto a carboxymethyl dextran surface. • Citrus pectin interacted more with flavanols than apple pectin. • Epicatechin interacted more with BSA than flavanol oligomer. - Abstract: Interactions between plant polyphenols and biomacromolecules such as proteins and pectins have been studied by several methods in solution (e.g. isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance and spectrophotometry). Herein, these interactions were investigated in real time by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis after immobilization of flavan-3-ols onto a sensor chip surface. (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers with an average degree of polymerization of 2 and 8 were chemically modified using N-(2-(tritylthio)ethyl)propiolamide in order to introduce a spacer unit onto the catecholic B ring. Modified flavan-3-ols were then immobilized onto a carboxymethylated dextran surface (CM5). Immobilization was validated and further verified by evaluating flavan-3-ol interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), poly-L-proline or commercial pectins. BSA was found to have a stronger association with monomeric flavan-3-ols than oligomers. SPR analysis of selected flavan-3-ols immobilized onto CM5 sensor chips showed a stronger association for citrus pectins than apple pectins, regardless of flavan-3-ol degree of polymerization.

  12. Immobilization of flavan-3-ols onto sensor chips to study their interactions with proteins and pectins by SPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrelot, Aude A., E-mail: aude.watrelot@avignon.inra.fr [INRA, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d’Origine Végétale, Domaine St Paul, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon (France); Université d’Avignon, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d' Origine Végétale, F-84000 Avignon (France); Tran, Dong Tien [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (UMR-CNRS 5255), 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie (IECB), 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France); Buffeteau, Thierry [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (UMR-CNRS 5255), 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Deffieux, Denis [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (UMR-CNRS 5255), 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie (IECB), 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33607 Pessac (France); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Flavanol-macromolecule interactions were determined using SPR. • Flavanols were chemically modified with a linker bearing a thiol group. • Flavanols were immobilized onto a carboxymethyl dextran surface. • Citrus pectin interacted more with flavanols than apple pectin. • Epicatechin interacted more with BSA than flavanol oligomer. - Abstract: Interactions between plant polyphenols and biomacromolecules such as proteins and pectins have been studied by several methods in solution (e.g. isothermal titration calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance and spectrophotometry). Herein, these interactions were investigated in real time by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) analysis after immobilization of flavan-3-ols onto a sensor chip surface. (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and flavan-3-ol oligomers with an average degree of polymerization of 2 and 8 were chemically modified using N-(2-(tritylthio)ethyl)propiolamide in order to introduce a spacer unit onto the catecholic B ring. Modified flavan-3-ols were then immobilized onto a carboxymethylated dextran surface (CM5). Immobilization was validated and further verified by evaluating flavan-3-ol interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), poly-L-proline or commercial pectins. BSA was found to have a stronger association with monomeric flavan-3-ols than oligomers. SPR analysis of selected flavan-3-ols immobilized onto CM5 sensor chips showed a stronger association for citrus pectins than apple pectins, regardless of flavan-3-ol degree of polymerization.

  13. Enhancement of chitosan-graphene oxide SPR sensor with a multi-metallic layers of Au–Ag–Au nanostructure for lead(II) ion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba [Department of Electric, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A., E-mail: ashrif@ukm.edu.my [Department of Electric, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir [Wireless and Photonic Network Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly [Department of Electric, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Shaari, Sahbudin [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Tri-metallic Au–Ag–Au CS-GO SPR sensor was fabricated for the first time. • The tri-metallic nanostructure provided an enhanced evanescent field. • Successful functionalization of the CS-GO sensing layer. • Superior performance for lead(II) ion detection. - Abstract: We demonstrate the enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique by implementing a multi-metallic layers of Au–Ag–Au nanostructure in the chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO) SPR sensor for lead(II) ion detection. The performance of the sensor is analyzed via SPR measurements, from which the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability are determined. The nanostructure layers are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We showed that the proposed structure has increased the shift in the SPR angle up to 3.5° within the range of 0.1–1 ppm due to the enhanced evanescent field at the sensing layer-analyte interface. This sensor also exhibits great repeatability which benefits from the stable multi-metallic nanostructure. The SNR value of 0.92 for 5 ppm lead(II) ion solution and reasonable linearity range up to that concentration shows that the tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor gives a good response towards the lead(II) ion solution. The CS-GO SPR sensor is also sensitive to at least a 10{sup −5} change in the refractive index. The results prove that our proposed tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor demonstrates a strong performance and reliability for lead(II) ion detection in accordance with the standardized lead safety level for wastewater.

  14. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  15. Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon Hee; Chung, Kyungwha; Quan, Li Na; Špačková, Barbora; Šípová, Hana; Moon, Seyoung; Cho, Won Joon; Shin, Hae-Young; Jang, Yu Jin; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kochuveedu, Saji Thomas; Yoon, Min Ji; Kim, Jihyeon; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Jin Kon; Kim, Donghyun; Homola, Jiří; Kim, Dong Ha

    2013-11-01

    Nanopatterned 2-dimensional Au nanocluster arrays with controlled configuration are fabricated onto reconstructed nanoporous poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) inverse micelle monolayer films. Near-field coupling of localized surface plasmons is studied and compared for disordered and ordered core-centered Au NC arrays. Differences in evolution of the absorption band and field enhancement upon Au nanoparticle adsorption are shown. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical studies based on the finite-difference time-domain method and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The realized Au nanopatterns are exploited as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and integrated into Kretschmann-type SPR sensors, based on which unprecedented SPR-coupling-type sensors are demonstrated.Nanopatterned 2-dimensional Au nanocluster arrays with controlled configuration are fabricated onto reconstructed nanoporous poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) inverse micelle monolayer films. Near-field coupling of localized surface plasmons is studied and compared for disordered and ordered core-centered Au NC arrays. Differences in evolution of the absorption band and field enhancement upon Au nanoparticle adsorption are shown. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical studies based on the finite-difference time-domain method and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The realized Au nanopatterns are exploited as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and integrated into Kretschmann-type SPR sensors, based on which unprecedented SPR-coupling-type sensors are demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM image and UV-vis absorption spectrum of citrate-capped Au NPs, AFM images of Au NC arrays on the PS-b-P4VP (41k-24k) template, ImageJ-analyzed results of PS-b-P4VP (41k-24k)-templated Au NC arrays, calculated %-surface coverage values, SEM images of Au NC arrays on the PS-b-P2VP (172k-42k

  16. Geomechanical testing of Bayou Choctaw 102B core for SPR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingraham, Mathew Duffy; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bauer, Stephen J.; Barrow, Perry Carl; Flint, Gregory Mark.

    2014-02-01

    A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the short-term mechanical and time-dependent (creep) behavior of salt from the Bayou Choctaw Salt Dome. This report documents the test methodologies, and constitutive properties inferred from tests performed. These are used to extend our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Bayou Choctaw domal salt and provide a data set for numerical analyses. The resulting information will be used to support numerical analyses of the current state of the Bayou Choctaw Dome as it relates to its crude oil storage function as part of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Core obtained from Drill Hole BC-102B was tested under creep and quasi-static constant mean stress axisymmetric compression, and constant mean stress axisymmetric extension conditions. Creep tests were performed at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and the axisymmetric tests were performed at ambient temperatures (72-78 degrees Fahrenheit). The testing performed indicates that the dilation criterion is pressure and stress state dependent. It was found that as the mean stress increases, the shear stress required to cause dilation increases. The results for this salt are reasonably consistent with those observed for other domal salts. Also it was observed that tests performed under extensile conditions required consistently lower shear stress to cause dilation for the same mean stress, which is consistent with other domal salts. Young's moduli ranged from 3.95 x 106 to 8.51 x 106 psi with an average of 6.44 x 106 psi, with Poisson's ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.43 with an average of 0.30. Creep testing indicates that the BC salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared with other bedded and domal salt steady-state behavior.

  17. Implementation of a SPR immunosensor for the simultaneous detection of the 22K and 20K hGH isoforms in human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan-Franco, Elena; Rodríguez-Frade, J M; Mellado, M; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-09-30

    We have implemented a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor based on a sandwich assay for the simultaneous detection of the two main hGH isoforms, of 22 kDa (22K) and 20 kDa (20K). An oriented-antibody sensor surface specific for both hormone isoforms was assembled by using the biotin-streptavidin system. The immunosensor functionality was checked for the direct detection of the 22K hGH isoform in buffer, which gave high specificity and reproducibility (intra and inter-assay mean coefficients of variation of 8.23% and 9% respectively). The selective determination of the 22K and 20K hGH isoforms in human serum samples in a single assay was possible by using two specific anti-hGH monoclonal antibodies. The detection limit for both hormone isoforms was 0.9 ng mL(-1) and the mean coefficient of variation was below 7.2%. The excellent reproducibility and sensitivity obtained indicate the high performance of this immunosensor for implementing an anti-doping test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal-induced SPR tuning of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite thin film for plasmonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.

    2018-05-01

    The formation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in a ZnO matrix were successfully synthesized by RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature. As prepared Ag-ZnO nanocomposite (NCs) thin films were annealed in vacuum at three different temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The structural modifications for as-deposited and annealed films were estimated by X-ray diffraction and TEM techniques. The crystalline behavior preferably along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite structure was observed in as-deposited Ag-ZnO film and improved significantly with increasing the annealing temperature. The crystallite size of as-deposited film was measured to be 13.6 nm, and increases up to 28.5 nm at higher temperatures. The chemical composition and surface structure of the as-deposited films were estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of Ag nanoparticles with average size of 8.2 ± 0.2 nm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band was observed at the wavelength of ∼565 nm for as-deposited film and a remarkable red shift of ∼22 nm was recorded after the annealing treatment as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the grain growth from 60.38 nm to 79.42 nm for as-deposited and higher temperature annealed film respectively, with no significant change in the surface roughness. Thermal induced modifications such as disordering and lattice defects in Ag-ZnO NCs thin films were carried out by Raman spectroscopy. High quality Ag-ZnO NCs thin films with minimum strain and tunable optical properties could be useful in various plasmonic applications.

  19. Identification of EloR (Spr1851) as a regulator of cell elongation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamsås, Gro Anita; Straume, Daniel; Ruud Winther, Anja; Kjos, Morten; Frantzen, Cyril Alexander; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve

    2017-09-01

    In a screen for mutations suppressing the lethal loss of PBP2b in Streptococcus pneumoniae we identified Spr1851 (named EloR), a cytoplasmic protein of unknown function whose inactivation removed the requirement for PBP2b as well as RodA. It follows from this that EloR and the two elongasome proteins must be part of the same functional network. This network also includes StkP, as this serine/threonine kinase phosphorylates EloR on threonine 89 (T89). We found that ΔeloR cells, and cells expressing the phosphoablative form of EloR (EloR T89A ), are significantly shorter than wild-type cells. Furthermore, the phosphomimetic form of EloR (EloR T89E ) is not tolerated unless the cell in addition acquires a truncated MreC or non-functional RodZ protein. By itself, truncation of MreC as well as inactivation of RodZ gives rise to less elongated cells, demonstrating that the stress exerted by the phosphomimetic form of EloR is relieved by suppressor mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the elongasome. Of note, it was also found that loss of elongasome activity caused by truncation of MreC elicits increased StkP-mediated phosphorylation of EloR. Together, the results support a model in which phosphorylation of EloR stimulates cell elongation, while dephosphorylation has an inhibitory effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Geomechanical testing of MRIG-9 core for the potential SPR siting at the Richton salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Dennis P.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bronowski, David R.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hofer, John H.

    2009-02-01

    A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the mechanical behavior of salt from the Richton salt dome. The resulting information is intended for use in design and evaluation of a proposed Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility in that dome. Core obtained from the drill hole MRIG-9 was obtained from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Mechanical properties testing included: (1) acoustic velocity wave measurements; (2) indirect tensile strength tests; (3) unconfined compressive strength tests; (4) ambient temperature quasi-static triaxial compression tests to evaluate dilational stress states at confining pressures of 725, 1450, 2175, and 2900 psi; and (5) confined triaxial creep experiments to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the salt at axial stress differences of 4000 psi, 3500 psi, 3000 psi, 2175 psi and 2000 psi at 55 C and 4000 psi at 35 C, all at a constant confining pressure of 4000 psi. All comments, inferences, discussions of the Richton characterization and analysis are caveated by the small number of tests. Additional core and testing from a deeper well located at the proposed site is planned. The Richton rock salt is generally inhomogeneous as expressed by the density and velocity measurements with depth. In fact, we treated the salt as two populations, one clean and relatively pure (> 98% halite), the other salt with abundant (at times) anhydrite. The density has been related to the insoluble content. The limited mechanical testing completed has allowed us to conclude that the dilatational criteria are distinct for the halite-rich and other salts, and that the dilation criteria are pressure dependent. The indirect tensile strengths and unconfined compressive strengths determined are consistently lower than other coastal domal salts. The steady-state-only creep model being developed suggests that Richton salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared to other domal and bedded salts. The results of the study provide only

  1. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  2. Joining of polymer-metal lightweight structures using self-piercing riveting (SPR) technique: Numerical approach and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, Elias; Kouadri-Henni, Afia

    2018-05-01

    Restrictions in pollutant emissions dictated at the European Commission level in the past few years have urged mass production car manufacturers to engage rapidly several strategies in order to reduce significantly the energy consumption of their vehicles. One of the most relevant taken action is light-weighting of body in white (BIW) structures, concretely visible with the increased introduction of polymer-based composite materials reinforced by carbon/glass fibers. However, the design and manufacturing of such "hybrid" structures is limiting the use of conventional assembly techniques like resistance spot welding (RSW) which are not transferable as they are for polymer-metal joining. This research aims at developing a joining technique that would eventually enable the assembly of a sheet molding compound (SMC) polyester thermoset-made component on a structure composed of several high strength steel grades. The state of the art of polymer-metal joining techniques highlighted the few ones potentially able to respond to the industrial challenge, which are: structural bonding, self-piercing riveting (SPR), direct laser joining and friction spot welding (FSpW). In this study, the promising SPR technique is investigated. Modelling of SPR process in the case of polymer-metal joining was performed through the building of a 2D axisymmetric FE model using the commercial code Abaqus CAE 6.10-1. Details of the numerical approach are presented with a particular attention to the composite sheet for which Mori-Tanaka's homogenization method is used in order to estimate overall mechanical properties. Large deformations induced by the riveting process are enabled with the use of a mixed finite element formulation ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian). FE model predictions are compared with experimental data followed by a discussion.

  3. Synthesis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) triggered Ag/TiO2 photocatalyst for degradation of endocrine disturbing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Gan, Bee Ling; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Saravanan, Pichiah

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag/TiO 2 was synthesized with aid of natural photon stimulated photoreduction. • Deposited Ag prompted well the LSPRs, Schottky barrier for visible light utilization. • Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading EDCs under visible light. • 3.0 wt% Ag/TiO 2 resulted with good photocatalytic efficiency over others. - Abstract: Surface deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) onto the 100% anatase titania (Ag/TiO 2 ) for evolution of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was achieved sustainably with the assistance of solar energy. The preparation resulted in Ag/TiO 2 photocatalyst with varied Ag depositions (0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt%, 3.0 wt% and 5.0 wt%). All obtained photocatalysts were characterized for the evolution of SPR via crystalline phase analysis, morphology, lattice fringes, surface area and pore size characteristics, chemical composition with chemical and electronic state, Raman scattering, optical and photoluminescence properties. The deposition of synthesized Ag NPs exhibited high uniformity and homogeneity and laid pathway for effective utilization of the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum through SPR. The depositions also lead for suppressing recombination rates of electron–hole. The photocatalytic evaluation was carried out by adopting two different class of endocrine disturbing compound (EDC) i.e., amoxicillin (pharmaceutical) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (pesticide) excited with artificial visible light source. Ag/TiO 2 with Ag > 0.5 wt% exhibited significant degradation efficiency for both amoxicillin and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Thus synthesized Ag/TiO 2 revealed the implication of plasmonics on TiO 2 for the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

  4. SPR Characteristics Curve and Distribution of Residual Stress in Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Rezwanul; Wong, Yat C.; Paradowska, Anna; Blacket, Stuart; Durandet, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to describe the residual stress distributions in self-piercing riveted (SPR) joints. The sheet material displayed a compressive residual stress near the joint, and the stress gradually became tensile in the sheet material far away from the joint. The stress in the rivet leg was lower in the thick joint of the softer steel sheet than in the thin joint of the harder steel sheet. This lower magnitude was attributed to the lower force gradient during the rivet flaring...

  5. Kinetic analysis of inhibition of glucoamylase and active site mutants via chemoselective oxime immobilization of acarbose on SPR chip surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Jørgen; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2013-01-01

    shown that at pH 7.0 the association and dissociation rate constants for the acarbose-glucoamylase interaction are 104M−1s−1 and 103s−1, respectively, and that the conformational change to a tight enzyme–inhibitor complex affects the dissociation rate constant by a factor of 102s−1. Additionally......, the acarbose-presenting SPR surfaces could be used as a glucoamylase sensor that allowed rapid, label-free affinity screening of small carbohydrate-based inhibitors in solution, which is otherwise difficult with immobilized enzymes or other proteins....

  6. Use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the dissociation and polysaccharide binding of casein micelles and caseins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Abby K; Singh, Harjinder; Dalgleish, Douglas G

    2010-11-24

    Tests were made to determine whether surface plasmon resonance (SPR) could be used as a technique to study the dissociation properties of bovine casein micelles or of sodium caseinate and the interactions between these protein particles and different polysaccharides. Surfaces of bound micelles or caseinate were made, and the changes in refractive index of these layers were used to define changes in the structures of the chemisorbed material. The technique appears to have some potential for studying details of the dissociation of casein micelles and of the binding of different polysaccharides to caseins.

  7. Reforma veřejné správy: analýza Strategie realizace Smart Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurychová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    This diploma thesis is mainly to explain the significance of the document Efektivní veřejná správa a přátelské služby: Strategie realizace Smart Administration 2007 - 2015 2015 (Efficient public administration and friendly service: Smart Administration Strategy 2007 - 2015) in the context of the reform process of public administration in the Czech republic. The author′s point of view is based of the theory of change, strategic managment and modern managment methods in public administration. A...

  8. Assaying Auxin Receptor Activity Using SPR Assays with F-Box Proteins and Aux/IAA Degrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quareshy, Mussa; Uzunova, Veselina; Prusinska, Justyna M; Napier, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    The identification of TIR1 as an auxin receptor combined with advanced biophysical instrumentation has led to the development of real-time activity assays for auxins. Traditionally, molecules have been assessed for auxinic activity using bioassays, and agrochemical compound discovery continues to be based on "spray and pray" technologies. Here, we describe the methodology behind an SPR-based assay that uses TIR1 and related F-box proteins with surface plasmon resonance spectrometry for rapid compound screening. In addition, methods for collecting kinetic binding data and data processing are given so that they may support programs for rational design of novel auxin ligands.

  9. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  10. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  11. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  12. Grating-Coupled Surface Plasmon Resonance (GC-SPR) Optimization for Phase-Interrogation Biosensing in a Microfluidic Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Gazzola, Enrico; Capaldo, Pietro; Borile, Giulia; Romanato, Filippo

    2018-05-18

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensors have the advantage of being label-free, enzyme-free and real-time. However, their spreading in multidisciplinary research is still mostly limited to prism-coupled devices. Plasmonic gratings, combined with a simple and cost-effective instrumentation, have been poorly developed compared to prism-coupled system mainly due to their lower sensitivity. Here we describe the optimization and signal enhancement of a sensing platform based on phase-interrogation method, which entails the exploitation of a nanostructured sensor. This technique is particularly suitable for integration of the plasmonic sensor in a lab-on-a-chip platform and can be used in a microfluidic chamber to ease the sensing procedures and limit the injected volume. The careful optimization of most suitable experimental parameters by numerical simulations leads to a 30⁻50% enhancement of SPR response, opening new possibilities for applications in the biomedical research field while maintaining the ease and versatility of the configuration.

  13. Plasma processing of the Si(0 0 1) surface for tuning SPR of Au/Si-based plasmonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, Maria M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: michelaria.giangregorio@ba.imip.cnr.it; Losurdo, Maria [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Sacchetti, Alberto [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Capezzuto, Pio [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Au nanoclusters have been deposited on Si(0 0 1) surfaces by sputtering of a metallic Au target using an Ar plasma. Different wet and dry treatments of the Si(0 0 1) surface, including dipping in HF solution and exposure to H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} plasmas, have been applied and the effects of these treatments on the Au nanoparticles/Si interface, the Au nanoclusters aspect ratio and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) energy and amplitude are investigated exploiting spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. It is found that the Au nanoclusters aspect ratio depends on the extent of the Au-Si intermixing. The thicker the Au-Si interface layer, the larger the Au nanoparticles aspect ratio and the red-shift of the SPR peak. Furthermore, SiO{sub 2} and the H{sub 2} plasma treatment inhibit the Si-Au intermixing, while HF-dipping and the N{sub 2} plasma treatment favour Au-Si intermixing, yielding silicide formation which increases the Si wetting by Au.

  14. Antibody-Hapten Recognition at the Surface of Functionalized Liposomes Studied by SPR: Steric Hindrance of Pegylated Phospholipids in Stealth Liposomes Prepared for Targeted Radionuclide Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot. P. Botosoa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted PEGylated liposomes could increase the amount of drugs or radionuclides delivered to tumor cells. They show favorable stability and pharmacokinetics, but steric hindrance of the PEG chains can block the binding of the targeting moiety. Here, specific interactions between an antihapten antibody (clone 734, specific for the DTPA-indium complex and DTPA-indium-tagged liposomes were characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR. Non-PEGylated liposomes fused on CM5 chips whereas PEGylated liposomes did not. By contrast, both PEGylated and non-PEGylated liposomes attached to L1 chips without fusion. SPR binding kinetics showed that, in the absence of PEG, the antibody binds the hapten at the surface of lipid bilayers with the affinity of the soluble hapten. The incorporation of PEGylated lipids hinders antibody binding to extents depending on PEGylated lipid fraction and PEG molecular weight. SPR on immobilized liposomes thus appears as a useful technique to optimize formulations of liposomes for targeted therapy.

  15. Comparison between a Direct-Flow SPR Immunosensor for Ampicillin and a Competitive Conventional Amperometric Device: Analytical Features and Possible Applications to Real Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Merola, Giovanni; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi; Sanzò, Gabriella; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we developed a direct-flow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for ampicillin to perform direct, simple, and fast measurements of this important antibiotic. In order to better evaluate the performance, it was compared with a conventional amperometric immunosensor, working with a competitive format with the aim of finding out experimental real advantages and disadvantages of two respective methods. Results showed that certain analytical features of the new SPR immunodevice, such as the lower limit of detection (LOD) value and the width of the linear range, are poorer than those of a conventional amperometric immunosensor, which adversely affects the application to samples such as natural waters. On the other hand, the SPR immunosensor was more selective to ampicillin, and measurements were more easily and quickly attained compared to those performed with the conventional competitive immunosensor. PMID:28394296

  16. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  17. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  18. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  19. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  20. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  1. NV energy electricity storage valuation :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority ("BA") as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 ("Pay-for-performance"). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  2. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  3. Design and analysis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor to check the quality of food from adulteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, food safety issues caused by contamination of chemical substances or microbial species have raised a major area of concern to mankind. The conventional chromatography-based methods for detection of chemical are based on human-observation and slow for real-time monitoring. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors offers the capability of detection of very low concentrations of adulterated chemical and biological agents for real-time by monitoring. Thus, adulterant agent in food gives change in refractive index of pure food result in corresponding phase change. These changes can be detected at the output and can be related to the concentration of the chemical species present at the point.

  4. Development of an SPR imaging biosensor for determination of cathepsin G in saliva and white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkiewicz, E.; Wojtulewski, K.; Regulska, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin G (CatG) is an endopeptidase that is associated with the early immune response. The synthetic compound cathepsin G inhibitor I (CGI-I) was tested for its ability to inhibit the activity of CatG via a new surface plasmon resonance imaging assay. CGI-I was immobilized on the gold surface of an SPR sensor that was first modified with 1-octadecanethiol. A concentration of CGI-I equal to 4.0 μg.mL -1 and a pH of 8.0 were found to give the best results. The dynamic response of the sensor ranges from 0. 25 to 1. 5 ng.mL -1 , and the detection limit is 0. 12 ng.mL -1 . The sensor was applied to detect CatG in human saliva and white blood cells. (author)

  5. Site-directed antibody immobilization using a protein A-gold binding domain fusion protein for enhanced SPR immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan-Franco, Elena; Caruz, Antonio; Pedrajas, J R; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-04-07

    We have implemented a novel strategy for the oriented immobilization of antibodies onto a gold surface based on the use of a fusion protein, the protein A-gold binding domain (PAG). PAG consists of a gold binding peptide (GBP) coupled to the immunoglobulin-binding domains of staphylococcal protein A. This fusion protein provides an easy and fast oriented immobilization of antibodies preserving its native structure, while leaving the antigen binding sites (Fab) freely exposed. Using this immobilization strategy, we have demonstrated the performance of the immunosensing of the human Growth Hormone by SPR. A limit of detection of 90 ng mL(-1) was obtained with an inter-chip variability lower than 7%. The comparison of this method with other strategies for the direct immobilization of antibodies over gold surfaces has showed the enhanced sensitivity provided by the PAG approach.

  6. Effect of laser energy on the SPR and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Prahlad K.; Sharma, Ashwini K.; Khare, Alika

    2018-04-01

    The effect of incident laser energy on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized via pulsed laser ablation of silver immersed in distilled water is reported in this paper. The broadening in the plasmonic bandwidth of the synthesized nanoparticles with the increase in the laser energy incident onto the silver target indicates the reduction in size of the nanoparticles. This is confirmed by the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images which show a decrease in the average particle size of the nanoparticles from approximately 15 to 10 nm with the increase in incident laser energy from 30 to 70 mJ, respectively. The structural features as revealed by the selected area electron diffraction and ultra-high resolution TEM studies confirmed the formation of both silver as well as silver oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Near Infrared Characterization of Hetero-Core Optical Fiber SPR Sensors Coated with Ta2O5 Film and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Watanabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the characteristics of optical fiber sensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR at 1,310 nm in which the scattering loss of silica optical fiber is low. SPR operation in the infrared wavelength range is achieved by coating a thin tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5 film. The novelty of this paper lies in the verification of how the hetero-core scheme could be operated as a commercial base candidate in the sense of easy fabrication, sufficient mechanical strength, and significant sensitivity as a liquid detector under the basis of a low loss transmission network in the near infrared wavelength region. The effect of Ta2O5 layer thickness has been experimentally revealed in the wavelength region extending to 1,800 nm by using the hetero-core structured optical fiber. SPR characterizations have been made in the wavelength region 1,000–1,300 nm, showing the feasible operation at the near infrared wavelength and the possible practical applications. In addition, the technique developed in this work has been interestingly applied to a multi-point water-detection and a water-level gauge in which tandem-connected SPR sensors system using hetero-core structured fibers were incorporated. The detailed performance characteristics are also shown on these applications.

  8. Comparison of the CPU and memory performance of StatPatternRecognitions (SPR) and Toolkit for MultiVariate Analysis (TMVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palombo, G.

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Physics data sets are often characterized by a huge number of events. Therefore, it is extremely important to use statistical packages able to efficiently analyze these unprecedented amounts of data. We compare the performance of the statistical packages StatPatternRecognition (SPR) and Toolkit for MultiVariate Analysis (TMVA). We focus on how CPU time and memory usage of the learning process scale versus data set size. As classifiers, we consider Random Forests, Boosted Decision Trees and Neural Networks only, each with specific settings. For our tests, we employ a data set widely used in the machine learning community, “Threenorm” data set, as well as data tailored for testing various edge cases. For each data set, we constantly increase its size and check CPU time and memory needed to build the classifiers implemented in SPR and TMVA. We show that SPR is often significantly faster and consumes significantly less memory. For example, the SPR implementation of Random Forest is by an order of magnitude faster and consumes an order of magnitude less memory than TMVA on Threenorm data.

  9. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  10. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  11. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  12. Evaluation of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Pr granular phosphor properties for X-ray mammography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, S.; Michail, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, 122 10 Egaleo (Greece); Seferis, I. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, 122 10 Egaleo (Greece); Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14F Joliot-Curie Street, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Valais, I.; Fountos, G.; Liaparinos, P.; Kandarakis, I. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, 122 10 Egaleo (Greece); Kalyvas, N., E-mail: nkalyvas@teiath.gr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, 122 10 Egaleo (Greece)

    2016-01-15

    Phosphor materials are widely used in X-ray medical imaging detector applications, coupled with suitable photoreceptors. Upon the most demanding imaging modality is X-ray mammography, since the best defense against breast cancer is its early detection. A material suitable as a mammographic detector should efficiently absorb X-ray photons and transform them to optical photons, so as to minimize breast dose. The aim of the present study was to investigate the X-ray absorption efficiency and the absolute efficiency (AE), defined as the output optical photon power divided by the incident exposure, of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Pr powder scintillator. For the purposes of this study, three scintillating screens with coating thicknesses, 34.1, 46.0 and 81.5 mg/cm{sup 2} respectively, were prepared in our laboratory from Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Pr powder (Phosphor Technology, Ltd.) by sedimentation on silica substrates. The quantum detection efficiency (QDE), the energy absorption efficiency (EAE), the spectral matching factor and the absolute efficiency (AE) were evaluated for X-ray mammographic conditions. Furthermore theoretical models were utilized to investigate the optical photon transmission properties through the phosphor mass. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Pr presented high X-ray absorption properties and good spectral compatibility with several photoreceptors. It may be utilized for X-ray mammographic imaging if it is put in conjunction with a sensitive photoreceptor, so as to enhance Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Pr light emission properties. - Highlights: • Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Pr phosphor evaluated for mammography detectors. • The X-ray absorption efficiency was found high. • Spectral matching compatibility found for several photoreceptors. • X-ray absolute efficiency measured smaller than other phosphors. • Optical diffusion length and the light transmission per layer was theoretically calculated.

  13. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  14. Maui energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  15. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  16. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial arena, the most recent developments in EES are in electrochemical storage, singling out Li-ion batteries and Vanadium Redox flow batteries, while power-to-gas/-fuels (electrolysis of water into hydrogen and subsequent methanisation...

  17. Liver Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-23

    Oct 23, 1971 ... The need for whole-organ preservation has become in- cre.asingly important ... ideally fulfil the same purpose as the circulation of blood through the body, ... Hepatic hypothermia produced by the introduction of cold electrolyte ... Recently, we reported successful hypothermic immersion storage for up to 8 ...

  18. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  19. 49 CFR 193.2183-193.2185 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity §§ 193.2183-193.2185 [Reserved] LNG Storage Tanks ...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2189-193.2233 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Lng Storage Tanks §§ 193.2189-193.2233 [Reserved] ...

  1. SPR sensors for monitoring the degradation processes of Eu(dbm)3(phen) and Alq3 thin films under atmospheric and UVA exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, T.; Zaman, Q.; Cremona, M.; Pandoli, O.; Barreto, A. R. J.

    2018-06-01

    The degradation processes of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) and tris(dibenzoylmethane) mono(1,10-phenanthroline)europium(III) (Eu(dbm)3(phen)) thin films are investigated by the use of AFM, photoluminescence and SPR spectroscopy. The plasmonic sensors are operated both in air and nitrogen environments, where they are irradiated with controlled doses of UVA radiation. AFM results don't reveal the formation of heterogeneous phases and crystallization under air exposure. The organic thin films change their refractive index under both types of exposure and act as a protective layer against oxidation for the SiO2/MPTS/metal interface of the plasmonic sensors. SPR measurements reveal a strict correlation between the refractive index increase and quenching of the photoluminescence of the organic thin films. The results are promising for the development of compact plasmonic UVA dosimeters in the surface plasmon coupled emission configuration (SPCE) with lanthanide β-diketonate complex materials (patent pending).

  2. Sambandet mellan Theory of Mind, språkliga förmågor och exekutiva funktioner hos barn i treårsåldern

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna; Sirén, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Barns fem första levnadsår präglas av en omfattande utveckling av språkliga förmågor och exekutiva funktioner, vilka är färdigheter som visat sig ha en stor påverkan på hur barn utvecklar förståelse för sina egna och andras tankar, det vill säga deras Theory of Mind. En central aspekt inom forskning har varit att undersöka hur förmågorna samvarierar vid olika åldrar. Syftet i föreliggande studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan Theory of Mind, språkliga förmågor och exekutiva funktioner hos...

  3. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  4. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  5. Integrating nanohybrid membranes of reduced graphene oxide: chitosan: silica sol gel with fiber optic SPR for caffeine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2017-05-01

    Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug consumed in the world for improving alertness and enhancing wakefulness. However, caffeine consumption beyond limits can result in lot of physiological complications in human beings. In this work, we report a novel detection scheme for caffeine integrating nanohybrid membranes of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in chitosan modified silica sol gel (rGO: chitosan: silica sol gel) with fiber optic surface plasmon resonance. The chemically synthesized nanohybrid membrane forming the sensing route has been dip coated over silver coated unclad central portion of an optical fiber. The sensor works on the mechanism of modification of dielectric function of sensing layer on exposure to analyte solution which is manifested in terms of red shift in resonance wavelength. The concentration of rGO in polymer network of chitosan and silica sol gel and dipping time of the silver coated probe in the solution of nanohybrid membrane have been optimized to extricate the supreme performance of the sensor. The optimized sensing probe possesses a reasonably good sensitivity and follows an exponentially declining trend within the entire investigating range of caffeine concentration. The sensor boasts of an unparalleled limit of detection value of 1.994 nM and works well in concentration range of 0-500 nM with a response time of 16 s. The impeccable sensor methodology adopted in this work combining fiber optic SPR with nanotechnology furnishes a novel perspective for caffeine determination in commercial foodstuffs and biological fluids.

  6. An Advanced Semimetal-Organic Bi Spheres-g-C3N4 Nanohybrid with SPR-Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance for NO Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fan; Zhao, Zaiwang; Sun, Yanjuan; Zhang, Yuxin; Yan, Shuai; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2015-10-20

    To achieve efficient photocatalytic air purification, we constructed an advanced semimetal-organic Bi spheres-g-C3N4 nanohybrid through the in-situ growth of Bi nanospheres on g-C3N4 nanosheets. This Bi-g-C3N4 compound exhibited an exceptionally high and stable visible-light photocatalytic performance for NO removal due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) endowed by Bi metal. The SPR property of Bi could conspicuously enhance the visible-light harvesting and the charge separation. The electromagnetic field distribution of Bi spheres involving SPR effect was simulated and reaches its maximum in close proximity to the Bi particle surface. When the Bi metal content was controlled at 25%, the corresponding Bi-g-C3N4 displayed outstanding photocatalytic capability and transcended those of other visible-light photocatalysts. The Bi-g-C3N4 exhibited a high structural stability under repeated photocatalytic runs. A new visible-light-induced SPR-based photocatalysis mechanism with Bi-g-C3N4 was proposed on the basis of the DMPO-ESR spin-trapping. The photoinduced electrons could transfer from g-C3N4 to the Bi metal, as revealed with time-resolved fluorescence spectra. The function of Bi semimetal as a plasmonic cocatalyst for boosting visible light photocatalysis was similar to that of noble metals, which demonstrated a great potential of utilizing the economically feasible Bi element as a substitute for noble metals for the advancement of photocatalysis efficiency.

  7. HAHA--nothing to laugh about. Measuring the immunogenicity (human anti-human antibody response) induced by humanized monoclonal antibodies applying ELISA and SPR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Andreas

    2010-01-05

    Immunogenicity induced by passively applied proteins is a serious issue because it is directly related to the patient's safety. The out-come of an immune reaction to a therapeutic protein can range from transient appearance of antibodies without any clinical significance to severe life threatening conditions. Within this article, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology to measure immunogenicity are compared and the pros and cons are discussed.

  8. Construction of hexahedral elements mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw SPR site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The three-dimensional finite element mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw site has been constructed using the sonar and seismic survey data obtained from the field. The mesh is consisting of hexahedral elements because the salt constitutive model is coded using hexahedral elements. Various ideas and techniques to construct finite element mesh capturing artificially and naturally formed geometries are provided. The techniques to reduce the number of elements as much as possible to save on computer run time with maintaining the computational accuracy is also introduced. The steps and methodologies could be applied to construct the meshes of Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry strategic petroleum reserve sites. The methodology could be applied to the complicated shape masses for not only various civil and geological structures but also biological applications such as artificial limbs.

  9. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  10. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  11. Target immobilization as a strategy for NMR-based fragment screening: comparison of TINS, STD, and SPR for fragment hit identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Retra, Kim; Figaroa, Francis; Hollander, Johan G; Ab, Eiso; Heetebrij, Robert J; Irth, Hubertus; Siegal, Gregg

    2010-09-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a widely accepted tool that is complementary to high-throughput screening (HTS) in developing small-molecule inhibitors of pharmaceutical targets. Because a fragment campaign can only be as successful as the hit matter found, it is critical that the first stage of the process be optimized. Here the authors compare the 3 most commonly used methods for hit discovery in FBDD: high concentration screening (HCS), solution ligand-observed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). They selected the commonly used saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy and the proprietary target immobilized NMR screening (TINS) as representative of the array of possible NMR methods. Using a target typical of FBDD campaigns, the authors find that HCS and TINS are the most sensitive to weak interactions. They also find a good correlation between TINS and STD for tighter binding ligands, but the ability of STD to detect ligands with affinity weaker than 1 mM K(D) is limited. Similarly, they find that SPR detection is most suited to ligands that bind with K(D) better than 1 mM. However, the good correlation between SPR and potency in a bioassay makes this a good method for hit validation and characterization studies.

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes at a Very Low Level Using Simultaneous Enrichment Broth and Multichannel SPR Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Tsuji, Sachiko; Kitaoka, Hayato; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Mitsuru; Honjoh, Ken-Ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2017-10-01

    Detection of foodborne pathogens at very low levels is still a challenge. A custom-built multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and simultaneous enrichment broth (SEB) were used to develop a simultaneous detection method for 3 important foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157:H7), Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes, at a very low level. These 3 foodborne pathogens at a very low level (14, 6, and 28 CFU/25 g (mL) for O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes, respectively) were inoculated in SEB and incubated at 37 ˚C for 24 h. Sample prepared from the simultaneous enrichment culture was analyzed using the multichannel SPR biosensor and sensor chip immobilized with polyclonal antibodies specific to each of the target pathogens. O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes in chicken were detected simultaneously at an inoculum dose of 14, 6, and 28 CFU/25 g, respectively. Our method using a custom-built multichannel SPR biosensor and enrichment in SEB is expected as a rapid and simultaneous detection method for low levels of O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes in food. Our method is expected as a rapid and simultaneous detection method for pathogens at very low levels. It has great potential for safety control of food and microbiological detection applications. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Brazilian uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt

  14. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  15. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  16. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  17. Uranium reserves fall: AAEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources

  18. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  19. SPR imaging biosensor for the quantitation of fibronectin concentration in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankiewicz, Anna; Romanowicz, Lech; Pyc, Marlena; Hermanowicz, Adam; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa

    2018-02-20

    The purpose of this study was presentation of a new biosensor capable of determination of fibronectin. This biosensor was based on the specific interaction of anti-fibronectin antibody produced in rabbit with fibronectin. The surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) technique was used as a detecting method. Optimization and characterization properties of the biosensor were studied. The determination of fibronectin concentration in natural samples was done. The results were compared with a reference method (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay-ELISA). The analytically useful dynamic response range of biosensor is between 5 and 400ngmL -1 . The detection limit is 1.5ngmL -1 and limit quantification is 5ngmL -1 . The proposed SPRI biosensor showed good selectivity for potential interferences. It was applied to determine fibronectin concentrations in plasma of healthy donors and of patients after thermal injury. Good correlations between results obtained using the SPRI biosensor and ELISA test (correlation coefficients for healthy donors 0.996, for patients 0.984) were obtained. The average fibronectin concentration of healthy donors was 140.5±24.6μgmL -1 and the average fibronectin concentration of patients was 601.5±72.1μgmL -1 , which was in agreement with results obtained by other investigators. The obtained results indicate that the developed biosensor may be a candidate for monitoring fibronectin concentration in blood samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 μL e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 μL. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G

  1. Bryan Mound InSAR Analysis U.S. Strategic petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, Anna C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a stockpile of emergency crude oil to be tapped into if a disruption in the nation's oil supply occurs. The SPR is comprised of four salt dome sites. Subsidence surveys have been conducted either annually or biennially at all four sites over the life of the program. Monitoring of surface behavior is a first line defense to detecting possible subsurface cavern integrity issues. Over the life of the Bryan Mound site, subsidence rates over abandoned Cavern 3 have continuously been the highest at the site. In an effort to try and understand the subsurface dynamics, specifically over Bryan Mound Cavern 3, historic interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data was acquired and processed by TRE Altamira. InSAR involves the processing of multiple satellite synthetic aperture radar scenes acquired across the same location of the Earth's surface at different times to map surface deformation. The analysis of the data has the ability to detect millimeters of motion spanning days, months, year and decades, across specific sites. The intent in regards to the Bryan Mound site was (1) to confirm the higher subsidence rates recorded over abandoned Cavern 3 indicated by land survey and (2) understand the regional surface behavior. This report describes the InSAR analysis results, how those results compare to the historical collection of land survey data, and what additional information the data has provided towards understanding the response recorded at the surface.

  2. Results of the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Oil Leak Risk Assessment Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Linn, J.K.

    1998-12-01

    This study evaluated multiple, long-term environmental oil-contamination risk scenarios that could result from the potential leakage of UP to 1.5 million barrels of crude oil entombed in the Weeks Island SPR mine following site decommissioning and abandonment, and up to 100 years thereafter. This risk assessment also provides continuity with similar risk evaluations performed earlier and documented in the 1995 DOE Environmental Assessment for Decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility (EA). This current study was requested by the DOE to help them determine if their previous Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), in the EA, is still valid or needs to be rescinded. Based on the calculated environmental risk results (in terms of clean-up and remediation expenses) presented in this risk assessment, including the calculated average likelihoods of oil release and potential oil-leakage volumes, none of the evaluated risk events would appear to satisfy the definition of significant environmental impact in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) terminology. The DOE may combine these current results with their earlier evaluations and interpretations in the 1995 EA in order to assess whether the existing FONSI is still accurate, acceptable, and valid. However, from a risk evaluation standpoint, the assessment of impacts appears to be the same whether only 10,000 to 30,000 barrels of crude oil (as considered in the 1995 EA), or up to 1.5 million barrels of oil (as considered herein) are abandoned in the Weeks Island SPR facility

  3. Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

    1979-11-05

    At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

  4. Stockpile strategy for China's emergency oil reserve: A dynamic programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y.; Dahl, C.A.; Zhou, D.Q.; Zhou, P.

    2014-01-01

    China is currently accelerating construction of its strategic petroleum reserves. How should China fill the SPR in a cost-effective manner in the short-run? How might this affect world oil prices? Using a dynamic programming model to answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to minimize the stockpiling costs, including consumer surplus as well as crude acquisition and holding costs. The crude oil acquisition price in the model is determined by global equilibrium between supply and demand. Demand, in turn, depends on world market conditions including China's stockpile filling rate. Our empirical study under different market conditions shows that China's optimal stockpile acquisition rate varies from 9 to 19 million barrels per month, and the optimal stockpiling drives up the world oil price by 3–7%. The endogenous price increase accounts for 52% of total stockpiling costs in the base case. When the market is tighter or the demand function is more inelastic, the stockpiling affects the market more significantly and pushes prices even higher. Alternatively, in a disruption, drawdown from the stockpile can effectively dampen soaring prices, though the shortage is likely to leave the price higher than before the disruption. - Highlights: • China's SPR policies are examined by dynamic programming. • The optimal stockpile acquisition rate varies from 9 to 19 million barrels per month. • The optimal stockpiling drives up world oil price by 3–7%

  5. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  6. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  7. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  8. One-shot deep-UV pulsed-laser-induced photomodification of hollow metal nanoparticles for high-density data storage on flexible substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dehui; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Tseng, Shao-Chin; Wang, Lon A; Chen, Yung-Pin

    2010-01-26

    In this paper, we report a new optical data storage method: photomodification of hollow gold nanoparticle (HGN) monolayers induced by one-shot deep-ultraviolet (DUV) KrF laser recording. As far as we are aware, this study is the first to apply HGNs in optical data storage and also the first to use a recording light source for the metal nanoparticles (NPs) that is not a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength. The short wavelength of the recording DUV laser improved the optical resolution dramatically. We prepared HGNs exhibiting two absorbance regions: an SPR peak in the near-infrared (NIR) region and an intrinsic material extinction in the DUV region. A single pulse from a KrF laser heated the HGNs and transformed them from hollow structures to smaller solid spheres. This change in morphology for the HGNs was accompanied by a significant blue shift of the SPR peak. Employing this approach, we demonstrated its patterning ability with a resolving power of a half-micrometer (using a phase mask) and developed a readout method (using a blue-ray laser microscope). Moreover, we prepared large-area, uniform patterns of monolayer HGNs on various substrates (glass slides, silicon wafers, flexible plates). If this spectral recording technique could be applied onto thin flexible tapes, the recorded data density would increase significantly relative to that of current rigid discs (e.g., compact discs).

  9. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  10. Real-time monitoring of mycobacterium genomic DNA with target-primed rolling circle amplification by a Au nanoparticle-embedded SPR biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Qing; Zheng, Junsong; Fu, Weiling

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) DNA biosensor array based on target-primed rolling circle amplification (RCA) for isothermal and rapid detection of two pathogenic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC).The species-specific padlock probe (PLP) was designed to target the sequence in 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS). After ligation, the circularized PLP could be primed by the target sequence to initial RCA. The RCA performed simultaneously with the cleavage reaction to produce small fragments of single strand DNA which immediately hybridized with the probe immobilized on the sensor chip without denaturation. This process caused SPR angle changes on the chip surface, which made the detection for analysis from the solution achievable, and dynamic real-time RCA monitoring of mycobacterium possible. Besides, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were directly assembled onto the surface of the sensor chip via hexanedithiol (HDT) for the enhancement of sensitivity as a label-free detection system. Experimental results show that the signal enhancement by the target-primed RCA together with AuNPs-embedded surface caused at least10-fold increased sensitivity as compared with conventional RCA on bare SPR chip method. Within 40min amplification duration as low as 20amol of synthetic targets and 10(4)CFUmL(-1) of genomic DNA from clinical samples can be detected. The proposed method not only provides a simple design idea for liquid-phase amplification monitoring, but also apply it in clinical pathogen detection, which holds great promise in ultrasensitive bioassay in the future. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  12. SPR/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jonas; Roepstorff, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance is widely used to study binding interactions with proteins, potentially yielding information on kinetics, thermodynamics and active concentrations. However, the technology cannot identify the involved interaction partners. Mass spectrometry, on the other hand, can be use...

  13. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  14. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang

    2010-01-01

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  15. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...

  16. Protein-Flavonoid Interaction Studies by a Taylor Dispersion Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR Technique: A Novel Method to Assess Biomolecular Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preejith P. Vachali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are common polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. These pigments have important pharmacological relevance because emerging research suggests possible anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties as well other beneficial health effects. These compounds are relatively hydrophobic molecules, suggesting the role of blood transport proteins in their delivery to tissues. In this study, we assess the binding interactions of four flavonoids (kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, and resveratrol with human serum albumin (HSA, the most abundant protein in the blood, and with glutathione S-transferase pi isoform-1 (GSTP1, an enzyme with well-characterized hydrophobic binding sites that plays an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics with reduced glutathione, using a novel Taylor dispersion surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique. For the first time, HSA sites revealed a high-affinity binding site for flavonoid interactions. Out of the four flavonoids that we examined, quercetin and kaempferol showed the strongest equilibrium binding affinities (KD of 63 ± 0.03 nM and 37 ± 0.07 nM, respectively. GSTP1 displayed lower affinities in the micromolar range towards all of the flavonoids tested. The interactions of flavonoids with HSA and GSTP1 were studied successfully using this novel SPR assay method. The new method is compatible with both kinetic and equilibrium analyses.

  17. Informační systém pro správu rezervací v restauracích

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, David

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce pojednává o stávajícím stavu fungování rezervací v restauracích a jeho inovaci pomocí zavedení informačního systému pro vytváření a správu rezervací. Popisuje návrh internetové webové aplikace umožňující on-line vytváření rezervací samotnými uživateli a jejich následnou správu zaměstnanci. Dále popis ekonomického přínosu a jiných výhod plynoucích ze zavedení tohoto systému v reálném světě a v neposlední řadě řešení případných problémů při nasazování systému v praxi. T...

  18. Revised results for geomechanical testing of MRIG-9 core for the potential SPR siting at the Richton Salt Dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broome, Scott Thomas; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-02-01

    This report is a revision of SAND2009-0852. SAND2009-0852 was revised because it was discovered that a gage used in the original testing was mis-calibrated. Following the recalibration, all affected raw data were recalculated and re-presented. Most revised data is similar to, but slightly different than, the original data. Following the data re-analysis, none of the inferences or conclusions about the data or site relative to the SAND2009-0852 data have been changed. A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the mechanical behavior of salt from the Richton salt dome. The resulting information is intended for use in design and evaluation of a proposed Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility in that dome. Core obtained from the drill hole MRIG-9 was obtained from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Mechanical properties testing included: (1) acoustic velocity wave measurements; (2) indirect tensile strength tests; (3) unconfined compressive strength tests; (4) ambient temperature quasi-static triaxial compression tests to evaluate dilational stress states at confining pressures of 725, 1450, 2175, and 2900 psi; and (5) confined triaxial creep experiments to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the salt at axial stress differences of 4000 psi, 3500 psi, 3000 psi, 2175 psi and 2000 psi at 55 C and 4000 psi at 35 C, all at a constant confining pressure of 4000 psi. All comments, inferences, discussions of the Richton characterization and analysis are caveated by the small number of tests. Additional core and testing from a deeper well located at the proposed site is planned. The Richton rock salt is generally inhomogeneous as expressed by the density and velocity measurements with depth. In fact, we treated the salt as two populations, one clean and relatively pure (> 98% halite), the other salt with abundant (at times) anhydrite. The density has been related to the insoluble content. The limited mechanical testing completed has allowed us to

  19. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes

  20. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  1. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...

  2. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  3. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  4. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  5. Czech fiasco with oil reserves has not deterred Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet its obligation to keep a 90-day emergency reserve of oil and oil products, Slovakia must purchase about 40% of the required volume of these commodities and complete storage capacity for the reserves. In addition, it must also create a system of storage management for the reserves including a regular exchange of the contents of the tanks. If it does not meet the 2008 deadline, EU structural funds will be decreased. In order to create the missing storage capacity, the Sprava statnych hmotnych rezerv (SSHR - Administration of Public Material Reserves) is considering a solution which Slovnaft, a.s. sees as a major risk for the state. Should the hundreds of millions needed for the building of new tanks not be found in the budget, the state would invite private investors to build the tanks, stated SSHR Chairman, Jan Tusim. Private investors will not endanger public control over the emergency reserves. Other countries also lease tanks. But according to information provided by its chairman, SSHR also wants to make the private investors responsible for the regular exchange of the emergency reserves that must be carried out every four to five years. Given an accurate forecast of price development on international markets, a lot of money can be made on these exchanges. Slovnaft stresses that if the state were no longer responsible for the exchange of the tanks' contents, it would be the state that was at risk not the refineries

  6. An Aptamer Bio-barCode (ABC) assay using SPR, RNase H, and probes with RNA and gold-nanorods for anti-cancer drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jacky Fong-Chuen; Yang, Chengbin; Tsang, Hing Lun; Lau, Pui Man; Yong, Ken-Tye; Ho, Ho Pui; Kong, Siu Kai

    2017-10-07

    With modifications to an ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed a next generation aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) assay to detect cytochrome-c (Cyto-c), a cell death marker released from cancer cells, for anti-cancer drug screening. An aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library that is capable of binding to its target with high affinity and specificity based on its unique DNA sequence and 3D structure after folding. Similar to the BBC assay, Cyto-c is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Ab) and an aptamer specifically against Cyto-c to form sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab]-[Cyto-c]-[Aptamer]). After washing and melting, our aptamers, acting as a DNA bio-barcode, are released from the sandwiches and hybridized with the probes specially designed for RNase H for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. In an aptamer-probe duplex, RNase H digests the RNA in the probe and releases the intact aptamer for another round of hybridization and digestion. With signal enhancement effects from gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on probes for SPR sensing, the detection limit was found to be 1 nM for the aptamer and 80 pM for Cyto-c. Without the time-consuming DNA amplification steps by PCR, the detection process of this new ABC assay can be completed within three hours. As a proof-of-concept, phenylarsine oxide was found to be a potent agent to kill liver cancer cells with multi-drug resistance at the nano-molar level. This approach thus provides a fast, sensitive and robust tool for anti-cancer drug screening.

  7. Tuning the field distribution and fabrication of an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure for a SPR-based fiber optic phenyl hydrazine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Kaur, Parvinder; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-05-27

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fiber optic sensor that uses coatings of silver and aluminum (Al)-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell nanostructure (Al@ZnO) for the detection of phenyl hydrazine (Ph-Hyd). To optimize the volume fraction (f) of Al in ZnO and the thickness of the core-shell nanostructure layer (d), the electric field intensity along the normal to the multilayer system is simulated using the two-dimensional multilayer matrix method. The Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure is prepared using the laser ablation technique. Various probes are fabricated with different values of f and an optimized thickness of core-shell nanostructure for the characterization of the Ph-Hyd sensor. The performance of the Ph-Hyd sensor is evaluated in terms of sensitivity. It is found that the Ag/Al@ZnO nanostructure core-shell-coated SPR probe with f = 0.25 and d = 0.040 μm possesses the maximum sensitivity towards Ph-Hyd. These results are in agreement with the simulated ones obtained using electric field intensity. In addition, the performance of the proposed probe is compared with that of probes coated with (i) Al@ZnO nanocomposite, (ii) Al nanoparticles and (iii) ZnO nanoparticles. It is found that the probe coated with an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure shows the largest resonance wavelength shift. The detailed mechanism of the sensing (involving chemical reactions) is presented. The sensor also manifests optimum performance at pH 7.

  8. Analysis of Multi-Arm Caliper Data for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has an increasing reliance on mul t i - arm caliper surveys to assess the integrity of casing for cavern access wells and to determine priorities for casing remediation. Multi - arm caliper (MAC) surveys provide a view of well casing deformation by reporting radial measurements of the inner cas ing wall as the tool is drawn through the casing. Over the last several years the SPR has collected a large number of modern MAC surveys. In total, these surveys account for over 100 million individual measurements. The surveys were collected using diff ering survey vendors and survey hardware. This has resulted in a collection of disparate data sets which confound attempts to make well - to - well or time - dependent evaluations. In addition, the vendor supplied MAC interpretations often involve variables wh ich are not well defined or which may not be applicable to casings for cavern access wells. These factors reduce the usability of these detailed data sets. In order to address this issue and provide an independent analysis of multi - arm caliper survey data, Sandia National Labs has developed processing techniques and analysis variables which allow for the comparison of MAC survey data regardless of the source of the survey data. These techniques use the raw radial arm information and newly developed analysis variables to assess the casing status and provide a means for well - to - well and time - dependent analyses. Well - to - well and t ime - dependent investigation of the MAC survey data provide s information to prioritize well remediation activities and identify wells with integrity issues. This paper presents the challenges in using disparate MAC survey data, techniques developed to address these challenges and some o f the insights gained from these new techniques.

  9. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Body Reserves in Camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores manage their body reserves in a way that helps them respond to variations in the quality and accessibility of feed resources. Assessing these reserves provides farmers with a decision-making tool. Almost no data are available on these aspects of the camel. The present article summarizes several works on weight estimations that are used to assess the volume and weight of the hump (main location of fat reserves, relationships between hump measurements and carcass weight, and between hump weight and perirenal fat weight. Assessing the number and size of adipocytes is a means to test the relevance of these types of fat storage. There is in particular a positive relationship between the size and number of adipocytes in the hump and those in the perirenal fat. The age and sex effects were very pronounced for some of the criteria. A body condition score was established for this species based on the assessment of selected body parts. Results however showed that the hump was not a good bodycondition indicator because of variations in its weight as well as in the size of its adipocytes.

  11. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  12. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  13. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  14. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  15. Storage in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  16. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  17. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  18. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  19. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  20. Capacity Expansion Modeling for Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2017-04-03

    The Resource Planning Model (RPM) is a capacity expansion model designed for regional power systems and high levels of renewable generation. Recent extensions capture value-stacking for storage technologies, including batteries and concentrating solar power with storage. After estimating per-unit capacity value and curtailment reduction potential, RPM co-optimizes investment decisions and reduced-form dispatch, accounting for planning reserves; energy value, including arbitrage and curtailment reduction; and three types of operating reserves. Multiple technology cost scenarios are analyzed to determine level of deployment in the Western Interconnection under various conditions.

  1. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  2. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  3. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  4. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kirby, Brendan [Kirby Consultant; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  5. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Matsuo; Uchiyama, Yuichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and facilitate the design by limiting the relative displacement in a storage rack. Constitution: The outer wall of a storage rack disposed in water within a fuel pool, the pool wall opposing to the storage rack and the structure between the opposing storages racks are made as a space for confining the pool water or a structure formed with a slight gap, for example, a combination of a recessed structure and a protruded structure. In such a constitution, a space for confirming the pool water is established and the pool water thus confined forms a flow resistance when the storage rack vibrates upon earthquakes, serves as a damper and significantly reduces the responsivity. Furthermore, the relative displacement in the storage rack is limited to inhibit excess earthquake forces to exert on setting bolts and rack clamping bolts of the storage rack. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  7. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  9. Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, William

    1998-01-01

    .... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...

  10. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  11. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  12. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  13. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  15. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  16. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  17. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  18. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  19. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  20. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  1. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  2. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  3. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  4. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  5. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  6. Water Storage: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakhtin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Humans stored water - in various forms - for ages, coping with water resources variability, and its extremes - floods and droughts. Storage per capita, and other storage-related indicators, have essentially become one way of reflecting the progress of economic development. Massive investments went into large surface water reservoirs that have become the characteristic feature of the earth's landscapes, bringing both benefits and controversy. As water variability progressively increases with changing climate, globally, on one hand, and the idea of sustainable development receives strong traction, on another - it may be worth the while to comprehensively examine current trends and future prospects for water storage development. The task is surely big, to say the least. The presentation will aim to initiate a structured discussion on this multi-facet issue and identify which aspects and trends of water storage development may be most important in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and examine how, where and to what extent water storage planning can be improved. It will cover questions like i) aging of large water storage infrastructure, the current extent of this trend in various geographical regions, and possible impacts on water security and security of nations; ii) improved water storage development planning overall in the context of various water development alternatives and storage options themselves and well as their combinations iii) prospects for another "storage revolution" - speed increase in dam numbers, and where, if at all this is most likely iv) recent events in storage development, e.g. is dam decommissioning a trend that picks pace, or whether some developing economies in Asia can do without going through the period of water storage construction, with alternatives, or suggestions for alleviation of negative impacts v) the role of subsurface storage as an

  7. FO-SPR based dextrose sensor using Ag/ZnO nanorods/GOx for insulinoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, Sruthi P; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-11-15

    In this piece of work, a fiber optic sensor has been fabricated and characterized using surface plasmon resonance for dextrose sensing. The concentration range used in this study is for diagnosing the cases of hypoglycaemia especially in suppression tests of insulinoma. Insulinoma is a medical case in which the person is recognized being hypoglycaemic with the blood dextrose level falling down to 2.2mM or less. Thus, the sensor has been characterized for the dextrose concentration range of 0 mM-10mM including the cases of normal blood dextrose range. Coatings of silver layer and zinc oxide nanorods have been carried out on the bare core fiber with a dual role of zinc oxide followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase. A three stage optimization procedure has been adopted for the best performance of the sensor. Absorbance spectra have been plotted and peak absorbance wavelengths have been extracted for each concentration chosen along with the sensitivities. The results have been made conclusive with control experiments. The probe has also been tested on sample having blood serum to check the reliability of the sensor. The sensor shows better selectivity and response time along with its real time applications, online monitoring, remote sensing and reusability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of spent nuclear fuel on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    On June 1, 1995, DOE issued a Record of Decision [60 Federal Register 28680] for the Department-wide management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); regionalized storage of SNF by fuel type was selected as the preferred alternative. The proposed action evaluated in this environmental assessment is the management of SNF on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) to implement this preferred alternative of regional storage. SNF would be retrieved from storage, transferred to a hot cell if segregation by fuel type and/or repackaging is required, loaded into casks, and shipped to off-site storage. The proposed action would also include construction and operation of a dry cask SNF storage facility on ORR, in case of inadequate SNF storage. Action is needed to enable DOE to continue operation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which generates SNF. This report addresses environmental impacts

  9. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  10. System for secure storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A system (100) comprising read means (112) for reading content data and control logic data from a storage medium (101), the control logic data being uniquely linked to the storage medium (101), processing means (113-117), for processing the content data and feeding the processed content data to an

  11. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  12. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  13. Optical storage networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Ulrich

    2001-11-01

    For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

  14. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  15. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  16. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  17. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  18. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  19. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  20. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  1. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  2. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  3. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: ajw36@cam.ac.uk [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  4. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Casimir

    2017-01-01

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  5. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  6. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  7. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-28

    Germany , Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden...Iran. Firms providing, or insuring tankers carrying, refined product to Iran would also be included in the prohibition. The Drawdown Authorities The...taking place in the operation of oil markets after the experiences of the 1970s, and deregulation of oil price and supply. Sales of SPR oil authorized

  8. Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-29

    C. c ) CPi i 0 0 00 0 le C C.C~r In 1]1 In 00 It .- I to C-38 ’U2 WIX ’W~ - m u. -C-LC m4 C v , v ul FA ?w % -D 1 o r cl jc j, II t %c oK W)i Ir of... platform programs, while Program 11 contains 26 sub-programs each having a separate Reserve program sponsor. The distribution of Program 11 resources is...a mix of specific skills required to bring an active Navy oper-Iating platform to organizational manning. Each SRU is tailored to a specific ship

  9. The incidental pulmonary nodule in a child. Part 1: recommendations from the SPR Thoracic Imaging Committee regarding characterization, significance and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brody, Alan S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology (CH-1), Cincinnati, OH (United States); Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Guillerman, R.P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Hegde, Shilpa V. [Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Iyer, Ramesh S. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Newman, Beverley [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); Thacker, Paul G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-05-01

    No guidelines are in place for the follow-up and management of pulmonary nodules that are incidentally detected on CT in the pediatric population. The Fleischner guidelines, which were developed for the older adult population, do not apply to children. This review summarizes the evidence collected by the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) Thoracic Imaging Committee in its attempt to develop pediatric-specific guidelines. Small pulmonary opacities can be characterized as linear or as ground-glass or solid nodules. Linear opacities and ground-glass nodules are extremely unlikely to represent an early primary or metastatic malignancy in a child. In our review, we found a virtual absence of reported cases of a primary pulmonary malignancy presenting as an incidentally detected small lung nodule on CT in a healthy immune-competent child. Because of the lack of definitive information on the clinical significance of small lung nodules that are incidentally detected on CT in children, the management of those that do not have the typical characteristics of an intrapulmonary lymph node should be dictated by the clinical history as to possible exposure to infectious agents, the presence of an occult immunodeficiency, the much higher likelihood that the nodule represents a metastasis than a primary lung tumor, and ultimately the individual preference of the child's caregiver. Nodules appearing in children with a history of immune deficiency, malignancy or congenital pulmonary airway malformation should not be considered incidental, and their workup should be dictated by the natural history of these underlying conditions. (orig.)

  10. Estimating continuous monthly baseflow time series and their possible applications in the context of the ecological reserve

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smakhtin, VU

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available (river and groundwater) are, therefore, dependent. In this example, the assumption is that IFRs (river reserve flows) determine the extent to which groundwater resources may be impacted in the absence of any surface water resource development (the impacts... (IFRs) are used instead of reference natural streamflow time series. The corresponding groundwater storage time series will then represent the groundwater reserve. These storages may provisionally be called ?IFR driven?. Two component reserve time series...

  11. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  12. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  14. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  15. Magnox waste storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This article looks at the design and construction of British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Magnox waste storage complex by Costain Engineering Limited. Magnox swarf from fuel decanning is stored underwater in specially designed silos. Gas processing capabilities from Costain Engineering Limited and the experience of BNFL combined in this project to provide the necessary problem-solving skills necessary for this waste storage upgrading and extension project. A retrofitted inerting facility was fitted to an existing building and a new storage extension was fitted, both without interrupting reprocessing operations at Sellafield. (UK)

  16. Tiered Storage For LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

  17. Next generation storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    With diminishing requirements for plutonium, a substantial quantity of this material requires special handling and ultimately, long-term storage. To meet this objective, we at Los Alamos, have been involved in the design of a storage facility with the goal of providing storage capabilities for this and other nuclear materials. This paper presents preliminary basic design data, not for the structure and physical plant, but for the container and arrays which might be configured within the facility, with strong emphasis on criticality safety features

  18. Monitored retrievable storage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established a national policy for the safe storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA requires that DOE... ''submit a proposal to Congress on the need for and feasibility of one or more Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facilities''... In subsequent evaluations of the commercial nuclear waste management system, DOE has identified important advantages in providing an MRS Facility as an integral part of the total system. The integral MRS Facility serves as an independent, centralized spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste handling and packaging facility with a safe temporary storage capacity

  19. Storage-ring FEL for the vuv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Bisognano, J.J.; Garren, A.A.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.J.; Sah, R.C.

    1984-09-01

    A free-electron laser for the vuv operating in a storage ring requires an electron beam of high density and low energy spread and a short wavelength, narrow-gap undulator. These conditions tend to produce longitudinal and transverse beam instabilities, excessive beam growth through multiple intrabeam scattering, and a short gas-scattering lifetime. Passing the beam only occasionally through the undulator in a by-pass straight section, as proposed by Murphy and Pellegrini, allows operation in a high-gain, single-pass mode and a long gas-scattering lifetime. Several storage ring designs have been considered to see how best to satisfy the several requirements. Each features a by-pass, a low-emittance lattice, and built-in wigglers for enhanced damping to counteract the intra-beam scattering. 15 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  20. A Century in Reserve and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monagle, James P

    2008-01-01

    ... Reserve, this Strategy Research Project (SRP) describes the role of the Army Reserve from its beginning as a reserve corps of medical doctors to that of a strategic reserve force, and then to its current operational role...

  1. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  2. Storage of strawberry pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet Aslantaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C, +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, and -18°C was kept for 8 months, about one year, and 20 months, respectively. Pollen germination rates decreased as the length of storage period increased. The reaction of all cultivars tested on the duration and temperature of storage was similar.

  3. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  4. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  5. Cryptography from noisy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Stephanie; Schaffner, Christian; Terhal, Barbara M

    2008-06-06

    We show how to implement cryptographic primitives based on the realistic assumption that quantum storage of qubits is noisy. We thereby consider individual-storage attacks; i.e., the dishonest party attempts to store each incoming qubit separately. Our model is similar to the model of bounded-quantum storage; however, we consider an explicit noise model inspired by present-day technology. To illustrate the power of this new model, we show that a protocol for oblivious transfer is secure for any amount of quantum-storage noise, as long as honest players can perform perfect quantum operations. Our model also allows us to show the security of protocols that cope with noise in the operations of the honest players and achieve more advanced tasks such as secure identification.

  6. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  7. Hydrogen storage using borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard BONNETOT; Laetitia LAVERSENNE

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities of hydrogen storage using borohydrides are presented and discussed specially in regard of the recoverable hydrogen amount and related to the recovering conditions. A rapid analysis of storage possibilities is proposed taking in account the two main ways for hydrogen evolution: the dehydrogenation obtained through thermal decomposition or the hydrolysis of solids or solutions. The recoverable hydrogen is related to the dehydrogenation conditions and the real hydrogen useful percentage is determined for each case of use. The high temperature required for dehydrogenation even when using catalyzed compounds lead to poor outlooks for this storage way. The hydrolysis conditions direct the chemical yield of the water consuming, and this must be related to the experimental conditions which rule the storage capacity of the 'fuel' derived from the borohydride. (authors)

  8. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  9. Flywheel energy storage; Schwungmassenspeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornemann, H.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Energy storages may be chemical systems such as batteries, thermal systems such as hot-water tanks, electromagnetic systems such as capacitors and coils, or mechanical systems such as pumped storage power systems or flywheel energy storages. In flywheel energy storages the energy is stored in the centrifugal mass in the form of kinetic energy. This energy can be converted to electricity via a motor/generator unit and made available to the consumer. The introduction of magnetic bearings has greatly enhanced the potential of flywheel energy storages. As there is no contact between the moving parts of magnetic bearings, this technology provides a means of circumventing the engineering and operational problems involved in the we of conventional bearings (ball, roller, plain, and gas bearings). The advantages of modern flywheel energy storages over conventional accumulators are an at least thousandfold longer service life, low losses during long-time storage, greater power output in the case of short-time storage, and commendable environmental benignity. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Als Enegiespeicher kommen chemische Systeme, z.B. Batterien, thermische Systeme, z.B. Warmwassertanks, elektromagnetische Systeme, z.B. Kondensatoren und Spulen, sowie mechanische Systeme, z.B. Pumpspeicherwerke und Schwungmassenspeicher in Frage. In einem Schwungmassenspeicher wird Energie in Form von kinetischer Energie in der Schwungmasse gespeichert. Ueber eine Moter/Generator Einheit wird diese Energie in elektrischen Strom umgewandelt und dem Verbraucher zugefuehrt. Mit der Einfuehrung von magnetischen Lagern konnte die Leistungsfaehigkeit von Schwungmassenspeichern erheblich gesteigert werden. Da in einem Magnetlager keine Beruehrung zwischen sich bewegenden Teilen besteht, wird ein Grossteil der mit dem Einsatz konventioneller Lager (Kugel- und Rollenlager, Gleitlager und Gaslager) verbundenen ingenieurtechnischen und betriebstechnischen Probleme vermieden. Die Vorteile von modernen

  10. Optimization of Munitions Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    zones of land around each facility place a significant economic cost on the storage of munitions (Schreyer, 1970: 1). Munitions storage is a subject...ADDTOT, BTOTAL 353 REAL MPH,MW ,MPD, MPU ,4,MPNEW,MCD 354 IF (SW2.NE.0) GO TO 1 355 SW2 - 1 356 WRITE (6,2) 357 GO TO 3 358 1 IF (REC.EQ.0) GO TO 4 359 IF

  11. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert

    1976-01-01

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR) [de

  12. Analog storage integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  13. Annual Report: Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazisar, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Activities include laboratory experimentation, field work, and numerical modeling. The work is divided into five theme areas (or first level tasks) that each address a key research need: Flow Properties of Reservoirs and Seals, Fundamental Processes and Properties, Estimates of Storage Potential, Verifying Storage Performance, and Geospatial Data Resources. The project also includes a project management effort which coordinates the activities of all the research teams.

  14. Storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Swedish system of handling and storage of nuclear wastes is well-developed. Existing plants and systems provide great freedom of action and flexibility regarding future development and decisions of ultimate storage of the spent fuel. The interim storage in CLAB - Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - could continue without any safety related problems for more than 40 years. In practice the choice of ultimate treatment system is not locked until the encapsulation of the fuel starts. At the same time it is of importance that the generation benefiting by the nuclear power production also be responsible for the development of the ultimate storage system and not unnecessarily postpones important decisions. The ultimate storage system for spent fuel could and should be developed within existing schedule. At the same time is should be worked out to provide coming generations with possibilities to do the type of supervision they like without maintenance and supervision requiring to become a prerequisite for a safe function. (O.S.)

  15. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  16. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  17. Secure Storage Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  18. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  19. Neutrino Signals in Electron-Capture Storage-Ring Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Gal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P → D + ν e . It is argued that, to the extent that daughter ions are detected, these detection rates might exhibit modulations with periods of order seconds, similar to those reported in the GSI storage-ring experiments for two-body decay rates. New dedicated experiments in storage rings, or using traps, could explore these modulations.

  20. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  1. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R.

    2004-01-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication

  2. The management of the state reserving system in the aspect of the regional economic security supporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Yefimovich Zemskov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of the state material reserve system to ensure economic security of the region. A classification of reserves ensuring economic security of the region was elaborated. A scheme of systematic and structural representation of the state material reserve in order to improve the economic security of the region was suggested. Optimization of operational control of the territorial offices, factories, and settlements of custody within the framework of the state material reserve is one of the most effective instruments to enhance the functioning of the whole system. To solve the problem of technological processes optimization of products acquisition and storage in manufacturings, plants and points of consignment storage of the state material reserve, a static economic-mathematical model was developed. The results can be used to develop appropriate computer systems for support of effective management decisions in the system of state of material reserve.

  3. The last SPR dinner awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce

    1992-03-01

    Because the Solar-Planetary Relationships section of AGU has officially changed its name to Space Physics and Aeronomy (SPA), the December 10, 1991, section dinner award ceremony at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco was the last of the series. Presumably an SPA dinner award series will be started under President-elect Andy Nagy.We have followed our tradition of recognizing the special talents of section members at the annual dinner. This year we had eight awardees. These awards are given in fun and are intended to be humorous. The selection committee defining the awards (the awards are changed regularly to keep people from trying to win one) and selecting the awardees will have to remain anonymous. (The committee is similar to Skull and Bones, but we are politically correct in that we allow women as members.)

  4. Spræng boblen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    Hvad har en dansk Justin Bieber look-a-like, Dovne Robert og frokostfrikadeller – eller mangel på samme – i landets børnehaver til fælles? De kan forstås og forklares med bobleteori. Bortset fra de af slagsen, der laves af sæbe eller findes i champagne, forbindes bobler typisk med situationer i...

  5. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the

  6. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  7. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  8. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  9. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  10. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  11. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  13. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  14. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  15. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Future Power System Regulation Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    supplying the reserve power requirements. This limited regulation services from conventional generators in the future power system calls for other new reserve power solutions like Electric Vehicle (EV) based battery storages. A generic aggregated EV based battery storage for long-term dynamic load frequency...

  16. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  17. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  18. Costs of Archival Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2012-01-01

    to determine the costs of establishing and maintaining a preservation solution destined for long-term preservation of digital materials and to develop a tool capable of doing this operation. In order to fulfill the purposes, the project employed a combination of own and external experience as well as the OAIS......This paper presents an analysis of the cost of archival storage. The study is part of a project conducted by The Danish National Archives, The Royal Library, and The State and University Library to develop a generic cost model for digital preservation (CMDP). The purposes of the study were...... Reference Model as a framework to fully understand and identify the cost critical activities of bit-preservation as described in Archival Storage. We found that the costs of Archival Storage are obviously closely linked to the data volume, but also to the required preservation quality, especially...

  19. Plutonium storage phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szempruch, R.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed

  20. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  2. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  3. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  4. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)

    2011-10-26

    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  5. Modified value chain model storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bielskaja, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Tyrimo tikslas yra sudaryti formalią veiklos žinių struktūrą, remiantis vertės grandinės modeliu, kurios pagrindu gali būti kuriama veiklos žinių bazė, skirta analizuoti ir pertvarkyti įmonės veiklą ir žiniomis pagrįstą veiklą, spręsti veiklos ir informacijos technologijų suderinimą kompiuterizuojant veiklos valdymo funkcijas. Tyrimo uždaviniai yra tokie: - išanalizuoti egzistuojančius modeliavimo metodus, veiklos ir IT suderinimo bei žinių valdymo metodus, ir analizės rezultate identifikuoti...

  6. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.

    2007-01-01

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was established in 1975 as an emergency response to the 1973 Arab oil embargo. It is authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), and by the comprehensive energy plans of all Administrations since 1975, in recognition of the long-term dependence of the US on imported crude oil and petroleum products. Section 165 of EPCA requires the Secretary of Energy to submit an Annual Report to the President and the Congress. On May 13, 1998, the Department published a Statement of Administration Policy which reaffirmed its commitment to maintain a Government-owned and controlled, centrally located Strategic Petroleum Reserve of crude oil. The Reserve is to be used solely for responding to the types of severe oil supply interruptions presently contemplated in EPCA. Over the past twenty years, the Reserve has grown as large as 592 million barrels--a peak reached in 1994. From 1994 to 1996, nearly 28 million barrels were sold to raise revenues for the U S Treasury. As of December 31, 1998, the crude oil inventory was 561,108,127 barrels which equated to 60 days of net oil imports during 1998. The US now relies on a combination of both the Reserve and private stocks to meet its oil storage obligations to the International Energy Agency.

  8. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  9. Active power reserves evaluation in large scale PVPPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    The present trend on investing in renewable ways of producing electricity in the detriment of conventional fossil fuel-based plants will lead to a certain point where these plants have to provide ancillary services and contribute to overall grid stability. Photovoltaic (PV) power has the fastest...... growth among all renewable energies and managed to reach high penetration levels creating instabilities which at the moment are corrected by the conventional generation. This paradigm will change in the future scenarios where most of the power is supplied by large scale renewable plants and parts...... of the ancillary services have to be shared by the renewable plants. The main focus of the proposed paper is to technically and economically analyze the possibility of having active power reserves in large scale PV power plants (PVPPs) without any auxiliary storage equipment. The provided reserves should...

  10. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  11. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  12. Benchmarking personal cloud storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio; Bocchi, Enrico; Mellia, Marco; Slatman, Herman; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and - most of all -

  13. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

  14. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath.

  15. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  16. Fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel elements comprising a multiplicity of elongated hollow containers of uniform cross-section, preferably square,some of said containers having laterally extending continuous flanges extending between adjacent containers and defining continuous elongated chambers therebetween for the reception of neutron absorbing panels. 18 claims, 7 figures

  17. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  18. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  19. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.J.; Ochoa, R.; Fritz, K.D.; Craig, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning

  20. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  1. Evaluating the economic cost of natural gas strategic storage restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejarque, Joao Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to implement a single market for gas. One of the components of this market is a regulated provision for ''security of supply'' which consists of rules for the implementation and use of a given reserve stock of gas. We investigate the impact of this policy on the profitability of a storage operator, using data from Denmark and Italy. Keeping storage capacity constant, the costs of the strategic stock are around 20% of the value of the storage market for Denmark, and 16% for Italy. This cost is due to the inability to extract arbitrage profits from the captive stock. Furthermore, the strategic storage restriction induces behavior that would virtually never be replicated by a private storage operator in an unconstrained market, in particular in the first 6 months of the year when unconstrained firms empty their reservoirs much faster, suggesting the strategic restriction is unnecessarily distorting the market. (author)

  2. Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale integration of renewable energy sources in power system leads to the replacement of conventional power plants (CPPs) and consequently challenges in power system reliability and security are introduced. This study is focused on improving the grid frequency response after a contingency ...

  3. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  4. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  5. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  6. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  7. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  8. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  9. Energy storage reinforces competitive business practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makansi, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines how the ability to ''store'' electricity can pay handsome dividends in a competitive environment. Priorities change when industries are deregulated. Indeed, new priorities are being established for electric generation--low cost, efficiency, product distinction for marketing purposes, etc. are all more critical today. Perhaps not so obvious is the fundamental role of energy storage in a fully competitive marketplace. In fact, rarely do a technology development and a changing business climate play off against each other so nicely. Consider the function of the emerging electricity broker, or power marketer. Imagine the premium that broker could command with access to a large increment of electricity--purchased at a low price--and supplied at a moment's notice for a substantially higher price. Storage of electricity would mean that the investment in excess available generation capacity to supply so-called peak demand could be avoided. It also means that electricity could be brokered like other commodities--that is purchased, stockpiled, and sold to reflect market conditions across a wider geographical region and time spain. Benefits accrue to transmission and distribution, in addition to generation. Energy storage helps to manage the increasing stress placed on the grid as a result of intermittent sources of power and large numbers of cogenerators and small power producers. On the customer side, any ratepayer large or small could, theoretically, play the spot market in electric supply with a reserve to tap in emergencies. For a parallel in other deregulated markets, recall how storage has become an important factor in natural-gas contracting. Quality of electricity also can be improved by applying storage to stabilize the grid, especially along the distribution system at substations. And the opening of vast markets for electricity consumption, such as electric vehicles, depends in large measure on electric storage

  10. Calculation program development for spinning reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This study is about optimal holding of spinning reserve and optimal operation for it. It deals with the purpose and contents of the study, introduction of the spinning reserve electricity, speciality of the spinning reserve power, the result of calculation, analysis for limited method of optimum load, calculation of requirement for spinning reserve, analysis on measurement of system stability with summary, purpose of the analysis, cause of impact of the accident, basics on measurement of spinning reserve and conclusion. It has the reference on explanation for design of spinning reserve power program and using and trend about spinning reserve power in Korea.

  11. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  12. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  13. Synthetic methane for power storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botta, G.; Barankin, Michael; Walspurger, S.

    2013-01-01

    With increased share of energy generated from variable renewable sources, storage becomes a critical issue to ensure constantly balanced supply/demand. Methane is a promising vector for energy storage and transport.

  14. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  15. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  16. Data storage as a service

    OpenAIRE

    Tomšič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was comparison of interfaces to network attached file systems and object storage. The thesis describes network file system and mounting procedure in Linux operating system. Object storage and distributed storage systems are explained with examples of usage. Amazon S3 is an example of object store with access trough REST interface. Ceph, a system for distributed object storage, is explained in detail, and a Ceph cluster was deployed for the purpose of this thesis. Cep...

  17. Mass storage for microprocessor farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areti, H.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments in high energy physics require high density and high speed mass storage. Mass storage is needed for data logging during the online data acquisition, data retrieval and storage during the event reconstruction and data manipulation during the physics analysis. This paper examines the storage and speed requirements at the first two stages of the experiments and suggests a possible starting point to deal with the problem. 3 refs., 3 figs

  18. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  19. Concrete storage cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabemoto, Toyonobu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Shunji; Shionaga, Ryosuke

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and analytical evaluation of the fabrication, non-destructive inspection and structural integrity of reinforced concrete body for storage casks were carried out to demonstrate the concrete storage cask for spent fuel generated from nuclear power plants. Analytical survey on the type of concrete material and fabrication method of the storage cask was performed and the most suitable fabrication method for the concrete body was identified to reduce concrete cracking. The structural integrity of the concrete body of the storage cask under load conditions during storage was confirmed and the long term integrity of concrete body against degradation dependent on environmental factors was evaluated. (author)

  20. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  1. Digital device for synchronous storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar', Yu.M.; Kovtun, V.G.; Pashechko, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Synchronous storage digital device for IR electron-photon emission spectrometer operating with analogue-to-digital converter F4223 or monocrystal converter K572PV1 is described. The device accomplished deduction of noise-background in each storage cycle. Summation and deduction operational time equals 90 ns, device output code discharge - 20, number of storages -2 23

  2. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  3. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion power production requires energy storage and transfer on short time scales to create confining magnetic fields and for heating plasmas. The theta-pinch Scyllac Fusion Test Reactor (SFTR) requires 480 MJ of energy to drive the 5-T compression field with a 0.7-ms rise time. Tokamak Experimental Power Reactors (EPR) require 1 to 2 GJ of energy with a 1 to 2-s rise time for plasma ohmic heating. The design, development, and testing of four 300-kJ energy storage coils to satisfy the SFTR needs are described. Potential rotating machinery and homopolar energy systems for both the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR) and tokamak ohmic-heating are presented

  4. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1989-01-01

    Recent programmatic developments in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) have prompted renewed and widespread interest in this field. In mid 1987 the Defense Nuclear Agency, acting for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office issued a request for proposals for the design and construction of SMES Engineering Test Model (ETM). Two teams, one led by Bechtel and the other by Ebasco, are now engaged in the first phase of the development of a 10 to 20 MWhr ETM. This report presents the rationale for energy storage on utility systems, describes the general technology of SMES, and explains the chronological development of the technology. The present ETM program is outlined; details of the two projects for ETM development are described in other papers in these proceedings. The impact of high Tc materials on SMES is discussed

  5. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  6. Optical information storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woike, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm 2 via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10 9 Byte/mm 2 . Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/μsec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr 1-x Ba x Nb 2 O 6 doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs

  7. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  8. Alternatives for water basin spent fuel storage using pin storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.; Carlson, R.W.

    1979-09-01

    The densest tolerable form for storing spent nuclear fuel is storage of only the fuel rods. This eliminates the space between the fuel rods and frees the hardware to be treated as non-fuel waste. The storage density can be as much as 1.07 MTU/ft 2 when racks are used that just satisfy the criticality and thermal limitations. One of the major advantages of pin storage is that it is compatible with existing racks; however, this reduces the storage density to 0.69 MTU/ft 2 . Even this is a substantial increase over the 0.39 MTU/ft 2 that is achievable with current high capacity stainless steel racks which have been selected as the bases for comparison. Disassembly requires extensive operation on the fuel assembly to remove the upper end fitting and to extract the fuel rods from the assembly skeleton. These operations will be performed with the aid of an elevator to raise the assembly where each fuel rod is grappled. Lowering the elevator will free the fuel rod for transfer to the storage canister. A storage savings of $1510 per MTU can be realized if the pin storage concept is incorporated at a new away-from-reactor facility. The storage cost ranges from $3340 to $7820 per MTU of fuel stored with the lower cost applying to storage at an existing away-from-reactor storage facility and the higher cost applying to at-reactor storage

  9. Energy Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  10. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to provide multi-stream transfers for high performance wide area access, support for third party copies, credential delegation or the required changes in the experiment and fabric management frameworks and tools. We describe new functionality that has been added to ease system administration, such as different filesystem weights and a faster disk drain, and new configuration and monitoring solutions based on the industry standards Puppet and Nagios. Finally, we explain some of the internal changes we had to do in the DPM architecture to better handle the additional load from the analysis use cases.

  11. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  12. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  14. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  16. SXLS storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray lithography has emerged as a strong candidate to meet the demands of ever finer linewidths on integrated circuits, particularly for linewidths less than .25 microns. Proximity printing X-ray lithography makes use of soft X-rays to shadow print an image of a mask onto a semiconductor wafer to produce integrated circuits. To generate the required X-rays in sufficient quantities to make commercial production viable, electron storage rings have been proposed as the soft X-ray sources. Existing storage rings have been used to do the initial development work and the success of these efforts has led the lithographers to request that new rings be constructed that are dedicated to X-ray lithography. As a result of a series of workshops held at BNL [10.3] which were attended by both semiconductor and accelerator scientists, the following set of zeroth order specifications' on the light and electron beam of a storage ring for X-ray lithography were developed: critical wavelength of light: λ c = 6 to 10 angstroms, white light power: P = 0.25 to 2.5 watts/mrad, horizontal collection angle per port: θ = 10 to 50 mrad, electron beam sizes: σ x ∼ σ y y ' < 1 mrad

  17. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  18. Underground storage of heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.; Nougarede, F.

    1976-01-01

    The interest laying in heat storage is envisaged taking account of the new energy context, with a view to optimizing the use of production means of heat sources hardly modulated according to the demand. In such a way, a natural medium, without any constructions cost but only an access cost is to be used. So, porous and permeable rocky strata allowing the use of a pressurized water flow as a transfer fluid are well convenient. With such a choice high temperatures (200 deg C) may be obtained, that are suitable for long transmissions. A mathematical model intended for solving the conservation equations in the case of heat storage inside a confined water layer is discussed. An approach of the operating conditions of storage may involve either a line-up arrangement (with the hot drilling at the center, the cold drillings being aligned on both sides) or a radial arrangement (with cold drillings at the peripheral edge encircling the hot drilling at the center of the layer). The three principal problems encountered are: starting drilling, and the circuit insulation and control [fr

  19. Mass storage at NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    The need to manage large amounts of data on robotically controlled devices has been critical to the mission of this Agency for many years. In many respects this Agency has helped pioneer, with their industry counterparts, the development of a number of products long before these systems became commercially available. Numerous attempts have been made to field both robotically controlled tape and optical disk technology and systems to satisfy our tertiary storage needs. Custom developed products were architected, designed, and developed without vendor partners over the past two decades to field workable systems to handle our ever increasing storage requirements. Many of the attendees of this symposium are familiar with some of the older products, such as: the Braegen Automated Tape Libraries (ATL's), the IBM 3850, the Ampex TeraStore, just to name a few. In addition, we embarked on an in-house development of a shared disk input/output support processor to manage our every increasing tape storage needs. For all intents and purposes, this system was a file server by current definitions which used CDC Cyber computers as the control processors. It served us well and was just recently removed from production usage.

  20. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  1. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  2. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219 [Reserved] ...

  3. 47 CFR 25.402 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402 [Reserved] ...

  4. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Podlaseck, Mark E.; Qu, Huiming; Shae, Zon-Yin; Sheopuri, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting

  5. 47 CFR 80.146 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches § 80.146 [Reserved] ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.146 Section 80.146...

  6. 47 CFR 80.145 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.145 [Reserved] Shipboard General Purpose Watches ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.145 Section 80.145...

  7. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  8. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  9. 40 CFR 405.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY... § 405.73 [Reserved] ...

  10. 40 CFR 408.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 408.73 Section 408.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Processing Subcategory § 408.73 [Reserved] ...

  11. 40 CFR 407.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.73 Section 407.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Vegetables Subcategory § 407.73 [Reserved] ...

  12. Scalable cloud without dedicated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkovich, D. V.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Zarochentsev, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a prototype of a scalable computing cloud. It is intended to be deployed on the basis of a cluster without the separate dedicated storage. The dedicated storage is replaced by the distributed software storage. In addition, all cluster nodes are used both as computing nodes and as storage nodes. This solution increases utilization of the cluster resources as well as improves fault tolerance and performance of the distributed storage. Another advantage of this solution is high scalability with a relatively low initial and maintenance cost. The solution is built on the basis of the open source components like OpenStack, CEPH, etc.

  13. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  14. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  15. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da

    1980-10-01

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  16. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  17. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  18. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  19. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  20. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  1. Micro-level stochastic loss reserving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Plat, R.

    2010-01-01

    To meet future liabilities general insurance companies will set-up reserves. Predicting future cash-flows is essential in this process. Actuarial loss reserving methods will help them to do this in a sound way. The last decennium a vast literature about stochastic loss reserving for the general

  2. Evaluation system of minerals reserve at Nuclebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used world wide, and specially at Nuclebras. The paper discusses a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (Conventional, Statistical and Geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification of reserves as well as the results achieved [pt

  3. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  4. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of the...

  5. Fuel performance in water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

  6. Autophagy, lipophagy and lysosomal lipid storage disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carl; Martinez-Lopez, Nuria; Otten, Elsje G; Carroll, Bernadette; Maetzel, Dorothea; Singh, Rajat; Sarkar, Sovan; Korolchuk, Viktor I

    2016-04-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process with an essential function in the maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. It is primarily recognised for its role in the degradation of dysfunctional proteins and unwanted organelles, however in recent years the range of autophagy substrates has also been extended to lipids. Degradation of lipids via autophagy is termed lipophagy. The ability of autophagy to contribute to the maintenance of lipo-homeostasis becomes particularly relevant in the context of genetic lysosomal storage disorders where perturbations of autophagic flux have been suggested to contribute to the disease aetiology. Here we review recent discoveries of the molecular mechanisms mediating lipid turnover by the autophagy pathways. We further focus on the relevance of autophagy, and specifically lipophagy, to the disease mechanisms. Moreover, autophagy is also discussed as a potential therapeutic target in several key lysosomal storage disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  8. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R. [Hitachi Zosen Diesel and Engineering Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication.

  9. 7 CFR 993.159 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., incidental to acquisition or storage; (ii) Direct labor costs, which include those for weighing, receiving... overhead costs, which include those for supervision, indirect labor, fuel, power and water, taxes and... the costs for necessary services rendered by handlers in connection with reserve prunes. (2) Such...

  10. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigação numérica do desempenho de um sensor de fibra ótica de índice de refração, baseado em SPR e utilizando COMSOL multiphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Diego Felipe de Nóbrega dos

    2013-01-01

    Esta tese é dedicada aos sensores de fibra ótica especificamente aos sensores baseados no fenómeno de ressonância de plasmão de superfície, SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance), gerados em fibras óticas com configuração do tipo “D”, para aplicação em sensores refratométricos. Numa primeira parte desta dissertação são descritos os aspetos teóricos fundamentais para a compreensão dos fenómenos de ressonância de plasmões de superfície e a sua utilização em sistemas sensores. Estes f...

  12. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  13. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  14. CLOUD STORAGE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a hot topic in recent research and applications. Because it is widely used in various fields. Up to now, Google, Microsoft, IBM, Amazon and other famous co partnership have proposed their cloud computing application. Look upon cloud computing as one of the most important strategy in the future. Cloud storage is the lower layer of cloud computing system which supports the service of the other layers above it. At the same time, it is an effective way to store and manage heavy...

  15. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  16. SALES, STORAGE AND SALVAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar

    2000-01-01

    From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari

  17. Energy storage financing :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Project financing is emerging as the linchpin for the future health, direction, and momentum of the energy storage industry. Market leaders have so far relied on selffunding or captive lending arrangements to fund projects. New lenders are proceeding hesitantly as they lack a full understanding of the technology, business, and credit risks involved in this rapidly changing market. The U.S. Department of Energy is poised to play a critical role in expanding access to capital by reducing the barriers to entry for new lenders, and providing trusted analytical benchmarks to better judge and price the risk in systematic ways.

  18. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  19. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  20. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  1. Plutonium storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO 2 /year

  2. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  3. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  4. Monitored retrievable storage status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal for Congressional consideration of the inclusion of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility as part of the Federal Nuclear Waste Management System. The DOE plans to submit the proposal package to the Congress by January 15, 1986. The proposed preferred location of the MRS facility is the former Clinch River Breeder site in the state of Tennessee. If the Congress approves implementation of the MRS proposal, it is estimated that the facility could be licensed and operational in ten years

  5. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  6. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  7. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  8. Femtoslicing in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat

    2005-01-01

    The generation of ultrashort synchrotron radiation pulses by laser-induced energy modulation of electrons and their subsequent transverse displacement, now dubbed "femtoslicing," was demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. More recently, a femtoslicing user facility was commissioned at the BESSY storage ring in Berlin, and another project is in progress at the Swiss Light Source. The paper reviews the principle of femtoslicing, its merits and shortcomings, as well as the variations of its technical implementation. Various diagnostics techniques to detect successful laser-electron interaction are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  9. High-resolution paleoclimatology of the Santa Barbara Basin during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and early Little Ice Age based on diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages in Kasten core SPR0901-02KC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Hendy, Ingrid L.

    2015-01-01

    Diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages documented in a high-resolution time series spanning 800 to 1600 AD in varved sediment recovered in Kasten core SPR0901-02KC (34°16.845’ N, 120°02.332’ W, water depth 588 m) from the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) reveal that SBB surface water conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the early part of the Little Ice Age (LIA) were not extreme by modern standards, mostly falling within one standard deviation of mean conditions during the pre anthropogenic interval of 1748 to 1900. No clear differences between the character of MCA and the early LIA conditions are apparent. During intervals of extreme droughts identified by terrigenous proxy scanning XRF analyses, diatom and silicoflagellate proxies for coastal upwelling typically exceed one standard deviation above mean values for 1748-1900, supporting the hypothesis that droughts in southern California are associated with cooler (or La Niña-like) sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Increased percentages of diatoms transported downslope generally coincide with intervals of increased siliciclastic flux to the SBB identified by scanning XRF analyses. Diatom assemblages suggest only two intervals of the MCA (at ~897 to 922 and ~1151 to 1167) when proxy SSTs exceeded one standard deviation above mean values for 1748 to 1900. Conversely, silicoflagellates imply extreme warm water events only at ~830 to 860 (early MCA) and ~1360 to 1370 (early LIA) that are not supported by the diatom data. Silicoflagellates appear to be more suitable for characterizing average climate during the 5 to 11 year-long sample intervals studied in the SPR0901-02KC core than diatoms, probably because diatom relative abundances may be dominated by seasonal blooms of a particular year.

  10. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  11. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device of ionizing radioactive gases to be processed in gaseous nuclear fission products in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, etc., and injecting them into metal substrates for storage. The device comprises a vessel for a tightly closed type outer electrode in which gases to be processed are introduced, an electrode disposed to the inside of the vessel and the target material, a high DC voltage power source for applying high voltage to the electrodes, etc. There are disposed a first electric discharging portion for preparting discharge plasma for ion injection of different electrode distance and a second electric discharging portion for causing stable discharge between the vessel and the electrode. The first electric discharging portion for the ion injection provides an electrode distance suitable to acceleration sputtering and the second electric discharging portion is used for stable discharge. Accordingly, if the gas pressure in the radioactive gas storage device is reduced by the external disturbance, etc., since the second electric discharging portion satisfies the electric discharging conditions, the device can continue electric discharge. (K.M.)

  12. Flywheel energy storage workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kain, D.; Carmack, J. [comps.

    1995-12-31

    Since the November 1993 Flywheel Workshop, there has been a major surge of interest in Flywheel Energy Storage. Numerous flywheel programs have been funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), by the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Hybrid Vehicle Program, and by private investment. Several new prototype systems have been built and are being tested. The operational performance characteristics of flywheel energy storage are being recognized as attractive for a number of potential applications. Programs are underway to develop flywheels for cars, buses, boats, trains, satellites, and for electric utility applications such as power quality, uninterruptible power supplies, and load leveling. With the tremendous amount of flywheel activity during the last two years, this workshop should again provide an excellent opportunity for presentation of new information. This workshop is jointly sponsored by ARPA and DOE to provide a review of the status of current flywheel programs and to provide a forum for presentation of new flywheel technology. Technology areas of interest include flywheel applications, flywheel systems, design, materials, fabrication, assembly, safety & containment, ball bearings, magnetic bearings, motor/generators, power electronics, mounting systems, test procedures, and systems integration. Information from the workshop will help guide ARPA & DOE planning for future flywheel programs. This document is comprised of detailed viewgraphs.

  13. Stationary flywheel energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilhaus, A; Hau, E; Gassner, G; Huss, G; Schauberger, H

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this system study is to find out industrial applications of stationary flywheel energy accumulators. The economic value for the consumer and the effects on the power supply grid are investigated. Up to now, stationary flywheel energy accumulators have only been used in a small range. The main reason for thinking of the application in a wider range was the hope that those could be used economically for lowering the maximum output demand of the power supply grid. The possible savings in energy costs, however, proved to be too small for paying back the investment costs. Further benefits are necessary for advantageous application. As to overall economy, compensation of short time maximum power output seems to be more favorable at the power stations. An additional possibility for energy storage by flywheels is given where otherwise lost energy can be used effectively, according to the successful brake energy storage in vehicles. Under this aspect the future use of flywheels in wind-power-plants seems to be promising. Attractive savings of energy can be obtained by introducing modern flywheel technology for emergency power supply units which are employed for instance in telecommunication systems. Especially the application for emergency power supply, in power stations and in combustion with wind energy converters need further investigation.

  14. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel storage apparatus for use in a water-filled pool is fabricated of a material such as stainless steel in the form of an egg crate structure having vertically extending openings. Fuel may be stored in this basic structure in a checkerboard pattern with high enrichment fuel, or in all openings when the fuel is of low effective enrichment. Inserts of a material such as stainless steel are adapted to fit within these openings so that a water gap and, therefore, a flux trap is formed between adjacent fuel storage locations. These inserts may be added at a later time and fuel of a higher enrichment may be stored in each opening. When it is desired to store fuel of still greater enrichment, poison plates may be added to the water gap formed by the installed insert plates, or substituted for the insert plates. Alternately, or in addition, fuel may be installed in high neutron absorption poison boxes which surround the fuel assembly. The stainless steel inserts and the poison plates are each not required until the capacity of the basic egg crate structure is approached. Purchase of these items can, therefore, be deferred for many years. Should the fuel to be stored be of higher enrichment than initially forecast, the deferred decision on the poison plates makes it possible to obtain increased poison in the plates to satisfy the newly discovered requirement

  15. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  16. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  17. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a "traffic jam." This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement.

  18. Optical information storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woike, T [Koeln Univ., Inst. fuer Kristallography, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm{sup 2} via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10{sup 9} Byte/mm{sup 2}. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/{mu}sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs.

  19. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kumagaya, Naomi; Oda, Masashi; Matsuda, Masami; Maruyama, Hiromi; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a spent fuel storage rack is determined by the material, thickness, size of square cylindrical tubes (the gap between spent fuel assemblies and the square cylindrical tubes) and pitch of the arrangement (the gap between each of the square cylindrical tubes). In the present invention, the thickness and the pitch of the arrangement of the square tubes are optimized while evaluating subcriticality. Namely, when the sum of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side (the pitch of arrangement of the cylindrical tubes) and the thickness of the cylindrical tubes is made constant, the storage rack is formed by determining the thickness of the cylindrical tubes which is smaller than the optimum value among the combination of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side and that of the cylindrical tube under the effective multiplication factor to be performed. Then, the weight of the rack can be reduced, and the burden of the load on the bottom of the pool can be reduced. Further, the amount of the constitutional materials of the rack itself can be reduced thereby capable of reducing the cost for the materials of the rack. (T.M.)

  20. Magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The fusion program embraces low loss superconductor strand development with integration into cables capable of carrying 50 kA in pulsed mode at high fields. This evolvement has been paralleled with pulsed energy storage coil development and testing from tens of kJ at low fields to a 20 MJ prototype tokamak induction coil at 7.5 T. Energy transfer times have ranged from 0.7 ms to several seconds. Electric utility magnetic storage for prospective application is for diurnal load leveling with massive systems to store 10 GWh at 1.8 K in a dewar structure supported on bedrock underground. An immediate utility application is a 30 MJ system to be used to damp power oscillations on the Bonneville Power Administration electric transmission lines. An off-shoot of this last work is a new program for electric utility VAR control with the potential for use to suppress subsynchronous resonance. This paper presents work in progress, work planned, and recently completed unusual work

  1. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  2. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  3. Economical Aspects of Sodium Borohydride for Hydrogen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ture, I. Engin; Tabakoglu, F. Oznur; Kurtulus, Gulbahar

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the cause to global warming. Turkey has an important location with respect to hydrogen energy applications. Moreover, Turkey has 72.2% of the world's total boron reserves. Sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) which can be produced from borax has high hydrogen storage capacity. Hence, it is important for Turkey to lead studies about sodium borohydride to make it one of the most feasible hydrogen storage methods. In this paper an approximate process cost analysis of a NaBH 4 -H 2 system is given, starting with NaBH 4 production till recycling of it. It is found that, the usage of NaBH 4 as hydrogen storage material is relatively an expensive method but after improving reactions and by-product removal in the system and reducing the energy and reactant costs, sodium borohydride is one of the best candidates among hydrogen storage technologies. (authors)

  4. Operational Benefits of Meeting California’s Energy Storage Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josh Eichman, Paul Denholm, Jennie Jorgenson, Udi Helman

    2015-12-01

    In October 2013, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued rules for its jurisdictional utilities to procure a minimum of 1,325 megawatts (MW) of energy storage systems by 2020. The goal of this study is to examine the operational value of this storage portfolio in California and the rest of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region. Modeled results show that the storage portfolio, when providing energy and operating reserves, reduces the total WECC-wide production costs by $78 million per year in the 33% scenario. This value increases to $144 million per year in the 40% scenario, primarily because of the increase in off-peak and peak price differences that are due to additional solar generation. These values are equivalent to $59/kW-year for the storage portfolio for the 33% scenario and $109/kW-year for the 40% scenario.

  5. Reevaluating the Sensory Account of Visual Working Memory Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoda

    2017-10-01

    Recent human fMRI pattern-decoding studies have highlighted the involvement of sensory areas in visual working memory (VWM) tasks and argue for a sensory account of VWM storage. In this review, evidence is examined from human behavior, fMRI decoding, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies, as well as from monkey neurophysiology studies. Contrary to the prevalent view, the available evidence provides little support for the sensory account of VWM storage. Instead, when the ability to resist distraction and the existence of top-down feedback are taken into account, VWM-related activities in sensory areas seem to reflect feedback signals indicative of VWM storage elsewhere in the brain. Collectively, the evidence shows that prefrontal and parietal regions, rather than sensory areas, play more significant roles in VWM storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  7. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  8. Optimal scheduling for distribution network with redox flow battery storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseina, Majid; Bathaee, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method for optimal scheduling of storages in radial network is presented. • Peak shaving and load leveling are the main objectives. • Vanadium redox flow battery is considered as the energy storage unit. • Real data is used for simulation. - Abstract: There are many advantages to utilize storages in electric power system. Peak shaving, load leveling, load frequency control, integration of renewable, energy trading and spinning reserve are the most important of them. Batteries, especially redox flow batteries, are one of the appropriate storages for utilization in distribution network. This paper presents a novel, heuristic and practical method for optimal scheduling in distribution network with flow battery storage. This heuristic method is more suitable for scheduling and operation of distribution networks which require installation of storages. Peak shaving and load leveling is considered as the main objective in this paper. Several indices are presented in this paper for determine the place of storages and also scheduling for optimal use of energy in them. Simulations of this paper are based on real information of distribution network substation that located in Semnan, Iran.

  9. Is there a parliamentary reservation with regard to reprocessing technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1987-01-01

    The decision whether the F.R.G. shall commit itself to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and start using plutonium as an energy source may not be taken implicitly, by the licensing competence of the executive organs, but is a problem falling into the area reserved to the decision of Parliament on the basis of a systematic and comprehensive cost-benefit analysis. Because there are novel and essential developments and research results regarding the reprocessing of nuclear fuels, Parliament has to react by 'backfitting' the Atomic Energy Act. Until Parliament has fulfilled this duty, the licensing authorities do not have the competence to grant permits for large-scale processing or storage of plutonium, nor does the Federal Minister of the Interior have any right to instruct the licensing authorities accordingly. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  11. The energy reserves of our planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischoff, G.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from a prognosis for the development of the world energy consumption, the situation of special primary energy sources (reserves, potential) is briefly described. According to the amount and location of the reserves - 90% of the fossil energy reserves are in industrialized countries -, coal will play a leading role in meeting the energy demands of the future. Without breeder reactors, the role of nuclear energy will be limited in time. (UA) [de

  12. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1996-01-01

    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  13. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  14. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  15. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical neurogenetics: neuropathic lysosomal storage disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastores, Gregory M; Maegawa, Gustavo H B

    2013-11-01

    The lysosomal storage disorders are a clinically heterogeneous group of inborn errors of metabolism, associated with the accumulation of incompletely degraded macromolecules within several cellular sites. Affected individuals present with a broad range of clinical problems, including hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal dysplasia. Onset of symptoms may range from birth to adulthood. Most are associated with neurologic features. Later-onset forms are often misdiagnosed as symptoms, which might include psychiatric manifestations, are slowly progressive, and may precede other neurologic or systemic features. Symptomatic care, which remains the mainstay for most subtypes, can lead to significant improvement in quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source

  18. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  19. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  20. The circular RFQ storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features used in a conventional storage ring and an ion trap, and is basically a linear RFQ bend on itself. In summary the advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device