WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserve requirements unit

  1. Improving Deterministic Reserve Requirements for Security Constrained Unit Commitment and Scheduling Problems in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyu

    Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve zone, but intra-zonal congestion may block the deliverability of operating reserves within a zone. Thus, improving reserve policies such as reserve zones may improve the location and deliverability of reserve. As more non-dispatchable renewable resources are integrated into the grid, it will become increasingly difficult to predict the transfer capabilities and the network congestion. At the same time, renewable resources require operators to acquire more operating reserves. With existing deterministic reserve requirements unable to ensure optimal reserve locations, the importance of reserve location and reserve deliverability will increase. While stochastic programming can be used to determine reserve by explicitly modelling uncertainties, there are still scalability as well as pricing issues. Therefore, new methods to improve existing deterministic reserve requirements are desired. One key barrier of improving existing deterministic reserve requirements is its potential market impacts. A metric, quality of service, is proposed in this thesis to evaluate the price signal and market impacts of proposed hourly reserve zones. Three main goals of this thesis are: 1) to develop a theoretical and mathematical model to better locate reserve while maintaining the deterministic unit commitment and economic dispatch

  2. Requirement for Naval Reserve Component Units Not Assigned to Support Regional Contingencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Our primary objective was to determine whether a valid need exists for Naval Reserve units and non-unit Reserve personnel who are not assigned to meet the needs of anticipated regional contingencies...

  3. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  4. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...

  5. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...

  6. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  7. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of the...

  8. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  9. 24 CFR 266.110 - Reserve requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.110 Reserve requirements. (a) HFAs with top-tier designation or overall...

  10. Required reserves as a credit policy tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mimir, Yasin; Sunel, Enes; Taskin, Temel

    2012-01-01

    This paper conducts a quantitative investigation of the role of reserve requirements as a macroprudential policy tool. We build a monetary DSGE model with a banking sector in which (i) an agency problem between households and banks leads to endogenous capital constraints for banks in obtaining funds from households, (ii) banks are subject to time-varying reserve requirements that countercyclically respond to expected credit growth, (iii) households face cash-in-advance constraints, requiring ...

  11. Leadership Stability in Army Reserve Component Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Stability in...standards for research quality and objectivity. Leadership Stability in Army Reserve Component Units Thomas F. Lippiatt, J. Michael Polich NATIONAL SECURITY...RESEARCH DIVISION Leadership Stability in Army Reserve Component Units Thomas F. Lippiatt, J. Michael Polich Prepared for the Office of the

  12. Unit commitment with probabilistic reserve: An IPSO approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Chun-Lung

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for solution of the nonlinear optimal scheduling problem. This algorithm is named the iteration particle swarm optimization (IPSO). A new index, called iteration best, is incorporated into particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve the solution quality and computation efficiency. IPSO is applied to solve the unit commitment with probabilistic reserve problem of a power system. The outage cost as well as fuel cost of thermal units was considered in the unit commitment program to evaluate the level of spinning reserve. The optimal scheduling of on line generation units was reached while minimizing the sum of fuel cost and outage cost. A 48 unit power system was used as a numerical example to test the new algorithm. The optimal scheduling of on line generation units could be reached in the testing results while satisfying the requirement of the objective function

  13. 12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.4 Computation of required reserves. (a) In determining the reserve requirement under this part, the amount of cash items in process of... reserves are computed by applying the reserve requirement ratios below to net transaction accounts...

  14. 76 FR 68064 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to reflect the annual indexing of the reserve requirement exemption amount and the low reserve...

  15. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental reserve requirement. 204.7 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.7 Supplemental reserve requirement... reserve requirement on every depository institution of not more than 4 percent of its total transaction...

  16. 12 CFR 204.9 - Emergency reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency reserve requirement. 204.9 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.9 Emergency reserve requirement. (a..., additional reserve requirements on depository institutions at any ratio on any liability upon a finding by at...

  17. 7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative association or its agent that is a handler pursuant to § 1000.9...

  18. 47 CFR 10.540 - Attestation requirement. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attestation requirement. [Reserved] 10.540 Section 10.540 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.540 Attestation requirement. [Reserved] ...

  19. 75 FR 65563 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to reflect the annual indexing of the reserve requirement exemption amount and the low reserve tranche for...

  20. 78 FR 66249 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to reflect the annual indexing of the reserve requirement exemption amount and the low reserve tranche for...

  1. 77 FR 65773 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to reflect the annual indexing of the reserve requirement exemption amount and the low reserve tranche for...

  2. 7 CFR 981.51 - Requirements for reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for reserve. 981.51 Section 981.51... Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.51 Requirements for reserve. Each handler may satisfy his reserve... include grade requirements for reserve almonds delivered to human consumption outlets. [41 FR 26853, June...

  3. A public finance analysis of multiple reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Vega, Marco; Russell, Steven

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes multiple reserve requirements of the type that have been imposed by a number of developing countries. We show that previous theoretical work on this topic has not succeeded in providing a social welfare rationale for the existence of multiple reserve requirements: in the basic reserve requirements model, any allocation that can be supported by a multiple-reserves regime can also be supported by a single-bond reserve requirement. We go on to present extended versions of the...

  4. 20 CFR 617.60 - Administration requirements. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administration requirements. [Reserved] 617.60 Section 617.60 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Agencies § 617.60 Administration requirements. [Reserved] ...

  5. 40 CFR 429.12 - Monitoring requirements. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements. [Reserved] 429.12 Section 429.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... Monitoring requirements. [Reserved] ...

  6. 24 CFR 884.225 - PHA reporting requirements. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reporting requirements. [Reserved] ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PHA reporting requirements. [Reserved] 884.225 Section 884.225 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  7. 40 CFR 410.02 - Monitoring requirements. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Monitoring requirements. [Reserved] 410.02 Section 410.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... requirements. [Reserved] ...

  8. 12 CFR 652.20 - Liquidity reserve management and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserve management and requirements... AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.20 Liquidity reserve management and requirements. (a) Minimum liquidity reserve requirement. Within 24 months of this rule...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5134 - Liquidity reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidity reserve requirement. 615.5134 Section..., LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5134 Liquidity reserve requirement. (a) Each Farm Credit bank must maintain a liquidity reserve, discounted in accordance with...

  10. Reserve requirements and the bank lending channel in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fungácová , Zuzana; Nuutilainen , Riikka; Weill , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how reserve requirements influence the transmission of monetary policy through the bank lending channel in China while also taking into account the role of bank ownership. The implementation of Chinese monetary policy is characterized by the reliance on the reserve requirements as a regular policy tool with frequent adjustments. Using a large dataset of 170 Chinese banks for the period 2004–2013, we analyze the reaction of loan supply to changes in reserve requirements. We...

  11. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  12. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  13. Generating units performances: power system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C; Girard, N; Lefebvre, H

    1994-08-01

    The part of generating units within the power system is more than providing power and energy. Their performance are not only measured by their energy efficiency and availability. Namely, there is a strong interaction between the generating units and the power system. The units are essential components of the system: for a given load profile the frequency variation follows directly from the behaviour of the units and their ability to adapt their power output. In the same way, the voltage at the units terminals are the key points to which the voltage profile at each node of the network is linked through the active and especially the reactive power flows. Therefore, the customer will experience the frequency and voltage variations induced by the units behaviour. Moreover, in case of adverse conditions, if the units do not operate as well as expected or trip, a portion of the system, may be the whole system, may collapse. The limitation of the performance of a unit has two kinds of consequences. Firstly, it may result in an increased amount of not supplied energy or loss of load probability: for example if the primary reserve is not sufficient, a generator tripping may lead to an abnormal frequency deviation, and load may have to be shed to restore the balance. Secondly, the limitation of a unit performance results in an economic over-cost for the system: for instance, if not enough `cheap` units are able to load-following, other units with higher operating costs have to be started up. We would like to stress the interest for the operators and design teams of the units on the one hand, and the operators and design teams of the system on the other hand, of dialog and information exchange, in operation but also at the conception stage, in order to find a satisfactory compromise between the system requirements and the consequences for the generating units. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Reserve reporting in the United States coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily

    2012-01-01

    United States energy policymaking can be better supported with accurate and consistent data on coal reserves, both in the public and private sectors. In particular, reserve data for coal and other energy resources should be directly comparable so that decision-makers can easily understand the relationship among available resources. Long-term policy and investment choices regarding energy security, the environment, and resource allocation depend on accurate information, but existing and easily available data on the magnitude of geologically, environmentally, economically, socially, and legally accessible coal reserves are of insufficient quality to guide such decisions. Even still, these data are often presented for use in policy and energy analysis. Currently, coal reserves are overstated relative to competitor energy resource reserves, in part because coal reporting standards have historically been more liberal and vague than standards for resources like natural gas. Overstating the marketable coal resource could lead to inefficient allocation of limited capital investment that can be difficult to reverse. US government bodies like the Energy Information Administration, United States Geological Survey, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Bureau of Land Management can help correct deficiencies by clarifying standards and collecting data that are relevant for decision-makers, such as energy-based reserve information. - Highlights: ► US Coal reserves are important to public and private policy and investment decisions. ► Poor quality data and coal reserve overreporting misrepresent reality. ► Choices made based on bad information can lead to long-term capital misallocation. ► Numerous government agencies are tasked with providing public data on coal reserves. ► Clearer, more restrictive reserves reporting standards can aid decision-makers.

  15. Use and Limitations of the Reserve Requirement Policy in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Velibor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since reserve requirement is the only monetary policy instrument used in Montenegro, it has been subject to frequent amendments since the global crisis outbreak. The analysis of the monetary demand model showed that there is an active transmission mechanism of change in the reserve requirement rate on the deposits trend reflects on lending activity. Also, there is a significant impact of FDIs on deposits trending in the banking system, as well as the positive impact of turnover on stock exchange on the deposits and loans trend. Finally, it was found that the financial crisis has caused negative trends in loans and deposits. On the other hand, the impact of changes in the reserve requirement on the economic activity in Montenegro could not be determined. This is primarily due to the fact that the transmission mechanism of the effect of reserve requirement on economic activity is too long to be able to estimate the model that does not allow the dynamics of the independent variables. The second reason is that industrial output index is only an indirect indicator of the economic activity.

  16. Reserve requirements and double Bertrand competition among banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    The paper considers a model of double Bertrand competition among banks, in which banks compete for deposits as well as loans. It is shown that the introduction of reserve requirements can have an effect on the existence and efficiency properties of Nash equilibria of this model. This provides a new

  17. 7 CFR 985.57 - Reserve pool requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be paid by the equity holders. The proceeds from the disposition of reserve oil shall be... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.57... the Secretary may establish, the Committee shall pool identified excess oil as reserve oil in such...

  18. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  19. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Simplification and Private Sector Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... comment on several issues related to the methodology used for the Private Sector Adjustment Factor that is... Analyst (202) 452- 3674, Division of Monetary Affairs, or, for questions regarding the Private Sector...

  20. 12 CFR 204.5 - Maintenance of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Other Items by Federal Reserve Banks and Funds Transfers Through Fedwire” (12 CFR part 210). If a... collected funds. (d)(1) A depository institution, a U.S. branch or agency of a foreign bank, or an Edge or... institutions are Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility...

  1. Changes in Reserve Requirements and Brazilian Banks' Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno De Lorenzi Cancelier Mazzucco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the hypothesis that part of reserve requirements’ costs is paid by banks’ stockholders, instead of only by depositors and borrowers. Through an event study of fourteen regulatory changes between 1998 and 2010, we investigated the existence of abnormal returns. The results suggest that stockholders share the costs.

  2. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  3. Reserve Component Unit Stability: Effects on Deployability and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    within the last year before mobi - lization). However, attendance rates at AT have historically ranged around 60 to 70 percent, and, the more time they...recruiters, offering enlistment incentives, boosting advertising ) but also for initial training of new nonprior- service recruits. And, since the unit would

  4. Postextrasystolic potentiation and contractile reserve: requirements and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, R M; Lutherer, L O; Gardner, M E; Cooper, M W

    1982-12-01

    These studies were conducted to examine the basic characteristics of postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) and the relationship of loading effects to PESP. Measurements of left ventricular (LV) and aortic pressures, the rate of pressure rise, and echocardiographically determined LV dimensions were made in anesthetized open-chest dogs. The hearts were paced, and timed extrasystoles were introduced that were followed by postextrasystoles (PES). PES's were elicited after an interval equal to either a full compensatory pause or a time when the diastolic properties of the LV could not be distinguished from control (isolength). Potentiation of contraction for the PES's introduced after an isolength pause was dependent on both the heart rate and the extrasystolic interval, whereas the PES's that occurred after a full pause showed no dependence on either of these intervals. PESP elicited during the isolength period was not dependent on either preload and afterload. It is concluded that PESP depends on the combination of heart rate and extrasystolic and postextrasystolic intervals. Further, PESP may be inaccurate in assessing contractile reserve unless the heart rate and extrasystolic interval are known and the PES is introduced after an isolength pause.

  5. Did Doubling Reserve Requirements Cause the Recession of 1937-1938? A Microeconomic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Charles W. Calomiris; Joseph Mason; David Wheelock

    2011-01-01

    In 1936-37, the Federal Reserve doubled the reserve requirements imposed on member banks. Ever since, the question of whether the doubling of reserve requirements increased reserve demand and produced a contraction of money and credit, and thereby helped to cause the recession of 1937-1938, has been a matter of controversy. Using microeconomic data to gauge the fundamental reserve demands of Fed member banks, we find that despite being doubled, reserve requirements were not binding on bank re...

  6. Coal reserves in the United States and around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubert, K.; Masudi, H.

    1995-01-01

    There is an urgent need to examine the role that coal might play in meeting world energy needs during the next 20 years. Oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) can no longer be relied upon to provide expanding supplies of energy, even with rapidly rising prices. Neither can nuclear energy be planned on for rapid expansion worldwide until present uncertainties about it are resolved. Yet, the world's energy needs will continue to grow, even with vigorous energy conservation programs and with optimistic rates of expansion in the use of solar energy. Coal already supplies 25% of the world's energy, its reserves are vast, and it is relatively inexpensive. This study, with the aid of reports from the World Coal Study (WOCOL) examines the needs for coal on a global scale, its availability past and present, and its future prospects

  7. THE EFFECT OF CHANGES IN RESERVE REQUIREMENTS DURING THE 1930s:

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mayer; Thomas F. Cargill

    2004-01-01

    The differential response of cash reserves of member banks and nonmember banks not subject to the 1936-37 increase in reserve requirements is estimated to determine whether the 1937-38 recession was caused by the increase in reserve requirements. We identify 17 states that maintained constant reserve requirements from June 1934 to June 1941. While member banks increased their cash reserve ratios relative to nonmember banks, the magnitude of the adjustment is too small to have contributed to t...

  8. 40 CFR 74.17 - Application requirements for process sources. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for process sources. [Reserved] ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application requirements for process sources. [Reserved] 74.17 Section 74.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  9. Integration of renewable generation uncertainties into stochastic unit commitment considering reserve and risk: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainties of renewable energy have brought great challenges to power system commitment, dispatches and reserve requirement. This paper presents a comparative study on integration of renewable generation uncertainties into SCUC (stochastic security-constrained unit commitment) considering reserve and risk. Renewable forecast uncertainties are captured by a list of PIs (prediction intervals). A new scenario generation method is proposed to generate scenarios from these PIs. Different system uncertainties are considered as scenarios in the stochastic SCUC problem formulation. Two comparative simulations with single (E1: wind only) and multiple sources of uncertainty (E2: load, wind, solar and generation outages) are investigated. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies are performed. Different generation costs, reserve strategies and associated risks are compared under various scenarios. Demonstrated results indicate the overall costs of E2 is lower than E1 due to penetration of solar power and the associated risk in deterministic cases of E2 is higher than E1. It implies the superimposed effect of uncertainties during uncertainty integration. The results also demonstrate that power systems run a higher level of risk during peak load hours, and that stochastic models are more robust than deterministic ones. - Highlights: • An extensive comparative study for renewable integration is presented. • A novel scenario generation method is proposed. • Wind and solar uncertainties are represented by a list of prediction intervals. • Unit commitment and dispatch costs are discussed considering reserve and risk.

  10. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Beyer, D.; Doerfel, H.; Erlenbach, H.; Fischbach, G.; Henrichs, K.; Keller, K.D.; Koenig, K.; Riedel, W.; Scheler, R.; Schieferdecker, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [de

  11. 12 CFR 208.35 - Qualification requirements for transactions in certain securities. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements for transactions in certain securities. [Reserved] ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification requirements for transactions in certain securities. [Reserved] 208.35 Section 208.35 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF...

  12. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples... Distributing § 111.465 What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold reserve samples of dietary supplements in a manner that protects against contamination and...

  13. 5 CFR 3101.111 - Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved] 3101.111 Section 3101.111 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....111 Additional rules for United States Secret Service employees. [Reserved] ...

  14. 21 CFR 111.83 - What are the requirements for reserve samples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for reserve samples? 111..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Requirement to Establish a Production and Process Control System § 111.83 What are the requirements for reserve samples? (a) You must collect and...

  15. Power system reliability impacts of wind generation and operational reserve requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its variability, wind generation integration presents a significant challenge to power system operators in order to maintain adequate reliability levels while ensuring least cost operation. This paper explores the trade-off between the benefits associated to a higher wind penetration and the additional operational reserve requirements that they impose. Such exploration is valued in terms of its effect on power system reliability, measured as an amount of unserved energy. The paper also focuses on how changing the Value of Lost Load (VoLL can be used to attain different reliability targets, and how wind power penetration and the diversity of the wind energy resource will impact quality of supply (in terms of instances of unserved energy. The evaluation of different penetrations of wind power generation, different wind speed profiles, wind resource diversity, and different operational reserve requirements, is conducted on the Chilean Northern Interconnected System (SING using statistical modeling of wind speed time series and computer simulation through a 24-hour ahead unit commitment algorithm and a Monte Carlo simulation scheme. Results for the SING suggest that while wind generation can significantly reduce generation costs, it can also imply higher security costs to reach acceptable reliability levels.

  16. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  17. Inflation Targeting and Quantitative Tightening: Effects of Reserve Requirements in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Armas; Paul Castillo; Marco Vega

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the reserve requirement measures undertaken by the Central Bank of Peru. It provides a rationale for the use of these instruments as well as empirical evidence of their effectiveness. In general, the results show that tightening reserve requirements has the desired effects on interest rates and credit levels at both banks and smaller financial institutions (cajas municipales).

  18. 13 CFR 120.847 - Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF). (a) General. PCLP CDCs must establish and maintain a LLRF... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the Loan Loss Reserve Fund (LLRF). 120.847 Section 120.847 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  19. 26 CFR 1.411(d)-1 - Coordination of vesting and discrimination requirements. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of vesting and discrimination requirements. [Reserved] 1.411(d)-1 Section 1.411(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Plans, Etc. § 1.411(d)-1 Coordination of vesting and discrimination requirements. [Reserved] ...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6031(b)-2T - REMIC reporting requirements (temporary). [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements (temporary). [Reserved] ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false REMIC reporting requirements (temporary). [Reserved] 1.6031(b)-2T Section 1.6031(b)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. A Decision Support System for the Location of Naval Surface Reserve Units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venable, Laura

    1998-01-01

    .... The research suggests the feasibility of a PC based Decision Support System to assist Commander, Naval Surface Reserve Force improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the unit location decision...

  2. Determining reserve requirements in DK1 area of Nord Pool using a probabilistic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez Gallego, Javier; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    a probabilistic framework where the reserve requirements are computed based on scenarios of wind power forecast error, load forecast errors and power plant outages. Our approach is first motivated by the increasing wind power penetration in power systems worldwide as well as the current market design of the DK1...... System Operator). © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  4. Reduction of wind power induced reserve requirements by advanced shortest-term forecasts and prediction intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobschinski, Jan; Wessel, Arne; Lange, Bernhard; Bremen, Lueder von [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In electricity systems with large penetration of wind power, the limited predictability of the wind power generation leads to an increase in reserve and balancing requirements. At first the present study concentrates on the capability of dynamic day-ahead prediction intervals to reduce the wind power induced reserve and balancing requirements. Alternatively the reduction of large forecast errors of the German wind power generation by using advanced shortest-term predictions has been evaluated in a second approach. With focus on the allocation of minute reserve power the aim is to estimate the maximal remaining uncertainty after trading activities on the intraday market. Finally both approaches were used in a case study concerning the reserve requirements induced by the total German wind power expansion in 2007. (orig.)

  5. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  6. The identification and description of the management units of the Goegap Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Rosch

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Goegap Nature Reserve, near Springbok, is situated in the floral paradise of Namaqualand. This 15 000 ha reserve falls within the Namaqualand Broken Veld and in the transition zone between this Veld type and the False Succulent Karoo. Otherwise, it could be said that the reserve falls within the Upland Succulent Karoo and the transition zone between this vegetation type and the Bushmanland vegetation type. With the use of stratified aerial photographs of the reserve, random sample plots were placed within each homogeneous physiographic-physionomic unit and 284 releves were compiled in September 1998. With the use of the BBPC computer program, the resulting TWINSPAN split the data into two tables, one predominantly for the Plains and one for the Rocky Hills. After refining these tables, 13 plant communities were identified. These communities, together with the stratified aerial photographs, land type and habitat information were used to determine ten management units for the reserve. These units will be used in effective management and monitoring on the reserve. Table 1 and 2 will be uploaded as a supplementary file in due course.

  7. Day-ahead optimal dispatch for wind integrated power system considering zonal reserve requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fan; Bie, Zhaohong; Liu, Shiyu; Ding, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyzing zonal reserve requirements for wind integrated power system. • Modeling day-ahead optimal dispatch solved by chance constrained programming theory. • Determining optimal zonal reserve demand with minimum confidence interval. • Analyzing numerical results on test and large-scale real-life power systems. - Abstract: Large-scale integration of renewable power presents a great challenge for day-ahead dispatch to manage renewable resources while provide available reserve for system security. Considering zonal reserve is an effective way to ensure reserve deliverability when network congested, a random day-ahead dispatch optimization of wind integrated power system for a least operational cost is modeled including zonal reserve requirements and N − 1 security constraints. The random model is transformed into a deterministic one based on the theory of chance constrained programming and a determination method of optimal zonal reserve demand is proposed using the minimum confidence interval. After solving the deterministic model, the stochastic simulation is conducted to verify the validity of solution. Numerical tests and results on the IEEE 39 bus system and a large-scale real-life power system demonstrate the optimal day-ahead dispatch scheme is available and the proposed method is effective for improving reserve deliverability and reducing load shedding after large-capacity power outage.

  8. United States geological survey's reserve-growth models and their implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The USGS has developed several mathematical models to forecast reserve growth of fields both in the United States (U.S.) and the world. The models are based on historical reserve growth patterns of fields in the U.S. The patterns of past reserve growth are extrapolated to forecast future reserve growth. Changes of individual field sizes through time are extremely variable, therefore, the reserve growth models take on a statistical approach whereby volumetric changes for populations of fields are used in the models. Field age serves as a measure of the field-development effort that is applied to promote reserve growth. At the time of the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000, a reserve growth model for discovered fields of the world was not available. Reserve growth forecasts, therefore, were made based on a model of historical reserve growth of fields of the U.S. To test the feasibility of such an application, reserve growth forecasts were made of 186 giant oil fields of the world (excluding the U.S. and Canada). In addition, forecasts were made for these giant oil fields subdivided into those located in and outside of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The model provided a reserve-growth forecast that closely matched the actual reserve growth that occurred from 1981 through 1996 for the 186 fields as a whole, as well as for both OPEC and non-OPEC subdivisions, despite the differences in reserves definition among the fields of the U.S. and the rest of the world. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  9. Reduced functional measure of cardiovascular reserve predicts admission to critical care unit following kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M S Ting

    Full Text Available There is currently no effective preoperative assessment for patients undergoing kidney transplantation that is able to identify those at high perioperative risk requiring admission to critical care unit (CCU. We sought to determine if functional measures of cardiovascular reserve, in particular the anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT could identify these patients.Adult patients were assessed within 4 weeks prior to kidney transplantation in a University hospital with a 37-bed CCU, between April 2010 and June 2012. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET, echocardiography and arterial applanation tonometry were performed.There were 70 participants (age 41.7±14.5 years, 60% male, 91.4% living donor kidney recipients, 23.4% were desensitized. 14 patients (20% required escalation of care from the ward to CCU following transplantation. Reduced anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT was the most significant predictor, independently (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p<0.001 and in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59; p = 0.001. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was 0.93, based on a risk prediction model that incorporated VO₂AT, body mass index and desensitization status. Neither echocardiographic nor measures of aortic compliance were significantly associated with CCU admission.To our knowledge, this is the first prospective observational study to demonstrate the usefulness of CPET as a preoperative risk stratification tool for patients undergoing kidney transplantation. The study suggests that VO₂AT has the potential to predict perioperative morbidity in kidney transplant recipients.

  10. Approaches to Formation of Technical Reserves of Insurance Organizations: Domestic Realities and International Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prykaziuk Natalia V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available he aim of the article is to study approaches to formation of insurance reserves by insurance companies in Ukraine and the world. The essence and peculiarities of the formation of reserves by insurance organizations in Ukraine are investigated. The provisions of the Solvency II Directive in terms of formation of reserves and financial stability in insurance organizations are considered. A comparative characteristic of the requirements for the solvency of insurers in accordance with the legislation of Ukraine and the requirements of Solvency II is presented. Differences in methods of formation of technical reserves by insurance organizations in Ukraine and the world are determined, factors affecting it are indicated. Methods of formation of insurance reserves in the countries of the European Union are considered. The directions of improving the process of formation of insurance reserves of the insurer are justified. The problems of introducing the experience of foreign countries and Solvency II requirements are analyzed taking into account the realities of the domestic insurance market. The strengths and weaknesses of the introduction of Solvency II in the Ukrainian insurance market are explored.

  11. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  12. Legal Reserve Requirements in Brazilian Forests: Path Dependent Evolution of De Facto Legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee J. Alston; Bernardo Mueller

    2007-01-01

    Why would a poor and largely pro-developmental country such as Brazil, that has so much of its territory covered in forest, adopt one of the most restrictive land use requirements in the world when it comes to cutting the forest to give way to other economic uses? We describe the evolution of legal reserve legislation in Brazil, which currently requires that 20% of the area in a property (80% in the Amazon) be left in forest or its native vegetation. This legislation was put into place in 193...

  13. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFICIENT TRADE MATRIX AND GOLD RESERVE REQUIREMENT FOR COMMODITY TRADE AMONG ASEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    nurul anisak

    2017-01-01

    Objective - This study attempts to implement the efficient trade matrix among five selected ASEAN countries and its settlement by the gold reserve requirements through Multi-Bilateral Payments Arrangement (MBPA).Methods – The study is a qualitative research with analytic description. The purpose of this qualitative-descriptive study is to simulate the implementation of gold in the Multi-Bilateral Payment Arrangement among ASEAN countries using the current trade data.Results – This paper argue...

  14. 17 CFR 270.27d-1 - Reserve requirements for principal underwriters and depositors to carry out the obligations to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve requirements for....27d-1 Reserve requirements for principal underwriters and depositors to carry out the obligations to... reserve and as security for the purpose of assuring the refund of charges required by sections 27(d) and...

  15. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  16. Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART ...the American public’s concerns. 50 APPENDIX A UNITED STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART Source: US Citizenship and Immigration...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  17. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFICIENT TRADE MATRIX AND GOLD RESERVE REQUIREMENT FOR COMMODITY TRADE AMONG ASEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nurul anisak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study attempts to implement the efficient trade matrix among five selected ASEAN countries and its settlement by the gold reserve requirements through Multi-Bilateral Payments Arrangement (MBPA.Methods – The study is a qualitative research with analytic description. The purpose of this qualitative-descriptive study is to simulate the implementation of gold in the Multi-Bilateral Payment Arrangement among ASEAN countries using the current trade data.Results – This paper argues that the Southeast Asian countries can solve the problem through their internal coordination, particularly in terms of trade. One of the efforts is to reduce even eliminate the market risk by using the efficient payment arrangement.Conclusions – The study implied that the quantity amount of gold required to settle the trade balance will be reduced from the early gross payment. However, the ASEAN countries need to strengthen the cooperation among them through maximizing the trade relationship.

  18. [Energy requirements in adolescents playing basketball in Russian Olympic reserve team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M

    2003-01-01

    The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.

  19. The Impact of the Required Reserve on the Monetary Multiplication in the Republic of Macedonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Dejanovski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary and most important tasks of any central bank is conducting monetary policy in the state. In Macedonia the only central and issuing bank is the National Bank of Macedonia, which is responsible for the monetary and financial stability in the country, while performing important functions, without which the overall economic and financial system could not exist. In exercising its functions, the National Bank of Macedonia uses a set of economic instruments and policies, from which in RM the most efective is the required resserve. This monetary tool is showing the best results in developing countries where the financial markets are not developed and where there is a high concentration of the banking sector (in RM banks occupy a good 98% of total financial institutions. The role of the reserve will be analyzed through the prism of its effects on the process of multiplication the money supply in the country and its contribution to generating or withdrawal of money by the central bank. The main goal of the paper is to research the required reserve, as a monetary instrument, and to qualify its impact on the monetary creation in the Republic of Macedonia. The basic methods, used in this paper are the positive analysis, comparative analysis and deductive approach.

  20. Functions and requirements for a cesium demonstration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-04-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is investigating alternative means to pretreat the wastes in the Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks. Alternatives include (but are not limited to) in-tank pretreatment, use of above ground transportable compact processing units (CPU) located adjacent to a tank farm, and fixed processing facilities. This document provides the functions and requirements for a CPU to remove cesium from tank waste as a demonstration of the CPU concept. It is therefore identified as the Cesium Demonstration Unit CDU

  1. Arabidopsis plastidial folylpolyglutamate synthetase is required for seed reserve accumulation and seedling establishment in darkness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Meng

    Full Text Available Interactions among metabolic pathways are important in plant biology. At present, not much is known about how folate metabolism affects other metabolic pathways in plants. Here we report a T-DNA insertion mutant (atdfb-3 of the plastidial folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene (AtDFB was defective in seed reserves and skotomorphogenesis. Lower carbon (C and higher nitrogen (N content in the mutant seeds than that of the wild type were indicative of an altered C and N partitioning capacity. Higher levels of organic acids and sugars were detected in the mutant seeds compared with the wild type. Further analysis revealed that atdfb-3 seeds contained less total amino acids and individual Asn and Glu as well as NO3-. These results indicate significant changes in seed storage in the mutant. Defects in hypocotyl elongation were observed in atdfb-3 in darkness under sufficient NO3- conditions, and further enhanced under NO3- limited conditions. The strong expression of AtDFB in cotyledons and hypocotyl during early developmental stage was consistent with the mutant sensitivity to limited NO3- during a narrow developmental window. Exogenous 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate completely restored the hypocotyl length in atdfb-3 seedlings with NO3- as the sole N source. Further study demonstrated that folate profiling and N metabolism were perturbed in atdfb-3 etiolated seedlings. The activity of enzymes involved in N reduction and assimilation was altered in atdfb-3. Taken together, these results indicate that AtDFB is required for seed reserves, hypocotyl elongation and N metabolism in darkness, providing novel insights into potential associations of folate metabolism with seed reserve accumulation, N metabolism and hypocotyl development in Arabidopsis.

  2. A new spinning reserve requirement forecast method for deregulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    Ancillary services are necessary for maintaining the security and reliability of power systems and constitute an important part of trade in competitive electricity markets. Spinning Reserve (SR) is one of the most important ancillary services for saving power system stability and integrity in response to contingencies and disturbances that continuously occur in the power systems. Hence, an accurate day-ahead forecast of SR requirement helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to conduct a reliable and economic operation of the power system. However, SR signal has complex, non-stationary and volatile behavior along the time domain and depends greatly on system load. In this paper, a new hybrid forecast engine is proposed for SR requirement prediction. The proposed forecast engine has an iterative training mechanism composed of Levenberg-Marquadt (LM) learning algorithm and Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), implemented on the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network. The proposed forecast methodology is examined by means of real data of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and the California ISO (CAISO) controlled grid. The obtained forecast results are presented and compared with those of the other SR forecast methods. (author)

  3. A new spinning reserve requirement forecast method for deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Ancillary services are necessary for maintaining the security and reliability of power systems and constitute an important part of trade in competitive electricity markets. Spinning Reserve (SR) is one of the most important ancillary services for saving power system stability and integrity in response to contingencies and disturbances that continuously occur in the power systems. Hence, an accurate day-ahead forecast of SR requirement helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to conduct a reliable and economic operation of the power system. However, SR signal has complex, non-stationary and volatile behavior along the time domain and depends greatly on system load. In this paper, a new hybrid forecast engine is proposed for SR requirement prediction. The proposed forecast engine has an iterative training mechanism composed of Levenberg-Marquadt (LM) learning algorithm and Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), implemented on the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network. The proposed forecast methodology is examined by means of real data of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and the California ISO (CAISO) controlled grid. The obtained forecast results are presented and compared with those of the other SR forecast methods. (author)

  4. Predictive Control of Demand Side Units Participating in the Primary Frequency Reserve Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    We consider an aggregator controlling a mixed portfolio of conventional power generators and demand side units. The generators are controllable within certain power and ramp limitations while the demand side units are characterized by flexible consumptions and therefore can be treated as energy...

  5. 12 CFR 204.136 - Treatment of trust overdrafts for reserve requirement reporting purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accounts under Regulation D. Unless the governing trust agreement or state law authorizes the depository... pursuant to trust law or written agreement, or where the amount that caused the overdraft is still... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of trust overdrafts for reserve...

  6. The Impetus Behind the Creation of the United States Naval Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    oll.libertyfund.org/Texts/Jefferson0136/Works/ Vol10 /0054-10_Pt04_1805.html; Internet; accessed 21 February, 2005. 17Henry Adams, History of the United...Vol. 10 (1803 – 1807). [book on-line] available from http://oll.libertyfund.org/Texts/Jefferson0136/Works/ Vol10 /0054- 10_Pt04_1805.html. Internet

  7. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  8. Forest carbon benefits, costs and leakage effects of carbon reserve scenarios in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effectiveness of future carbon reserve scenarios, where U.S. forest landowners would hypothetically be paid to sequester carbon on their timberland and forego timber harvests for 100 years. Scenarios featured direct payments to landowners of $0 (baseline), $5, $10, or $15 per metric ton of additional forest carbon sequestered on the...

  9. The United States Marine Corps Reserve: Reorganization for an Integrated Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    be unfairness in treatment based on their status.35 Impartiality in the treatment of individuals does influence behavior and overall command climate...theater. Conclusion: The nation has evolved toward using the Reserve Component with much greater frequency than ever before, but with no major reform...during many of the nation’s contingencies. This component draws upon the skills of the men and women who serve in a multitude of capacities in their

  10. Evaluation of blood reservation and use for caesarean sections in a tertiary maternity unit in south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshodi Yussuf A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemorrhage from obstetric causes is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the developing world. Prevention of mortality from haemorrhage will necessarily involve prompt blood transfusions among other life saving measures. There are however limited stocks of fresh or stored blood in many health care facilities in Sub Saharan Africa. Caesarean section has been identified as a common indication for blood transfusion in obstetrics practice and its performance is often delayed by non availability of blood in our centre. An evaluation of blood reservation and use at caesarean sections in a tertiary maternity unit in Lagos, south western Nigeria should therefore assist in formulating the most rational blood transfusion policies. Methods Case records of 327 patients who had elective and emergency caesarian sections at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital between 1st October and 31st December 2007 were reviewed. Data pertaining to age, parity, booking status, type and indication for Caesarean section, pre- and post-operative packed cell volume, blood loss at surgery, units of blood reserved in the blood bank, unit(s of blood transfused and duration of hospital stay was extracted and the data analysed. Results There were 1056 deliveries out of which 327 (31% were by Caesarean section. During the study period, a total of 654 units of blood were reserved in the blood bank and subsequently made available in theatre. Out of this number, only 89 (13.6% were transfused to 41 patients. Amongst those transfused, twenty-six (54% were booked and 31 (75.6% had primary caesarian section. About 81% of those transfused had emergency caesarean section. The most common indication for surgery among those transfused were placenta praevia (9 patients with 21 units of blood and cephalo-pelvic disproportion (8 patients with 13 units. Conclusion Even though a large number of units of blood was reserved and made available in the theatre at

  11. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units; Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E. [GSF, Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Beyer, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Abt. ASS (Germany); Doerfel, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Erlenbach, H. [Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fischbach, G. [Siemens Brennelementewerk, Hanau (Germany); Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, K.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, ISH, Neuherberg (Germany); Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin, Klinikum Steglitz (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, FB Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Schieferdecker, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung der Koerperdosen nach Paragraph 63 StrlSchV sind fuer die gemaess Abs. 6 von der zustaendigen Behoerde zu bestimmenden Messstellen in einer Richtlinie einheitliche Anforderungen festzulegen. Diese beziehen sich auf deren Ausstattung, die Durchfuehrung der Messungen, Auswertungen und Qualitaetskontrollen sowie die Aufzeichnung und Uebermittlung der Ergebnisse. Die Aufgaben der Messstellen umfassen die Messungen der Radioaktivitaet im Koerper bzw. in Koerperausscheidungen, die Ermittlung der Zufuhr an Radionukliden sowie der daraus resultierenden Koerperdosis und die Weiterleitung der Ergebnisse an den Auftraggeber, an das zentrale Dosisregister und in bestimmten Faellen an die Behoerde. Zu den von einer Messstelle zu erfuellenden Anforderungen gehoeren eine ausreichende Messeffektivitaet, die Durchfuehrung von Eigenkontrollen

  12. Estimates of hydraulic fracturing (Frac) sand production, consumption, and reserves in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of fracturing reservoir rock in the United States as a method to increase the flow of oil and gas from wells has a relatively long history and can be traced back to 1858 in Fredonia, New York, when a gas well situated in shale of the Marcellus Formation was successfully fractured using black powder as a blasting agent. Nearly all domestic hydraulic fracturing, often referred to as hydrofracking or fracking, is a process where fluids are injected under high pressure through perforations in the horizontal portion of a well casing in order to generate fractures in reservoir rock with low permeability (“tight”). Because the fractures are in contact with the well bore they can serve as pathways for the recovery of gas and oil. To prevent the fractures generated by the fracking process from closing or becoming obstructed with debris, material termed “proppant,” most commonly high-silica sand, is injected along with water-rich fluids to maintain or “prop” open the fractures. The first commercial application of fracking in the oil and gas industry took place in Oklahoma and Texas during the 1940s. In 1949, over 300 wells, mostly vertical, were fracked (ALL Consulting, LLC, 2012; McGee, 2012; Veil, 2012) and used silica sand as a proppant (Fracline, 2011). The resulting increase in well productivity demonstrated the significant potential that fracking might have for the oil and gas industry.

  13. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal P. Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models.

  14. What's an ARAR?exclamation point: Regulatory requirements for CERCLA remedial activities at D ampersand D sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Etnier, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many government-owned facilities that supported early nuclear energy research and defense programs have no current use and have been retired. Some of these facilities have residual radioactive or chemical contamination that require remediation. The Department of Energy (DOE) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program is responsible for managing these surplus facilities. Remedial activities for contaminated environs and inactive land-based units (e.g., landfills, surface impoundments) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are conducted under the direction of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program

  15. Mentha spicata L. infusions as sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds: emerging reserve lots with special harvest requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Ingride; Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-10-12

    Mentha spicata L., commonly known as spearmint, is widely used in both fresh and dry forms, for infusion preparation or in European and Indian cuisines. Recently, with the evolution of the tea market, several novel products with added value are emerging, and the standard lots have evolved to reserve lots, with special harvest requirements that confer them with enhanced organoleptic and sensorial characteristics. The apical leaves of these batches are collected in specific conditions having, then, a different chemical profile. In the present study, standard and reserve lots of M. spicata were assessed in terms of the antioxidants present in infusions prepared from the different lots. The reserve lots presented the highest concentration in all the compounds identified in relation to the standard lots, with 326 and 188 μg mL -1 of total phenolic compounds, respectively. Both types of samples presented rosmarinic acid as the most abundant phenolic compound, at concentrations of 169 and 101 μg mL -1 for reserve and standard lots, respectively. The antioxidant activity was higher in the reserve lots which had the highest total phenolic compounds content, with EC 50 values ranging from 152 to 336 μg mL -1 . The obtained results provide scientific information that may allow the consumer to make a conscientious choice.

  16. Nurse management skills required at an emergency care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Montezeli, Juliana Helena; Peres, Aida Maris; Bernardino, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the management skills needed for this professional at an emergency care unit. Method: An exploratory descriptive qualitative study conducted with eight nurses in which semi-structured interviews with nonparticipating systematic observation were conducted; the data was processed by content analysis. Results: The categories which emerged from the content analysis served as a list of management skills necessary to their work at the emergency care unit: leadership, decision...

  17. 40 CFR 63.2252 - What are the requirements for process units that have no control or work practice requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the requirements for process units that have no control or work practice requirements? 63.2252 Section 63.2252 Protection of... Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products General Compliance Requirements § 63.2252 What are the...

  18. Determining the environmental training needs and training preferences of tribal officials on reservations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Jeeta Lakhani

    The problem of this research was to determine the priority environmental management training needs (drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste), classroom training system preferences and related cultural factors of Native American tribal officials with environmental responsibilities living on reservations in the United States. The researcher conducted telephone interviews with 18 tribal officials on reservations in diverse geographic areas of the United States to determine their classroom training preferences. These officials also responded to a mail/fax survey comprised of 28 statements describing their environmental responsibilities in the areas of drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste. Tribal officials indicated how important the statements were according to them on a scale of 1--5 (1 being low importance and 5 being high importance). Tribal officials also indicated their ability to perform in the stated areas on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being low ability and 5 being high ability). It was found that tribal officials felt they needed training in the areas of: (1) Solid Waste: Awareness of conventional and alternative solid waste management strategies as well as assessing the reservation's need related to solid waste management. (2) Regional or Inter-Governmental Strategies : Working with the federal, and, state governments for enforcing and developing regulations. (3) Drinking water: Assessing the reservation's drinking water needs and awareness of conventional and alternative drinking water systems. (4) Training for environmental staff: Determining and planning training for environmental personnel is another area of need indicated by the responding tribal officials. (5) Wastewater : Assessing the reservations wastewater needs, compliance and liability issues and awareness of alternative and conventional wastewater systems. It was also found that tribal officials preferred: (1) Trainers who were knowledgeable about the subject matter and tribal culture

  19. [In-depth interviews and the Kano model to determine user requirements in a burns unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Revaldería, J; Holguín-Holgado, P; Lumbreras-Marín, E; Núñez-López, G

    To determine the healthcare requirements of patients in a Burns Unit, using qualitative techniques, such us in-depth personal interviews and Kano's methodology. Qualitative methodology using in-depth personal interviews (12 patients), Kano's conceptual model, and the SERVQHOS questionnaire (24 patients). All patients had been hospitalised in the last 12 months in the Burns Unit. Using Kano's methodology, service attributes were grouped by affinity diagrams, and classified as follows: must-be, attractive (unexpected, great satisfaction), and one-dimensional (linked to the degree of functionality of the service). The outcomes were compared with those obtained with SERVQHOS questionnaire. From the analysis of in-depth interviews, 11 requirements were obtained, referring to hotel aspects, information, need for closer staff relationship, and organisational aspects. The attributes classified as must-be were free television and automatic TV disconnection at midnight. Those classified as attractive were: individual room for more privacy, information about dressing change times in order to avoid anxiety, and additional staff for in-patients. The results were complementary to those obtained with the SERVQHOS questionnaire. In-depth personal interviews provide extra knowledge about patient requirements, complementing the information obtained with questionnaires. With this methodology, a more active patient participation is achieved and the companion's opinion is also taken into account. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. 31 CFR 363.28 - Does Public Debt reserve the right to require that any TreasuryDirect ® transaction be conducted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does Public Debt reserve the right to... Provisions Governing Securities Held in TreasuryDirect § 363.28 Does Public Debt reserve the right to require that any TreasuryDirect ® transaction be conducted in paper form? We reserve the right to require any...

  1. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on the remote afterloader unit, on the control console, and in the facility; (3) Viewing and intercom... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote... MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery...

  2. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1568 - What are my requirements for HAP emissions from sulfur recovery units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my requirements for HAP emissions from sulfur recovery units? 63.1568 Section 63.1568 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... requirements for HAP emissions from sulfur recovery units? (a) What emission limitations and work practice...

  4. Grasslands, wetlands, and agriculture: the fate of land expiring from the Conservation Reserve Program in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morefield, Philip E.; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Clark, Christopher M.; Iovanna, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is the largest agricultural land-retirement program in the United States, providing many environmental benefits, including wildlife habitat and improved air, water, and soil quality. Since 2007, however, CRP area has declined by over 25% nationally with much of this land returning to agriculture. Despite this trend, it is unclear what types of CRP land are being converted, to what crops, and where. All of these specific factors greatly affect environmental impacts. To answer these questions, we quantified shifts in expiring CRP parcels to five major crop-types (corn, soy, winter and spring wheat, and sorghum) in a 12-state, Midwestern region of the United States using a US Department of Agriculture (USDA), field-level CRP database and USDA’s Cropland Data Layer. For the years 2010 through 2013, we estimate almost 30%, or more than 530 000 ha, of expiring CRP land returned to the production of these five crops in our study area, with soy and corn accounting for the vast majority of these shifts. Grasslands were the largest type of CRP land converted (360 000 ha), followed by specifically designated wildlife habitat (76 000 ha), and wetland areas (53 000 ha). These wetland areas were not just wetlands themselves, but also a mix of land covers enhancing or protecting wetland ecosystem services (e.g., wetland buffers). Areas in the Dakotas, Nebraska, and southern Iowa were hotspots of change, with the highest areas of CRP land moving back to agriculture. By contrast, we estimate only a small amount (˜3%) of the expiring land shifted into similar, non-CRP land-retirement or easement programs. Reconciling needs for food, feed, fuel, and healthy ecosystems is an immense challenge for farmers, conservationists, and state and federal agencies. Reduced enrollment and the turnover of CRP land from conservation to agriculture raises questions about sustaining ecosystem services in this region.

  5. Consensus statement for use and technical requirements of thyroid ultrasound in endocrinology units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, Tomás; Díez Gómez, Juan José; Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Torres Cuadro, Alberto; Navarro González, Elena; Oleaga Alday, Amelia; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Reverter Calatayud, Jordi L; Argüelles Jiménez, Iñaki; Mancha Doblas, Isabel; Fernández García, Diego; Galofré, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid nodule detection has increased with widespread use of ultrasound, which is currently the main tool for detection, monitoring, diagnosis and, in some instances, treatment of thyroid nodules. Knowledge of ultrasound and adequate instruction on its use require a position statement by the scientific societies concerned. The working groups on thyroid cancer and ultrasound techniques of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition have promoted this document, based on a thorough analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies and expert consensus, in order to set the requirements for the best use of ultrasound in clinical practice. The objectives include the adequate framework for use of thyroid ultrasound, the technical and legal requirements, the clinical situations in which it is recommended, the levels of knowledge and learning processes, the associated responsibility, and the establishment of a standardized reporting of results and integration into hospital information systems and endocrinology units. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. 456 Hours to Train the Reserve Component: Analysis of the Impact of Increased Annual Training Requirements on 4th Assault Amphibian Battalion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    blended learning format” (p. 92). Online training can be used in the following ways: a sole source of learning , supplemental traditional, follow-up to... Learned MCI Marine Corps Institute MCO Marine Corps Order MCR Marine Corps Reserve MCTIMS Marine Corps Training Information Management System MCTL...Reserve SMCR Selected Marine Corps Reserve SNCO Staff Noncommissioned Officer SUL Small Unit Leader TAM Technology Acceptance Model TEEP Training

  7. JAK/STAT-1 Signaling Is Required for Reserve Intestinal Stem Cell Activation during Intestinal Regeneration Following Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla A. Richmond

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium serves as an essential barrier to the outside world and is maintained by functionally distinct populations of rapidly cycling intestinal stem cells (CBC ISCs and slowly cycling, reserve ISCs (r-ISCs. Because disruptions in the epithelial barrier can result from pathological activation of the immune system, we sought to investigate the impact of inflammation on ISC behavior during the regenerative response. In a murine model of αCD3 antibody-induced small-intestinal inflammation, r-ISCs proved highly resistant to injury, while CBC ISCs underwent apoptosis. Moreover, r-ISCs were induced to proliferate and functionally contribute to intestinal regeneration. Further analysis revealed that the inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha led to r-ISC activation in enteroid culture, which could be blocked by the JAK/STAT inhibitor, tofacitinib. These results highlight an important role for r-ISCs in response to acute intestinal inflammation and show that JAK/STAT-1 signaling is required for the r-ISC regenerative response.

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Rregion 4): Oak Ridge Reservation (USDOE), (Operable Unit 3), Anderson County, Oak Ridge, TN. (Second remedial action), September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (USDOE) (Operable Unit 3) site is an active nuclear weapons component manufacturing facility located in Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee. The Y-12 plant, which is addressed as Operable Unit 3, is one of several hundred waste disposal sites or areas of contamination at the ORR site requiring Superfund remedial action. The site occupies the upper reaches of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Bear Creek Valley. From 1940 to the present, the Y-12 plant has been used to produce nuclear weapons components. From 1955 to 1963, mercury was used in a column-exchange process to separate lithium isotopes. Testing of the three concrete tanks showed that the tank sediment contained mercury, and that contaminated waste is still being discharged into two of the three tanks. The Record of Decision (ROD) focuses on the contaminated sediment in the sedimentation tanks as an interim action. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the sediment are mercury, a metal and radioactive materials. The selected interim remedial action for the site is included

  9. Surgically Shaping a Financial Hydra: Reprogramming United States Air Force End Strength to the Air Reserve Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    Director of the Air National Guard20 Lt Gen Charles E. Stenner Jr., Chief of the Air Force Reserve21 Specificity about what rebalancing the force...January 2012). Sharp, Travis. Vision Meets Reality: 2010 QDR and 2011 Defense Budget. Center for a New American Security, February 2010. Stenner ...Lt Gen Charles E. Stenner Jr., commander of Air Force Reserve Command (address, Air Force Reserve Senior Leader Conference

  10. Reform of reserve requirements for nuclear decommissioning, dismantling and disposal; Reform der Atomrueckstellungen fuer Stilllegung/Rueckbau und Entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Bettina [Forum Oekologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft e.V. (FOeS), Berlin (Germany); Kuechler, Swantje; Wronski, Rupert [Forum Oekologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft e.V. (FOeS), Berlin (Germany). Bereich Energiepolitik

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the ongoing intense discussion as to whether the financial reserves of nuclear power plant operators are sufficient. It starts out with an overview of the current scientific and political debate. This is followed by a brief analysis of nuclear financial reserves in 2014 and preceding years. The authors then present the reform concept of the Forum Oekologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft (FOes) and go on to compare it with concepts from the political realm.

  11. United States Army Reserve in Operation Desert Storm. Enemy Prisoner of War Operations: The 800th Military Police Brigade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-12

    to be somewhat lower than these, but this gives an idea of the allocation of MPs among the various organizations and components. 8 Trained atun Ready...48 Trained atun Ready Twice the Citizen Figure 24. Assignment of MP Units to Customs Inspection Duties (15 April 1991) UNIT LOCATION Task Force

  12. Federal and state permits required to open a new uranium mine with comments on uranium development on Indian reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, T.E.; Whisler, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Three federally related problems are discussed: the environmental impact statement, water discharge permits, and access. A cookbook approach to the permitting process is given as it exists in Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona. The question of jurisdiction is dealt with by using a case study approach to illustrate how jurisdiction bears on uranium development on Indian reservations

  13. Design and analysis of hot internals for the reactivity control and reserve shutdown units under test at the helium test facility - HTR2008-58159

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, E. J. J.; Craig, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design process followed by Westinghouse Electric South Africa for the insertion of hot internals into the Reactivity Control System (RCS) and Reserve Shutdown System (RSS) Units Under Test (UUTs) at the Helium Test Facility (HTF) at Pelindaba (South Africa)). The aim of the UUTs is to allow the validation of the high temperature operation of the RCS and RSS systems for implementation into the proposed Demonstration Power Plant of the PBMR. The units use electrical heaters to obtain pebble-bed reactor thermal conditions for both the control rods and small absorber spheres (SAS) under a pressurized helium environment. Design challenges include providing for strength under elevated temperatures (900 deg. C maximum); pressure boundary integrity (9 MPa maximum); separation of different volumes (representing core barrel, reactor citadel and other Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) volumes); thermal protection of carbon steel vessels by using thermal insulation; allowing for diverse thermal expansion coefficients of different materials; allowing for de-pressurization events within the insulation and internals having access for temperature, pressure, stress and proximity sensors and electrical wiring through high pressure penetrations; and provision for assembly of the hot internals both on and off-site. thermal analyses using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were performed to evaluate both worst-case and operational conditions of the UUTs. Factors that were considered include thermal insulation properties, heat transfer modes (internal radiation, external radiation and natural convection, forced internal convection for cooling) and operating pressure (ranging from 1 to 9 MPa). The thermal design uses elements originally proposed for hot gas duct design. The results obtained show that the proposed design satisfies ASME VIII requirements of the pressure boundary and that all challenges are successfully met. (authors)

  14. Requirements for the transport of surplus fissile materials in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and issues associated with the transportation of surplus fissile materials in the United States. The paper describes the materials that will be transported, the permissible modes of transport for these materials, and the safety and security requirements for each mode of transport. The paper also identifies transportation issues associated with these requirements, including the differences in requirements corresponding to who owns the material and whether the transport is on-site or off-site. Finally, the paper provides a discussion that suggests that by adopting the spent fuel standard and stored weapon standard proposed by the National Academy of Sciences, the requirements for transportation become straightforward

  15. 31 CFR 357.13 - Obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to Book-entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obligations of the United States and... 357.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System...

  16. Home Station to Theater Employment Readiness for the United States Army Reserve and the Defense Distribution Process Owner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollard, David T

    2008-01-01

    .... Guaranteeing our national security in this environment requires a full-spectrum modernized force -- one that is responsive, agile, easily deployed, and sustainable over long distances when employed...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  18. Weekend Warriors for Water: Combating Water Scarcity in West Africa with United States Army National Guard and Reserve Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    vulnerable to “conflict and instability from political, social, economic , and environmental challenges” (United States Africa Command 2017). The...improve regional stability , which in turn increases economic , political, and social development. RC deployments to support water scarcity missions can...Capacity DOD Department of Defense DOS Department of State ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States FHA Foreign Humanitarian Assistance

  19. The requirements of a specialist Prostate Cancer Unit: a discussion paper from the European School of Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Albers, Peter; Bangma, Chris; Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; Magnani, Tiziana; Moynihan, Clare; Parker, Chris; Redmond, Kathy; Sternberg, Cora N; Denis, Louis; Costa, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The widely recognised benefits of a multidisciplinary approach to treating cancer may be particularly important in prostate cancer, where there are so many treatment options to choose from. It offers patients the best chance of receiving high-quality medical procedures administered by a team of specialists in prostate disease, which is able to tailor treatment and observational strategies to their needs, and ensure access to specialist counselling, supportive care and rehabilitation. This article proposes Prostate Cancer Units as the most suitable structures for organising specialist multidisciplinary care for patients at all stages, from newly diagnosed to advanced disease, including preventing and managing the main complications, whether physical, emotional or psychological, arising from the disease and its treatment. Following the German example with prostate cancer, the British example with urological malignancies and the European breast cancer units, this article proposes general recommendations and mandatory requirements for Prostate Cancer Units, with a view to laying the basis for a network of certified units across Europe. Such a network could help improve standards of care throughout the region, providing patients, practitioners and health authorities with a means of identifying high-quality units and providing a system of quality control and audit. The article is intended as a contribution to the debate within the European uro-oncologic community on the best way to organise prostate cancer care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuing education requirements among State Occupational Therapy Regulatory Boards in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah R. Hall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the contents of each state’s occupational therapy (OT regulatory board requirements regarding licensees’ acquisition of continuing education units in the United States of America. Methods Data related to continuing education requirements from each OT regulatory board of all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the United States were reviewed and categorized by two reviewers. Analysis was conducted based on the categorization of the continuing education requirements and activities required, allowed, and not allowed/not mentioned for continuing education units. Results Findings revealed non-uniformity and inconsistency of continuing education requirements for licensure renewal between OT regulatory boards and was coupled with lack of specific criteria for various continuing education activities. Continuing education requirements were not tailored to meet the needs of individual licensee’s current and anticipated professional role and job responsibilities, with a negative bias towards presentation and publication allowed for continuing education units. Few boards mandated continuing education topics on ethics related to OT practice within each renewal cycle. Conclusion OT regulatory boards should move towards unifying the reporting format of continuing education requirements across all states to reduce ambiguity and to ensure licensees are equipped to provide ethical and competent practice. Efforts could be made to enact continuing education requirements specific to the primary role of a particular licensee. Finally, assigning the amount of continuing education credits to be awarded for different activities should be based on research evidence rather than arbitrary determination.

  1. Coordinated Early Intervening Services: Programs in Local Education Agencies that Are Required to Reserve IDEA Funds. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Paula; Sopko, Kimberly Moherek

    2010-01-01

    Disproportionate representation of children from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds in special education has been a longstanding concern that the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) sought to address. The IDEA contains new requirements related to the provision of early intervening services designed to…

  2. Development of regulatory requirements/guides for desalination unit coupled with nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik

    2005-10-01

    The basic design of System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART), a small-to-medium sized integral type pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capacity of 330MWth, has been developed in Korea. In order to demonstrate the safety and performance of the SMART design, 'Development Project of SMART-P (SMART-Pilot Plant)' has been being performed as one of the 'National Mid and Long-term Atomic Energy R and D Programs', which includes design, construction, and start-up operation of the SMART-P with the capacity of 65MWth, a 1/5 scaled-down design of the SMART. At the same time, a study on the development of regulatory requirements/guides for the desalination unit coupled with nuclear plant has been carried out by KINS in order to prepare for the forthcoming SMART-P licensing. The results of this study performed from August of 2002 to October of 2005 can be summarized as follows: (1) The general status of desalination technologies has been survey. (2) The design of the desalination plant coupled with the SMART-P has been investigated. (3) The regulatory requirements/guides relevant to a desalination unit coupled with a nuclear plant have been surveyed. (4) A direction on the development of domestic regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit has been established. (5) A draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit has been developed. (6) Expert technical reviews have been performed for the draft regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination unit. The draft regulatory requirements/guides developed in this study will be finalized and can be applied directly to the licensing of the SMART-P and SMART. Furthermore, it will be also applied to the licensing of the desalination unit coupled with the nuclear plant

  3. [Mobile Health Units: An Analysis of Concepts and Implementation Requirements in Rural Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämel, K; Kutzner, J; Vorderwülbecke, J

    2017-12-01

    Access to health services in rural regions represents a challenge. The development of care models that respond to health service shortages and pay particular attention to the increasing health care needs of the elderly is an important concern. A model that has been implemented in other countries is that of mobile health units. But until now, there is no overview of their possible objectives, functions and implementation requirements. This paper is based on a literature analysis and an internet research on mobile health units in rural regions. Mobile health units aim to avoid regional undersupply and address particularly vulnerable population groups. In the literature, mobile health units are described with a focus on specific illnesses, as well as those that provide comprehensive, partly multi-professional primary care that is close to patients' homes. The implementation of mobile health units is demanding; the key challenges are (a) alignment to the needs of the regional population, (b) user-oriented access and promotion of awareness and acceptance of mobile health units by the local population, and (c) network building within existing care structures to ensure continuity of care for patients. To fulfill these requirements, a community-oriented program development and implementation is important. Mobile health units could represent an interesting model for the provision of health care in rural regions in Germany. International experiences are an important starting point and should be taken into account for the further development of models in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Policy Decisions With Regard To The Applicability Of The Clean Air Act Requirements To The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Requirements under decree 430 UJD for unit outlet and standby power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanco, K.

    2012-01-01

    At present, the nuclear power plants are only sufficient resources, which can cover a huge demand for electricity. Concentration so huge power in one place require adequate security from the perspective lead power outlet and standby power supply of reactor unit. (Author)

  6. 9 CFR 381.195 - Definitions; requirements for importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions; requirements for importation into the United States. 381.195 Section 381.195 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  7. Preservice and inservice requirements for containment structures in the United States - a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Assuring the lifetime integrity of containment structures for nuclear power plants is becoming increasingly important as existing design criteria are reexamined, as new requirements for containment inspection and testing are formulated, and as today's operating nuclear plants are growing older. Section XI of the ASME Code contains separate rules for metal (Class MC) and concrete (Class CC) containments. Requirements for Class MC containments have been published in Subsection IWE, Requirements for Class MC Components of Light-Water Cooled Power Plants, of Section XI. Rules for Class CC containments are currently being developed and will be published in Subsection IWL, Requirements for Class CC Components of Light-Water Cooled Power Plants, of Section XI. First published in 1981, Subsection IWE has been adopted by a number of state jurisdictions in the United States and is presently being reviewed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Federal regulations that will require mandatory compliance by nuclear plant owners are forthcoming. When implemented, the requirements in Subsection IWE and Subsection IWL will provide a reasonable and systematic basis for assuring the integrity of metal and concrete containment structures during their service lifetime. This paper presents an overview of the preservice and inservice requirements for containment structures in Section XI of the ASME Code with consideration of the practical factors that should accompany user compliance. (orig./GL)

  8. 40 CFR 63.1564 - What are my requirements for metal HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my requirements for metal HAP... requirements for metal HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units? (a) What emission limitations and work... and operating limits for metal HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units required in paragraphs (a...

  9. [Modeling of the financial reserves required by the livestock disease compensation fund of Lower Saxony for rebates in the course of disease outbreaks incorporating spatial restriction zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Nicolai; Gerdes, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    One of the tasks of the livestock disease compensation funds of the federal states in Germany is the financial compensation of livestock holders for livestock losses and costs incurred for disease control measures due to certain diseases. Usually, one half of these services are financed through financial reserves built up with the contributions paid by the owners of the respective animal species. The other half is covered by the federal state itself. But there is hardly any reference to how to calculate aforementioned financial reserves. Basically, following an approach presented recently regarding estimations concerning the compensation fund of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, in a stochastic modeling of the required reserves concerning the fund of Lower Saxony the anticipated costs within the spatial restriction zones allocated to outbreaks were incorporated for the first time. The overall costs (including the federal state's stakes), the share of the comnensation fund (required reserves) and the the partial costs for a total of 25 categories and subcategories and subcategories of livestock species making up the latter were estimated. It became evident that overall costs/the share of the fund were particularly determined among the diseases by foot-and-mouth disease and among the cost factors by the costs incurred for the compensation of livestock value within the areas surrounding the outbreaks in which all susceptible animals are killed (culling zone). The 80th, 90 and 95th percentile of the established probability distribution of the overall costs referred to a financial volume of about 312, 409 and 540 million euro, while the respective percentiles of the probability distribution of the required reserves of the compensation fund amounted to 175, 225 and 296 million euro.

  10. [Children's medically complex diseases unit. A model required in all our hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent Alcalá, Francisco José; García Fernández de Villalta, Marta; Escosa García, Luis; Rodríguez Alonso, Aroa; Albajara Velasco, Luis Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    The increase in survival of children with severe diseases has led to the rise of children with chronic diseases, sometimes with lifelong disabilities. In 2008, a unit for the specific care of medically complex children (MCC) was created in Hospital La Paz. To describe the work and care activities of this Unit. Patients and methods An analysis was performed on all discharge reports of the Unit between January 2014 and July 2016. The MCC Unit has 6 beds and daily outpatient clinic. A total of 1,027 patients have been treated since the creation of the unit, with 243 from 2014. The median age was 24.2 months (IQ: 10.21-84.25). The large majority (92.59%) have multiple diseases, the most frequent chronic conditions observed were neurological (76.95%), gastrointestinal (63.78%), and respiratory diseases (61.72%). More than two-thirds (69.54%) of MCC are dependent on technology, 53.49% on respiratory support, and 35.80% on nutritional support. Hospital admission rates have increased annually. There have been 403 admissions since 2014, of which 8.93% were re-admissions within 30 days of hospital discharge. The median stay during 2014-2016 was 6 days (IQ: 3-14). The occupancy rate has been above 100% for this period. Currently, 210 patients remain on follow-up (86.42%), and 11 children (4.53%) were discharged to their referral hospitals. The mortality rate is 9.05% (22 deaths). The main condition of these 22 patients was neurological (9 patients). Infectious diseases were the leading cause of death. MCC should be treated in specialized units in tertiary or high-level hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Avionics system design for requirements for the United States Coast Guard HH-65A Dolphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerospatiale Helicopter Corporation (AHC) was awarded a contract by the United States Coast Guard for a new Short Range Recovery (SRR) Helicopter on 14 June 1979. The award was based upon an overall evaluation of performance, cost, and technical suitability. In this last respect, the SRR helicopter was required to meet a wide variety of mission needs for which the integrated avionics system has a high importance. This paper illustrates the rationale for the avionics system requirements, the system architecture, its capabilities and reliability and its adaptability to a wide variety of military and commercial purposes.

  12. Another Look at the Draft Mil-Std-1540E Unit Random Vibration Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, E.; Peterson, A. J..; Davis, D.

    2012-07-01

    The draft Mil-Std-1540E has been updated to reflect lessons learned since its publication as an SMC Standard in 2008, [1], and an earlier Aerospace Corporation Technical Report released in 2006, [2]. This paper discusses the technical rationale supporting some of the unit random vibration test requirements to provide better insight into their derivation and application to programs. It is intended that these requirements be tailored for each program to reflect the customer risk profile. Several tailoring options are provided and a two phase test strategy is discussed to highlight its applicability to utilizing heritage hardware in new applications.

  13. Development Requirements for the Exploration PLSS (xPLSS) Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control Unit (CDHCU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2017-01-01

    Functional Requirements for the Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control Unit (CDHCU): The CDHCU is a component of the Exploration Portable Life Support System (xPLSS) to provide carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control within the spacesuit for a crewmember to perform extravehicular activities (EVA) in vacuum (micro-g), lunar, and Mars environments for up to 8 hours continuous, and during EVA preparation in airlocks or support vehicles for an additional 2 hours (TBR) continuous.

  14. Prospects and requirements for an operational modelling unit in flood crisis situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dike failure events pose severe flood crisis situations on areas in the hinterland of dikes. In recent decades the importance of being prepared for dike breaches has been increasingly recognized. However, the pre-assessment of inundation resulting from dike breaches is possible only based on scenarios, which might not reflect the situation of a real event. This paper presents a setup and workflow that allows to model dike breachinduced inundation operationally, i.e. when an event is imminent or occurring. A comprehensive system setup of an operational modelling unit has been developed and implemented in the frame of a federal project in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The modelling unit setup comprises a powerful methodology of flood modelling and elaborated operational guidelines for crisis situations. Nevertheless, it is of fundamental importance that the modelling unit is instated prior to flood events as a permanent system. Moreover the unit needs to be fully integrated in flood crisis management. If these crucial requirements are met, a modelling unit is capable of fundamentally supporting flood management with operational prognoses of adequate quality even in the limited timeframe of crisis situations.

  15. A Mathematical Model and Programme Support for Determination of the Values of the Marginal Reserve Requirement as Instrument of Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Šorić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of interdependence between central bank and commercial bank goals. The basic central bank task is to achieve and to maintain price stability. Croatian external debt has been increasing for years and so the activities of the Croatian National Bank are designed to correct this situation. In order to stop the further increase of the external debt, the Croatian National Bank uses several monetary policy instruments, among which is the marginal reserve requirement. On the other hand, the goal of commercial banks is to maximise profits. Banks take loans from abroad at a lower interest rate and invest this money in Croatia at a higher interest rate, thus fulfilling their goal. In order to obtain the desired effects of the marginal reserve requirement, its optimal percentage value should be determined. This problem is modelled as a bi-level mixed 0-1 programming problem. The objective of the leader (Croatian National Bank is to minimize the increase in household loans by setting different percentages of the reserve requirements for loans extended to households and for those granted to enterprises. The objective of the followers (banks is to maximize profits. In order to solve this NP-hard problem a heuristic is proposed. In order to verify the model, the paper ends with simulations and the presentation of computational results.

  16. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  17. Special requirements for the fluid mechanical design of hard coal-fired SCR retrofit units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The system design of high-dust SCR units for retrofits is a challenge that is to be mastered in order to meet the fluid mechanical requirements. Retrofitting power plants with NOx control technologies is a cost-intensive adventure that many utilities are undertaking. Except for a few recent new boiler installations, SCR installations must be considered as retrofit projects. In most cases the limitation of space on site entails unfavorable conditions that do not allow appropriate upstream conditions for SCR catalysts. To comply with the requirements of high performance DeNOx systems and to lower the investment costs for retrofit units, several technical solutions and concepts for the reactor layout, for NOx and dust distribution, for flow stabilization in diffusers, and advanced ammonia injection systems are explained in this paper. Balcke-Duerr offers customer-tailored solutions for flow optimization, which are evaluated by model studies. Physical flow and dust model tests in an appropriate scale provide flexibility to test various engineering concepts. The experience of Balcke-Duerr is based on continuous research and development activities over the last 25 years and more than 350 executed projects for gas flow optimization applications. The success of these installations is a direct result of the key decisions based on the improved fluid mechanical design and proper system integration. This paper also identifies the sensible design particularities and solutions that have two be considered in the fluid mechanical design of high-dust SCR retrofit units. This article demonstrates that the layout of SCR units must be carefully reviewed in order to meet the performance requirements and to avoid problems, i.e. wear, catalyst plugging and ammonia slip. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  18. Design of the breeder units in the new HCPB modular blanket concept and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Fischer, U.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.; Xu, Z.; Koehly, C.

    2004-01-01

    A major revision of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept took place in 2002-2003 as consequence of the results of the EU Power Plant Conceptual Study. In particular, it was decided to give up the previous maintenance schema based on segments in favour of a large module concept extrapolated from ITER. The adaptation of the HCPB concept to these modules (typical dimension at the FW of 2.0 x 2.0 m) required a complete revision of the box. The coolant flow scheme is based on a radial He flow (at 8 MPa) in order to have the entire manifold system in the rear part of the box. Furthermore, the requirement of a box capable of withstanding the coolant pressure of 8 MPa in case of an in-box LOCA led to a design of modules with an internal stiffening grid in toroidal and poloidal direction This grid results in cells open in the rear radial direction with toroidal-poloidal dimensions of about 20 cm x 20 cm that accommodate the breeder units. These units contain the ceramic breeder (CB) and the Beryllium in form of pebble beds and have to assure the main functions of the blanket, namely, a tritium breeding ratio significantly above one, heat removal with a temperature control in the beds and in the structure, mechanical stability of the beds and extraction of the produced tritium. Due to the relatively high quantity of steel necessary to assure the mechanical stability of the box, a strong requirement for the design of these units is to minimise the amount of steel to improve the neutronic performance. A satisfactory design has been achieved with a radial-toroidal bed configuration similar to the old DEMO design reaching the Tritium self-sufficiency with a radial depth of 47 cm, using monosized Beryllium and CB beds and, using Li 4 SiO 4 , a 6 Li enrichment of about 40%. This design allows a satisfactory control of the maximum acceptable temperatures in the CB and Be beds and the steel structure. The design of the breeder units has not been yet analysed thermo-mechanically in detail

  19. Steam generator tube integrity requirements and operating experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator tube integrity is important to the safe operation of pressurized-water reactors. For ensuring tube integrity, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses a regulatory framework that is largely performance based. This performance-based framework is supplemented with some prescriptive requirements. The framework recognizes that there are three combinations of tube materials and heat treatments currently used in the United States and that the operating experience depends, in part, on the type of material used. This paper summarizes the regulatory framework for ensuring steam generator tube integrity, it highlights the current status of steam generators, and it highlights some of the steam generator issues and challenges that exist in the United States. (author)

  20. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units 11 Table 11 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment... and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units To comply with Inspection or monitoring...

  1. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units 7 Table 7 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... for Waste Management Units To comply with Inspection or monitoring requirement Frequency of inspection...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1567 - What are my requirements for inorganic HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my requirements for inorganic HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units? 63.1567 Section 63.1567 Protection of Environment... are my requirements for inorganic HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units? (a) What emission...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1566 - What are my requirements for organic HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are my requirements for organic HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units? 63.1566 Section 63.1566 Protection of Environment... are my requirements for organic HAP emissions from catalytic reforming units? (a) What emission...

  4. 22 CFR 99.2 - Reporting requirements for adoption cases involving children emigrating from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting requirements for adoption cases involving children emigrating from the United States. 99.2 Section 99.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... CHILDREN § 99.2 Reporting requirements for adoption cases involving children emigrating from the United...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating practice...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1690 Section 60.1690 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1690 What...

  7. An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

  8. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective

  9. A gap between need and reality: neonatal nursing staff requirements on a German intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Patry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new staffing rules for neonatal nurses in intensive care units (ICU were issued in Germany, using categories of care of the British Association of Perinatal Medicine as blueprint. Neonates on intensive care require a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:1, on intensive surveillance (high dependency care of 1:2. No requirements exist for special care, transitional care, and pediatric ICU patients. Using these rules, nursing staff requirement was calculated over a period of 31 consecutive days once a day in a combined pediatric and neonatal ICU of a metropolitan academic medical center in south-west Germany. Each day, 18.9±0.98 patients (mean±standard deviation were assessed (14.26±1.21 neonatal, 4.65±0.98 pediatric. Among neonates, 9.94±2.56 received intensive therapy, 3.77±1.85 intensive surveillance, and 0.65±0.71 special care. Average nursing staff requirement was 12.10±1.81 full time equivalents (FTE per shift. Considering additional pediatric patients in the ICU and actual nursing staff availability (8.97±0.87 FTE per shift, this ICU seems understaffed.

  10. Do stable non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes require admission to coronary care units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Sean; Lin, Meng; Bakal, Jeffrey A; McAlister, Finlay A; Kaul, Padma; Katz, Jason N; Fordyce, Christopher B; Southern, Danielle A; Graham, Michelle M; Wilton, Stephen B; Newby, L Kristin; Granger, Christopher B; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend admitting patients with stable non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) to telemetry units, yet up to two-thirds of patients are admitted to higher-acuity critical care units (CCUs). The outcomes of patients with stable NSTE ACS initially admitted to a CCU vs a cardiology ward with telemetry have not been described. We used population-based data of 7,869 patients hospitalized with NSTE ACS admitted to hospitals in Alberta, Canada, between April 1, 2007, and March 31, 2013. We compared outcomes among patients initially admitted to a CCU (n=5,141) with those admitted to cardiology telemetry wards (n=2,728). Patients admitted to cardiology telemetry wards were older (median 69 vs 65years, PST-segment myocardial infarction or unstable angina. There were no differences in clinical outcomes observed between patients with NSTE ACS initially admitted to a ward or a CCU. These findings suggest that stable NSTE ACS may be managed appropriately on telemetry wards and presents an opportunity to reduce hospital costs and critical care capacity strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. USER REQUIREMENTS GATHERING FOR 3D GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant developments, 3D technologies are still not fully exploited in practice due to the lack of awareness as well as the lack of understanding of who the users of 3D will be and what the user requirements are. From a National Mapping & Cadastral Agency and data acquisition perspective, each new 3D feature type and element within a feature added (such as doors, windows, chimneys, street lights requires additional processing and cost to create. There is therefore a need to understand the importance of different 3D features and components for different applications. This will allow the direction of capture effort towards items that will be relevant to a wide range of users, as well as to understand the current status of, and interest in, 3D at a national level. This paper reports the results of an initial requirements gathering exercise for 3D geographic information in the United Kingdom (UK. It describes a user-centred design approach where usability and user needs are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. Web-based questionnaires and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used as complementary data collection methods to understand the user needs. The results from this initial study showed that while some applications lead the field with a high adoption of 3D, others are laggards, predominantly from organisational inertia. While individuals may be positive about the use of 3D, many struggle to justify the value and business case for 3D GI. Further work is required to identify the specific geometric and semantic requirements for different applications and to repeat the study with a larger sample.

  12. User Requirements Gathering for 3d Geographic Information in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Ellul, C.

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant developments, 3D technologies are still not fully exploited in practice due to the lack of awareness as well as the lack of understanding of who the users of 3D will be and what the user requirements are. From a National Mapping & Cadastral Agency and data acquisition perspective, each new 3D feature type and element within a feature added (such as doors, windows, chimneys, street lights) requires additional processing and cost to create. There is therefore a need to understand the importance of different 3D features and components for different applications. This will allow the direction of capture effort towards items that will be relevant to a wide range of users, as well as to understand the current status of, and interest in, 3D at a national level. This paper reports the results of an initial requirements gathering exercise for 3D geographic information in the United Kingdom (UK). It describes a user-centred design approach where usability and user needs are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. Web-based questionnaires and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used as complementary data collection methods to understand the user needs. The results from this initial study showed that while some applications lead the field with a high adoption of 3D, others are laggards, predominantly from organisational inertia. While individuals may be positive about the use of 3D, many struggle to justify the value and business case for 3D GI. Further work is required to identify the specific geometric and semantic requirements for different applications and to repeat the study with a larger sample.

  13. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title III, Section 112(r) Prevention of Accidental Release Rule requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Title III, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and to reduce the severity of those releases that do occur. The final EPA rule for Risk Management Programs under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA, promulgated June 20, 1996, applies to all stationary sources with processes that contain more than a threshold quantity of any of 139 regulated substances listed under 40 CFR 68.130. All affected sources will be required to prepare a risk management plan which must be submitted to EPA and be made available to state and local governments and to the public. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the K-25 Site. The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the K-25 Site conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. ORR activities underway and soon to be undertaken toward implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule include: compilation of inventories of regulated substances at all processes at each of the three ORR Facilities for determination of affected processes and facilities; plans for inventory reduction to levels below threshold quantities, where necessary and feasible; determination of the overlap of processes subject to the OSHA PSM Standard and determination of parallel requirements; preparation of Risk Management Plans and Programs for affected processes and facilities including detailed requirements

  14. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  15. 40 CFR Table 18 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units 18 Table 18 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in § 63.1566(b)(2) and (3), you...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1565 - What are my requirements for organic HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units? 63.1565 Section 63.1565 Protection of Environment... are my requirements for organic HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units? (a) What emission... according to the procedures in the plan. (4) The emission limitations and operating limits for organic HAP...

  17. Recommended reactor coolant water chemistry requirements for WWER-1000 units with 235U higher enriched fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrevski, I.; Zaharieva, N.

    2011-01-01

    well as recommended reactor coolant water chemistry requirements for WWER-1000 Units with 235 U higher enriched fuel are presented

  18. 33 CFR 125.53 - Requirements for credentials; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... master, person in charge, or member of the crew thereof, shall be required to be in possession of one of... United States other than the Great Lakes and Western Rivers. (b) The term “master, person in charge, or... Guard Port Security Card (Form CG 2514) is to be used as the identification required by paragraph (a) of...

  19. Prioritization of K-12 World Language Education in the United States: State Requirements for High School Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Polly; Zhou, Qian; Rottman, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    In view of the importance of increasing multilingualism in the United States, the current study examined state policy for high school graduation requirements in the 50 states and the District of Columbia as an index of the way in which the study of world language is positioned and prioritized in K--12 education. Only seven states require the study…

  20. 8 CFR 215.8 - Requirements for biometric identifiers from aliens on departure from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for biometric identifiers from... Requirements for biometric identifiers from aliens on departure from the United States. (a)(1) The Secretary of... of entry, to provide fingerprints, photograph(s) or other specified biometric identifiers...

  1. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics research at the United Technologies Research Center requiring supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Anton J.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of research activities at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. The requirement and use of various levels of computers, including supercomputers, for the CFD activities is described. Examples of CFD directed toward applications to helicopters, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and the National Aerospace Plane are included. Helicopter rotor codes for the prediction of rotor and fuselage flow fields and airloads were developed with emphasis on rotor wake modeling. Airflow and airload predictions and comparisons with experimental data are presented. Examples are presented of recent parabolized Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes solutions for hypersonic shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and hydrogen/air supersonic combustion. In addition, other examples of CFD efforts in turbomachinery Navier-Stokes methodology and separated flow modeling are presented. A brief discussion of the 3-tier scientific computing environment is also presented, in which the researcher has access to workstations, mid-size computers, and supercomputers.

  3. Recommendations on basic requirements for intensive care units: structural and organizational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Andreas; Ferdinande, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    To provide guidance and recommendations for the planning or renovation of intensive care units (ICUs) with respect to the specific characteristics relevant to organizational and structural aspects of intensive care medicine. The Working Group on Quality Improvement (WGQI) of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) identified the basic requirements for ICUs by a comprehensive literature search and an iterative process with several rounds of consensus finding with the participation of 47 intensive care physicians from 23 countries. The starting point of this process was an ESICM recommendation published in 1997 with the need for an updated version. The document consists of operational guidelines and design recommendations for ICUs. In the first part it covers the definition and objectives of an ICU, functional criteria, activity criteria, and the management of equipment. The second part deals with recommendations with respect to the planning process, floorplan and connections, accommodation, fire safety, central services, and the necessary communication systems. This document provides a detailed framework for the planning or renovation of ICUs based on a multinational consensus within the ESICM.

  4. Airpower and the Reserve Components (Joint Force Quarterly, Issue 36)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meilinger, Phillip S

    2004-01-01

    .... All ARC units and personnel must meet active component standards. This simple but immutable requirement means both the Guard and Reserve are combat-ready and available to deploy worldwide within 72 hours...

  5. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA section 121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ''applicable'' and ''relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA section 121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ''to-be-considered'' (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance

  6. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA {section}121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA {section}121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ``to-be-considered`` (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance.

  7. 40 CFR 270.23 - Specific part B information requirements for miscellaneous units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... address and ensure compliance of the unit with each factor in the environmental performance standards of § 264.601. If the applicant can demonstrate that he does not violate the environmental performance... the Director to be necessary for evaluation of compliance of the unit with the environmental...

  8. Intravenous dextrose administration reduces postoperative antiemetic rescue treatment requirements and postanesthesia care unit length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabu-Bondoc, Susan; Vadivelu, Nalini; Shimono, Chantelle; English, Annette; Kosarussavadi, Boonsri; Dai, Feng; Shelley, Kirk; Feinleib, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains the most common postoperative complication, and causes decreased patient satisfaction, prolonged postoperative hospital stays, and unanticipated admission. There are limited data that indicate that dextrose may reduce nausea and vomiting. In this trial, we attempted to determine whether the rate of PONV can be decreased by postoperative administration of IV dextrose bolus. To test the effect of postoperative dextrose administration on PONV rates, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We enrolled 62 nondiabetic, ASA class I or II nonsmoking outpatients scheduled for gynecologic laparoscopic and hysteroscopic procedures. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: the treatment group received dextrose 5% in Ringer lactate solution, and the control (placebo) group received Ringer lactate solution given immediately after surgery. All patients underwent a standardized general anesthesia and received 1 dose of antiemetic a half hour before emergence from anesthesia. PONV scores, antiemetic rescue medications, narcotic consumption, and discharge time were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) in half-hour intervals. The 2 groups were similar with regard to age, weight, anxiety scores, prior PONV, non per os status, presurgical glucose, anesthetic duration, intraoperative narcotic use, and total weight-based fluid volume received. Postoperative nausea scores were not significantly different in the dextrose group compared with the control group (P > 0.05) after Bonferroni correction for repeated measurements over time. However, patients who received dextrose 5% in Ringer lactate solution consumed less rescue antiemetic medications (ratio mean difference, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.82; P = 0.02), and had a shorter length of stay in the PACU (ratio mean difference, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.97; P = 0.03) compared with patients in the control group. In this trial

  9. The ASN imposes on EDF complementary requirements for the setting of the hard-core unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2014, the ASN (French Authority for Nuclear Safety) published a list of 19 decisions concerning the implementation of a 'post-Fukushima' hard-core unit in each EDF nuclear power plant. The purpose of the hard-core unit is to have structures and equipment able to resist very extreme events and able to assure the vital functions necessary for the reactor safety. The 19 decisions detail the rules for the design of the hard-core unit. For example the hard-core unit will have to resist earthquakes for which the probability of occurrence is about 1 every 20.000 years while the probability taking into account for the design of the reactor is only 1 every 1000 or 10.000 years

  10. 26 CFR 1.6038-2 - Information returns required of United States persons with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting period; (9) A list showing the name, address, and identifying number of, and the number of shares... United States dollars with a statement of the exchange rates used. The following rules shall apply for... functional currency as required on the form. Earnings and profits amounts furnished under paragraphs (f)(10...

  11. Beyond Section 508: The Spectrum of Legal Requirements for Accessible e-Government Web Sites in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, a number of federal laws establish requirements that electronic government (e-government) information and services be accessible to individuals with disabilities. These laws affect e-government Web sites at the federal, state, and local levels. To this point, research about the accessibility of e-government Web sites has…

  12. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF...

  13. Financial impact of nursing professionals staff required in an Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Thamiris Ricci de; Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Castilho, Valéria; Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi; Laus, Ana Maria

    2016-11-21

    to calculate the cost of the average time of nursing care spent and required by patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the financial expense for the right dimension of staff of nursing professionals. a descriptive, quantitative research, using the case study method, developed in adult ICU patients. We used the workload index - Nursing Activities Score; the average care time spent and required and the amount of professionals required were calculated using equations and from these data, and from the salary composition of professionals and contractual monthly time values, calculated the cost of direct labor of nursing. the monthly cost of the average quantity of available professionals was US$ 35,763.12, corresponding to 29.6 professionals, and the required staff for 24 hours of care is 42.2 nurses, with a monthly cost of US$ 50,995.44. the numerical gap of nursing professionals was 30% and the monthly financial expense for adaptation of the structure is US$ 15,232.32, which corresponds to an increase of 42.59% in the amounts currently paid by the institution. calcular o custo do tempo médio de assistência de enfermagem despendido e requerido pelos pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) e o dispêndio financeiro para adequação do quadro de profissionais de enfermagem. pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa, na modalidade de estudo de caso, desenvolvida na UTI de pacientes adultos. Utilizou-se o índice de carga de trabalho - Nursing Activities Score; o tempo médio de assistência despendido, requerido e o quantitativo de profissionais requerido foram calculados por meio de equações e, a partir desses dados, e de valores da composição salarial dos profissionais e tempo mensal contratual, calculou-se o custo da mão de obra direta de enfermagem. o custo mensal do quantitativo médio de profissionais disponível foi de US$ 35.763,12, correspondendo a 29,6 profissionais, e o requerido para 24 horas de cuidado é de 42,2 profissionais de

  14. EnviroAtlas - Acres of USDA Farm Service Agency Conservation Reserve Program land by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the acres of land enrolled in the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The CRP is administered by...

  15. 76 FR 30204 - Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... contained in the Responsibility Matrix of the safeguards contingency plan.'' Part 73 of Title 10 of the Code... organization, which will have as its objective to provide high assurance that activities involving special... structures) for DNPS Unit 1 is in a form that does not pose a risk of removal (i.e., an intact reactor...

  16. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  17. Assessment of the integrity and functional requirement of moderator pump-motor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, R.S.; Chawla, D.S.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The design of various active components in a nuclear power plant calls for a satisfactory analysis of these components for various loadings from the point of view of safety because a designated number of these components must always remain functional. Presented herein is the structural and seismic qualification of one the active components namely the moderator system pump-motor units for a typical PHWR. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs

  18. Developing a Predictive for Unscheduled Maintenance Requirements on United States Air Force Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovich, Matthew D; Norton, J. D

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper develops one such method by using linear regression and time series analysis to develop a predictive model to forecast future year man-hour and funding requirements for unscheduled maintenance...

  19. Developing a Predictive Model for Unscheduled Maintenance Requirements on United States Air Force Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovich, Matthew D; Norton, J. D

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper develops one such method by using linear regression and time series analysis to develop a predictive model to forecast future year man-hour and funding requirements for unscheduled maintenance...

  20. 'ISL pattern reserve requirements for today's spot price,' or 'how many in-place pounds are needed for a mining pattern to be profitable in today's market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Recent uranium spot market values place additional burdens on the geologist and project manager to identify mineralized ore that will yield a profitable return on investment to the mining venture and its investors. The author reviews the various cost components that comprise the total work effort required to produce uranium via ISL methods to arrive at a suitable ore grade that will guarantee profitably. Amortization of costs based on recent expenditures for typical ISL operations are used in conjunction with wellfield development, operating and restoration costs to determine the ore value required to show a positive return on investment. (author)

  1. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  2. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  3. Equipment for inspection and carrying out repairs, if required, for tube bundles of steam raising units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment solves the problem of being able to inspect and possibly to repair U-tubes of a vertical steam raising unit standing on a tube floor, without draining the primary medium and bringing the test equipment and tools into the inside of the boiler first. This is achieved by leaving a considerable part of the equipment permanently in the hemispherical space under the tube floor and operating it from the outside, on the other side of the concrete shielding. An inspection tube is threaded in turn horizontally through a concrete shield, a tube duct in the heat insulation of the steam raising unit, and through a hole in the hemispherical space under the tube floor into this space. The end of an angle tube can be moved axially from outside the concrete shield and can be rotated in a semicircle above the tube axis. By interposing a, for example, 12 part distributor with 12 short, differently bent tubes 12 adjacent tubes opening into the tube floor can be controlled and tested, by axial movement of the angle tube together with the distributor, e.g. 4 x 12 other U tubes. A turbulent flow sensor, for example, can be introduced through the angle tube and distributor. In the non-operational condition the equipment is moved into a recess via a supporting angle and stopped there. (ORU) [de

  4. Quality Assurance in Breast Health Care and Requirement for Accreditation in Specialized Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Sertaç Ata; Güllüoğlu, Bahadır M

    2014-07-01

    Breast health is a subject of increasing importance. The statistical increase in the frequency of breast cancer and the consequent increase in death rate increase the importance of quality of services to be provided for breast health. For these reasons, the minimum standards and optimum quality metrics of breast care provided to the community are determined. The quality parameters for breast care service include the results, the structure and the operation of services. Within this group, the results of breast health services are determined according to clinical results, patient satisfaction and financial condition. The structure of quality services should include interdisciplinary meetings, written standards for specific procedures and the existence of standardized reporting systems. Establishing breast centers that adopt integrated multidisciplinary working principles and their cost-effective maintenance are important in terms of operation of breast health services. The importance of using a "reviewing/auditing" procedure that checks if all of these functions existing in the health system are carried out at the desired level and an "accreditation" system indicating that the working breast units/centers provide minimum quality adequacy in all aspects, is undeniable. Currently, the accreditation system for breast centers is being used in the European Union and the United States for the last 5-10 years. This system is thought to provide standardization in breast care services, and is accepted as one of the important factors that resulted in reduction in mortality associated with breast cancer.

  5. Leveraging the Reserve Component: Associating Active and Reserve Aviation Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Challenges to Implementation Inertia is always an obstacle for organizational change, especially for large, bureaucratic organizations such as...the 82 RC under his or her jurisdiction to AD or retain the member on AD with the consent of the member under the authority of Sections 12301(d...of organizational equipment, and provides the control to develop, revise, or change equipment authorization inventory data. Also called TOA. (JP 1-02

  6. 22 CFR 228.13 - Special source rules requiring procurement from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special source rules requiring procurement from... ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.13 Special source...

  7. 7 CFR 57.900 - Requirements for importation of restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of restricted eggs into... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing...

  8. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  9. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Turkey Point Units No. 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.; Henscheid, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed were the Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report for 1983 and Semiannual Radioactive Effluent Release Reports for 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS, NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants'', and NRC Guidance on the Review of the Process Control Programs. The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  10. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Duane Arnold Energy Center Unit No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T.E.; Magleby, E.H.; Henscheid, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed were the Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report for 1983 and the Semiannual Radioactive Effluent Release Reports for 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS, NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants'', and NRC Guidance on the Review of the Process Control Programs. The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines. 8 refs

  11. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  12. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  14. The prospective United Kingdom nuclear energy programme up to 2000 AD and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeone, R.N.; Hodgkinson, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper begins by surveying the development of the United Kingdom nuclear industry, its organization in both the public and private sectors of the economy, and changes in the numbers employed up to the present day. The possible future nuclear programme and overall manpower needs, and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements within this programme, are outlined. Manpower problems arising from national shortages of engineers and technicians and reviews of arrangements for their education and training, and also from the pattern of historical development of the UKAEA, are described. UKAEA arrangements for formulating and implementing personnel policies, current policies for recruitment, carrier management and in-service training and their relationship to present and future needs are then discussed. The final section draws attention to UKAEA facilities for the training of staff from other organizations in the United Kingdom and from overseas. (author)

  15. 20 CFR 404.450 - Required reports of work outside the United States or failure to have care of a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required reports of work outside the United States or failure to have care of a child. 404.450 Section 404.450 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.450 Required reports of work outside the United States or failure to have care...

  16. Review of registration requirements for new part-time doctors in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Sharon; Dovey, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    By the time medical students graduate many wish to work part-time while accommodating other lifestyle interests. To review flexibility of medical registration requirements for provisional registrants in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Canada. Internet-based review of registration bodies of each country, and each state or province in Australia and Canada, supplemented by emails and phone calls seeking clarification of missing or obscure information. Data from 20 regions were examined. Many similarities were found between study countries in their approaches to the registration of new doctors, although there are some regional differences. Most regions (65%) have a provisional registration period of one year. Extending this period was possible in 91% of regions. Part-time options were possible in 75% of regions. All regions required trainees to work in approved practice settings. Only the UK provided comprehensive documentation of their requirements in an accessible format and clearly explaining the options for part-time work. Australia appeared to be more flexible than other countries with respect to part- and full-time work requirements. All countries need to examine their registration requirements to introduce more flexibility wherever possible, as a strategy for addressing workforce shortages.

  17. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3, for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T.E.; Magleby, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    A review was performed of reports required by federal regulations and the plant-specific radiological effluent technical specifications (RETS) for operations conducted at Tennessee Valley Authority's Browns Ferry Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3, during 1983. The two periodic reports reviewed were (a) the Effluents and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, First Half 1983 and (b) the Effluents and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, Second Half 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETs and NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  18. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed for the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 were the Semiannual Effluent Release Report, January 1, 1983 to June 30, 1983 and the Radiation Exposure, Environmental Protection, Effluent and Waste Disposal Report. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS which were based on NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  19. Nurses' perceptions of critical issues requiring consideration in the development of guidelines for professional registered nurse staffing for perinatal units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Wilson, Jane; Ruhl, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To solicit input from registered nurse members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) on critical considerations for review and revision of existing nurse staffing guidelines. Thematic analysis of responses to a cross-sectional on-line survey question: "Please give the staffing task force your input on what they should consider in the development of recommendations for staffing of perinatal units." Members of AWHONN (N = 884). Descriptions of staffing concerns that should be considered when evaluating and revising existing perinatal nurse staffing guidelines. Consistent themes identified included the need for revision of nurse staffing guidelines due to requirements for safe care, increases in patient acuity and complexity, invisibility of the fetus and newborn as separate and distinct patients, difficulties in providing comprehensive care during labor and for mother-baby couplets under current conditions, challenges in staffing small volume units, and the negative effect of inadequate staffing on nurse satisfaction and retention. Participants overwhelmingly indicated current nurse staffing guidelines were inadequate to meet the needs of contemporary perinatal clinical practice and required revision based on significant changes that had occurred since 1983 when the original staffing guidelines were published. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Octasaccharide is the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of cyclophilin B to heparin and cell surface heparan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Denys, Agnès; Carpentier, Mathieu; Pakula, Rachel; Mazurier, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2004-09-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a heparin-binding protein first identified as a receptor for cyclosporin A. In previous studies, we reported that CyPB triggers chemotaxis and integrin-mediated adhesion of T-lymphocytes by way of interaction with two types of binding sites. The first site corresponds to a signalling receptor; the second site has been identified as heparan sulphate (HS) and appears crucial to induce cell adhesion. Characterization of the HS-binding unit is critical to understand the requirement of HS in pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. By using a strategy based on gel mobility shift assays with fluorophore-labelled oligosaccharides, we demonstrated that the minimal heparin unit required for efficient binding of CyPB is an octasaccharide. The mutants CyPB(KKK-) [where KKK- refers to the substitutions K3A(Lys3-->Ala)/K4A/K5A] and CyPB(DeltaYFD) (where Tyr14-Phe-Asp16 has been deleted) failed to interact with octasaccharides, confirming that the Y14FD16 and K3KK5 clusters are required for CyPB binding. Molecular modelling revealed that both clusters are spatially arranged so that they may act synergistically to form a binding site for the octasaccharide. We then demonstrated that heparin-derived octasaccharides and higher degree of polymerization oligosaccharides inhibited the interaction between CyPB and fluorophore-labelled HS chains purified from T-lymphocytes, and strongly reduced the HS-dependent pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. However, oligosaccharides or heparin were unable to restore adhesion of heparinase-treated T-lymphocytes, indicating that HS has to be present on the cell membrane to support the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the octasaccharide is likely to be the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of CyPB to cell surface HS and consequent HS-dependent cell responses.

  1. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  2. Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, William

    1998-01-01

    .... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...

  3. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3, for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A review was performed on the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted at Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, during 1983. The three periodic reports reviewed were (1) the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, January 1-June 30, 1983, (2) the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, July 1-December 31, 1983, and (3) the Annual Environmental Operating Report, Radiological, 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS and NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  4. Joint energy and spinning reserve dispatching and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidinejad, M.; Song, Y.-H.; Javidi Dasht-Bayaz, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Unpredictable load demand variations, and also sudden generation interruption, may cause imbalance in power systems. To prevent any blackout and to reduce such total power imbalance, spinning reserve can provide electric power system ability to respond. Adequate amount of spinning reserve should be based on economy and risk as an optimal decision making. This paper uses Quadratic Programming (QP) method to solve Joint Energy and Spinning Reserve Dispatch (JESRD) problem and derives the optimal price of spinning reserve. In JESRD, Unserved Energy Cost (UEC) is considered as an Opportunity Cost of Spinning Reserve (OCSR). To distribute the System Reserve Requirements (SRR) among generation units, two different models, Fixed Reserve Percentage (FRP) or fixed allocation model and Non-Fixed Reserve Percentage (NFRP) or flexible allocation model has been investigated. Numerical results on a 5-bus test system and the 30-bus IEEE standard system, considering FRP and NFRP models are included. (author)

  5. Overview--Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS–JRB) at Fort Worth, Tex., constitute a contractor-owned, government-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from the 3,600-acre facility, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. Environmental data collected at AFP4 and NAS–JRB during 1993–2002 created the need for consolidation of the data into a comprehensive temporal and spatial geodatabase. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center Environmental Management Directorate, developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental data associated with the hydrogeologic units beneath the facility. A three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase was designed concurrently. Three hydrogeologic units—from land surface downward, the alluvial aquifer, the GoodlandWalnut confining unit, and the Paluxy aquifer—compose the subsurface of interest at AFP4 and NAS–JRB. The alluvial aquifer consists primarily of clay and silt with sand and gravel channel deposits that might be interconnected or interfingered. The Goodland-Walnut confining unit directly underlies the alluvial aquifer and consists of limestone, marl, shale, and clay. The Paluxy aquifer is composed of dense mudstone and fine- to coarse-grained sandstone

  6. Development of a geodatabase and conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units beneath air force plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.

    2004-01-01

    Air Force Plant 4 and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field at Fort Worth, Texas, constitute a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that has been in operation since 1942. Contaminants from AFP4, primarily volatile organic compounds and metals, have entered the ground-water-flow system through leakage from waste-disposal sites and from manufacturing processes. The U.S. Geological Survey developed a comprehensive geodatabase of temporal and spatial environmental information associated with the hydrogeologic units (alluvial aquifer, Goodland-Walnut confining unit, and Paluxy aquifer) beneath the facility and a three-dimensional conceptual model of the hydrogeologic units integrally linked to the geodatabase. The geodatabase design uses a thematic layer approach to create layers of feature data using a geographic information system. The various features are separated into relational tables in the geodatabase on the basis of how they interact and correspond to one another. Using the geodatabase, geographic data at the site are manipulated to produce maps, allow interactive queries, and perform spatial analyses. The conceptual model for the study area comprises computer-generated, three-dimensional block diagrams of the hydrogeologic units. The conceptual model provides a platform for visualization of hydrogeologic-unit sections and surfaces and for subsurface environmental analyses. The conceptual model is based on three structural surfaces and two thickness configurations of the study area. The three structural surfaces depict the altitudes of the tops of the three hydrogeologic units. The two thickness configurations are those of the alluvial aquifer and the Goodland-Walnut confining unit. The surface of the alluvial aquifer was created using a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model. The 2,130 point altitudes of the top of the Goodland-Walnut unit were compiled from lithologic logs from existing wells, available soil

  7. Acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: impact on prognostic assessment for shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert F; Gustin, Jillian

    2011-07-01

    A 69-year-old female was receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) for acute renal failure (ARF) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Consultation was requested from the palliative medicine service to facilitate a shared decision-making process regarding goals of care. Clinician responsibility in shared decision making includes the formulation and expression of a prognostic assessment providing the necessary perspective for a spokesperson to match patient values with treatment options. For this patient, ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was used as a focal point for preparing a prognostic assessment. A prognostic assessment should include the outcomes of most importance to a discussion of goals of care: mortality risk and survivor functional status, in this case including renal recovery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to document published data regarding these outcomes for adult patients receiving RRT for ARF in the ICU. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The combined mean values for short-term mortality, long-term mortality, renal-function recovery of short-term survivors, and renal-function recovery of long-term survivors were 51.7%, 68.6%, 82.0%, and 88.4%, respectively. This case example illustrates a process for formulating and expressing a prognostic assessment for an ICU patient requiring RRT for ARF. Data from the literature review provide baseline information that requires adjustment to reflect specific patient circumstances. The nature of the acute primary process, comorbidities, and severity of illness are key modifiers. Finally, the prognostic assessment is expressed during a family meeting using recommended principles of communication.

  8. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kirby, Brendan [Kirby Consultant; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  9. Design studies on staffing requirements for the new generation nuclear power units of WWER-640 and BN-800 reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyov, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the main staffing requirements for the new generation power units with nuclear reactors. These requirements were developed taking into account IAEA recommendations. NPP staffing structure is described, including the main and auxiliary personnel. The main principles of personnel number determination are given. Special attention is taken to the issues of personnel skill and training, including both theoretical education and practical work on the power units in operation. The use of simulators, system of knowledge control and structure of training are considered. ''Shopless'' staffing structure approach is proposed for the NPP, assuming that the main scope of repair work is performed by the central repair organization, thus increasing the quality of repair and decreasing the number of personnel on the plant. Data are given on the personnel number for the WWER-640 and the BN-800 reactor designs. Specialists of the ''ATOMENERGOPROJECT'' Institute started their work on staffing on the early development stage of the basic design of WWER-640 reactor power unit which is the forerunner of the new generation reactors. This work was based on the approaches taken by the chief engineers of NPPs in operation during their meeting held in 1989 in Kalinin NPP. At this meeting definite decision was taken on changing over to involving manufacturer in the repair work of NPP components using manufacturer's technology. In 1992 the meeting of representatives of suppliers of the main components was held where representatives of ''ATOMENERGOREMONT'' and ''LENENERGOREMONT'' were present. The suppliers agreed on carrying out repair works on the components they produced. For this purpose special departments were set up having some experience. This repair work is already carried out by ''ATOMENERGOREMONT'' on some nuclear power plants. ''LENENERGOREMONT'' has gained considerable experience in this kind of repair work on the turbines of LO-1 and LO-2 NPP in Finland. Within the

  10. U.S. Federal Reserve Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset is comprised of forty-five entities that are part of the United States Federal Reserve System according to the United States Department of Treasury. The...

  11. Time-of-flight data acquisition unit (DAU) for neutron scattering experiments. Specification of the requirements and design concept. Version 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdam, G.; Klessmann, H.; Wawer, W.; Adebayo, J.; David, G.; Szatmari, F.

    1989-12-01

    This specification describes the requirements for the Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) and defines the design concept for the functional units involved. The Data Acquisition Unit will be used in the following neutron scattering experiments: Time-of-Flight Spectrometer NEAT, Time-of-Flight Spectrometer SPAN. In addition, the data of the SPAN spectrometer in Spin Echo experiments will be accumulated. The Data Acquisition Unit can be characterised by the following requirements: Time-of-flight measurement with high time resolution (125 ns), sorting the time-of-flight in up to 4096 time channels (channel width ≥ 1 μs), selection of different time channel widths for peak and background, on-line time-of-flight correction for neutron flight paths of different lengths, sorting the detector position information in up to 4096 position channels, accumulation of two-dimensional spectra in a 32 Mbyte RAM memory (4 K time channels*4 K position channels*16 bits). Because of the stringent timing requirements the functional units of the DAU are hardware controlled via tables. The DAU is part of a process control system which has access to the functional units via the VMEbus in order to initialise, to load tables and control information, and to read status information and spectra. (orig.) With 18 figs

  12. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  13. Survey of Foreign Language Entrance and Degree Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts Degree in United States Institutions of High Education, Fall 1974. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Richard I.

    This report presents the results of the ninth survey of foreign language entrance and degree requirements in United States colleges and universities that grant a bachelor of arts degree. The survey was conducted in 1974 by the Modern Language Association, and was directed at foreign language department chairmen. Responses were received from 98.8…

  14. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  15. Emergency planning requirements and short-term countermeasures for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, F.; Hogan, R.; Mohseni, A.

    1995-01-01

    Since the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit, the United States Nuclear Regulatory's Commission (NRC's) emergency planning regulations are now considered and an important part of the regulatory framework for protecting the public health and safety. Many aspects of the countermeasures are presented: Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ), off-Site emergency planning and preparedness, responsibilities of nuclear power plants operators and states and local government. Finally, protective action recommendations are given as well as the federal response to an emergency. The authors noted that the use of potassium iodide is not considered as an effective countermeasure for the public protection in the US. (TEC). 1 fig

  16. Evaluation of predicted Medfly (Ceratitis capitata quarantine length in the United States utilizing degree-day and agent-based models [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Collier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasions by pest insects pose a significant threat to agriculture worldwide. In the case of Ceratitis capitata incursions on the US mainland, where it is not officially established, repeated detections are followed by quarantines and treatments to eliminate the invading population. However, it is difficult to accurately set quarantine duration because non-detection may not mean the pest is eliminated. Most programs extend quarantine lengths past the last fly detection by calculating the amount of time required for 3 generations to elapse under a thermal unit accumulation development model (“degree day”. A newer approach is to use an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS to explicitly simulate population demographics and elimination. Here, predicted quarantine lengths for 11 sites in the continental United States are evaluated using both approaches. Results indicate a strong seasonality in quarantine length, with longer predictions in the second half of the year compared with the first; this pattern is more extreme in degree day predictions compared with ABS. Geographically, quarantine lengths increased with latitude, though this was less pronounced under the ABS. Variation in quarantine lengths for particular times and places was dramatically larger for degree day than ABS, generally spiking in the middle of the year for degree day and peaking in second half of the year for ABS. Analysis of 34 C. capitata quarantines from 1975 to 2017 in California shows that, for all but two, quarantines were started in the second half of the year, when degree day quarantine lengths are longest and have the highest uncertainty. For a set of hypothetical outbreaks based on these historical quarantines, the ABS produced significantly shorter quarantines than degree day calculations. Overall, ABS quarantine lengths were more consistent than degree day predictions, avoided unrealistically long values, and captured effects of rare events such as cold snaps.

  17. Transfusion requirements in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a study in a Blood Unit at a referral hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garrido

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To study transfusion requirements in the Department of Gastroenterology of a Tertiary Referral Hospital, and their evolution over the last seven years. 2. To analyze risk factors associated with greater erythrocyte transfusion requirements. Patients and methods: erythrocyte transfusion requirements were compared for patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology at Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville, from 1999 to 2005. Clinical data of interest have been analyzed in order to determine factors associated with greater transfusion requirements. Results: 1,611 patients with a mean age of 60.45 years (59.7-61.2 were included in this study; 76.41% were males. Gastric ulcers were the cause of bleeding in 18.4% of cases (with 69% requiring transfusions; duodenal ulcers caused 22.2% of cases (with 52.9% requiring transfusions, and portal hypertension caused 33.6% of cases (with 90.2% requiring transfusions. Upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin requires transfusions in 88.9 and 96.2% of cases, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that clinical presentations such as hematemesis (odds ratio = 3.12, hematochezia (odds ratio = 33.17, gastrointestinal hemorrhage of unknown origin (odds ratio = 6.57, and hemorrhage as a result of portal hypertension (odds ratio = 3.43 were associated with greater transfusion requirements for erythrocyte concentrates. No significant differences were observed between the percentages of patients who received transfusions from 1999 to 2005. Conclusions: 1. No differences have been observed between the percentages of patients who received transfusions over the last seven years at our Department of Gastroenterology. 2. Patients presenting with hematemesis or hematochezia, in addition to those with bleeding of unknown origin or from portal hypertension, are prone to have greater transfusion requirements.

  18. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  19. Qualification Requirement Perceptions of the United States Army Acquisition Workforce Since Implementation of the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    for the sake of learning is not the end, but only the means to an end ( Newman , 1947). The end is more about job impact and actual business results...requirements to what skills the employee actually needs to perform their job. The current cookie-cutter style of training requirements is a...acquisition process on the whole for large scale projects/programs. Acq. Level 2.5(B) - Based on the Parent program the employee works for and

  20. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  1. 47 CFR 80.146 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches § 80.146 [Reserved] ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.146 Section 80.146...

  2. 47 CFR 80.145 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.145 [Reserved] Shipboard General Purpose Watches ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.145 Section 80.145...

  3. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operations, all-cargo flight operations, and dual flight operations involving the transport of both cargo and... capacity required for normal operation and service of the flight. In addition, the definition of “crew... problem affecting the flight, or to an urgent situation affecting the non-U.S. port of destination that...

  4. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  5. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  6. Planning intensive care unit design using computer simulation modeling: optimizing integration of clinical, operational, and architectural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼHara, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have increasingly been regarded as critical members of the planning team as architects recognize their knowledge and value. But the nurses' role as knowledge experts can be expanded to leading efforts to integrate the clinical, operational, and architectural expertise through simulation modeling. Simulation modeling allows for the optimal merge of multifactorial data to understand the current state of the intensive care unit and predict future states. Nurses can champion the simulation modeling process and reap the benefits of a cost-effective way to test new designs, processes, staffing models, and future programming trends prior to implementation. Simulation modeling is an evidence-based planning approach, a standard, for integrating the sciences with real client data, to offer solutions for improving patient care.

  7. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1) Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Nyeng, Pia; Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1/Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. METHODS: Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular...... levels, including qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Loss of Gfi1 impacted formation and structure of the pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of Gfi1-null pancreas revealed specific defects at the level...... was correlated with an exocrine organ defect. Postnatally, Gfi1 deficiency resulted in severe pancreatic acinar dysplasia, including loss of granulation, autolytic vacuolation, and a proliferative and apoptotic response. CONCLUSIONS: Gfi1 plays an important role in regulating the development of pancreatic CACs...

  8. New source terms and the implications for emergency planning requirements at nuclear power plants in the United State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.D.; Cheok, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review of current approaches to source term driven changes to NRC emergency planning requirements and addresses significant differences between them. Approaches by IDCOR and EPRI, industry submittals to NRC and alternative risk-based evaluations have been considered. Important issues are discussed, such as the role of Protective Action Guides in determining the radius of the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The significance of current trends towards the prediction of longer warning times and longer durations of release in new source terms is assessed. These trends may help to relax the current notification time requirements. Finally, the implications of apparent support in the regulations for a threshold in warning time beyond which ad hoc protective measures are adequate is discussed

  9. CERCLA and RCRA requirements affecting cleanup of a hazardous waste management unit at a Superfund site: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) attempted to address both RCRA and CERCLA requirements at the fire training facility (FTF) by integrating a CERCLA removal action work plan with a RCRA closure plan. While the regulatory agencies involved with the FTF cleanup agreed the integrated document was a good idea, implementation proved complicated, owing to disposition of clean debris from a Superfund site, treatment of contaminated media, duration of cleanup activities, and cleanup certification. While all the complications have not been resolved, solutions to all have been proposed to Ohio EPA and U.S. EPA. Both agencies have worked closely with FEMP to find the most effective fulfillment of RCRA and CERCLA requirements

  10. Estimated Budget Impact of Adopting the Affordable Care Act's Required Smoking Cessation Coverage on United States Healthcare Payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Bruno, Marianna; Kowal, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Despite abundant information on the negative impacts of smoking, more than 40 million adult Americans continue to smoke. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires tobacco cessation as a preventive service with no patient cost share for all FDA-approved cessation medications. Health plans have a vital role in supporting smoking cessation by managing medication access, but uncertainty remains on the gaps between smoking cessation requirements and what is actually occurring in practice. This study presents current cessation patterns, real-world drug costs and plan benefit design data, and estimates the 1- to 5-year pharmacy budget impact of providing ACA-required coverage for smoking cessation products to understand the fiscal impact to a US healthcare plan. A closed cohort budget impact model was developed in Microsoft Excel ® to estimate current and projected costs for US payers (commercial, Medicare, Medicaid) covering smoking cessation medicines, with assumptions for coverage and smoking cessation product utilization based on current, real-world national and state-level trends for hypothetical commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid plans with 1 million covered lives. A Markov methodology with five health states captures quit attempt and relapse patterns. Results include the number of smokers attempting to quit, number of successful quitters, annual costs, and cost per-member per-month (PMPM). The projected PMPM cost of providing coverage for smoking cessation medications is $0.10 for commercial, $0.06 for Medicare, and $0.07 for Medicaid plans, reflecting a low incremental PMPM impact of covering two attempts ranging from $0.01 for Medicaid to $0.02 for commercial and Medicare payers. The projected PMPM impact of covering two quit attempts with access to all seven cessation medications at no patient cost share remains low. Results of this study reinforce that the impact of adopting the ACA requirements for smoking cessation coverage will have a limited near-term impact

  11. Minimum energy requirements for desalination of brackish groundwater in the United States with comparison to international datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdab, Yvana D.; Thiel, Gregory P.; Böhlke, John Karl; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Lienhard, John H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses chemical and physical data from a large 2017 U.S. Geological Surveygroundwater dataset with wells in the U.S. and three smaller international groundwater datasets with wells primarily in Australia and Spain to carry out a comprehensive investigation of brackish groundwater composition in relation to minimum desalinationenergy costs. First, we compute the site-specific least work required for groundwater desalination. Least work of separation represents a baseline for specific energy consumptionof desalination systems. We develop simplified equations based on the U.S. data for least work as a function of water recovery ratio and a proxy variable for composition, either total dissolved solids, specific conductance, molality or ionic strength. We show that the U.S. correlations for total dissolved solids and molality may be applied to the international datasets. We find that total molality can be used to calculate the least work of dilute solutions with very high accuracy. Then, we examine the effects of groundwater solute composition on minimum energy requirements, showing that separation requirements increase from calcium to sodium for cations and from sulfate to bicarbonate to chloride for anions, for any given TDS concentration. We study the geographic distribution of least work, total dissolved solids, and major ions concentration across the U.S. We determine areas with both low least work and high water stress in order to highlight regions holding potential for desalination to decrease the disparity between high water demand and low water supply. Finally, we discuss the implications of the USGS results on water resource planning, by comparing least work to the specific energy consumption of brackish water reverse osmosisplants and showing the scaling propensity of major electrolytes and silica in the U.S. groundwater samples.

  12. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T.E.; Magleby, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    A review was performed on the reports required by Federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted at Commonwealth Edison's Zion Nuclear Power Station during 1983. The two periodic reports reviewed: (1) were the Effluent and Waste Disposal Semiannual Report, July-December 1983, and (2) the Radioactive Waste and Environmental Monitoring Annual Report - 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS and NRC guidance given in NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines

  13. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T.E.; Magleby, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the reports required by federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed for the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant were the Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report for 1983 and the Semiannual Radioactive Effluent Release Reports for 1983. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS, NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants'', and NRC Guidance on the Review of the Process Control Programs. The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines. 7 refs

  14. Calculation program development for spinning reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This study is about optimal holding of spinning reserve and optimal operation for it. It deals with the purpose and contents of the study, introduction of the spinning reserve electricity, speciality of the spinning reserve power, the result of calculation, analysis for limited method of optimum load, calculation of requirement for spinning reserve, analysis on measurement of system stability with summary, purpose of the analysis, cause of impact of the accident, basics on measurement of spinning reserve and conclusion. It has the reference on explanation for design of spinning reserve power program and using and trend about spinning reserve power in Korea.

  15. Wind energy in the United States and materials required for the land-based wind turbine industry from 2010 through 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of electricity in the United States from wind-powered turbines is increasing. An understanding of the sources and abundance of raw materials required by the wind turbine industry and the many uses for these materials is necessary to assess the effect of this industry's growth on future demand for selected raw materials relative to the historical demand for these materials. The U.S. Geological Survey developed estimates of future requirements for raw (and some recycled) materials based on the assumption that wind energy will supply 20 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States by 2030. Economic, environmental, political, and technological considerations and trends reported for 2009 were used as a baseline. Estimates for the quantity of materials in typical "current generation" and "next generation" wind turbines were developed. In addition, estimates for the annual and total material requirements were developed based on the growth necessary for wind energy when converted in a wind powerplant to generate 20 percent of the U.S. supply of electricity by 2030. The results of the study suggest that achieving the market goal of 20 percent by 2030 would require an average annual consumption of about 6.8 million metric tons of concrete, 1.5 million metric tons of steel, 310,000 metric tons of cast iron, 40,000 metric tons of copper, and 380 metric tons of the rare-earth element neodymium. With the exception of neodymium, these material requirements represent less than 3 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption for 2008. Recycled material could supply about 3 percent of the total steel required for wind turbine production from 2010 through 2030, 4 percent of the aluminum required, and 3 percent of the copper required. The data suggest that, with the possible exception of rare-earth elements, there should not be a shortage of the principal materials required for electricity generation from wind energy. There may, however, be selective

  16. Reassessment and suspension of the nuclear power plant design requirement of the constraint of collective dose per unit of practice. (Requirement 6 (b), Standard AR 3.1.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, Valeria A.; Canoba, Analia C.; Curti, Adriana R.; Biaggio, Alfredo L.

    2009-01-01

    By the middle of 2005, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) decided to re-assess the basis of a design requirement applicable to the limitation of nuclear power reactor radioactive discharges. Such requirement, aimed at restricting the discharge of globally dispersed long-lived radionuclides, was in force in Argentina since 1979 and was expressed as a limitation of the collective dose commitment per unit of electrical energy generated. The practical result of such regulatory action was the need to retain C-14 in the Atucha II power reactor under construction as well as in future heavy water reactors to be built in the country, and, later on, to manage it as to assure its isolation from the biosphere during an appropriate period of time. For the above-mentioned reassessment, an ad hoc task group was created and an internal report was presented to the Board of Directors by the middle of 2007. Because of such report the ARN decided to suspend the application of the requirement (i.e. it is not more mandatory, even for Atucha II). The present work presents the main aspects of that report. In particular, it explains the basis of the design requirement and the most important assumptions that triggered it. The differences between the assumptions made at that time and the reality of nuclear power generation at the beginning of the 21st Century, as well as their implications in relation to the requirement are described, including the Suess effect and its impact in the total dose due to C-14. Finally, after explaining in detail the facts that made no longer reasonable to keep in force the above mentioned requirement, the work presents the conclusions that lead the ARN to the suspension of this requirement. (author) [es

  17. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  18. The ED-inpatient dashboard: Uniting emergency and inpatient clinicians to improve the efficiency and quality of care for patients requiring emergency admission to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib, Andrew; Sullivan, Clair; Jones, Matt; Griffin, Bronwyn; Bell, Anthony; Scott, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Patients who require emergency admission to hospital require complex care that can be fragmented, occurring in the ED, across the ED-inpatient interface (EDii) and subsequently, in their destination inpatient ward. Our hospital had poor process efficiency with slow transit times for patients requiring emergency care. ED clinicians alone were able to improve the processes and length of stay for the patients discharged directly from the ED. However, improving the efficiency of care for patients requiring emergency admission to true inpatient wards required collaboration with reluctant inpatient clinicians. The inpatient teams were uninterested in improving time-based measures of care in isolation, but they were motivated by improving patient outcomes. We developed a dashboard showing process measures such as 4 h rule compliance rate coupled with clinically important outcome measures such as inpatient mortality. The EDii dashboard helped unite both ED and inpatient teams in clinical redesign to improve both efficiencies of care and patient outcomes. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  20. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  1. 39 CFR 111.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 111.5 Section 111.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.5 [Reserved] ...

  2. 19 CFR 210.22 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 210.22 Section 210.22 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.22 [Reserved] ...

  3. 15 CFR 2003.3 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 2003.3 Section 2003.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS OF TRADE POLICY STAFF COMMITTEE § 2003.3 [Reserved] ...

  4. The Army's Commitment to Supporting the Homeland Security Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosive Weapon Terrorist Threat: Can the Reserve Components Meet the Requirement by Themselves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Donnie

    2001-01-01

    .... Specifically, it will address the Reserve Components (RC) capability for responding to an incident and demonstrate the value-added of Active Component (AC) forces. The conclusion is the RC cannot fulfill the Department of the Army's commitment to this important mission by itself: AC forces must assume a more prominent role to ensure an adequate DOD response in this critical area.

  5. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  6. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  7. A study on Requirements of Data Base Translator for APR1400 Computerized Procedure System at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Nokyu; Lee, Sungjin

    2015-01-01

    The CPS is one of the Man Machine Interface (MMI) resources and the CPS can directly display plant graphic objects which are in the Digital Control System (DCS). And the CPS can send a request to DCS to provide DCS screen which is called step support display through DCS link button on a computerized procedure. The procedure writers can insert DCS graphic information to computerized procedure through data base which is provided by CPS Editing System (CPSES). The data base which is provided by CPSES conforms to the naming rule of DCS graphic objects. The naming rule of DCS graphic objects is defined by vendor thus status of DCS graphic objects which are in computerized procedure at Shin-Kori plant cannot be displayed on CPS at Shin-Hanul plant. To use computerized procedure which is written by other plant procedure writer, DCS graphic objects shall be translated by its plant data base. This paper introduces requirements of data base translator to reduce translation and re-inserting graphic objects burden. This paper introduces the requirements of data base translator of CPSES for APR1400 CPS at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2. The translator algorithms shall be tested to update data base of CPSES effectively. The prototype of translator is implemented and is being tested using real plant DB. This translator can be applied to Shin- Hanul unit1 and 2 through software V and V

  8. A study on Requirements of Data Base Translator for APR1400 Computerized Procedure System at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Nokyu; Lee, Sungjin [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The CPS is one of the Man Machine Interface (MMI) resources and the CPS can directly display plant graphic objects which are in the Digital Control System (DCS). And the CPS can send a request to DCS to provide DCS screen which is called step support display through DCS link button on a computerized procedure. The procedure writers can insert DCS graphic information to computerized procedure through data base which is provided by CPS Editing System (CPSES). The data base which is provided by CPSES conforms to the naming rule of DCS graphic objects. The naming rule of DCS graphic objects is defined by vendor thus status of DCS graphic objects which are in computerized procedure at Shin-Kori plant cannot be displayed on CPS at Shin-Hanul plant. To use computerized procedure which is written by other plant procedure writer, DCS graphic objects shall be translated by its plant data base. This paper introduces requirements of data base translator to reduce translation and re-inserting graphic objects burden. This paper introduces the requirements of data base translator of CPSES for APR1400 CPS at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2. The translator algorithms shall be tested to update data base of CPSES effectively. The prototype of translator is implemented and is being tested using real plant DB. This translator can be applied to Shin- Hanul unit1 and 2 through software V and V.

  9. Brazilian uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt

  10. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  11. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  12. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  13. Uranium reserves fall: AAEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  15. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  16. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  17. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  18. The Australian money market and the operations of the Reserve Bank of Australia: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dotsey

    1987-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of central bank operating procedures in Australia and the United States. It also examines the effect that the structure of overnight money markets, reserve requirements, and central bank lending procedures have on monetary control in both countries. Evidently the Australian financial structure is such that an interest rate instrument provides superior control of money, a result that may not hold in the United States.

  19. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-5 Total reserves. (a) Total reserves defined. For purposes of... its highest aggregate reserve by taking State A's requirement of 10 against its life insurance business and adding it to State B's requirement of 7 against its annuity business. (b) Reserves required by...

  20. 24 CFR 904.111 - Nonroutine Maintenance Reserve (NRMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the annual reserve requirement, and (3) show the total reserve requirements for all the listed items... reserve requirements for 90 days the LHA shall invest the excess in federally insured savings accounts... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroutine Maintenance Reserve...

  1. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not Subject to New Source Performance Standard (NSPS... From Catalytic Cracking Units Not Subject to New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for Carbon Monoxide...

  2. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  3. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of uncertainty in the length of evaluation time and in reported reserves during this initial period, reserve growth based on the first production year is more reliable for model development. However, reserve growth models based both on discovery year and first production year show rapid growth in the first few years and slower growth in the following years. In contrast, the reserve growth patterns for the conterminous United States and offshore Gulf of Mexico show a steady reserve increase throughout the productive lives of the fields. The different reserve booking requirements and the lack of capital investment for improved reservoir management and production technologies in West Siberian fields relative to U.S. fields are the probable causes for the difference in growth patterns. Reserve growth models based on the first production year predict that the reserve growth potential in the 42 largest oil fields of West Siberia over a five-year period (1998-2003) ranges from 270-330 million barrels or 0.34-0.42 percent per year. For a similar five-year period (1996-2001), models for the conterminous United States predict a growth of 0.54-0.75 percent per year. This abstract presents the contents of a poster prepared for the AAPG Hedberg Research Conference on Understanding World Oil Resources, November 12-17, 2006 - Colorado Springs, Colorado. A paper 'Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia' was published in Natural Resources Research, v. 12, no. 2, June, 2003.

  4. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  5. Reserve Component Members: A Report from the 1992 Reserve Components Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Shelley

    1997-01-01

    ...: amount of compensation and benefits, impact of service on civilian jobs and family life, quality of unit leadership, downsizing of Reserves, and perceptions about skill development and its relationship to civilian jobs...

  6. Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-29

    C. c ) CPi i 0 0 00 0 le C C.C~r In 1]1 In 00 It .- I to C-38 ’U2 WIX ’W~ - m u. -C-LC m4 C v , v ul FA ?w % -D 1 o r cl jc j, II t %c oK W)i Ir of... platform programs, while Program 11 contains 26 sub-programs each having a separate Reserve program sponsor. The distribution of Program 11 resources is...a mix of specific skills required to bring an active Navy oper-Iating platform to organizational manning. Each SRU is tailored to a specific ship

  7. Report of exploration in the mining reserve N XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Lara, P.

    1991-01-01

    This report is about the geological exploration in the mining reserve N X IV. There were recognized basically three units : 1) granitic basement neisico migma tic. 2) lithologic group a md 3) a unit of quartz feldspar granitoid rocks.

  8. Spinning reserve quantification by a stochastic–probabilistic scheme for smart power systems with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali, Amirhossein; Kalantar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic–probabilistic approach is proposed for spinning reserve quantification. • A new linearized formulation integrating reliability metrics is presented. • The framework manages the reserve provided by responsive loads and storage systems. • The proposed method is capable of detaching the spinning reserve for different uses. - Abstract: This paper introduces a novel spinning reserve quantification scheme based on a hybrid stochastic–probabilistic approach for smart power systems including high penetration of wind generation. In this research the required spinning reserve is detached into two main parts. The first part of the reserve is procured to overcome imbalances between load and generation in the system. The second part of the required spinning reserve is scheduled according to the probability of unit outages. In order to overcome uncertainties caused by wind generation and load forecasting errors different scenarios of wind generation and load uncertainties are generated. For each scenario the reserve deployed by different components are taken account as the first part of the required reserve which is used to overcome imbalances. The second part of the required reserve is based on reliability constraints. The total expected energy not supplied (TEENS) is the reliability criterion which determines the second part of the required spinning reserve to overcome unit outage possibilities. This formulation permits the independent system operator to purchase the two different types of reserve with different prices. The introduced formulation for reserve quantification is also capable of managing and detaching the reserve provided by responsive loads and energy storage devices. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem including linearized formulations for reliability metrics. Obtained results show the efficiency of the proposed approach compared with the conventional stochastic and deterministic

  9. 7 CFR 1709.2 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.2 Policy. Section 1709.2 Policy. Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.2 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  10. Pricing of reserves. Valuing system reserve capacity against spot prices in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, Sebastian; Weber, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    This paper models the interdependencies between markets for secondary reserve capacity and spot electricity to derive the pricing of reserves under equilibrium conditions. Starting with the indifference condition between offering in both markets, the reservation price is derived from the opportunity cost consideration and the unit commitment conditions in a fundamental interrelated market framework. The reserve market examined compares widely to the German market for secondary reserves, but the general approach may also be used to investigate other reserve markets. The approach explores and formalizes the influence of reserve capacity on the spot market supply function. A numerical solution procedure is provided to this non-trivial case of market interaction. The model is used to estimate the expected reservation price development over the last years in Germany. (author)

  11. Laserinduced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) of malignant liver tumors. Is it possible to gauge energy requirement for ablation with the aid of Hounsfield units?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilberg, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Many malignant tumors such as colorectal cancer or breast cancer cause liver metastases. The therapy strategy is dependent on the primary tumor. Laser induced Interstitial Thermotherapy (LITT), together with various other minimally invasive approaches, is a thermotherapy and could be applied in addition to surgery or as the exclusive method of treating isolated liver metastases. Major advantages of such an approach are the possibility of implementing an outpatient scheme, as well as a lower occurrence rate of complications. After a CT-controlled puncture of the metastases the therapy is monitored in the MRI by using thermosensitive sequences. Liver tissue absorbs energy from laser photons; heat caused by this effect leads to the destruction of tumorous tissue. As the amount of energy required to destroy the metastases varies greatly even with the volume of lesions being the same, the aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a relation between energy requirement and liver density as gauged by means of CT before treatment. For this purpose 168 patients with 279 liver metastases originating from different primaries who were treated with LITT between March 2006 and March 2007 were included in this study. 55.4 % of the patients were pretreated with TACE, which reduces the blood flow in the liver, thus reducing amount of energy required from laser photon treatment. Prior to every single LITT sequence liver density was gauged by puncture CT with the aid of Hounsfield units; also, the volume of the induced necrosis in the 24h MRI image and in the control MRI after 3, 6 and 12 months was measured. It was possible to calculate the actual energy consumption on the basis of number, running time and energy output of the laser employed. Check-up examinations showed a decrease of the mean necrosis-volumes, which indicates that absence of recurrence of the tumor in those spots that had been laser-treated. Analysis of the average survival time after the first LITT over an

  12. 78 FR 50038 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ....33(c), the revised plan meets the reserve's requirements for compliance. The Wells Reserve Management... Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management.... ACTION: Notice of Public Comment Period for the Wells, Maine National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  13. 41 CFR 105-74.301 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 105-74.301 Section 105-74.301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Requirements for Recipients Who Are...

  14. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in

  15. A stochastic security approach to energy and spinning reserve scheduling considering demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partovi, Farzad; Nikzad, Mehdi; Mozafari, Babak; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new algorithm for allocating energy and determining the optimum amount of network active power reserve capacity and the share of generating units and demand side contribution in providing reserve capacity requirements for day-ahead market is presented. In the proposed method, the optimum amount of reserve requirement is determined based on network security set by operator. In this regard, Expected Load Not Supplied (ELNS) is used to evaluate system security in each hour. The proposed method has been implemented over the IEEE 24-bus test system and the results are compared with a deterministic security approach, which considers certain and fixed amount of reserve capacity in each hour. This comparison is done from economic and technical points of view. The promising results show the effectiveness of the proposed model which is formulated as mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and solved by GAMS software. -- Highlights: → Determination of optimal spinning reserve capacity requirement in order to satisfy desired security level set by system operator based on stochastic approach. → Scheduling energy and spinning reserve markets simultaneously. → Comparing the stochastic approach with deterministic approach to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each. → Examine the effect of demand response participation in reserve market to provide spinning reserve.

  16. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  17. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Wind Farms’ Spatial Distribution Effect on Power System Reserves Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The wind power development during last millennium was typically based on small wind turbines dispersed over large areas, leading to a significant smoothing of the wind power fluctuations in a power system balancing area. The present development goes towards much larger wind farms, concentrated...

  19. Classification and quantification of reserve requirements for balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frunt, J.; Kling, W.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    In electrical power systems there must always be a balance between supply and demand of power. Any imbalance will result in a frequency deviation. To reduce the imbalance to zero, ancillary services for balance management are in use. Ancillary services for balance management are characterized by

  20. Defense Inventory: Army War Reserve Spare Parts Requirements Are Uncertain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Department of Defense policy calls for each of the services to acquire and maintain sufficient war materiel inventories to commence execution of the two-war scenario and sustain operations until...

  1. United States Marine Corps Reserve Prior Service Recruiting: A Future Command for Partially Manning the Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    civilian to become a Marine . . . to say they are the same is like saying Toyota Carolla and Ford Focus are the same. They are both sedans, but different...recruiting with access to all the schools, remediation, advertising , community events, etc. It creates a very professional organization, and I would much

  2. 37 CFR 7.31 - Requirements for transformation of an extension of protection to the United States into a U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transformation of an extension of protection to the United States into a U.S. application. 7.31 Section 7.31... transformation of an extension of protection to the United States into a U.S. application. If the International... transformation within three months of the date of cancellation of the international registration and include: (1...

  3. Les interactions entre la politique de la Réserve fédérale et l’innovation, une clé de lecture de la « nouvelle économie » aux États-Unis The Interactions between Federal Reserve Policy and Innovation: One Key to Understanding the “New Economy” in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Pavelchievici

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the interactions between monetary policy and innovation in the United States during the 1990s, known as the “new economy” era, and rests on the hypothesis that they resulted in an unprecedented macroeconomic configuration. Its object is to show how the Federal Reserve made its policy credible and transparent, and thereby contributed to creating a climate that was favourable to innovation. Innovation is then analysed in the light of its implications for monetary policy by considering the stance adopted, as well as the Federal Reserve’s perception of stock market speculation.

  4. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  5. 47 CFR 80.965 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions. When meeting this 2 hour requirement, such reserve power supply must be located on the bridge... radiotelephone must be a “reserve power supply” for the purposes of paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) of this section... meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section as follows: (1) When the reserve power supply...

  6. Identifying the Infection Control Areas Requiring Modifications in Thoracic Surgery Units: Results of a Two-Year Surveillance of Surgical Site Infections in Hospitals in Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Grzegorz; Rogoziński, Paweł; Żaloudik, Elżbieta; Bruliński, Krzysztof; Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered to be a priority in infection control. The objective of this study is the analysis of results of active targeted surveillance conducted over a two-year period in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra, in southern Poland. The retrospective analysis was carried out on the basis of results of active monitoring of SSI in the 45-bed Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra between April 1, 2014 and April 30, 2016. Surgical site infections were identified based on the definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) taking into account the time of symptom onset, specifically, whether the symptoms occurred within 30 d after the surgical procedure. Detection of SSI relied on daily inspection of incisions by a trained nurse, analysis of medical and nursing entries in the computer system, and analysis of all results of microbiologic tests taken in the unit and in the operating room. In the study period, data were collected regarding 1,387 treatment procedures meeting the registration criteria. Forty cases of SSI were detected yielding an incidence rate of 3%. Most cases (55%) were found in the course of hospitalization and 45% were detected after the patient's discharge. The SSIs were classified as follows: superficial, 37.5%; deep infections, 7.5%; and organ/space infection, 55%. Among patients who were diagnosed with SSI, most were male (77.5%). For patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score I-II the incidence rate was 2%; ASA score III or more, 3.7%. The incidence rate varied from 0.3% in clean surgical site to 6.5% in clean-contaminated site. The study validated the usefulness of targeted surveillance in monitoring SSIs in patients hospitalized in thoracic surgery departments. Surgical site infection surveillance identified areas of care requiring modifications, namely

  7. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  8. Offer of secondary reserve with a pool of electric vehicles on the German market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jargstorf, Johannes; Wickert, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the business case of offering secondary downward reserve for frequency control on the German market by a pool of electrical vehicles. Former benchmark studies promised high revenues especially for this case. The benefits could provide an incentive to customers to buy an electric vehicle. The business case is analyzed for the German market as a case study. Specific regulations for this market, real driving patterns and real market data are taken into account when calculating revenues. Secondary reserve is strictly regulated, requiring a very high level of availability. As a result, simulated revenues are lower than assumed. Simulation shows average revenues of less than 5€ per month and vehicle. As a major bottleneck for an offer of secondary reserve, fully charged batteries are identified. Additionally an issue is made of costs for communication and customer compensation. Based on the simulation results, it is argued that the market for secondary reserve should not be accessed with these small units. For electric vehicles, easier accessible markets with lower related costs should be considered instead. -- Highlights: •We analyze a business case of providing reserve power with electric vehicles. •We include legal regulations for providing reserve power in the calculation. •Reserve requirements lead to a significant drop in expected revenues. •Results show that vehicles are not suitable to offer reserve power

  9. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., restoration, and enhancement objectives through agreements with States (including a political subdivision or... project. (b) Reserved Rights Pilot. (1) The Chief shall carry out a reserved rights pilot subject to the requirements established in this part. (2) Under the reserved rights pilot, a landowner may reserve grazing...

  10. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    under this authority entered active duty on March 1, 1998. This low-intensity conflict with Iraq changed to a high -intensity conflict on March 20...for involuntary mobilization of Guard/Reserve units will remain a one year mobilized to five year demobilized ratio . However, today’s global demands...accrues or receives, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind every payday: basic pay, basic allowance for housing, basic allowance for subsistence, and

  11. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  12. The Nature and Use of Copper Reserve and Resource Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Wright, Nancy A.; Coakley, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Copper reserve, resource, and production data can be combined to produce disaggregated resource estimates and trends and, when combined with demand forecasts, can be used to predict future exploration and development requirements. Reserve estimates are subject to uncertainties due mainly to incomplete exploration and rapidly changing economic conditions. United States' reserve estimates in the past have been low mainly because knowledge of the magnitude of very large porphyry-copper deposits has been incomplete. Present estimates are considerably more reliable because mining firms tend to drill out deposits fully before mining and to release their reserve estimates to the public. The sum of reserves and past production yields an estimate of the total ore, total metal contained in ore, and average grade of ore originally in each of the deposits known in the United States. For most deposits, estimates of total copper in ore are low relative to the total copper in mineralized rock, and many estimates are strongly affected by the economic behavior of mining firms. A better estimate of the real distribution of copper contained in deposits can be obtained by combining past production data with resource estimates. Copper resource data are disaggregated into categories that include resources in undeveloped deposits similar to those mined in the past, resources in mines closed because of unfavorable economic conditions, resources in deep deposits requiring high-cost mining methods, arid resources in deposits located in areas where environmental restrictions have contributed to delays in development. The largest resource is located in the five largest porphyry deposits. These deposits are now being mined but the resources are not included in the present mining plan. Resources in this last category will not contribute to supply until some future time when ores presently being mined are depleted. A high correlation exists between total copper contained in deposits and annual

  13. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be deemed to contain surplus funds when the balance at the end of the housing project's fiscal year...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle..., identity-of-interest, cost-reasonableness, and construction management apply to any work or services paid...

  14. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1993. Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    to induce or reinforce attitudes and behavior that Summary support the Theater CINC’s overall PSYOP campaign plan. Members of PSYOP units are Greater...Men.n AMRlt Wing. •Asfrlsk IMlctN Army Reserve spas puts doe for FY92 Is for on.hW yar due to k owmwilon of cosumer hin payment. Souros: Th Rmncao

  16. A new multi-objective reserve constrained combined heat and power dynamic economic emission dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul; Roosta, Alireza; Amiri, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Combined heat and power units are playing an ever increasing role in conventional power stations due to advantages such as reduced emissions and operational cost savings. This paper investigates a more practical formulation of the complex non-convex, non-smooth and non-linear multi-objective dynamic economic emission dispatch that incorporates combined heat and power units. Integrating these types of units, and their power ramp constraints, require an efficient tool to cope with the joint characteristics of power and heat. Unlike previous approaches, the spinning reserve requirements of this system are clearly formulated in the problem. In this way, a new multi-objective optimisation based on an enhanced firefly algorithm is proposed to achieve a set of non-dominated (Pareto-optimal) solutions. A new tuning parameter based on a chaotic mechanism and novel self adaptive probabilistic mutation strategies are used to improve the overall performance of the algorithm. The numerical results demonstrate how the proposed framework was applied in real time studies. -- Highlights: ► Investigate a practical formulation of the DEED (Dynamic Economic Emission Dispatch). ► Consider combined heat and power units. ► Consider power ramp constraints. ► Consider the system spinning reserve requirements. ► Present a new multi-objective optimization firefly.

  17. Creation of Power Reserves Under the Market Economy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnitko, A.; Gerhards, J.; Lomane, T.; Ribakov, S.

    2008-09-01

    The main task of the control over an electric power system (EPS) is to ensure reliable power supply at the least cost. In this case, requirements to the electric power quality, power supply reliability and cost limitations on the energy resources must be observed. The available power reserve in an EPS is the necessary condition to keep it in operation with maintenance of normal operating variables (frequency, node voltage, power flows via the transmission lines, etc.). The authors examine possibilities to create power reserves that could be offered for sale by the electric power producer. They consider a procedure of price formation for the power reserves and propose a relevant mathematical model for a united EPS, the initial data being the fuel-cost functions for individual systems, technological limitations on the active power generation and consumers' load. As the criterion of optimization the maximum profit for the producer is taken. The model is exemplified by a concentrated EPS. The computations have been performed using the MATLAB program.

  18. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  19. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  20. SPECIES EXTINCTION IN PROTECTED AREAS (VORONEZH RESERVE, 1935–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Starodubtseva

    2016-12-01

    grass habitats by forest communities, to the increase of the nemoral species abundance and mesophytisation in all vegetation types, to soil fertility increase and to light decrease; 2 cyclic changes in the hydrological regime of the territory, accompanied by droughts; 3 naturalization of adventive plants in the Reserve plant communities. Conclusions. Analysis of the dynamics of Voronezh Reserve vegetation showed that the currently high floristic and cenotic diversity is kept on the landscape units of territory where autogenous succession was interrupted by exogenous influences. It was proposed to carry out grass cutting on the reserve meadows to save the open habitats. Fires and massive windfalls create a mosaic of habitats and favorable conditions for the existence of different types of plant communities, including meadow-pine forest communities with light-loving flora, but fires do not contribute to the conservation of rare species. A serious threat to the autochthonous flora and vegetation are alien species, this problem requires the development of a strategy and a set of measures to prevent the naturalization of alien species in protected areas. In the course of discussion there was made a proposal to modify the category of protected area for the Voronezh Reserve from I to IV (according to the IUCN classification. It will allow us to actively manage the protected forest area to conserve habitats and species.

  1. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  2. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  3. Design and implementation of land reservation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

    2009-10-01

    Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

  4. Selling the SPR [Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in the USA was created in 1975, in conjunction with the wider reserve programme of the International Energy Agency, following the 1973/74 Arab oil embargo. The only source of funding for the SPR has been annual appropriations bills from Congress. In 1994, however, Congress, seeking ways to balance the nation's budget and given the perception by many free market economists that the danger of serious oils supply disruption has passed, refused to allocate funds for SPR oil purchases. No crude oil stocks have been added to the reserve since then. In 1996, congress took the further step of requiring sales of oil from the reserve in order to pay for the programme's running costs and to meet the costs of maintaining the reserve's storage facilities. The reserve oil is stored in caverns under salt domes in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico and some of these are beginning to fracture to the extent that they are having to be decommissioned. The SPR has been investigating ways of raising money in order to lessen its dependence on Congress. These include leasing pipelines and a marine terminal, and allowing the storage of foreign owned oil in underused caverns. (author)

  5. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  6. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  7. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  8. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  9. 12 CFR 410.112-410.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 410.112-410.129 Section 410.112-410.129 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES §§ 410...

  10. 12 CFR 410.141-410.148 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 410.141-410.148 Section 410.141-410.148 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES §§ 410...

  11. 12 CFR 410.152-410.159 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 410.152-410.159 Section 410.152-410.159 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES §§ 410...

  12. 12 CFR 410.131-410.139 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 410.131-410.139 Section 410.131-410.139 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES §§ 410...

  13. 12 CFR 410.161-410.169 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 410.161-410.169 Section 410.161-410.169 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES §§ 410...

  14. 12 CFR 410.171-410.999 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 410.171-410.999 Section 410.171-410.999 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES §§ 410...

  15. 12 CFR 410.104-410.109 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 410.104-410.109 Section 410.104-410.109 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES §§ 410...

  16. Management goals for wildlife reserves in grassveld and bushveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and therefore require control. A means of measuring the success of management is outlined. Keywords: condition; cover; fire; game reserves; genetic diversity; goals; management; management strategy; nature reserves; range; reserves; soil; south africa; species composition; species diversity; veld; veld condition; wildlife ...

  17. 12 CFR 204.6 - Charges for reserve deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... negligence or conduct that is inconsistent with the principles and purposes of reserve requirements... individual case and the depository institution's reserve maintenance record. For example, a waiver may be... deficiency. (c) In individual cases, where a Federal supervisory authority waives a liquidity requirement, or...

  18. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  19. Evaluation of the Discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia Test and an Adopted United States Pharmacopoeia Test Regarding the Weight Uniformity of Scored Tablet Halves: Is Harmonization Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Are'r, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there exists any discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and adopted United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests concerning the weight uniformity measurements of tablet halves after splitting. The USP method does not contain provisions to evaluate split tablets, so here we adopt their whole tablet weight uniformity method. Twenty-nine different commercial scored tablets (local and imported) were divided. The split units were individually weighed and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for each product was calculated and then evaluated according to both the adopted USP and the Ph. Eur. tests of weight uniformity. Twenty out of the 29 products tested failed the USP test, while 14 of them failed the Ph. Eur. test. Nine products passed both the USP and Ph. Eur. tests. Six products passed the Ph. Eur. test but failed the USP test, with all of these products having an RSD greater than 6%. The correlation coefficient between the weight and content of split halves for three randomly selected products-corotenol 100 mg, corotenol 50 mg, and lorazepam 2.5 mg-was found to be 0.986, 0.998, and 0.72, respectively. A clear difference can be seen between outcomes obtained by the two compendial tablet splitting methods with regard to weight uniformity. Results from the USP test showed that tighter measures are needed to pass the test. Our results argue that the Ph. Eur. should revise the existing weight uniformity test on scored tablets to include the RSD parameter in it. The USP should include this adopted test as a specific test for scored tablet halves, not just whole tablets. Manufacturers in some cases will need to improve the quality of the produced scored tablets in order to pass the USP test, especially those with low therapeutic indices. Finally, harmonization between the pharmacopoeias regarding the weight uniformity testing of split tablets is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there

  20. Comparative requirements for electric energy for production of hydrogen fuel and/or recharging of battery electric automobile fleets in New Zealand and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Leaver, Jonathan D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Unitec NZ, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-10-15

    Within the current outlook for sustainable electric energy supply with concomitant reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, accelerated attention is focusing on the long-term development of hydrogen fuel cell and all-electric battery vehicles to provide alternative fuels to replace petroleum-derived fuels for automotive national fleets. The potential varies significantly between large industrially developed nations and smaller industrially developing nations. The requirement for additional electric energy supply from low-specific energy renewable resources and high-specific energy nuclear resources depends strongly on individual national economic, environmental, and political factors. Analysis of the additional electric energy supply required for the two potential large-scale technologies for fueling future national transportation sectors is compared for a large Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nation (USA) with a small OECD nation (New Zealand), normalized on a per-capita basis. (author)

  1. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  2. Are deterministic methods suitable for short term reserve planning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Although deterministic methods for establishing minutes reserve (such as the N-1 reserve or the percentage reserve) ignore the stochastic nature of reliability issues, they are commonly used in energy modelling as well as in practical applications. In order to check the validity of such methods, two test procedures are developed. The first checks if the N-1 reserve is a logical fixed value for minutes reserve. The second test procedure investigates whether deterministic methods can realise a stable reliability that is independent of demand. In both evaluations, the loss-of-load expectation is used as the objective stochastic criterion. The first test shows no particular reason to choose the largest unit as minutes reserve. The expected jump in reliability, resulting in low reliability for reserve margins lower than the largest unit and high reliability above, is not observed. The second test shows that both the N-1 reserve and the percentage reserve methods do not provide a stable reliability level that is independent of power demand. For the N-1 reserve, the reliability increases with decreasing maximum demand. For the percentage reserve, the reliability decreases with decreasing demand. The answer to the question raised in the title, therefore, has to be that the probability based methods are to be preferred over the deterministic methods

  3. Reserve Officer Commissioning Program (ROCP) Officer and Reserve Personnel Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-07

    regression analyses we performed separately on OCC-R and OCC ground candidates indicate that gender , 10... performed under Federal Government Contract No. N00014-16-D-5003. Copyright © 2017 CNA This document contains the best opinion of CNA at the time of...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Center for Naval

  4. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  5. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

  6. Management of patients taking antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication requiring invasive breast procedures: United Kingdom survey of radiologists' and surgeons' current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, M.G.; Townend, J.N.; Lester, W.A.; England, D.W.; Kearins, O.; Bradley, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine the current practice in the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme for invasive diagnostic procedures and surgery in patients taking anticoagulant and antiplatelet medication. Materials and methods: Lead radiologists and surgeons at each breast screening service were surveyed to determine current practice. One hundred and five respondents provided information regarding their services, protocols, and willingness to proceed with combinations of procedures and anti-haemostatic medications. Results: Between units there was wide variation in practice. Within 21 services providing more than one response, 10 (48%) disagreed on whether protocols existed. Decisions to perform biopsies were unrelated to professional group. The taking of a drug history was variable. Surgeons reported more adverse effects than radiologists [21 (48%) versus 12 (26%)], but no difference in self-assessment of knowledge. Conclusion: Both radiologists and surgeons have expressed uncertainty about their understanding of anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment. This is reflected in a wide range of practice. Guidance regarding the management of these patients is suggested

  7. Determination of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in continuous use drugs and excipients by plasma-based techniques in compliance with the United States Pharmacopeia requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Caroline Santos; Pinheiro, Fernanda Costa; do Amaral, Clarice Dias Britto; Nóbrega, Joaquim Araújo

    2017-12-01

    Some inorganic impurities are toxic to human health even when present at low concentrations and therefore must be carefully monitored in products as continuous use drugs. This work aimed the development of a simple microwave-assisted digestion procedure for different types of drugs and excipients and the analytical determination of elemental impurities according to the new regulations of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 232 and 233 using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Eight drugs samples and two excipients of different brands were microwave-assisted digested with inverse aqua regia. Addition and recovery experiments were performed according to J values, once permissible daily exposure value is specific for each element and estimated according to the maximum daily dose of drug indicated by the label. Samples were spiked with values of 1.5J in order to check accuracies for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb. Recoveries obtained by ICP-OES ranged from 75 to 148% and for ICP-MS ranged from 74 to 120%. The limits of detection for ICP-OES ranged from 0.4 to 17 mg kg- 1 and for ICP-MS from 7.4 to 41.6 μg kg- 1. Both analytical methods were adequate in terms of accuracies and sensitivities. Considering the maximum daily dose, all drugs samples and excipients contained As, Cd, Hg and Pb below the maximum limits stipulated by USP since all of them presented contents below respective limits of detection.

  8. The role of a fertilizer trial in reconciling agricultural expectations and landscape ecology requirements on an opencast coal site in South Wales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, C.E.L.; Humphries, R.N.; Wesemann, H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1940s the restoration of opencast coal sites in the UK has been predominantly to productive agriculture and forestry. With new UK government policies on sustainability and biodiversity such land uses may be no longer be acceptable or appropriate in the upland areas of South Wales. A scheme was prepared for the upland Nant Helen site with the objective of restoring the landscape ecology of the site; it included acid grassland to provide the landscape setting and for grazing. The scheme met with the approval of the planning authority. An initial forty hectares (about 13% of the site) was restored between 1993 and 1996. While the approved low intensity grazing and low fertilizer regime met the requirements of the planning authority and the statutory agencies, it was not meeting the expectations of the grazers who had grazing rights to the land. To help reconcile the apparent conflict a fertilizer trial was set up. The trial demonstrated that additional fertilizer and intensive grazing was required to meet the nutritional needs of sheep. It also showed typical upland stocking densities of sheep could be achieved with the acid grassland without the need for reseeding with lowland types. However this was not acceptable to the authority and agencies as such fertilizer and grazing regimes would be detrimental to the landscape and ecological objectives of the restoration scheme. A compromise was agreed whereby grazing intensity and additional fertilizer have been zoned. This has been implemented and is working to the satisfaction of all parties. Without the fertilizer trial it is unlikely that the different interests could have been reconciled

  9. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M.; Branch, George; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Dugan, Jenifer; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Leslie, Heather; McArdle, Deborah; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Warner, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    reserves. It is critical that stakeholders are fully involved throughout this process. Application of the proposed criteria will lead to networks whose multifunctionality will help unite the objectives of different management entities, so accelerating progress toward improved stewardship of the oceans.

  10. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  11. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  12. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation annual site environmental report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) consists of three major government-owned, contractor-operated facilities: the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennessee Technology Park. The ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, a secret undertaking that produced materials for the first atomic bombs. The reservation’s role has evolved over the years, and it continues to adapt to meet the changing defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. Both the work carried out for the war effort and subsequent research, development, and production activities have involved, and continue to involve, the use of radiological and hazardous materials. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report and supporting data are available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt or from the project director. This document is prepared annually to summarize environmental activities, primarily environmental monitoring activities, on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and within the ORR surroundings. The document fulfills the requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, for an annual summary of environmental data to characterize environmental performance. The environmental monitoring criteria are described in DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2008. This report is not intended to provide the results of all sampling on the ORR. Additional data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Corrections to the report for the previous year are found in Appendix

  14. Improvements to the quality of the estimates of US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive work has been done in the United States in the estimation of uranium reserves. The government's role in uranium raw materials shifted from support of military programmes to assessing the supply available for commercial power generation. A comprehensive system evolved in which government staff estimated reserves for each property over a range of cost levels using standardized estimation methodology and criteria. The programme was assigned to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the Department of Energy in 1983 which has the responsibility for reporting on energy resources. As uranium supply had increased and demand had decreased, there was less concern about the adequacy of resources. In this situation, and with reduced staffing levels, the EIA adopted a two part interim approach to preparing reserve estimates. One used questionnaires to obtain uranium company estimates of their economic and subeconomic reserves, with company determined economic criteria. A second approach modified the earlier detailed government property estimates to account for production. The EIA developed a new system with the assistance of consultants and the uranium industry. The goal of the new system is to produce one set of estimates at various cost categories for each property based on a rigorous adherence to EIA criteria. Initial information is gathered from the industry through a revised annual questionnaire. Company estimates that conform to EIA standards are incorporated into the EIA reserve data base. Additional information is gathered for those estimates requiring clarification, primarily through detailed technical conferences with company staff. The EIA has the capability to prepare independent reserve estimates from basic drill hole data when required. Uranium reserves estimated for 1990 by the EIA include the initial results from the new methodology. The cooperation and support of the uranium industry have been excellent. Detailed evaluation of properties is

  15. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs

  16. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1999-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Navy Reserve: Not Ready for OLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Navy. Additionally, the need for qualified personnel inspired the Navy to create a new reserve program, the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency...Service (WAVES), which peaked at 86,000 women serving in stateside assignments. The Korean War required the mobilization of over 182,000 Navy...Office of Naval Intelligence 3348 3427 1590 47.49 24.50 ONR - NRL 211 231 0 0.00 0.00 Selective Service 42 29 0 0.00 0.00 Space & Warfare Systems Command

  19. Effects of different international fiscal systems on reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of international fiscal systems on oil and gas reserves evaluation and reporting, was reviewed. The movement in reserves estimates with changing technical, political and economic conditions, was described. Difficulties associated with the evaluation and booking of reserves is largely due to the confusing duplication of terms. For example, explorationists refer to reserves as an undrilled prospect, while engineers refer to them as producing property. The financial analyst refers to reserves of a company, while governments refer to the reserves of the country. The importance of defining reserves with full knowledge of the specific regulations that govern the reporting of reserves externally, and the internal reporting requirements for business planning purposes, was stressed. 2 refs

  20. United States Navy and United States Naval Reserve. Fiscal Year 1989. Military Equal Opportunity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-06

    ft. ft ft --- -f ftL ft V)... .- - - f ft ft f ft t ft ft t ft ft f ’Cx ft~0 ft f t ft f3 ,t ft- ft -t -t ft ft...a0 aZ a a a a m a a~ ~~ ~~ al a4 = a . 0- a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -a O n - - - - . a~c accA - a 03- a a ~ .a atal Jm’C 0-~0 a) -C a a Ir az a * a a~ a m OA- 0~W a

  1. A Century in Reserve and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monagle, James P

    2008-01-01

    ... Reserve, this Strategy Research Project (SRP) describes the role of the Army Reserve from its beginning as a reserve corps of medical doctors to that of a strategic reserve force, and then to its current operational role...

  2. 32 CFR 644.86 - Exceptions and reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, public highways, public utilities, railroads and pipelines,” and “to the reservations, exceptions... or District Engineer, such as requirement to install the pipeline underground and at a specified...

  3. 40 CFR 80.575-80.579 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Labeling Requirements §§ 80.575-80.579 [Reserved] Sampling and Testing ...

  4. 40 CFR 112.13-112.15 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and for Vegetable Oils, including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels. §§ 112.13-112.15 [Reserved] ...

  5. Individual Ready Reserve: It's Relevance in Supporting the Long War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chisholm, Shelley A

    2008-01-01

    ... in sustaining personnel readiness while supporting on going operations. In response to meeting these personnel readiness concerns, the Army Reserve will require the call-up of Soldiers currently serving in the IRR...

  6. Adequacy of Frequency Reserves for High Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a new methodology is developed to assess the adequacy of frequency reserves to handle power imbalances caused by wind power forecast errors. The goal of this methodology is to estimate the adequate volume and speed of activation of frequency reserves required to handle power...

  7. 12 CFR 998.3 - Reservation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reservation of authority. 998.3 Section 998.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DISCLOSURES REGISTRATION OF FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK EQUITY SECURITIES § 998.3 Reservation of authority. The requirements of this part...

  8. 26 CFR 1.801-4 - Life insurance reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is claimed. However, reserves held by the company with respect to the net value of risks reinsured in..., life insurance reserves, as in the case of level premium life insurance, are held to supplement the... amount (if any) by which: (i) The present value of the future net premiums required for such contract...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.23-1735.29 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies §§ 1735.23-1735.29 [Reserved] ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1735.23-1735.29 Section 1735.23-1735.29...

  10. Species-specific spatial characteristics in reserve site selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting reserve sites cost-effectively, taking into account the mobility and habitat area requirements of each species. Many reserve site selection problems are analyzed in mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) models due to the mathematical solvers available

  11. CBO Testimony: The Effects of Reserve Call-Ups on Civilian Employers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ...) recent analysis of the effects of reserve call-ups on civilian employers. The military reserves provide trained service members and units that are available for active military duty during peacetime and war...

  12. The Role of the Army Reserve in the Weapons of Mass Destruction/Homeland Defense Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    ... attack. Given these increasing threats to the territory, population, and infrastructure of the United States, the Army Reserve should have an expanded role in providing homeland defense capabilities. The Army Reserve is well suited to homeland defense missions.

  13. The value of electricity and reserve services in low carbon electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Avinash; Fouquet, Nicolas; Staffell, Iain; Hawkes, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A power dispatch model is used to simulate electricity and reserve prices. •Good agreement is observed between modelled and historic prices in 2015. •Higher renewables and CCS with lower fossil fuels leads to lower electricity prices. •Contrary to expectation, gone green scenario leads to lowest increase in reserve price. •Flexible aggregated demand response likely to offer significant economic benefits. -- Abstract: Decarbonising electricity systems is essential for mitigating climate change. Future systems will likely incorporate higher penetrations of intermittent renewable and inflexible nuclear power. This will significantly impact on system operations, particularly the requirements for flexibility in terms of reserves and the cost of such services. This paper estimates the interrelated changes in wholesale electricity and reserve prices using two novel methods. Firstly, it simulates the short run marginal cost of generation using a unit commitment model with post-processing to achieve realistic prices. It also introduces a new reserve price model, which mimics actual operation by first calculating the day ahead schedules and then letting deviations from schedule drive reserve prices. The UK is used as a case study to compare these models with traditional methods from the literature. The model gives good agreement with and historic prices in 2015. In a 2035 scenario, increased renewables penetration reduces mean electricity prices, and leads to price spikes due to expensive plants being brought online briefly to cope with net load variations. Contrary to views previously held in literature, a renewable intensive scenario does not lead to a higher reserve price than a fossil fuel intensive scenario. Demand response technology is shown to offer sizeable economic benefits when maintaining system balance. More broadly, this framework can be used to evaluate the economics of providing reserve services by aggregating decentralised energy

  14. Work plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation ecological monitoring and assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II; Turner, M.G.; Loar, J.M.; Barnthouse, L.W.

    1994-08-01

    This plan describes an approach for developing an ecological monitoring and assessment program (EMAP) for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Such a program is required to assess existing ecological risks, to predict changes in those ecological risks from proposed remedial actions, and to monitor the effectiveness of remedial actions in reducing ecological risks. Ecological risk assessments must be based on Reservation-level data for those widespread or wide-ranging plant and animal species that occupy the entire ORR. In recognition of this need, Region 4 of the US Environmental Protection Agency has specifically requested that DOE develop a Reservation-wide monitoring and assessment program. The current strategy distinguishes four types of potentially contaminated areas: (1) source operable units (OUs), which may contain waste disposal areas, (2) groundwater aquifers that are potentially contaminated by source OUs, (3) aquatic integrator OUs which are streams and associated floodplains that drain source OUs, and (4) the terrestrial integrator, which encompasses the Reservation. Source OUs may contain sources of contamination that potentially impact local plant and animal population and communities that are restricted to the areal extent of the OU. Such local impacts must be assessed for each OU. However, these source OUs also contribute to risks within the aquatic OUs and within the Reservation-wide terrestrial ecosystem. Therefore, remedial investigations at source OUs must provide data necessary to support ecological risk assessments at the larger scales

  15. 7 CFR 984.56 - Disposition of reserve walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Board may export or authorize the disposition in export to the destinations outside the United States... marketing year a handler may deliver reserve walnuts and any substandard walnuts meeting the minimum kernel...

  16. 7 CFR 981.66 - Conditions governing disposition of reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 981.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS... from salable normal trade channels. No reserve almonds shall be sold in the United States, Puerto Rico...

  17. Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring relative changes in regional blood flow using digital radiographic enhancement of selective coronary arteriography. Coronary flow reserve is measured in individual arterial distributions using the washin ratio of contrast appearance time under baseline and hyperemic conditions. Information is quantitatively presented in functional (parametric) image format. These images, termed contrast medium appearance pictures (CMAP), depict the transit of contrast through the arterial, myocardial and early venous stages. This process can be divided into three general phases: data acquisition, CMAP formation and CMAP analysis. The technique has evolved over its development period from a cine film-based technology which required substantial processing time to a real-time digital radiographic technique

  18. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...... constrained behavior can be modeled and used by a defrost planner to optimally schedule defrost start times for several defrost cycles, according to electricity price. Because the defrost planning problem is a boolean programming problem a method of relaxing it is proposed. While the relaxed problem requires...... less computational effort, convexity is dependent on properties of the price signal. Simulation study show that the optimal planning strategy can reduce cost of defrost cycles with 31.7%, compared to a current strategy of executing all defrost cycles at the same time each day. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE...

  19. Classification of uranium reserves/resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Projections of future availability of uranium to meet present and future nuclear power requirements depend on the reliability of uranium resource estimates. Lack of harmony of the definition of the different classes of uranium reserves and resources between countries makes the compilation and analysis of such information difficult. The problem was accentuated in the early 1990s with the entry of uranium producing countries from the former Soviet Union, eastern Europe and China into the world uranium supply market. The need for an internationally acceptable reserve/resource classification system and terminology using market based criteria is therefore obvious. This publication was compiled from participant's contributions and findings of the Consultants Meetings on Harmonization of Uranium Resource Assessment Concepts held in Vienna from 22 to 25 June 1992, and two Consultants Meetings on the Development of a More Meaningful Classification of Uranium Resources held in Kiev, Ukraine on 24-26 April 1995 and 20-23 August 1996. This document includes 11 contributions, summary, list of participants of the Consultants Meetings. Each contribution has been indexed and provided with an abstract

  20. System-Level Value of a Gas Engine Power Plant in Electricity and Reserve Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Alahäivälä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power systems require a certain amount of flexibility to meet varying demand and to be able to cope with unexpected events, and this requirement is expected to increase with the emergence of variable power generation. In this paper, we focus on gas engine power plant technology and the beneficial influence its flexible operation can have on a power system. The study introduces the concept of a combined-cycle gas engine power plant (CCGE, which comprises a combination of several gas-fired combustion engines and a steam turbine. The operation of CCGE is then comprehensively analyzed in electricity and reserve production in the South African power system and compared with combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT technology. Even though CCGE is a form of technology that has already been commercialized, it is rarely considered as a source of flexibility in the academic research. That is the notion providing the motivation for this study. Our core contribution is to show that the flexibility of CCGE can be valuable in power systems. The methodology is based on the unit-level model of the studied system and the solving of a day-ahead unit commitment problem for each day of the simulated 11-year period. The simulation studies reveal how a CCGE is able to offer system flexibility to follow hourly load variations and capacity to provide reserve power effectively.

  1. National Guard and Reserves: Air Force Needs to Consistently Assess Personnel Requirements to Appropriately Size Its Headquarters Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    four- star General who was placed on the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2011.22 Reporting to the Chief are two Lieutenant Generals who manage the Office...Visa, check, or money order. Call for additional information. Connect with GAO on Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube . Subscribe to our RSS Feeds

  2. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  3. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  4. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  5. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  6. Optimally Locating MARFORRES Units

    OpenAIRE

    Salmeron, Javier; Dell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Javier Salmeron and Rob Dell The U.S. Marine Forces Reserve (USMCR, MARFORRES) is conducting realignment studies where discretionary changes may benefit from formal mathematical analysis. This study has developed an optimization tool to guide and/or support Commander, MARFORRES (CMFR) decisions. A prototype of the optimization tool has been tested with data from the units and Reserve Training Centers (RTCs) in the San Francisco, CA and Sacramento, CA areas. Prepared for: MARFORRES, POC:...

  7. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  8. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  9. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  10. The Effective Use of Reserve Personnel in the U.S. Military: Lessons from the United Kingdom Reserve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    reason provided by all consulted was administrative blunders and the poor quality of training , which had been outsourced in an effort to cut costs ... cost - cutting outsourcing deal resulted in the number of people joining up fall- ing by more than a third.”96 Figures obtained by the newspaper...numerous problems have arisen over the ad- ministration of new recruits as well as basic training , which has also been outsourced to a private contrac

  11. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  12. Designing connected marine reserves in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Munguía-Vega, Adrián; Beger, Maria; Del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, Maria; Suárez-Castillo, Alvin N; Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Gerber, Leah R; Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Adams, Vanessa M; Kolb, Melanie; Graham, Erin M; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Castillo-López, Alejandro; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Petatán-Ramírez, David; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Torre, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Marine reserves are widely used to protect species important for conservation and fisheries and to help maintain ecological processes that sustain their populations, including recruitment and dispersal. Achieving these goals requires well-connected networks of marine reserves that maximize larval connectivity, thus allowing exchanges between populations and recolonization after local disturbances. However, global warming can disrupt connectivity by shortening potential dispersal pathways through changes in larval physiology. These changes can compromise the performance of marine reserve networks, thus requiring adjusting their design to account for ocean warming. To date, empirical approaches to marine prioritization have not considered larval connectivity as affected by global warming. Here, we develop a framework for designing marine reserve networks that integrates graph theory and changes in larval connectivity due to potential reductions in planktonic larval duration (PLD) associated with ocean warming, given current socioeconomic constraints. Using the Gulf of California as case study, we assess the benefits and costs of adjusting networks to account for connectivity, with and without ocean warming. We compare reserve networks designed to achieve representation of species and ecosystems with networks designed to also maximize connectivity under current and future ocean-warming scenarios. Our results indicate that current larval connectivity could be reduced significantly under ocean warming because of shortened PLDs. Given the potential changes in connectivity, we show that our graph-theoretical approach based on centrality (eigenvector and distance-weighted fragmentation) of habitat patches can help design better-connected marine reserve networks for the future with equivalent costs. We found that maintaining dispersal connectivity incidentally through representation-only reserve design is unlikely, particularly in regions with strong asymmetric patterns of

  13. 12 CFR 204.135 - Shifting funds between depository institutions to make use of the low reserve tranche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS... prevent evasions of the requirements of that section. Section 19(b)(2) establishes general reserve... that is exempt from transaction account reserve requirements. [57 FR 38429, Aug. 25, 1992] ...

  14. US DOLLAR STABILITY AND THE GLOBAL CURRENCY RESERVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Gavranić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The participation of the United States in the First and the Second World War, as well as in the Vietnam War led to an increase in expenditures for the US national defense and the need to finance such expenditures from the primary emission. This further led to the rising inflation and the falling value of the dollar. Since today the US dollar holds a leading position in the world's foreign exchange reserves, its decline would have an effect on reduction of the foreign exchange reserves value.

  15. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovinyukov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedure determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resource classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author)

  16. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovyunikov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedures determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resources classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author). 1 tab

  17. Assessing U.S. coal resources and reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Brian N.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program, conducts systematic, geology-based, regional assessments of significant coal beds in major coal basins in the United States. These assessments detail the quantity, quality, location, and economic potential of the Nation’s remaining coal resources and reserves and provide objective scientific information that assists in the formulation of energy strategies, environmental policies, land-use management practices, and economic projections.

  18. FASB statement 121 and other accounting issues affecting reserves reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowden, K R [Currie Coopers and Lybrand, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    The provisions required by FASB 121, and their impact on oil and gas properties, were explained. This included the impact of FASB statement 121, accounting for the impairment of long-lived assets and for assets to be disposed of on oil and gas properties. A two-tiered approach to recognition and measurement was described, as well as how reserve estimates are used for measurement of impairment. Reserve reports were considered to be the basis for financial statement disclosure. Procedures for reporting of finding costs and acquisition costs according to FASB 69 were described, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) reporting requirements were summarized.

  19. FASB statement 121 and other accounting issues affecting reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    The provisions required by FASB 121, and their impact on oil and gas properties, were explained. This included the impact of FASB statement 121, accounting for the impairment of long-lived assets and for assets to be disposed of on oil and gas properties. A two-tiered approach to recognition and measurement was described, as well as how reserve estimates are used for measurement of impairment. Reserve reports were considered to be the basis for financial statement disclosure. Procedures for reporting of finding costs and acquisition costs according to FASB 69 were described, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) reporting requirements were summarized

  20. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  1. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  2. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219 [Reserved] ...

  3. 47 CFR 25.402 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402 [Reserved] ...

  4. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Podlaseck, Mark E.; Qu, Huiming; Shae, Zon-Yin; Sheopuri, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting

  5. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  6. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  7. 40 CFR 405.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY... § 405.73 [Reserved] ...

  8. 40 CFR 408.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 408.73 Section 408.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Processing Subcategory § 408.73 [Reserved] ...

  9. 40 CFR 407.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.73 Section 407.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Vegetables Subcategory § 407.73 [Reserved] ...

  10. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  11. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da

    1980-10-01

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  12. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  13. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  14. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  15. Micro-level stochastic loss reserving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Plat, R.

    2010-01-01

    To meet future liabilities general insurance companies will set-up reserves. Predicting future cash-flows is essential in this process. Actuarial loss reserving methods will help them to do this in a sound way. The last decennium a vast literature about stochastic loss reserving for the general

  16. Evaluation system of minerals reserve at Nuclebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used world wide, and specially at Nuclebras. The paper discusses a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (Conventional, Statistical and Geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification of reserves as well as the results achieved [pt

  17. The Reserve Policies of Nations: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    motivation for military service and help people to see security issues in a wider context.”102 Partly because 50 of Germany’s complex history, the...Sydney Olympic Games, the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, and the 2003 Rugby World Cup.144 In late 2003, the Australian Army created its...field a smaller number of better motivated and equipped active and reserve 82 units capable of waging limited wars and combined arms operations

  18. Improved Distance Learning Environment For Marine Forces Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    outsourcing LRCs to MFR locations throughout the United States. D. RESEARCH QUESTION The primary research question is as follows:  What is a...manage large amounts of processes and distributed applications; with a scalable approach that can adjust to changes dynamically (Mahmood, 2016...Benefits of cloud computing for the DOD include decreased capital investments, lessening management requirements, improve scalability and availability

  19. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ore reserve estimation of uranium deposit Zirovski vrh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, E.

    1979-01-01

    The uranium ore deposit Zirovski vrh is in the Permian sediments of Northwest Yugoslavia. Lenticular bodies occur at several stratiform levels in grey, medium-grained sandstone. The ore deposit will be mined entirely by underground methods. It is possible to define three stages of deposit evaluation requiring different densities of exploration effort: preliminary evaluation of in situ ore reserves; evaluation of mineable ore reserves; evaluation of production capability and mine planning. The drilling density increases markedly with each succeeding stage. The optimal drilling density for all three stages of evaluation should be determined, but there is some concern that too close spaced drilling would considerably increase the exploration costs without a corresponding increase in effectiveness. On the other hand, too sparsely spaced drilling may result in some difficulties in following the ore in mining. The paper treats the problem of the density of drilling for evaluation of mineable ore reserves compared to that required for mine planning and mine production capability. The purpose of investigation of mineral raw materials is to define economic deposits (ore bodies). To evaluate the deposit economically an accurate reserve estimate is required. If it is accordingly established that such an estimate is within the degree of admissible error, the purpose of the exploration is satisfied. However, the problem as to whether the drilling grid is sufficiently dense remains, because the majority of estimates of ore reserves do not provide a measure of the reliability of the estimate. (author)

  1. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  2. 78 FR 48035 - Conservation Reserve Program, Re-Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... longstanding USDA policy and existing handbooks. This technical amendment did not require Office of Management... Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to clarify that land with use restrictions that prohibit the production... other deed restrictions that restrict the production of agricultural commodities. A 2003 interim rule...

  3. 15 CFR 30.41-30.44 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 30.41-30.44 Section 30.41-30.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Exemptions From the Requirements for the Filing...

  4. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. [Reserved] 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation...

  5. 22 CFR 226.1002 - Local cost financing. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local cost financing. [Reserved] 226.1002 Section 226.1002 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1002 Local cost financing...

  6. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  7. Reserves reporting for decision-making planning and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows how the established Monte Carlo simulation approach to estimating hydrocarbon reserves can be expanded to provide the basis of a comprehensive valuation, planning and control system meeting all the reserve reporting requirements of an oil exploration and production company. The approach presented is also appropriate for other mining and extractive industries. The paper demonstrates how individual expectation curves can be modified to reflect both technically and commercially recoverable reserves and how these are in turn combined into the economic valuation, planning and control processes of an enterprise. Estimates across the full range of risk and reserves can be aggregated to provide a powerful planning tool that can be used to set corporate, divisional and individual objectives

  8. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  9. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  10. Report of exploration in the mining reserve N XIV; Informe de exploracion en la reserva minera XIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoturno, J.; Lara, P.

    1991-07-01

    This report is about the geological exploration in the mining reserve N X IV. There were recognized basically three units : 1) granitic basement neisico migma tic. 2) lithologic group a md 3) a unit of quartz feldspar granitoid rocks.

  11. The energy reserves of our planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischoff, G.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from a prognosis for the development of the world energy consumption, the situation of special primary energy sources (reserves, potential) is briefly described. According to the amount and location of the reserves - 90% of the fossil energy reserves are in industrialized countries -, coal will play a leading role in meeting the energy demands of the future. Without breeder reactors, the role of nuclear energy will be limited in time. (UA) [de

  12. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1996-01-01

    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  13. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  14. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2010-04-12

    Many scientific applications need support from a communication infrastructure that provides predictable performance, which requires effective algorithms for bandwidth reservations. Network reservation systems such as ESnet's OSCARS, establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits for a certain bandwidth and length of time. However, users currently cannot inquire about bandwidth availability, nor have alternative suggestions when reservation requests fail. In general, the number of reservation options is exponential with the number of nodes n, and current reservation commitments. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks taking advantage of user-provided parameters of total volume and time constraints, which produces options for earliest completion and shortest duration. The theoretical complexity is only O(n2r2) in the worst-case, where r is the number of reservations in the desired time interval. We have implemented our algorithm and developed efficient methodologies for incorporation into network reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm the theoretical predictions.

  15. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source

  16. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation annual site environmental report summary for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) requires an annual site environmental report from each of the sites operating under its authority. The reports present the results from the various environmental monitoring and surveillance programs carried out during the year. In addition to meeting the DOE requirement, the reports also document compliance with various state and federal laws and regulations. This report was published to fulfill those requirements for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for calendar year 1995. The report is based on thousands of environmental samples collected on and around the ORR and analyzed during the year. The data on which the report is based are published in Environmental Monitoring and Surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 Data (ES/ESH-71). Both documents are highly detailed. This summary report is meant for readers who are interested in the monitoring results but who do not need to review the details

  18. 19 CFR 205.4 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS TO DETERMINE THE PROBABLE ECONOMIC EFFECT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE UNITED STATES OF PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS OF DUTIES OR OF ANY BARRIER TO (OR OTHER DISTORTION OF) INTERNATIONAL TRADE OR OF TAKING RETALIATORY ACTIONS TO...

  19. 8 CFR 1240.54 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings To Determine Deportability of Aliens in the United States: Hearing and Appeal (for Proceedings Commenced Prior to April 1, 1997) § 1240...

  20. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  1. 76 FR 68502 - National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Petroleum Reserve-Alaska Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 and Notice of Availability of the Detailed Statement of Sale for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 2011 in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land... tracts in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska. The United States reserves the right to withdraw any...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.114 - Operating reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Board § 1221.114 Operating reserve. The Board may establish an operating monetary reserve and may...

  3. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  4. 40 CFR 406.43 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.43 Section 406.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.43 [Reserved] ...

  5. 40 CFR 406.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.23 Section 406.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.23 [Reserved] ...

  6. 40 CFR 406.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.13 Section 406.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.13 [Reserved] ...

  7. 41 CFR 101-39.205 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.205 [Reserved] ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 101-39.205...

  8. 22 CFR 99.3 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 99.3 Section 99.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES REPORTING ON CONVENTION AND NON-CONVENTION ADOPTIONS OF EMIGRATING CHILDREN § 99.3 [Reserved] ...

  9. 14 CFR 99.12 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 99.12 Section 99.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.12 [Reserved] ...

  10. 26 CFR 1.46-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 1.46-10 Section 1.46-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-10 [Reserved] ...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4161(b) - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 48.4161(b) Section 48.4161(b) Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b) [Reserved] ...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4161(a) - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 48.4161(a) Section 48.4161(a) Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a) [Reserved] ...

  13. 20 CFR 410.394 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 410.394 Section 410.394 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.394 [Reserved] ...

  14. 7 CFR 1900.57 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1900.57 Section 1900.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals § 1900.57 [Reserved] ...

  15. 29 CFR 579.4 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 579.4 Section 579.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR VIOLATIONS-CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES § 579.4 [Reserved] ...

  16. 12 CFR 614.4710 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 614.4710 Section 614.4710 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4710 [Reserved] ...

  17. 12 CFR 996.1 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 996.1 Section 996.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES AUTHORITY FOR BANK ASSISTANCE OF THE RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION § 996.1 [Reserved] ...

  18. 29 CFR 4.106 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 4.106 Section 4.106 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Introductory § 4.106 [Reserved] Agencies Whose Contracts May Be Covered ...

  19. 46 CFR 308.301 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 308.301 Section 308.301 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.301 [Reserved] ...

  20. 46 CFR 308.305 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 308.305 Section 308.305 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.305 [Reserved] ...

  1. 7 CFR 1709.202 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.202 Policy. Section 1709.202 Policy... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program § 1709.202 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  2. Price, technology, and ore reserves, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    Factors determining ore reserves in view of future uses are investigated: existing mining technologies, new techniques, price-technology relationship, effects of the use of different energy sources, exploration techniques, and price change are discussed. The effect of price and technology on reserves of specific commodities is dealth with. A section is also devoted to uranium

  3. 21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve samples. 211.170 Section 211.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... of deterioration unless visual examination would affect the integrity of the reserve sample. Any...

  4. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501 [Reserved] ...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.513 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 9901.513 Section 9901.513 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT... (NSPS) Staffing and Employment External Recruitment and Internal Placement § 9901.513 [Reserved] ...

  6. 31 CFR 281.2 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 281.2 Section 281.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.2 [Reserved] ...

  7. 7 CFR 1776.4 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1776.4 Section 1776.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM General § 1776.4 [Reserved] ...

  8. 49 CFR 17.4 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 17.4 Section 17.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.4 [Reserved] ...

  9. 7 CFR 1962.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] 1962.5 Section 1962.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PERSONAL PROPERTY Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.5 [Reserved] ...

  10. 18 CFR 284.125 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 284.125 Section 284.125 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.125 [Reserved] ...

  11. 40 CFR 73.32 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 73.32 Section 73.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Tracking System § 73.32 [Reserved] ...

  12. 40 CFR 73.51 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 73.51 Section 73.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Transfers § 73.51 [Reserved] ...

  13. 40 CFR 73.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 73.11 Section 73.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.11 [Reserved] ...

  14. 7 CFR 801.10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 801.10 Section 801.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.10 [Reserved] ...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1124 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 26.1124 Section 26.1124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical...-nursing Adults § 26.1124 [Reserved] ...

  16. Disclosure of oil and gas reserve information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emsile, B.H.

    1998-01-01

    The current regulations regarding disclosure of oil and gas reserve information in Canada are described. These regulations have been in place since the early 1980s and have generally worked well, but there are some issues that need to be updated. The Alberta Securities Commission Oil and Gas Securities Task Force was established to review the regulations and the major issues that need to be addressed. The issues under consideration are: (1) reserve definitions and price assumptions, (2) use of deterministic or probabilistic reserve calculation methods, (3) use of audits in reserve reporting, (4) abandonment costs, (5) calculation of barrels of oil equivalents, and (6) the calculation of various performance indicators such as finding and development costs and reserve replacement ratios

  17. A retirement and a reservation: a retrospective autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sok K

    2012-01-01

    A retirement is a rite of passage that requires careful planning, because it forces a retiree to make a shift in the paradigm in life. For 37 years, I was a healing professional, a breadwinner, and a working spouse. I am now a jobless loner, an inactive pensioner, and a homebound spouse. In this retrospective autobiography, I suggest a few points to help my younger colleagues to better their upcoming retirement: professional, financial, social, and familial. To overcome Erikson's identity crisis, I volunteered to be a wounded healer at Warm Springs Indian Reservation. My volunteer medical service at Warm Springs Indian Reservation was a good antidote to creatively overcome my postretirement blues.

  18. Sea Training at Maritime Academies Oversight. Hearings Before the Ad Hoc Select Subcommittee on Maritime Education and Training of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on Sea Training of United States Merchant Marine Officers and Different Ways of Satisfying This Requirement at the Various Maritime Academies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    Recorded are minutes of hearings before the House Ad Hoc Select Subcommittee on Maritime Education and Training regarding the sea training of United States Merchant Marine officers. Examined are various approaches to meeting the sea training requirement, especially the options of maritime academy training vessels, sailing on U.S.-flag merchant…

  19. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  20. 77 FR 21854 - Collection of Checks and Other Items by Federal Reserve Banks and Funds Transfers Through Fedwire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... it is counted toward the balance maintained to satisfy a reserve balance requirement for purposes of... balance maintained to satisfy a reserve balance requirement for purposes of part 204 of this chapter... reserve balance requirement for purposes of part 204 of this chapter (Regulation D) nor make the proceeds...

  1. Czech fiasco with oil reserves has not deterred Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet its obligation to keep a 90-day emergency reserve of oil and oil products, Slovakia must purchase about 40% of the required volume of these commodities and complete storage capacity for the reserves. In addition, it must also create a system of storage management for the reserves including a regular exchange of the contents of the tanks. If it does not meet the 2008 deadline, EU structural funds will be decreased. In order to create the missing storage capacity, the Sprava statnych hmotnych rezerv (SSHR - Administration of Public Material Reserves) is considering a solution which Slovnaft, a.s. sees as a major risk for the state. Should the hundreds of millions needed for the building of new tanks not be found in the budget, the state would invite private investors to build the tanks, stated SSHR Chairman, Jan Tusim. Private investors will not endanger public control over the emergency reserves. Other countries also lease tanks. But according to information provided by its chairman, SSHR also wants to make the private investors responsible for the regular exchange of the emergency reserves that must be carried out every four to five years. Given an accurate forecast of price development on international markets, a lot of money can be made on these exchanges. Slovnaft stresses that if the state were no longer responsible for the exchange of the tanks' contents, it would be the state that was at risk not the refineries

  2. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  3. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    .... The first essay calls for a fundamental restructuring of the Reserve Component in light of the largest mobilization since the Korean War, which has been fraught with problems in terms of combat...

  4. Phytosociological classification of the Nylsvley nature reserve

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, BJ

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Nylsvley Nature Reserve in the Transvaal Mixed Bushveld is classified hierarchically by the Braun-Blanquet method of vegetation survey. The vegetation is seasonal grassland and deciduous savanna with four floristically distinct...

  5. 49 CFR 392.15 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.15 [Reserved] ...

  6. 49 CFR 392.18 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.18 [Reserved] ...

  7. 45 CFR 400.6 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement The State Plan § 400.6 [Reserved] ...

  8. 49 CFR 192.57 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.57 [Reserved] ...

  9. 49 CFR 192.61 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.61 [Reserved] ...

  10. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.405-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-10 [Reserved] ...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.402-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-10 [Reserved] ...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.409-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.409-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.409-10 [Reserved] ...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.408-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-10 [Reserved] ...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.401-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-10 [Reserved] ...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.403-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.403-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-10 [Reserved] ...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.406-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-10 [Reserved] ...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.404-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-10 [Reserved] ...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.400 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.400 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.400 [Reserved] ...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.410-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.410-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.410-10 [Reserved] ...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.407-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-10 [Reserved] ...

  2. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  3. 24 CFR 206.115 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 206.115 [Reserved] ...

  4. Army Reserve Military Intelligence: Time for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    Miramax Books, 2002. Goleman , Daniel . Emotional Intelligence . New York: Bantam Books, 1997. Goleman , Daniel , Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee...or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. ARMY RESERVE MILITARY INTELLIGENCE : TIME FOR CHANGE...Research Project 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Reserve Military Intelligence : Time for Change 5a

  5. Exploration report in mining reserve XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno Pioppo, J.; Lara Vigil, P.

    1991-01-01

    This report has been referred to the antecedents and works developed in the mining Reservation XIV. This Reservation, covered a 1900 km2 surface, involving the aerial photography Valentines Cerro Chato, Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Sarandi del Yi and Cuchilla del Pescado. It has been reduced this area to western part of the aerial phothograpy Pavas, releasing other areas such as Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Cuchilla del Pescado y Cerro Chato. Finally, gold, sulphures, pirite and carbonates iron oxides findings have been found.

  6. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  7. Status of fossil fuel reserves; Etat des reserves des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laherrere, J

    2005-07-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  8. Environmental and developmental origins of ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M C; Guo, M; Fauser, B C J M; Macklon, N S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oocyte number is established early in life before a gradual loss of this ovarian reserve during reproductive life until oocyte availability becomes limiting at the menopause. Although there is a large genetic component to the ovarian reserve achieved before birth, other influences including the maternal endocrine and nutritional milieu, and environmental factors may represent important developmental determinants. Environmental and nutritional factors may also modify the downward trajectory of ovarian reserve in adult life. The combination of these early and later life influences has the potential to lead to diminished ovarian reserve, compromising fertility in later reproductive years and altering age at natural menopause. METHODS Literature searches of the ISI Web of Knowledge database were carried out using the main terms 'ovarian reserve' and 'menopause AND age' in conjunction with a range of other terms encompassing a variety of factors with potential effects on ovarian reserve. The various searches were inspected manually and the relevant papers selected for critical analysis and interpretation. RESULTS Evidence was identified supporting the view that elevated prenatal androgens have an adverse effect on the early establishment of ovarian reserve, although the implications for ovarian reserve in the polycystic ovary syndrome (which may also be programmed through prenatal androgen exposure) remain uncertain. Recent evidence is cited suggesting that effects of maternal nutrient restriction on ovarian reserve may also involve changes in prenatal androgen exposure. A general rationale is developed through examination of evidence which emphasizes the roles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) systems in ovarian reserve modulation. Because of their similarity to the natural ligands, many environmental compounds have the ability to bind to these receptors (albeit at lower affinities) and thereby have the potential to

  9. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang

    2010-01-01

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  10. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) which consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1), referred to as the Elk Hills oil field and Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2), referred to as the Buena Vista oil field, each located near Bakersfield, California. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from November 12 to December 13, 1991, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H), and quality assurance (OA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of California, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal NPRC requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE/NPRC, CUSA, and BPOI management of the ES ampersand H/QA programs was conducted

  11. Financing options to develop non-conventional reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricoli, C.

    1997-01-01

    The economics of non-conventional natural gas reserves such as coalbed methane, gas shales and tight gas were discussed, with special reference to financing options to develop such reserves. Before 1992, tax credits were used to stimulate the development of non-conventional gas. The requirements for section 29 tax credits, the objectives of investors and producers, and the methods used to monetize section 29 tax credits, such as public royalty trusts, partnership structures, and up-front payment mechanisms were described. The capital gains implications of gas sales were also reviewed. It was noted that in the absence of tax credits, financing the development of non-conventional reserves must undergo the same economic scrutiny as any other oil and gas project

  12. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Joan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Page, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-09-30

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) consists of three major government-owned, contractor-operated facilities: the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennessee Technology Park. The ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, a secret undertaking that produced materials for the first atomic bombs. The reservation’s role has evolved over the years, and it continues to adapt to meet the changing defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. Both the work carried out for the war effort and subsequent research, development, and production activities have involved, and continue to involve, the use of radiological and hazardous materials. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report and supporting data are available at Http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt or from the project director.

  13. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonino, Pim A L; De Bruyne, Bernard; Pijls, Nico H J

    2009-01-01

    of maximal blood flow in a stenotic artery to normal maximal flow), in addition to angiography, improves outcomes. METHODS: In 20 medical centers in the United States and Europe, we randomly assigned 1005 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease to undergo PCI with implantation of drug......BACKGROUND: In patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary angiography is the standard method for guiding the placement of the stent. It is unclear whether routine measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR; the ratio...

  14. 77 FR 69599 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... force mix; the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff will discuss Operational Reserve Requirements... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Reserve Forces Policy Board, Office of the Secretary of Defense...

  15. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets. (a) The containers of the original Universal Standards and other official cotton standards of the United...

  16. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  17. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  18. CONCEPT OF FORMATION OF RESERVES AS AN OBJECT OF ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinina M.

    2018-01-01

    reflect, as part of the expense of the current period, the amount that may be required to cover future losses. The modern methodology for accounting for reserves in agricultural enterprises in Ukraine involves the classification of reserves: internal and external reserves.

  19. OPINIONS ON INTERNATIONAL RESERVES MANAGEMENT - POST CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA (HANDRO PATRICIA AMALIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent crisis demonstrated once again the importance of maintaining an adequate level of the international reserves as part of the defense of a country against the shocks internationally transmitted. Liquidity buffers aided the good functioning of financial systems, and allowed countries to cope with sudden foreign capital stops or to manage massive outflows without facing a costly crisis. This logic has been strengthened in the context of the crisis from 2008, when countries with lots of reserves, such as China or Brazil, came through better than those with lower liquid assets. Economists have argued that developing countries need reserves mainly to cover urgent imports and short-term debts. The current level of global reserves far exceeds this traditional postulate. In this context, it is necessary to rethink the adequacy of the level of constituting the reserves portfolio. The dominance of the dollar as a reserve currency, another important feature of the current reserves portfolio, makes the holders become vulnerable to the monetary policy of FED. A greater flexibility of the currency will also be needed. The often called the “trilemma” of international economics dictates: when capital is mobile, countries must choose between fixing their currencies and controlling their domestic monetary conditions. They cannot do both. The domestic currency inflexibility will ultimately lead to asset bubbles and inflation. The pressure of capital flows will depend on the prospects of rich economies, especially America’s. The increment of emerging economies availability to allow the exchange rate to move will depend on what China does - and China may remain forever linked to the dollar. The emergence of a global currency that constitute a genuine means of exchange or the use of cross-border multifaceted cash pools common to IMF members would reduce systemic risks. International regulations for countries with persistent trade surpluses could be a

  20. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.