Sample records for reserve forces policy

  1. 76 FR 80904 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Member Solicitation (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Member Solicitation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Advisory... solicitation of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: LtCol Ken Olivo...

  2. 77 FR 50087 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Reserve Forces Policy... Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB) will take place. DATES: Wednesday, September 5, 2012, from 8 a.m. to 4... (Facsimile), [email protected] . Mailing address is Reserve Forces Policy Board, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Suite 601...

  3. 77 FR 4284 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board. ACTION: Notice of... Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB). DATES: Wednesday, March 7, 2012, from 7:20 a.m.-3:30 p.m. ADDRESSES...

  4. 76 FR 41219 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Cancellation of Meeting (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Cancellation of Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense; Office of the Secretary of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board. ACTION: Notice of advisory...) 697-4486 (Voice), (703) 693-5371 (Facsimile), [email protected] . Mailing address is Reserve Forces Policy...

  5. 76 FR 67425 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense; Office of the Secretary of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board. ACTION: Notice of... Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB). DATES: Tuesday, November 29, 2011, from 7:30 a.m.-3:30 p.m. ADDRESSES...

  6. 77 FR 31590 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board. ACTION: Notice of... Reserve Forces Policy Board. DATES: Wednesday, June 13, 2012, from 8:00 a.m.-3:40 p.m. ADDRESSES: Meeting...

  7. 76 FR 56405 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense; Office of the Secretary of Defense Reserve Forces Policy Board. ACTION: Notice of... Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB). DATES: Thursday, October 13, 2011, from 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m...

  8. 76 FR 18737 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB) Member Solicitation (United States)


    ... (RFPB). Background: Secretary of Defense, George C. Marshall, abolished the Civilian Components Policy... Board, thus created, has remained essentially the same in its mission and responsibility for nearly...

  9. Reserve Component Programs. Fiscal Year 1999 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (United States)


    Heavy Equipment Truck UH-1 Helicopter AH-1 Attack Helicopter PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles Army Reserve Dolly Sets Yard Truck Maintenance Contact...border collie instead of a propane canon, and agri- cultural outsourcing with 4-H sheep grazing. The Marine Corps Reserve continues to increase

  10. 78 FR 70542 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting (United States)


    ... identification of Defense Support of Civilian Authorities requirements. The Subcommittee on Personnel plans to..., issues impacting reserve organizations, the right balance of Active and Reserve Component forces, and...

  11. The Reserve Force Policy Screening Models (POSM): A User’s Manual (United States)


    to Youth Unemployment for DECISIONS MODULE Example ............................ 70 4. Dependent and Independent Variables Used in Calculations...enlisted part-timer force to meet a growth in strength of 2 percent per year for the next five years under two youth unemployment scenarios: (1...1. The independent variables will appear (see Fig. 21). Currently the table contains only youth unemployment (UNY) and a dummy for each fiscal year

  12. 7 CFR 1709.2 Policy. - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.2 Policy. Section 1709.2 Policy. Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.2 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  13. 7 CFR 1709.202 Policy. - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.202 Policy. Section 1709.202 Policy... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program § 1709.202 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  14. Optimization of Marine Forces Reserve Equipment Redistribution (United States)


    industry as an example. Bertrand and Bookbinder begin with a basic supply chain logistics model of a large warehouse supplying a number of, and perform fast sensitivity analysis on the competing objectives. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Optimization, Marine Forces Reserve, redistribution...reallocation, equipment supply , logistics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 61 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  15. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training. (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  16. 2007 Posture Statement, Army Reserve: An Operational Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stultz, Jack C


    The 2007 Army Reserve Posture Statement describes how the Army Reserve continues to transform from a strategic reserve to an operational force, meeting today's challenges as it better prepares for future uncertainties...

  17. Naval Reserve Force: Cost and Benefit Analysis of Reducing the Number of Naval Surface Reserve Force Operating Budget Holders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Eric


    .... This thesis examines one of Commander Naval Surface Reserve Force's initiatives for reducing the current number of Operating Budget holder's Comptroller Departments without sacrificing efficiency...

  18. A Policy Analysis of Reserve Retirement Reform (United States)


    adapted their manning requirements to this retention. Perhaps tasks and jobs have been designed to accommodate the reten - tion profile produced by the...a reward for a long career of service, a benefit to help transition to the civilian economy, and a means of securing the reten - tion of determine their likely effect on active reten - tion, reserve affiliation after leaving an active component, reserve retention, and reserve

  19. The United States Marine Corps Reserve: Reorganization for an Integrated Force (United States)


    Reserve: A Policy and Historical Context and the Way Forward, Joint Forces Quarterly, 59, (4th quarter 2010),15. article /45817...Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010. Garcia, Federico E. and David L. Reese. Monetary Incentives in the Selected Marine Corps Reserve. Crm . Vol. 96

  20. Air Force Organizational Transformation: Merging the Active and Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, Jonathan


    .... These include the active associate, reserve associate, and blended unit concepts. Finally, it provides a recommendation as to which concept will best meet the future warfighting needs of the Air Force.

  1. Optimal Location of Marine Forces Reserve Units by Demographics (United States)


    GA Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA Robins Air Force Base/Warner Robins, GA Dobbins Army Reserve Base, GA Forest Park, GA Rome, GA a31 Marine...Island Arsenal, IL a65 Grissom Army Reserve Base/ Peru , IN Indianapolis, IN Terre Haute, IN a66 Perrysburg, OH Selfridge Army National Guard Base

  2. A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components (United States)


    capability to estimate the historic impact of changes in economic conditions on the flows of labor into, between, and out of the Air Force active...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components...or considered about the effect that those policies might have on personnel flows into and out of other components. The degree to which this is

  3. Report of the Siting Policy Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In August 1978, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission directed the staff to develop a general policy statement on nuclear power reactor siting. A Task Force was formed for that purpose and has prepared a statement of current NRC policy and practice and has recommended a number of changes to current policy. Recommendations were made to accomplish the following goals: (1) To strengthen siting as a factor in defense in depth by establishing requirements for site approval that are independent of plant design consideration. The present policy of permitting plant design features to compensate for unfavorable site characteristics has resulted in improved designs but has tended to deemphasize site isolation. (2) To take into consideration in siting the risk associated with accidents beyond the design basis (Class 9) by establishing population density and distribution criteria. Plant design improvements have reduced the probability and consequences of design basis accidents, but there remains the residual risk from accidents not considered in the design basis. Although this risk cannot be completely reduced to zero, it can be significantly reduced by selective siting. (3) To require that sites selected will minimize the risk from energy generation. The selected sites should be among the best available in the region where new generating capacity is needed. Siting requirements should be stringent enough to limit the residual risk of reactor operation but not so stringent as to eliminate the nuclear option from large regions of the country. This is because energy generation from any source has its associated risk, with risks from some energy sources being greater than that of the nuclear option

  4. EPA Policy for the Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian Reservations (1984 Indian Policy) (United States)

    1984 policy by William D. Ruckelshaus outlining EPA's dealing with Tribal Governments and in responding to the problems of environmental management on America Indian reservations in order to protect human health and the environment.

  5. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, Y.E.


    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)

  6. Use and Limitations of the Reserve Requirement Policy in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Velibor


    Full Text Available Since reserve requirement is the only monetary policy instrument used in Montenegro, it has been subject to frequent amendments since the global crisis outbreak. The analysis of the monetary demand model showed that there is an active transmission mechanism of change in the reserve requirement rate on the deposits trend reflects on lending activity. Also, there is a significant impact of FDIs on deposits trending in the banking system, as well as the positive impact of turnover on stock exchange on the deposits and loans trend. Finally, it was found that the financial crisis has caused negative trends in loans and deposits. On the other hand, the impact of changes in the reserve requirement on the economic activity in Montenegro could not be determined. This is primarily due to the fact that the transmission mechanism of the effect of reserve requirement on economic activity is too long to be able to estimate the model that does not allow the dynamics of the independent variables. The second reason is that industrial output index is only an indirect indicator of the economic activity.

  7. An Investigation of B-2 Pilot Force Reserve Component Augmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathers, Russell


    ... to enter the major airline industry Due to the resulting limited number of B-2 instructor pilots the Air Force contracted for civilian B-2 academic instructors who are not as qualified to instruct...

  8. The Reserve Forces Impact on Theater Security Cooperation (United States)


    over time. Thucydides wrote about the complex differences between the Spartan agrarian and Athenian trade societies. Hitler’s threat of world...was part of a task force to spread peace and democracy .”43 He strongly believes that his role as the member of a community gives him a “dimension

  9. Effects of Capillary Forces and Adsorption on Reserves Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of capillary forces and adsorption on the distribution of a hydrocarbon mixture in an oil-gas-condensate reservoir. These effects consist in the precipitation of the liquid phase in thin pores and on the internal surface of the reservoir rock...

  10. Joint force opportunities: Policy Aims And Adaptations (United States)


    meet policy aimed at the survival and prosperity of the nation. The dialog between the policy maker and military adviser requires a broader and deeper...aimed at the survival and prosperity of the nation. The dialog between the policy maker and military adviser requires a broader and deeper...father for feeding a passion for learning with a work ethic ; and your patient love. To D, B, and C: I love you eternally. v

  11. Total Force Policy Report to the Congress. Supplement (United States)


    5 Grissmer, David W. and Jennifer Kawata, Total Force Manpower Management: Personnel Flows Between Active and Reserve Components, The RAND...operating, and supporting forces and recognizes both short- and long-term effects on defense fuiding . When defense force structure is changed, the

  12. New US energy policy act in force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.


    The United States of America is accused by politicians of the German Red-Green federal government, but also by the EU, of not caring enough about climate protection. This allegation is fueled, above all, by the refusal of the United States to sign the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Climate Framework Convention of 1997. However, the US is not idle in this respect. In late July, the United States together with China, India, Japan, South Korea and Australia agreed on an Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. Almost at the same time, on July 29, 2005, after more than five years of debate, the US Congress adopted new energy legislation (A Bill to Ensure Jobs for the Future with Secure and Reliable Energy - the Energy Policy Act of 2005). The holistic aspect in this piece of US legislation covers nearly the whole field of energy policy. The Act encompasses these areas: - energy efficiency, - renewable energies, - oil and natural gas, - clean coal, - nuclear power, - vehicles and fuels, - hydrogen, - electricity, - research and development. With its new Energy Policy Act, the United States has paved the way politically for making energy supply in the world's largest industrialized national securer and safer on a technical basis and less pollutant for the environment and the climate. (orig.)

  13. Forcing the issue on radiation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, T.


    For those frustrated by an inability to get a fair hearing on evidence that challenges current radiation policy, the recent case of a group of tobacco interests suing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Federal court on its policy on second-hand smoke has important implications for radiation policy. The issue was only tangentially about tobacco; its main thrust was at EPA's arbitrary and capricious rule-making process. The EPA is at least as vulnerable to the same charges in the radiation area, particularly with respect to radon. Radiation protection is associated in many people's minds with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), but other agencies have also been involved. Radon, like second-hand smoke, has been tolerated for generations, and EPA has the burden of proving that it is a public hazard. The law and the unwritten rules of science are quite explicit in defining what must be done to make such a finding. In the case of radon, there is no prior basis for public concern. In fact, the public uses radium spas with radon concentrations up to one million times as high as the EPA permissible limit. In many countries, such spa usage is formally prescribed by physicians and paid for by national health insurance. The health effects, if any, from radon, as from second-hand smoke, are hard to quantify. But, this does not justify--in either case--the EPA's straying from its published criteria and procedures for testing whether such health effects occur. A Federal court has now demonstrated its willingness to judge and strike down the EPA's actions regarding second-hand smoke on their own merits, without attempting to be an arbiter of science. The result is a welcome breath of fresh air and an object lesson for those concerned about the mounting costs of treating radon as a major public health hazard

  14. National monetary policy by regional design: the evolving role of the Federal Reserve banks in Federal Reserve System policy


    David C. Wheelock


    This paper examines the history of Federal Reserve Bank input into Federal Reserve System monetary policymaking. From the Fed's founding in 1914 through the Great Depression, the Reserve Banks held the balance of power. Dissatisfaction with the Fed's performance, however, led to a wholesale reorganization in 1935 that greatly enhanced the authority of the Federal Reserve Board, but retained a role for the Federal Banks through the membership of their presidents on the FOMC, as well as in sett...

  15. Natural gas prices force businesses to strategic energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisse, C.J.


    There are many factors which force businesses to think about a strategic energy policy: energy prices, supply security, regulations in the Netherlands and the European Union, technological developments with regard to fuels, etc. By using a decision making model several criteria can be assessed for different scenarios [nl

  16. The Army National Guard: Part of the Operational Force and Strategic Reserve (United States)


    22 The RC: Expensive to Use, Cheap to Maintain...avoiding the war. The limited use of the RC in the Vietnam 6 Patrick M. Cronin, The Total Force Policy in Historical Perspective, No. CRM -87-78. Center...The RC: Expensive to Use, Cheap to Maintain RC

  17. It's Not Your Mother and Father's Monetary Policy Anymore: The Federal Reserve and Financial Crisis Relief (United States)

    Hill, Andrew T.; Wood, William C.


    The recent financial crisis brought about dramatic changes in the way that the Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank, conducts monetary policy. One challenge for high school educators going forward will be to strike a balance between the teaching of traditional monetary policy and the teaching of the monetary policy used during these…

  18. Reserve Component Programs Fiscal Year 1993 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (United States)


    Thurber suggested, "Somewhere, just be seized, or that vie%-n may never be realizeda out of sight, the Unicorns are gathering." The Bottom-Up Review...projects a shortfall of $2.8 "million in 1994 as a result of Defense Finance and Accounting fees and simulator procurement. R 7..% ’:The Air National Guard...Defense Finance and At some future time, deoxyribonucleic acid Accounting Service in July 1993, replacing the (DNA) profile analysis is expected to

  19. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1992: Annual Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board (United States)


    reduce the shortage of junior-grade and mid- quickly on the issue of homosexuals in the career officers in Selccted Rescrvc units. military, especially...52 Homosexuals in the Military...operational detachments, and CARIBBEAN 92-4, conducted in Grenada during space shuttle support, as well as various joint July 1992. Minor engineer efforts

  20. Cognitive and Teaching Style Preferences of Officers Attending the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Instructor Course (United States)

    Kraska, Marie; Harris, Stephen


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cognitive style and teaching style preferences of instructors enrolled in the Reserve Officer Training Corps instructor course at the Academic Instructor School at Maxwell Air Force base. Sixty-five cases were examined for two research questions: (1) To what extent is there…

  1. 76 FR 76811 - Stakeholders Meeting Regarding Ready Reserve Force (RRF) Ship Manager Contract Program (United States)


    ... consideration of possible changes to the Ship Manager Contract requirements for maintaining and operating MarAd... Meeting Regarding Ready Reserve Force (RRF) Ship Manager Contract Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration.... Independent contractor issues. Consideration of participation in Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement...

  2. Consequences of Inconsistency in Air Force Tobacco Control Policy. (United States)

    Lando-King, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Lando, Harry A; Jahnke, Sara A; Hawk, Nita; Smith, Elizabeth A


    Although the United States Air Force (USAF) has been a leader in efforts to reduce tobacco use among service members, tobacco continues to be a problem and initiatives to decrease tobacco use further require buy-in from leadership. We explored line leaderships' perspectives on tobacco. A diverse group of 10 senior commissioned and 10 non-commissioned personnel were interviewed. Respondents reported substantial changes in the culture of tobacco use during their years of service, from near ubiquity to restricted use areas. They also perceived mixed messages coming from the USAF, including simultaneous discouragement of and accommodations for tobacco use, and variability in policies and enforcement. Many respondents indicated that allowing tobacco use creates conflict and undermines military discipline and suggested that a tobacco-free policy would be the best way to eliminate these contradictions. Although there has been substantial movement away from a culture of tobacco in the USAF, current policies and variable enforcement of these policies create unnecessary contradictions. Establishing a tobacco-free service would resolve these issues in addition to improving the health of service members and veterans.

  3. ART Or AGR: Deciphering Which Reserve Program is Best Suited for Today’s Total Force Structure (United States)


    independent arbitrator ruled that Whiteman Air Force Base violated its contract with American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) Local 2361...Section CSAF - Chief of Staff of the Air Force DODI - Department of Defense Instruction FECA - Federal Employees Compensation Act FEGLI - Federal ...time federal civil service employees, assigned to an Air Force Reserve unit, and also required to occupy an equivalent Reserve military position with

  4. Robust Allocation of Reserve Policies for a Multiple-Cell Based Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lan, Tian; Heussen, Kai


    This paper applies a robust optimization technique for coordinating reserve allocations in multiple-cell based power systems. The linear decision rules (LDR)-based policies were implemented to achieve the reserve robustness, and consist of a nominal power schedule with a series of linear modifica...... in real time operation to make a trade off....

  5. Strategic Sealift. Summary of Workshop on Crewing the Ready Reserve Force (United States)


    177 Strategic Selfi ~ft Appendix III Crewing the Ready Reserve Force-RADM Carl J. Selberlch, USN (Ret.), American President Lines, Ltd. We at APL as a...their work record through articles and discharges. These functions give rise to a potentially valuable manpower augmentation tool that could be to this proposal, and trust it will be seen no as an invasion of privacy but solely as a tool to be made available to the unions to assist in

  6. Interim report of the task force on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A Task Force was established by the Premier of British Columbia in August 2001 to draft an energy policy framework for the province. Based on best practices worldwide, and keeping in mind the specific energy needs of British Columbia, this framework aims at fostering energy development in British Columbia, in accordance with exemplary environmental practices. This interim report comprises the preliminary findings of the Task Force, and public input is sought before the final report is finalized and presented to government. The energy sector of British Columbia comprises hydroelectric power, oil, gas and coal resources. In addition, green energy and alternative energy technologies are being developed, such as wind, solar, and wave power, and hydrogen fuel cells. Industry and individual consumers are well served by the highly developed transmission and distribution systems for energy. Several strategic directions were identified by the Task Force for inclusion in the energy policy of British Columbia, to meet its full potential. They are: growth to ensure safe, reliable energy and take advantage of economic opportunities; diversification; competitiveness; industry restructuring and expansion; environmental imperative; government leadership; and community and First Nations' involvement. Some changes are also required for the continuing success of the energy sector in British Columbia: a move to fully competitive markets in the electricity system, the development of natural gas storage capacity in the Lower Mainland, additional considerations for coal use, and the development of alternative energy sources. It is expected that private capital and more energy supply will result from a fully competitive energy market, which in turn would lower energy costs. Jobs and income would increase as a result of the growth in the sector. Diversification makes good economic and environmental sense. tabs., figs

  7. National Guard and Reserves: Air Force Needs to Consistently Assess Personnel Requirements to Appropriately Size Its Headquarters Reserve Components (United States)


    Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam also have National Guard forces that can be activated for federal missions. Over the same period...the 54 Joint Force Headquarters – State, located in each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam, is comprised of... currency reviews be performed in conjunction with the biannual application of personnel assessment standards. Officials from the Office of the

  8. Investigating reservation policies of advance orders in the presence of heterogeneous demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    We consider an inventory system, operated by a base stock policy and serving two customer classes. One customer class, Class 1, does not provide any advance demand information at all, while the other, Class 2, does. In order to reward a customer of Class 2 for providing advance order information......, it may be sensible to make reservations for the order in the inventory system, thereby preventing later arriving orders from getting access to the inventory before this particular order. We propose various reservation policies and study their impact on the performance of the inventory system....

  9. The Career Job Reservation System. Is the Issuance System Best Serving the Needs of the Air Force? (United States)



  10. The role of the US in the geopolitics of climate policy and stranded oil reserves (United States)

    Jaffe, Amy Myers


    Computer-assisted technological innovation and breakthroughs in drilling are revolutionizing the energy landscape, creating greater uncertainty about the future trends for oil use. These new dynamics are prompting major oil producers to reconsider the commercial value of their assets, potentially changing the long-term outlook for oil prices. A shift in investment and production strategy by major oil-producing countries and large multinational companies to pre-empt the risk of stranded assets would have significant implications on energy markets. This Perspective surveys the competitive forces at play that are able to shift the dynamics of the global oil market and discusses their implications for US climate and energy policy. A declining long-term oil price might imply that energy and climate scientists and policymakers should revisit the road map of the optimum policies to promote the transition to lower carbon energy and to defend technology gains already achieved.

  11. La politica della riserva federale dopo il 1979. (Federal Reserve policy since 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available L' articolo prende in considerazione la variazione degli strumenti di riserva federali che si sono verificati dal ottobre 1979. Prima di allora , la FED ha utilizzato riserve delle banche per stabilire un tasso di interesse che comporterebbe il livello desiderato della massa monetaria . Dopo il 1979 la FED ha sostituito il tasso dei fondi federali come variabile di controllo con il volume delle riserve bancarie . In linea di principio , a condizione che la volontà di adeguare i tassi di interesse quando lo stock di moneta è spento esiste  , le due politiche mostrano poca differenza . Quindi , la politica della Fed era più vicino al ancoraggio del tasso dei fondi federali che per usarlo come un controllo sulla quantità di denaro The article considers the change in the federal reserve instruments that occurred since October 1979. Before then, the FED used bank reserves to establish an interest rate that would result in the desired level of the money stock. After 1979 the FED replaced the federal funds rate as its control variable with the volume of bank reserves. In principal, provided the will to adjust interest rates when the money stock is off target exists, two policies show little difference. Critics of the Fed’s policy prior to 1979 often confuse principal with practice. Then, Fed policy was closer to pegging the federal funds rate than to using it as a control over the quantity of money. JEL: E58, E43

  12. The Politics of Trade and Industrial Policy in Africa: Forced ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jan 1, 2004 ... This book maps the policy process and political economy of policymaking in Africa. ... Professionals, practitioners, and policymakers in the international donor community and both the governmental and nongovernmental sectors will appreciate the book's focus on research for impact and policy change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria COCIUG


    Full Text Available In the context of modern economy, banks play an essential role for sustainable growth, by ensuring economy with financial resources and driving impulses of monetary policy to economy. Monetary authorities influence significantly the bank's ability to fulfill this role. Thus, to achieve macroeconomic objectives, there is promoted particular monetary policy and are implemented various practical regulations for banks. In this article, we want to identify the existing relationship between monetary policy followed by the authorities and the ability of banks to create money with its impact on various practical regulations.

  14. Decommissioning reserve funds problem for the energy conversion policy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusuno, Sadao


    Germany is planning to close all nuclear power plants by 2022. 'Nuclear power phase-out' policy has been decided before the Fukushima accident in 2011. Author considered the background of the 'nuclear power phase-out', and analyzed for the decommissioning reserve fund, which is one of the facing issues. Immediately after the Fukushima accident, Merkel government has decided the temporary stop of the eight nuclear plants, and subsequent closure. Moreover, in the report from the Ethics Commission for a Safe Energy Supply 'Germany's energy transition-A collective project for the future' (May 2011), step-by-step abolition from nuclear energy use is 'a very big challenge for all concerned parties'. The German government confirmed that there is enough reserve funds in the nuclear operators for the 'nuclear power phase-out'. The nuclear operators have been taken even legal measures that cannot give up the responsibility of the funding. The reserve funds are appropriated for decommissioning and the subsequent long-term disposal. As a main item of the safety priority, transparent and fair procedures, 'polluter pays principle' which are based on scientific evidence, waste disposal sites are planned to be completed until 2023. In addition, against the German government, the nuclear operators have filed a payment of compensation and court proceedings on the suspension orders before the reactor life is exhausted. (N.T.)

  15. The Domestic Telecommunications Carrier Industry. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five. (United States)

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends that public policy ensure an integrated structure in the telecommunications industry, while fostering limited competition to keep the system responsive to new technology and to consumer demands. The present system of regulated monopoly for companies supplying…

  16. Implications of an Aging Labor Force for Human Resource Development Policy. (United States)

    Barber, Gerard M.; And Others


    Demographic trends show that areas such as Kentucky, Japan, and Sweden are experiencing very limited labor force growth and heavier reliance on older workers as the younger population declines. Implications of an aging work force for policy involve pensions, health benefits, retraining, flexible work options, and income support programs. (SK)

  17. Reserve Forces: Observations on Recent National Guard Use in Overseas and Homeland Missions and Future Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Laurent, Janet A


    ... than an operational force designed for continued overseas deployments. Moreover, units with certain specialties military police, transportation, and combat arms have been in high demand, resulting in lengthy and repeated deployments...

  18. Forcing the few: Issues from the South African Reserve Bank's legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SA Reserve Bank is a public company with shareholders in terms of the South African Reserve Bank Act, No. 90 of 1989 (Republic of South Africa 1989). This article considers shareholding in the SA Reserve Bank against the background of legislative amendments promulgated in 2010 and legal action instituted by the ...

  19. 32 CFR 631.15 - Air Force policy. (United States)


    .... (a) Airmen, military and/or Department of the Air Force Civilian (DAFC) police performing off...) Military and/or DAFC police assigned to off-installation operations have the sole purpose of enforcing parts, and orders pertaining to persons subject to their jurisdiction. (c) Military and/or DAFC police...

  20. A model based on stochastic dynamic programming for determining China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobing; Fan Ying; Wei Yiming


    China's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is currently being prepared. But how large the optimal stockpile size for China should be, what the best acquisition strategies are, how to release the reserve if a disruption occurs, and other related issues still need to be studied in detail. In this paper, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming model based on a total potential cost function of establishing SPRs to evaluate the optimal SPR policy for China. Using this model, empirical results are presented for the optimal size of China's SPR and the best acquisition and drawdown strategies for a few specific cases. The results show that with comprehensive consideration, the optimal SPR size for China is around 320 million barrels. This size is equivalent to about 90 days of net oil import amount in 2006 and should be reached in the year 2017, three years earlier than the national goal, which implies that the need for China to fill the SPR is probably more pressing; the best stockpile release action in a disruption is related to the disruption levels and expected continuation probabilities. The information provided by the results will be useful for decision makers.

  1. Foundation of the Force. Air Force Enlisted Personnel Policy, 1907-1956 (United States)


    leaders, albeit an odd group of military luminaries and social reformers that included Eisenhower, Marshall, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, and Jane...Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft , 128 recruiting process, 102, 103-106, 115 Signal Corps Recruiting Publicity Center, 95 Aeronautical Division, 7 recruiting...Air Force?" Air Force Magazine, May 1953, p. 33. The long-term consequences of military life on families is lucidly discussed in Mary R. Truscott’s

  2. May 2003 Status of Forces Survey of Reserve Component Members: Tabulations of Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...). HRSAP is designed to measure the attitudes and opinions of the entire DoD community--Active and Reserve Service members, their families and DoD civilian--on the full range of personnel issues...

  3. Population Policy Adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Interplay of Global and Local Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Rachel Sullivan


    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African countries have the highest population growth rates in the world, and are also the poorest. In response to a variety of global and local forces, during the 1980s and 1990s two thirds of sub- Saharan African countries adopted national population policies to reduce population growth. Drawing from existing research and using the texts of population policies to illustrate key points, this article summarises the factors that drove population policy adoption in the region. Globally, powerful donors with significant leverage promoted population policies as a solution to lagging socioeconomic development while international organizations spread norms about women’s rights and reproductive health. Locally, technocrats working within relevant ministries backed efforts to increase contraceptive prevalence, and population policies furthered political projects unrelated to population. The interplay of global and local forces led to governments adopting population policies. Ultimately, continued high desired fertility and limited implementation capacity have prevented population policies from significantly lowering fertility, but these policies have likely increased the availability of contraception, created important discursive space related to gender and sexuality, and provided countries with an opportunity to test procedures and approaches for policy-making on sensitive issues.

  4. Prevention, Policies and Priorities to Reduce the Impact of Malaria on US Military Forces (United States)


    Although  quinine  is the currently approved medication for severe  malaria  in much of the world,  resistance to  quinine  is increasing and has...Prevention, Policies and Priorities to Reduce the Impact of Malaria on US Military Forces August 2011 Silver Spring, MD PREPARED BY: CDR...2011 to 25-08-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prevention, Policies and Priorities to Reduce the Impact of Malaria on US Military Forces 5a. CONTRACT

  5. Portraying forced removal as a means for crime control. On immigration policy communication in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Breuls


    Full Text Available Restrictive immigration laws – and the consequent labelling of those who do not comply with the restrictive rules as 'illegal' – emerged in Belgium from the 1930s onwards, but gained momentum after the 1973 oil crisis. Nowadays, the forced removal of irregular migrants is considered the keystone of this restrictive immigration policy and immigration detention has become the key instrument in facilitating the forced removal of irregular migrants.

  6. Support for the 21st-Century Reserve Force: Insights on Facilitating Successful Reintegration for Citizen Warriors and their Families (United States)


    families. 2 Support for the 21st-Century Reserve Force Active Component, guard personnel and reservists must return to their civilian jobs , hence...the job that they would have attained had they not been absent for military service, with the same seniority, status, pay, and benefits.10 The...their distance from military installations and other DoD infrastructure but also in their embeddedness in the local com- munity. Unlike many active

  7. Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Guidelines: Update of U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Policies and Procedures. (United States)

    Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Moyer, Virginia; Grossman, David; Ebell, Mark; Woo, Meghan; Miller, Therese; Brummer, Tana; Chowdhury, Joya; Kato, Elisabeth; Siu, Albert; Phillips, William; Davidson, Karina; Phipps, Maureen; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten


    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) provides independent, objective, and scientifically rigorous recommendations for clinical preventive services. A primary concern is to avoid even the appearance of members having special interests that might influence their ability to judge evidence and formulate unbiased recommendations. The conflicts of interest policy for the USPSTF is described, as is the formal process by which best practices were incorporated to update the policy. The USPSTF performed a literature review, conducted key informant interviews, and reviewed conflicts of interest policies of ten similar organizations. Important findings included transparency and public accessibility; full disclosure of financial relationships; disclosure of non-financial relationships (that create the potential for bias and compromise a member's objective judgment); disclosure of family members' conflicts of interests; and establishment of appropriate reporting periods. Controversies in best practices include the threshold of financial disclosures, ease of access to conflicts of interest policies and declarations, vague definition of non-financial biases, and request for family members' conflicts of interests (particularly those that are non-financial in nature). The USPSTF conflicts of interest policy includes disclosures for immediate family members, a clear non-financial conflicts of interest definition, long look-back period and application of the policy to prospective members. Conflicts of interest is solicited from all members every 4 months, formally reviewed, adjudicated, and made publicly available. The USPSTF conflicts of interest policy is publicly available as part of the USPSTF Procedure Manual. A continuous improvement process can be applied to conflicts of interest policies to enhance public trust in members of panels, such as the USPSTF, that produce clinical guidelines and recommendations. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine

  8. Crossroads of Crisis: Forces at Play in the Policy-Making Arena (United States)

    Hobbs, Addison S.


    The following forces that play on policymaking are examined: Social and cultural influences, the caste system with its attendant anxiety to conform, warring between equals, the competitive spirit unleased. On the question of what should be incorporated in policy, the author states that vocational educators should look inwardly and seek to make…

  9. State income tax policy and geographic labour force mobility in the United States. (United States)

    Saltz, I S


    "This study empirically investigates the impact of state income tax policy on U.S. interstate migration [of the labor force] for the period 1985-89. It finds that people vote with their feet and prefer to move so as to minimize their state income tax liabilities." excerpt

  10. Optimal offering and allocation policies for wind power in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Jensen, Tue Vissing; Mazzi, Nicolo


    Proliferation of wind power generation is increasingly making this power source an important asset in designs of energy and reserve markets. Intuitively, wind power producers will require the development of new offering strategies that maximize the expected profit in both energy and reserve marke...

  11. Sustaining the Drone Enterprise: How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force (United States)


    Sustaining the Drone Enterprise How Manpower Analysis Engendered Policy Reform in the United States Air Force Major Kiel M. Martin, Ph.D...CT 06510 Abstract The Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), colloquially labeled the “ drone ,” has become iconic of American military campaigns this...problem, the metrics that we used to evaluate the manpower system, and the modeling techniques we employed to inform a comprehensive solution to

  12. Policy Brief: India's coal reserves are vastly overstated. Is anyone listening?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K.; Chand, S.K.


    In India's energy sector, coal accounts for over 50% of primary commercial energy supply. With the economy poised to grow at the rate of 8-10% per annum, energy requirements will also rise at a level of 6% (approx.). Coal will continue to be a dominant commercial fuel two decades from now and beyond, despite our nuclear energy programme, development of natural gas supplies, increased hydropower generation, and emphasis on renewables. There are many issues with regard to domestic coal production, including its quality, beneficiation of lower grades, transportation to distant consumers, environment impacts (both in mining and burning of coal), efficiency of thermal power plants, and so on. This policy brief, however, focuses on our domestic coal inventories. In other words, how much coal is there underground, how much of it can be extracted, how much do we need to import, and what are the associated energy security implications?.

  13. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.


    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  14. The Effectiveness of Policies that Promote Labor Force Participation of Women with Children: A Collection of National Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascio, Elizabeth; Haider, Steven; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    Numerous countries have enacted policies to promote the labor force participation of women around the years of childbearing, and unsurprisingly, many research articles have been devoted to evaluating their effectiveness. Perhaps more surprisingly, however, six such articles were submitted...

  15. Norwegian security policy and the Norwegian armed forces in the 21st century : a case study of KFOR


    Nissen, Sven Kristian


    Norwegian Security Policy and the Norwegian Armed Forces in the 21st century - a case study of KFOR (Summary) The subject of the study is Norwegian security policy and the Norwegian Armed Forces as an instrument for international operations, studied within the context of globalisation and substantial internal restructuring. Conducted as a case study of KFOR and by means of an inter-disciplinary approach, the objective is to carve out interesting hypothesis concerning the interacti...

  16. Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Hughes


    Full Text Available Hearing loss affects many workers including those in the military and may be caused by noise, medications, and chemicals. Exposures to some chemicals may lead to an increase in the incidence of hearing loss when combined with hazardous noise. This retrospective study evaluated the risk for hearing loss among Air Force Reserve personnel exposed to occupational noise with and without exposures to toluene, styrene, xylene, benzene, and JP-8 (jet fuel. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were determined using logistic and linear regression. Stratified analysis was used to evaluate potential interaction between solvent and noise exposure. The majority of the subjects were male (94.6% and 35 years or older on the date of their first study audiogram (66%. Followed for an average of 3.2 years, 9.2% of the study subjects had hearing loss in at least one ear. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 per year of age and each year of follow-up time (OR = 1.23 were significantly associated with hearing loss. Low and moderate solvent exposures were not associated with hearing loss. Linear regression demonstrated that hearing loss was significantly associated with age at first study audiogram, length of follow-up time, and exposure to noise. Hearing decreased by 0.04 decibels for every decibel increase in noise level or by almost half a decibel (0.4 dB for every 10 decibel increase in noise level.

  17. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights. (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Zekraoui, Wahiba; Hikmat, Halima; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els


    In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO's and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand

  18. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights (United States)


    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  19. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  20. Helping professionals and Border Force secrecy: effective asylum-seeker healthcare requires independence from callous policies. (United States)

    Dudley, Michael


    To examine the Australian Border Force Act (BFA) and its context, its implications for asylum-seeker healthcare and professionals, and contemporary and historical parallels. Prolonged immigration detention and policies aiming to deter irregular migration cause maritime asylum-seekers undeniable, well-publicised harms and (notwithstanding claims about preventing drownings) show reckless indifference and calculated cruelty. Service personnel may be harmed. Such policies misuse helping professionals to underwrite state abuses and promote public numbing and indifference, resembling other state abuses in the 'war on terror' and (with qualification) historical counterparts, e.g. Nazi Germany. Human service practitioners and organisations recently denounced the BFA that forbids disclosure about these matters.Continuing asylum-seeker healthcare balances the likelihood of effective care and monitoring with lending credibility to abuses. Boycotting it might sacrifice scrutiny and care, fail to compel professionals and affect temporary overseas workers. Entirely transferring healthcare from immigration to Federal and/or State health departments, with resources augmented to adequate standard, would strengthen clinical independence and quality, minimise healthcare's being securitised and politicised, and uphold ethical codes. Such measures will not resolve detention's problems, but coupled with independent auditing, would expose and moderate detention's worst effects, promoting changes in national conversation and policy-making. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  1. Netherlands: Dutch policy centres on marrying green concerns and market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This review of the Dutch energy policy covers the need for efficient use of their natural gas as a finite resource; natural gas reserves, production, and exports, refining in the Netherlands; Dutch oil production; the fragmented and decentralised electricity generation and supply sectors; and prospects for a single merged generating company. Multi service utilities, the White Paper focussing on energy efficiency, replacement of 10% of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources by the year 2020 and greater market orientation; and the liberalisation of the electricity market are discussed. (UK)

  2. Mandatory labels, taxes and market forces: An empirical evaluation of fat policies. (United States)

    Allais, Olivier; Etilé, Fabrice; Lecocq, Sébastien


    The public-health community views mandatory Front-of-Pack (FOP) nutrition labels and nutritional taxes as promising tools to control the growth of food-related chronic diseases. This paper uses household scanner data to propose an ex-ante evaluation and comparison of these two policy options for the fromage blanc and dessert yogurt market. In most markets, labelling is voluntary and firms display fat labels only on the FOP of low-fat products to target consumers who do not want to eat fat. We here separately identify consumer preferences for fat and for FOP fat labels by exploiting an exogenous difference in legal labelling requirements between these two product categories. Estimates of demand curves are combined with a supply model of oligopolistic price competition to simulate policies. We find that a feasible ad valorem fat tax dominates a mandatory FOP-label policy from an economic perspective, but both are equally effective in reducing average fat purchases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Eliminate the Army and Air Force Reserves: Building a Robust National Guard to Meet 21st Century Operational Challenges (United States)


    CENTURY REFORM Militia Reform and the Creation of the Army Reserve The Spanish -American War of 1898 is often cited as providing the impetus for...substantial gain in 1908 when Congress established a Medical Reserve Corps to address medical inadequacies identified during Spanish -American the matter.26 Lack of transparency in the reserve components bureaucracies prevented the GAO from providing members of Congress a definitive

  4. The Role of the US Army Reserve in Support of the US Army Force 2025 and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)


    2020 will have to be globally responsive and capable, leaner and with improved resilient networks. It will focus on optimized human performance and...set the conditions for 2025 and beyond. The proposed 2025 force will be leaner , more lethal, expeditionary and agile. It will maintain overmatch...investment. In the F2025B construct , they are expected to remain as such, because the decisive edge will be achieved on their contributions. The Chief

  5. Structure: Suitable Staffing and Training of Functional Specialists within the United States Army Reserve Civil Affairs Force (United States)


    15Stuart E. Johnson , John E. Peters, Karin E. Kitchens, and Aaron Martin, A Review of the Army’s Modular Force Structure (Arlington, VA...coordinate effectively with the military. When President Johnson disbanded the OCO, the US Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) Commander...H., Kenneth Finlayson, Robert W. Jones, Jr., Cherilyn A. Walley, A. Dwayne Aaron, Michael R. Mullins, and James A. Schroder. All Roads Lead To

  6. Eliminate the Army and Air Force Reserves: Building a Robust National Guard to Meet 21st Century Operational Challenges (United States)


    American Way of War: US Military Practice from the Revolution to Afghanistan (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2014), 67. 6 Doubler, (accessed October 12, 2015). 8 cross over into Canada.11 During the Mexican -American War several...governors expressed a reluctance to allow state forces to enter Mexican territory.12 Further, interpretation of the Uniform Militia Act did not grant

  7. Assessment of DoD-Provided Healthcare for Members of the United States Armed Forces Reserve Components (United States)


    The TRICARE Dental Program covers the following services: • exams, cleanings, fluorides, sealants , and x-rays, • fillings, including white fillings...establish that programs will be in place to support the medical and dental readiness of Reserve Component (RC) service members so they comply with... dental care to RC service members for all wounds, illnesses, and injuries incurred or aggravated in the line of duty until they have recovered. Reserve

  8. Rise in legal skirmishes and intellectual property protectionism force companies to re-examine technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.


    The possession of intellectual property (IP) has become an important part of a technologically advanced oil and gas industry. Firms that specialize in IP law are now aiding oil and gas companies to establish company-wide IP policies to protect their inventions and properly profit from them. However, many companies do not have a clear policy to report on the commercial value of their IP assets or keep track of efforts made to gain value from them. A patent policy could require that patents be applied for only when the scientific merits and the business merits justify the allocation of personnel and financial resources. Patent disputes can be expensive and have led some companies into financial difficulties. Companies who have not successfully defended their patents may fall victim to patent trolls, who search for un-enforced patents in order to force companies to pay for licence fees or damage awards for the patents that they acquire. Anecdotal evidence suggests that licensing is becoming an important means of generating revenue from process innovations. Petrobank Energy and Resources Ltd. has formed its own research and development company to protect patents for its proprietary toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) oilsands recovery process, and has established a patent cooperation treaty, where patents are filed in various countries in a single procedure. However, many oil and gas companies insist that some new technologies are better protected as trade secrets. To secure a patent, a company must publicly disclose all aspects of an invention. Trade secrets are an option where secrecy can be maintained after commercialization. Unlike patent protection, which expires after 20 years, trade secrets can last indefinitely, as long as the secret is not publicly disclosed or independently developed by a competitor. While patenting may offer a competitive lead-time for some companies, many industry officials prefer to focus on using their innovations in the field. The oil and

  9. Public policy for victims of forced displacement in the city of Medellín: a synthesis of interorganizational relationships from a policy network perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Alejandro Murcia


    Full Text Available This article seeks to synthetise the interorganisational relationships that have developed in Public Policy in relation with victims of forced displacement in the Municipality of Medellin. Using the Public Policy Networks approach and Inter-organisational theory, it focuses on scenarios where such relationships occurred, on the attributes, positions and roles of the organisations, on the types of relationships, exchanges and resources. To achieve the objectives, Social Network Analysis as methodological strategy and qualitative strategies were used to understand the organizations’ perceptions of their relationships in the policy process. This study permitted to understand the structure and dynamics of the network, and enhanced different modalities in the participation of organizations in terms of frequency, changes in their roles, power relations, conflicting and cooperative relations, among other factors.

  10. What Geological, Economic, or Policy Forces Might Limit Fossil Fuel Production? (United States)

    Heinberg, R.


    In order to ensure a 50% chance of keeping global temperatures from exceeding 2°C above pre-industrial levels, it has been estimated that total carbon dioxide emissions between 2011-2050 must be capped at roughly 1,100 gigatons.[1] However, some estimates calculate that global fossil fuel reserves—including unconventional oil and gas—hold at least three times this amount of potential greenhouse gas emissions.[2]What socio-political, technological, or economic forces are most likely to keep these energy resources from being burned? While it is difficult to predict with specificity what combination of technological, geological, or human factors will significantly minimize global fossil fuel production, there are at least four key potential drivers: 1. Under-investment and the economics of unconventional oil and natural gas; 2. International policy, driven by citizen demand and leadership from key nations; 3. Massive deployment of renewable energy sources and other technological solutions; and 4. Large-scale energy curtailment resulting from global economic contraction. We will explore the implications, viability, and consequences of each of these potential factors. [1] [1]United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Fifteenth Session, held in Copenhagen from 7 to 19 December 2009. Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its Fifteenth Session. United Nations Climate Change Conf. Report 43 (UNFCC, 2009) [2] Raupach, M. R. et al. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions. Nature Clim. Chang. 4, 873-879 (2014)

  11. Female labour force status and fertility behaviour in Bangladesh: search for policy interventions. (United States)

    Chaudhury, R H


    This paper examines the effect of female labor force participation on fertility behavior because of its immediate relevance to the formulation of small family norm policies. The hypothesis that female employment is inversely related to fertility and positively related to contraceptive use is based on the following assumptions: 1) the satisfactions of outside employment can substitute for those of child rearing; 2) employment delays marriage and increases the probability of women remaining single, thus reducing fertility; 3) every additional child increases the "opportunity cost" (income lost) of a working mother; 4) a working wife has more status with her husband, and the resultant improved spousal communication leads to more contraceptive use; and 5) working women do not have to rely on their children for support in their old age. Using data from various rural and urban surveys of women in Bangladesh (mostly in Dhaka) and data from the 1961 Bangladesh Population Census, the author finds that fertility is reduced and contraceptive use increases for poor and illiterate women if they work outside the home, but employment has no effect on fertility for higher educated women, who have comparatively fewer children to begin with. In Java, Indonesia, it was found that poor working women have the lowest fertility compared to any other higher socioeconomic group. In Thailand, too, it was found that women who worked outside the home and who had modern values had significantly fewer children than other women. Evaluations of income generating programs for women in Bangladesh attest to the fertility lowering success of integrating family planning and health services with employment programs. Employment through these cooperatives has also indirectly lowered fertility by leading to longer birth spacing and marriage delays. The author recommends such integrated programs and cooperatives because they enhance the social and economic status of women, and by doing so, modernize the

  12. The Effectiveness of Policies that Promote Labor Force Participation of Women with Children: A Collection of National Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascio, Elizabeth; Haider, Steven; Nielsen, Helena Skyt


    Numerous countries have enacted policies to promote the labor force participation of women around the years of childbearing, and unsurprisingly, many research articles have been devoted to evaluating their effectiveness. Perhaps more surprisingly, however, six such articles were submitted...... Section articles and, more importantly, a discussion of what can be learned from the articles as a collection. Taken together, the articles are quite informative in demonstrating how the effectiveness of policies can vary across different national contexts and how this variation itself can be usefully...

  13. Capturing the Policy that Air Force Raters Use When Writing Performance Appraisals on Junior Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephens, Owen


    This study examined the relationship between four dimensions of performance leadership, task performance, interpersonal facilitation, and job dedication and overall performance by junior officers in the Air Force...

  14. The Rotation and Assignment of Imbalanced Air Force Specialties: A Policy Analysis Model. (United States)


    OCS R = REMO )TE. REQRENM. RIQOS /\\ - _:/ ., --- -- ..70 ~~RI QODL !1 \\ """... . .........................................."- 0 r -~- (0 II ( rI 1 22...Corporate System Model of a Sports Club: Using Simulatiiin as an Aid Policies which alter tour lengths or make minor changes in to Policy Making in a

  15. the politics of trade and industrial policy in africa forced consensus?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second category consists of policies designed to correct market failures associated with technology development and imperfect information. ... The essential feature of all these measures when used as instruments of trade policy is that they drive wedges between the foreign and domestic price of a good or service at a ...

  16. Oak Ridge Reservation volume I. Y-12 mercury task force files: A guide to record series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this guide is to describe each of the series of records identified in the documents of the Y-12 Mercury Task Force Files that pertain to the use of mercury in the separation and enrichment of lithium isotopes at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, which seeks to verify and conduct inventories of epidemiologic and health-related records at various DOE and DOE contractor sites. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project. Specific attention will be given to the history of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation, the development of the Y-12 Plant, and the use of mercury in the production of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s. This introduction provides background information on the Y-12 Mercury Task Force Files, an assembly of documents resulting from the 1983 investigation of the Mercury Task Force into the effects of mercury toxicity upon workplace hygiene and worker health, the unaccountable loss of mercury, and the impact of those losses upon the environment. This introduction also explains the methodology used in the selection and inventory of these record series. Other topics include the methodology used to produce this guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to the collection.

  17. The states/BC oil spill task force - an international model for formulating and influencing public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.; Bones, J.; Dimmick, E.; Kent, L.J.T.; Dunstan, R.; Sutherland, B.


    The States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force was established in 1989 to enhance spill coordination among the West Coast states and British Columbia, and to address a number of issues that became apparent during the Nestucca barge and Exxon Valdez oil spills. Task Force members are the directors of the oil spill prevention and response agencies in Alaska, British Columbia, California, Oregon, and Washington. The Task Force has become a national model for facilitating cooperation and building consensus between coastal states and provinces and their federal governments. In October of 1990, the task force issued a report containing a comprehensive set of recommendations addressing oil spill prevention, preparedness, and response. The group had achieved remarkable consensus, and many of the report's recommendations have been included in recent legislation enacted by the member states. The success of the task force's approach to regional coordination has also reduced the need for a proposed Pacific Oceans Resources Interstate Compact, which has been proposed to expand the states' role in areas of regulation that are otherwise federally preempted. The task force has become an effective mechanism for developing vigorous, productive relationships between government agencies, industry, and the public in both the United States and Canada. It has created important linkages between state provincial antifederal regulatory activities; for example, by providing input to Coast Guard and EPA rulemaking that implemented the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The task force is continuing to advance its goals of promoting public policy on oil spill prevention; cooperative management of major spills by government and industry; protection of the states provincial rights and their natural and economic resources; and inter-governmental consistency in regulations adopted for oil spill prevention, contingency planning, and resource damage assessment

  18. Force Without War....Joint Civilian-Military Coordination Key to Foreign Policy Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Thomas J


    ...: strengths, weaknesses, benefits, costs and political conditions for effective use. Second, to examine the senior civilian-military coordination process when military forces are considered for use in support of diplomatic objectives...

  19. Political Influence on Japanese Nuclear and Security Policy: New Forces Face Large Obstacles


    Tatsumi, Yuki; Weiner, Robert


    Japan’s nuclear weapons policy has long enjoyed a stable, if somewhat internally inconsistent, equilibrium. Anti-proliferation efforts co-exist with reliance upon the United States’ nuclear deterrent, alongside dependence on a nuclear energy program robust enough to potentially support nuclear weapons capability. These policies have been promoted and maintained by Japan’s bureaucracy rather than by political bargains, with their bureaucratic proponents separately stovepipe...

  20. 32 CFR 552.67 - Life insurance policy content. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Life insurance policy content. 552.67 Section 552... Reservations § 552.67 Life insurance policy content. Insurance policies offered and sold on Army installations... premium based on the length of time the policy has been in force. (f) Variable life insurance policies may...

  1. Developing Senior Leaders for the Reserve Components (United States)


    For more information on the Forces and Resources Policy Center, see or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page ). ...some combination of experiences, education, and personal development. Each has an extensive concept of develop- ment—how they define it, what ...policy. First, in what ways can the develop- ment of RC senior leaders be improved? Second, in what ways can reserve component leader development

  2. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury


    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  3. HIV in insurgency forces in sub-Saharan Africa - a personal view of policies. (United States)

    Miles, Steven H


    The special requirements for HIV-prevention programmes by armed forces or insurgency groups in very poor countries that are in active conflict have not been well described. Customary military programme components include: education on sexually transmitted diseases, condom distribution, and HIV testing. Programmes for these armed forces must address: a command structure that may not prioritize this activity, severe resource and logistical constraints, weak health systems for treating sexually transmitted illness, beliefs in traditional medicines for symptoms of sexually transmitted illness, illiteracy that diminishes the utility of educational pamphlets, rape and sexual bartering by soldiers, battlefield transfusions, tattooing and the co-epidemic of tuberculosis.

  4. Parental Entrepreneurship in Public Education: A Social Force or a Policy Problem? (United States)

    Gofen, Anat; Blomqvist, Paula


    Parental involvement in public education is an expression of joint responsibility between parents and the state in which parents are expected to "comply" with current educational policy. Moreover, parents are often perceived as "reactive," whereas the educational administration is seen as proactive, mainly by reducing barriers…

  5. Forces for Failure and Genocide: The Plantation Model of Urban Educational Policy Making in St. Louis (United States)

    Jones, Bruce Anthony


    This article is about policy decision making and racial politics in the St. Louis, Missouri, school district. From a research standpoint, traditional policymaking models are inadequate for explaining the evolution of school reform events in St. Louis over the past year. Teachers, principals, school staff, and parents perceive themselves to be…

  6. Subordinating careers to market forces? A critical analysis of European career guidance policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingela Bergmo-Prvulovic


    Full Text Available This study explores language regarding career and career development in European policy documents on career guidance in order to disclose underlying view(s of these phenomena conveyed in the texts. Qualitative content analysis was used to approach the subject in the texts, followed by a sender-oriented interpretation. Sources for interpretation include several sociological and pedagogical approaches based upon social constructionism. These provide a framework for understanding how different views of career phenomena arise. The characterization of career phenomena in the documents falls into four categories: contextual change, environment-person correspondence, competence mobility, and empowerment. An economic perspective on career dominates, followed by learning and political science perspectives. Policy formulations convey contradictory messages and a form of career 'contract' that appears to subordinate individuals' careers to global capitalism, while attributing sole responsibility for career to individuals.

  7. Hazing in the U.S. Armed Forces: Recommendations for Hazing Prevention Policy and Practice (United States)


    life. 2. Bullying —United States. 3. Hazing— United States—Government policy. 4. Military offenses—United States. 5. Soldiers— United States—Social...for hazing prevention and swift enforcement of punishment for hazing. – Ensure that there are options for reporting anonymously and outside the chain...standalone category in the database P P P P The system tracks bullying separately P The system tracks anonymous reports P P The system tracks initial

  8. Consequence Management: A Disconnect Between National Security Policy and Force Structure? (United States)


    strategic doctrinal development, especially in the consequence management arena. The result is our glaring inability to deal with the aftermaths of...preparedness and consequence management for weapons of mass destruction.”21 Not only is the United States’ position on terrorism defined in strategic ...there is a problem in the fielding of the forces to tackle the consequence management problem. In theory the doctrinal development, 32 conceptual

  9. Pierre Muller's Concept of Referencing Applied to some Forced Displacement Public Policy Instruments in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jimena Holguín


    Full Text Available This text presents how Pierre Muller's concept of public policy referencing is applied to some public policy instruments as analyzed during the 1994 - 2014 period when caring for displaced population. This period allowed the observation of an emergence of a series of images when caring for the displaced that, seen as a whole, make visible the complexity of this phenomenon in terms of public policy. This insofar as how it shows that discourses and actions when caring for the displaced population lack continuity even during the term of the incumbent government, which complicates the caring and restitution of rights processes. The changes in the reference frame (i.e. the collective imagination when caring for displaced population that resulted from the analysis: from a perspective of harm (CONPES 2804 dated 1995, to one of differential care (CONPES 2924 dated 1997; Then to one of specialized care (Law 387 dated 1997, to finally arrive at one of differential care (Law 1448 dated 2011.

  10. Female labour force status and fertility behaviour: some theoretical, methodological and policy issues. (United States)

    Chaudhury, R H


    This study attempts to examine the dynamics of the relationship between female labor force participation and fertility behavior. The assumptions underlying the supposition that labor force status affects fertility are as follows: 1) outside home employment provides alternative satisfactions to having children; 1) marriage is delayed; 3) each child reduces potential income for the mother; 4) working wives improve their status; and 5) independence from children in old age. A working woman will have fewer children and use contraception more frequently if she is paid for her work as much as a man is paid for his and has status; can participate in community and family decision-making; is committed to her work; finds it hard to transfer child-care responsibilities to others; and works for a long period before having children. Labor force participation is dependent on several variables such as age, education, duration of marriage, husband-wife role relationship, fecundity, and availability of contraception. The reasons why women do not work, e.g., too many children, not enough opportunity, have not been adequately studied. Few studies have controlled for all the variables to determine the net effect of female work status on fertility, and their findings are inconclusive. In developing countries more opportunities for women will open up as male attitudes become less negative toward women working outside the home.

  11. 14. Policies and Institutions - Nongovernmental organizations: A growing force in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.; Paden, M.


    An extraordinarily diverse and growing body of private organizations now dot the world's institutional landscape, working in a variety of areas such as small-scale local development, the conservation of tropical forests, and sustainable agriculture. Working at many levels, through example or advocacy these groups are influencing the direction of environment and development policy around the world. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are extraordinarily diverse. This chapter provides a few examples to capture some of that diversity, but focuses mainly on the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs, on the relationship between governments and NGOs, and on some emerging trends. The chapter primarily concerns the newly emerging grassroots and service NGOs in developing countries and those Northern NGOs that work extensively in developing countries. Topics discussed are: origins and regional differences (northern NGOs with a mission in the south, Asia, Latin America, Africa); strengths and weaknesses; key organizational factors (getting started, getting bigger, the impact of leadership, the role of women); government-NGO relations; emerging trends (evolving North-South relations, networks and associations - forging larger alliances, the information explosion global networking, new roles for policy research and legal defense)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Davenport

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agrarian reform settlements have recently been identified as a major contributor to ongoing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Collective forest reserves were established in some settlements to thwart forest loss, but settlers usually do not recognize forest commons, opting instead for continued private accumulation through forest clearing, or a "non-commons" tragedy. Pathways toward ensuring the viability of common-pool management in settlements remain unclear. Our case study focused on two similarly sized settlements in neighboring municipalities in Northwest Mato Grosso, Brazil, each with formally designated collective forest areas. In one, deforestation shifted into the collective reserve and intensified; in the other, deforestation stabilized and the collective reserve was protected. In the latter, settlers understood their collective forest reserve as a commonly held asset, with two commercially viable settlement cooperatives involved in Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa extractivism and added value processing. We analyze differences between the two settlements using Elinor Ostrom's framework for analysis of socio-ecological systems, and identify the locally applied policy mix ensuring the viability of a forest commons. The study concludes that "top-down" efforts to institutionalize collective governance over remaining forests will likely fail in most settlements, without a focus on alternative livelihood opportunities synergetic with forest tenure.

  13. The Use and Management of the Electromagnetic Spectrum, Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Seven, Part I. (United States)

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy analyses the use of the electromagnetic spectrum for communications and suggests improvements. The evolution of spectrum use and its present federal management are described together with the problem of achieving efficient use in the areas of electromagnetic congestion. Criticism…

  14. Recommendations concerning Tennessee's hazardous waste management policies by a task force representing generators, environmentalists, and other key constituencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W.; English, M.R.


    Four recommendations are proposed. 1) A Governor's Roundtable on Hazardous and Solid Wastes should be established to ensure that Tennessee have sound policies and plans for waste management, adequate waste treatment and disposal capacity, and the means to meet the October, 1989 deadline for certification of hazardous waste capacity. 2) Opportunities for early public information and participation in Tennessee's RCRA permitting process should be improved. 3) A Superfund Public Involvement Task Force should be appointed by the Commissioner of Health and Environment to find ways to ensure that a community affected by a Tennessee Superfund site has early and adequate opportunities for information and involvement. 4) Communications about hazardous waste issues should be improved by the appointment of a hazardous waste information officer, the establishment of a Speakers Bureau, the funding of the UT Center for Industrial Services' Hazardous Waste Extension Program, establishment of a crisis situation network of consultants for communities, and exploration of the possibility of Amnesty Days for household hazardous waste and for small-quantity generators waste

  15. Policy and Practice: The Role of Trade Unions in Reducing Migrant Workers’ Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Marks


    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of what trade unions can offer to reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers to forced labour and human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS and Malaysia as a key destination for GMS migrant workers. The exploration of the potential for the engagement of trade union partners is a timely contribution to the forced labour and anti-trafficking debate, given the shift towards a more holistic labour rights approach, and the ensuing search for more actors and partnerships to combat these crimes, which led to adoption of the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, (Forced Labour Protocol in June 2014. Examples from Malaysia and Thailand highlight the role that trade unions can play in policy development and service provision, and also some of the challenges associated with unionisation of a vulnerable, temporary, and often repressed, migrant workforce.

  16. The Military Policy of the Rousseff Government: Reflections on the Conduct of the Armed Forces in the UPP and the MINUSTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzeley Kalil Mathias


    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze how operations to guarantee order are represented in the military policy of the government of Dilma Rouseff and how these missions are related to the creation of the Police Pacification Units (UPP in Brazil. The UPPs are a key attribute of public security of the government carioca in Brazil and by extension the Brazilian state. The question is whether the missions of the Brazilian armed forces reinforce or are contrary to the foreign policy of the Rouseff government? To parse this issue, this article is divided into three parts. This first section analyzes the legal framework that governs the Brazilian armed forces as well as the country’s contemporary military policy. This establishes the theoretical basis for the issues analyzed in this article. In the next section we describe the UPPs and why they were created, focusing on the case of Rio de Janeiro. Finally we examine several aspects of the participation of the Brazilian armed forces in the United Nations Mission for the Stabilization of Haiti (MINUSTAH.

  17. An uncertain future: South Africa’s National Defence Force caught between foreign-policy ambitions and domestic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas


    In June 2015, the South African Parliament passed the long-awaited defence review (DR2015). The aim of the review was to stop the decline of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) and to create an economical and sustainable force structure capable of continuing to fulfil its...... interviews, primary documentary research and an extensive academic literature review conducted from 2000 to 2017....

  18. Early and Forced Child Marriage on Girls' Education, in Migori County, Kenya: Constraints, Prospects and Policy (United States)

    Ganira, Lilian K.; Inda, Nancy A.; Odundo, Paul A.; Akondo, Joseph Ochieng; Ngaruiya, Boniface


    Early and forced marriage infringes rights of women and girls globally, undermining initiatives to raise involvement in education, reduce maternal mortality, increase employment and enterprise levels. Parental and Communal involvement in Early and Forced Child Marriage negatively influence Girls' Education, which hinders their participation in…

  19. The Creative Application of Science, Technology and Work Force Innovations to the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charboneau, S.; Klos, B.; Heineman, R.; Skeels, B.; Hopkins, A.


    's approach to overcome these challengers are described. Many of the challenges to the D and D work at PFP were met with innovative approaches based on new science and/or technology and many were also based on the creativity and motivation of the work force personnel. (authors)

  20. Reservations about the conclusions of the interdivisional (APA Divisions 12 & 29) task force on evidence-based therapy relationships: what do we know, what don't we know? (United States)

    Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Cronin, Timothy J; Norton, Peter J; Lai, Jerry; Hofmann, Stefan G


    We offer a critical and constructive appraisal of the conclusions provided by the Interdivisional (American Psychological Association [APA] Divisions 12 & 29) Task Force on Evidence-Based Therapy Relationships. We highlight problems in overlapping terminology and definitions, as well as problems in the conduct of its meta-analyses (i.e., duplication of studies between reviews, inappropriate study inclusion, and use of measures of specific constructs for the calculation of effects for multiple relationship elements). On this basis, we express reservation about the conclusions offered by the APA Task Force. This special issue explores whether there are other therapeutic relationship elements that warrant consideration and further study. We were particularly interested in those elements that showed promise based on empirical or theoretical grounds, and in each article, we asked for an account of how the case formulation would guide the methods of adaptation for each individual client, and how the element would contribute to clinically relevant changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA in the Philippines: Insights on Issues of Sovereignty, Security and Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony M. Velasco


    Full Text Available The study intends to compare the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA between the Philippines and the United States of America and the VFA between the Philippines and Australia. The research piece is arranged in the following flow of ideas. The first and the second part provides the foundations by highlighting issues on definition, historical background, provisions of the agreement and concerns faced by the agreement of the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America and the Status of the Visiting Forces Agreement (SOVFA between the Republic of the Philippines and Australia. The third part is an analysis of the VFA and the SOVFA under the tutelage of the framework on the non-intervention principle. As a result, the provisions of SOVFA were in consonance with the legal arrangement in the Philippines than the VFA with the United States of America.

  2. An Inventory of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates and Calculation of Selected Biotic Indices for the U.S. Army Atterbury Reserve Forces Training Area near Edinburgh, Indiana, September 2000 - August 2002 (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.


    An investigation was conducted to establish an inventory of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the streams at the U.S. Army Atterbury Reserve Forces Training Area near Edinburgh, Indiana. The data used to develop this inventory were collected during two sampling efforts in September 2000 and July and August 2002. The inventory identified 173 distinct taxa within the study-area streams. Although no rare or endangered species were found, one identified species, Cordulegaster maculata Selys (a twin-spotted spiketail dragonfly), is recognized by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources as being rare enough to warrant special concern.

  3. How Funding and Policy Affect Access to and Modernization of Major Air Force Ground Test Infrastructure Assets (United States)


    high Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E) suitability failure rates.xi “Early in the DSB study it became obvious that high suitability...directly against flight and IOT &E testing needs, and a lack of policy to support tester involvement in technology development. Due to the funding

  4. Changing the Air Force Disqualification Policy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Trauma-Related Disorders (United States)


    mental health care . The goal of the aeromedical/occupational evaluation is to make a recommendation as to the service member’s readiness to return...and pastoral counseling, the other did not have any treatment, and both were still exhibiting symptoms at time of evaluation. These aviators were...fullest extent possible while maintaining flight safety removes barriers to care and facilitates aviator treatment. The new policy requires mental

  5. Following the Flag: An Air Force Officer Provides an Eyewitness View of Major Events and Policies during the Cold War (United States)


    as they crossed the Mediterranean . Unable to supply ammunition, tanks, fuel, and troop reinforcements, Hitler sacrificed his stranded African forces...Truman knew the first nuclear explosion at Al- amogordo, New Mexico , on 6 July 945 had been successful the day after he arrived at Potsdam and...from bends, breathing 100 percent oxygen for at least one-half hour before the flight and eating a low-residue diet can signifi- cantly reduce the

  6. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.


    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of

  7. Transformation of Taiwan’s Reserve Force (United States)


    sim - ulations, and games have important value, but they miss other quali- tative factors that history shows are important and often decisive for...deployed on Taiwan’s frontline islands at locations that Wins Most Gold Medals at Asia Pacific ICT Competition,” Focus Taiwan, November 26, 2015; and John...are sim - ilar in one key respect: They confront an overtly hostile neighbor (in Taiwan’s case) or neighbors (in Israel’s) who pose an existential


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.


    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  9. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  10. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    , Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...

  11. Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Michael R


    .... It looks at the manner in which security assistance guidance is developed and executed. An examination of national level policy and the guidance from senior military and civilian leaders highlights the important role of Security Force Assistance...

  12. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121 [Reserved] ...

  13. Training and Organization of the U.S. Army Reserve Components: A reference Text for Total Force Trainers and a Guide to Other U.S. Military Services, 1988-1989 (United States)


    Crisis and many served in Vietnam. Today, there are 12,000 membe s of the Selected Reserve serving in virtually all Coast Guard missioh areas. 2...emergency health and sanitation efforts. Since its inception, the PHS and its Commissioned Corps have witnessed and played a major role in virtually ...initiatives and programs carried out by the following staff offices within the Office of the Asistant Secretary for Health: o The Office of Disease

  14. Multiple sclerosis among service members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. Armed Forces and among other beneficiaries of the Military Health System, 2007-2016. (United States)

    Williams, Valerie F; Stahlman, Shauna; Ying, Saixia


    During 2007-2016, a total of 2,031 active component service members received incident diagnoses of multiple sclerosis (MS), for an overall unadjusted incidence rate of 14.9 cases per 100,000 p-yrs. The average overall unadjusted rate among reserve/guard members during this surveillance period was 6.9 cases per 100,000 persons. In both components, women had a higher overall incidence of MS than men across all race/ethnicity groups. Overall rates of MS were highest among non-Hispanic black service members. Crude annual incidence rates among active component members decreased slightly during 2007-2016, while rates among reserve/guard members were relatively stable. Among active component members, the annual female-to-male incidence ratios decreased during the 10-year period (3.7:1 in 2007 to 2.5:1 in 2016). Annual numbers of incident cases of MS decreased among non-service member Military Health System beneficiaries during this period. The median age at MS case-defining diagnosis was 32 years among active component members, 37 years among reserve/guard members, and 48 years among non-service member beneficiaries. The median time intervals between initial presentation and case-defining MS-related encounter ranged from 15 days among reserve/guard component members to 20 days among active component service members. This study makes a useful contribution to the literature on temporal changes in the incidence of MS by sex and race/ethnicity.

  15. Multiregional Input-Output Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Evolution Driving Force for Carbon Emissions Embodied in Interprovincial Trade and Optimization Policies: Case Study of Northeast Industrial District in China. (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Dong, Suocheng; Li, Fujia; Yang, Yang; Li, Shantong; Li, Yu


    In the counties with rapid economy and carbon emissions (CEs) growth, CEs embodied in interprovincial trade (CEs-PT) significantly impacts the CEs amount and structure and represents a key issue to consider in CEs reduction policies formulation. This study applied EEBT and two-stage SDA model to analyze the characteristics and driving force of spatial-temporal evolution for net CEs-PT outflow in the Northeast Industrial District of China (NID). We found that, during 1997-2007, the net CEs-PT flowed out from NID to 16 south and east provinces, then to 23 provinces all over China, and its amount has increased 216.798Mt (by 211.67% per year). The main driving forces are technology and demand (further decomposed into structure and scale matrix); the contribution are 71.6418 Mt and 145.1562 Mt. Then, we constructed coupling relationship model and took the top three industries with the greatest net CEs-PT outflow (farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, electricity and heat production and supply, petroleum processing, coking, and nuclear fuel processing) as examples, adjusted the interprovincial trade constructions, scales, and objects, to reduce the CEs-PT with lower costs, greater effect, and more equitability. The achievement could provide reference for formulating CEs reduction policies for similar areas in the world characterized by rapid growth of economy and CEs.

  16. 48 CFR 9904.404-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  17. 48 CFR 9904.401-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  18. 48 CFR 9904.400 - [Reserved (United States)



  19. 48 CFR 9904.402-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  20. 48 CFR 9904.405-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  1. 48 CFR 9904.407-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  2. 48 CFR 9904.408-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  3. 48 CFR 9904.406-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  4. 48 CFR 9904.403-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  5. 10 CFR 51.110 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Rulemaking § 51.110 [Reserved] Public Notice of and Access to Environmental Documents ...

  6. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1991 (United States)


    utilizing WMrcha’t Marine Academy gr , ,ates and Naval Reserve Officer Training Course S’(NROTC)/Student Incentive Progrim (SIP) graduates from state...personnel gr , atly enhances the mobilization and combat readiness of the Total Force. Several new medical programs were implemented by the Reserve components...Defense Force Chief of Joint Staff, Defense Command * Mendez, Honorable Enrique Jr., M.D. Norway Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs

  7. 12 CFR 614.4710 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 614.4710 Section 614.4710 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4710 [Reserved] ...

  8. 7 CFR 1780.8 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.8 Section 1780.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.8 [Reserved] ...

  9. 7 CFR 1780.5 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.5 Section 1780.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.5 [Reserved] ...

  10. 7 CFR 1780.12 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.12 Section 1780.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.12 [Reserved] ...

  11. 15 CFR 2003.3 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 2003.3 Section 2003.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS OF TRADE POLICY STAFF COMMITTEE § 2003.3 [Reserved] ...

  12. Cognitive reserve in aging. (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  13. Counterterrorism policy in Colombia


    Self, Kevin A.


    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest a coherent, credible, and long-term counterterrorism policy in Colombia. The events of September 11, 2001 heightened U.S. awareness of Colombian terrorist organizations, the most powerful being the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The U.S. counterterror approach in Colombia appears fragmented, with only minor changes to its previous drug control policies. In contrast, the Colombian government has developed and implemented a policy to ...

  14. Forced Dependency and Legal Barriers: Implications of the UK’s Immigration and Social Security Policies for Minoritized Women Living in Abusive Intimate Relationships in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica McWilliams


    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexities of the help-seeking process of minoritized women (primarily asylum-seekers and immigrants experiencing domestic violence in Northern Ireland. The term ‘minoritized’ is used here to emphasize that “minority” status is not a static or innate trait of certain groups but instead is the outcome of a process of being positioned as a minority. The paper addresses the intersections of ethnicity, nationality, class and gender and shows how state policies in relation to immigration and social security reinforce inequalities in gendered power relations. Despite attempts to improve the social security and immigration systems, the findings from a Northern Ireland study show how recent policy changes have not addressed the systemic institutional racism and institutionalised patriarchy in these agencies. Where avenues for action are undermined by such practices, the policies raise concerns about the safety and protection of minoritized women living in abusive relationships. We argue that the UK is failing to meet its human rights responsibilities to provide adequate support and assistance to minoritized women in abusive relationships and conclude that delivering state accountability alongside a human rights framework based on security, autonomy, liberty and equality is what is needed. Este artículo analiza las complejidades del proceso de búsqueda de ayuda en Irlanda del Norte para mujeres pertenecientes a minorías (principalmente solicitantes de asilo e inmigrantes que sufren violencia doméstica. El término 'minoritarizadas' se utiliza aquí para hacer hincapié en que la situación de "minoría" no es un rasgo estático o innato de ciertos grupos, sino que es el resultado de un proceso de ser posicionado como una minoría. El artículo aborda las intersecciones de origen étnico, nacionalidad, clase y género y muestra cómo las políticas estatales en relación a la inmigración y la seguridad social

  15. Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smale, Pauline


    .... The Federal Reserve formulates the nation's monetary policy, supervises and regulates banks, and provides a variety of financial services to depository financial institutions and the federal government...

  16. Foreign Exchange Reserves and the Reserve Bank’s Balance Sheet


    Christian Vallence


    The Reserve Bank of Australia holds and manages the nation’s foreign exchange reserve assets in order to meet its policy objectives. While Australia’s foreign exchange reserves are relatively modest by international standards, they nonetheless constitute a sizeable portion of the Bank’s balance sheet, and variations in the Australian dollar value of these reserves are usually the most volatile component of the Bank’s profit and loss statement. This article discusses some of the key decisions ...

  17. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  19. Labor Force (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012


    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  20. Annual Report of the Secretary of Defense on Reserve Forces (United States)


    State On-Site Units El iminated R•plsccenent Units Hawaii I Group ilq and 1lq I Fi:eld Depxit 11l and By t tje Vy llq Company 4 F:iring Batteries co&tas. Originally $120.1 million war prograined for active duty t.rain Luig of Rescrve Enlistment Program jpers.•n1( el . Subi;,queiit r...groups of tOe mall surf&-e division in Tallahassee, Florida., Ahere Project ITKCH ti conducted at Florid4 State Univerdity .ducation Research Center

  1. Enhancing the Wellness of Reserve Forces: A Strategic Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pufal, Sandra


    ... maintenance program and the Department of Defense HOOAH4HEALTH promotion program. Wellness is the integration of body, mind, and spirit to produce a balanced lifestyle by practicing good health habits and eliminating harmful ones...

  2. Theater Sustainment Reserve for the Rwanda Defence Forces (United States)


    with pockets of poverty among the unemployed youth (Bremmer 2015). Since 2013, Al-Shabaab has launched high- profile operations. Most publicized...among those are the September 2013 Westgate Mall attack in Nairobi and the May 2014 attack against a restaurant in Djibouti. The Westgate attack killed...Tanzania’s annual GDP, and affected a wide range of local consumers , businesses and government agencies” (The World Bank 2013). The World Bank

  3. Operational Reservations: Considerations for a Total Army Force (United States)


    compo- nent can practice every single day. The Guard gets to practice 39-40 days out of the year. So if you want a football team that can do one...true.” How so? They are fac - tual, common-sense statements. It is beyond this author’s under- standing how RC leaders can believe that training part

  4. Total Army Cyber Mission Force: Reserve Component Integration (United States)


    Traditional Part-Time Soldiers C2 Command and Control METL Mission Essential Task List CEH Certified Ethical Hacker MI Guard’s Cyber Backbone Network CMF...16 RC Sources and Resourcing Authorities (12301-12304) .......................................................... 16 End...terrorism and it received the highest priority for allocation of intelligence resources . In 2013, the Director National Intelligence (DNI) identified

  5. Implementing Smart Cards into the Air Force Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClannan, Keith


    Smart card technology is essentially about a credit card with a brain. Smart cards have an embedded microchip that allows the card to hold digital data up to the available memory installed on the card...

  6. Implementing Smart Cards into the Air Force Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClannan, Keith


    Smart card technology is essentially about a credit card with a brain, Smart cards have an embedded microchip that allows the card to hold digital data up to the available memory installed on the card...

  7. Marine Forces Reserve: Accelerating Knowledge Flow through Asynchronous Learning Technologies (United States)


    Worth, TX) 25th Mar (Devens, MA) *24th Mar (Kansas City, MO) 23rd Mar (San Bruno , CA) MAG-49 (JB MDL, NJ) MAG-41 (Ft. Worth, TX) UNCLASSIFIED/FOUO...5 MFR Organizational Portrait COMMARFORRES (New Orleans, LA) HQ Bn (New Orleans, LA) 4th Marine Aircraft Wing (New Orleans, LA) 14th Mar (Ft

  8. Enhancing the Wellness of Reserve Forces: A Strategic Challenge (United States)


    reduce the risk of cancer . Alcohol is being consumed at an early age and without intervention , addiction is inevitable. Use of alcohol can lead to...stress management, alcohol and drug abuse prevention, communicable and chronic disease prevention (including cancer and cardiovascular disease prevention...this survey indicated: "* The majority (55%) of the male soldiers does not examine their testicles for lumps. "* The majority of the male respondents

  9. Improved Distance Learning Environment For Marine Forces Reserve (United States)


    devices at an increasing rate, (2) becoming familiar with their usage and capabilities, and (3) connecting more to the Internet . The three...other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for...The current alternative is for MFR personnel to use personal devices outside of the Nonsecure Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET). This

  10. Suitability of Missions for the Air Force Reserve Components (United States)


    Antenna Systems 116 9.2 123 6.9 1C21 Combat Control 492 9.2 35 6.1 3 1.7 1A81 Airborne Crypto Language Anal 1,365 8.9 79 5.2 28...requirements, represented by the RAP in the case of the F-16 and comparable currency and proficiency requirements for mobility units. Deployment demand and

  11. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi


    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...


    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  13. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja


    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  14. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.


    reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  15. Skyline Reservation System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  16. Forced marriage. (United States)


    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at

  17. ROTC Policy Regarding Homosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee S. Duemer


    Full Text Available This is a policy analysis, in a historical context, of how Association of American University institutions responded to Reserve Officer Training Corps policy excluding homosexuals. The time period for this study is 1982 to 1992. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data and arrive at conclusions. Secondary data provide additional depth and background. This study reveals seven different positions institutions have taken in response to ROTC policy, these include: supporting ROTC policy, neutrality, collective action, barring military recruiters from campus, distancing the institution from ROTC, and changing the campus climate. This includes examples taken from AAU institutions and rationales behind making policy decisions.

  18. 32 CFR 903.5 - Reserve enlistment procedures. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve enlistment procedures. 903.5 Section 903.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS AIR FORCE ACADEMY PREPARATORY SCHOOL § 903.5 Reserve enlistment procedures. (a) Civilians...

  19. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja


    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  20. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia


    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  1. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.


    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  2. Study on Online Hotel Reservation Systems


    Alleweldt, Frank; Tonner, Klaus; McDonald, Marc


    This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. Key conclusions The study shows that the impact of Community law on online hotel

  3. 10 CFR 51.99 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 51.99 Section 51.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental...

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.


    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  5. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.W.


    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year

  6. Energy policy in Maghreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, S.


    This paper presents energy policy in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Statistical data on fossil fuels reserves and renewable energy sources are given. This paper describes also energy consumption and energy conservation, power generation and interconnected power systems. 5 tabs


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  8. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.


    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  9. School Shootings Stun Reservation (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean


    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  11. Nuclear and uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNabb, G.M.; Uranium Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario)

    The background of the uranium industry in Canada is described. Government policies with respect to ownership of the uranium mining industry, price stabilization, and especially reservation of sufficient supplies of nuclear fuels for domestic utilities, are explained. Canadian policy re nuclear exports and safeguards is outlined. (E.C.B.)

  12. 32 CFR 151.3 - Policy. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 National Defense... FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Defense to protect, to the maximum extent possible, the rights of U.S. personnel who may be subject to criminal trial by...

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  14. Security Force Assistance: Cases and Policy (United States)


    doctrine to reflect both the importance of political interest alignment and the ubiquity of misalignment. Provide explicit doctrinal guidance on...deadline/128879/?oref=d-river Biddle, Stephen and Jacob Shapiro. “The Problem with Vows to ’Defeat’ the Islamic State,” Atlantic Monthly blog , August

  15. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve]. (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S


    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  16. U.S. asylum policy and the New World Order. (United States)

    Briggs, V M


    US policy on refugees was developed as an ad hoc response to the problem of displaced persons in Europe following the Second World War and quickly became a foreign policy tactic to be manipulated in the context of the Cold War political struggle. It was not until 1980 that the US formally adopted an asylee policy in legislative forum. That policy, too, was affected by the Cold War. The dismantlement of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, however, have radically changed the dynamics of refugee and asylee issues. Refugee and asylee pressures are increasingly being linked with the broader worldwide issues of population growth, unbalanced economic development, and migration pressures. New refugee and asylum policies are required in the new world order which are not predicated upon the need to respond to communism. These policies must be reserved for truly persecuted individuals. The author discusses the creation of an asylum policy, mass asylum, and pending policy reforms. The refugee system provides a means of access for many people looking to escape the poverty, unemployment, and destitution of their homeland. Asylum policy is the most vulnerable element of refugee policy for exploitation. To alleviate the economic forces which lie at the core of asylum abuse will require more fundamental policies than the procedural changes currently under consideration by Congress or those proposed by President Clinton. Among them must be policies which promote family planning and provide the means for its practice; expand commitments to economic development assistance; and link trade access to the US marketplace and the receipt of foreign aid to the strict adherence of internationally specified human rights practices.

  17. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem


    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  18. Counterterrorism: Policy of Preemptive Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westphal, Stephen


    The tragic events of September 11, 2001(911), and the devastating effects that those cowardly acts of terrorism had on our nation and the world, have forced us to review and reevaluate our country's counterterrorism policy...

  19. Fractional Reserve Banking


    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas


    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  20. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer...

  1. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols (United States)

    Charlson, R. J.; Schwartz, S. E.; Hales, J. M.; Cess, R. D.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Hansen, J. E.; Hofmann, D. J.


    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, in particular, has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  2. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlson, R.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Hales, J.M.; Cess, R.D.; Coakley, J.A. Jr.; Hansen, J.E.; Hofmann, D.J. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA (USA). Inst. for Environmental Studies, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences)


    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol in particular has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square metre, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes. 73 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Manpower Policy and Programmes in Canada. Reviews of Manpower and Social Policies No. 4. (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report describes the Canadian labor force and economic climate, and the employment and manpower policies which comprise Canada's active manpower policy. Expanded programs for vocational and technical training are recommended, especially for unemployed youth. (BH)

  4. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.


    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  5. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences. (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D


    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.

  6. Reserve valuation in electric power systems (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  7. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  8. Liberal Coercion? - Prostitution, Human Trafficking and Policy


    Seo-Young Cho


    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  9. 32 CFR 144.4 - Policy. (United States)


    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SERVICE BY MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES ON STATE AND LOCAL JURIES § 144.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to permit members of the Armed Forces to maximally fulfill their civic responsibilities consistent with their military...

  10. National Guard Special Forces: Enhancing the Contributions of Reserve Component Army Special Operations Forces (United States)


    Jackson, MS Glen Arm, MD 20 Jackson, MS Citronelle , AL Decatur, AL 20 Ft Payne, AL Louisville, KY Figure 2.3 Geographical Distribution of ARNG Special...Grenada, MS HQ/2/20th SFG BSC/2/20th SFG Jackson, MS B/1/20th SFG Citronelle , AL DET 1/B/1/20th Decatur, AL C/3/20th SFG Wauchula, FL A/3/20th SFG

  11. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers (United States)


    of one day of basic pay for each unit training assembly ( UTA ) they attend. A UTA is generally a four-hour period of instruction, and there are assembly ( UTA ), one point for each day of annual training (AT), and one point for each day of active duty. Points can also be earned for completing... on the vitality of the reserve components, such as funding, equipment, and personnel policy. This report is designed to provide an overview of key


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Robert


    ..., satisfaction with aspects of Guard and Reserve life, and other quality of life issues. Together with the 1999 Active Duty Surveys of Members and Spouses, the RCS provide a comprehensive picture of the Total Force...

  13. Maximum currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  14. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?


    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut


    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  15. American energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmuntz, L.


    US energy policy has oscillated between public- and private-sector responsibility for many years. The history of energy policies reflects the differences in consumption and production of six competing regional interests as well as strong philosophical and economic differences, which allow changes in voting patterns to bring abrupt changes in policy. Other factors affecting US policy are the quality of energy forecasts, the religious fervor of the proponents of a sustainable society, and conflict with some environmental regulations. Energy policies should address a broad range of possible scenarios, with a goal of providing adequate energy at the lowest possible cost and with reasonable security. The Reagan administration will support an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the reform of overseas investment regulations, and the reform of gas and electric utility regulations. It will not support the World Bank energy facility or bilaterial long-term minimum purchase agreement. It may support oil tariffs or price guarantees for domestic prototype facilities. 7 tables.

  16. Sustainability Policy and the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Jens; Reisch, Lucia


    for sustainable consumption. Pending policy initiatives about to be taken by the Community, this paper intends to identify some of these barriers and depict the growth of sustainable consumption policy in Europe. It presents the existent tools of Community law and seeks to show the recently enhanced position......Growing awareness of environmental and social concern and the pressing issue of climate change have forcefully re-established sustainability policy as a part of consumer policy. The need for change in consumer behaviour and for more responsible lifestyles on the demand-side of the economy...... is challenging conventional concepts of consumer law and policy. While in particular EC policy traditionally relied on information and other "light-touch" instruments, it appears timely to reflect on the effectiveness of this policy and the expediency of measures intended to overcome persistent barriers...

  17. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.F.


    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  18. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HURWITZ, Justin; Layton, Roslyn


    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented...

  19. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  20. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Security Forces Operations Facility, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Elizabeth; Myklebust, Jessica; Denier, James; Christner, Jennifer; Fontaine, Kathyrn


    The United States Air Force (USAF) has prepared this EA in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act to evaluate the potential environmental and social impacts from the construction and operation of the proposed SFOF...

  1. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement. (United States)


    ... to increase the amount of reserves maintained to a level essential for the conduct of monetary policy... Bank Board, and the National Credit Union Administration Board, the Board may impose a supplemental... reserve ratios established by the Monetary Control Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-221) in effect on September 1...

  2. 34 CFR 97.104-97.106 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 97.104-97.106 Section 97.104-97.106... the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) §§ 97.104-97.106 [Reserved] ...

  3. Coriolis Force (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel


    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  4. Joining Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Mette


    The interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown dramatically over the last three years in Greenland. A vast geographical area with a tiny population, Greenland has recently obtained self-government status and is going through a rapid development economically and socially...... as the country moves towards embracing extractive industries (oil, gas and mining) as a path to development. Both government, civil society and business are increasingly looking for new and innovative ways of joining forces across sectors to solve some of the country's many critical social issues. Greenlandic...... companies have over the last 23 years embraced the concept of strategic CSR and are increasingly engaging in cross-sector partnerships as part of their CSR strategy. The partnerships take different forms both in regards to number of partners, focus areas and level of strategic engagement. In the article...

  5. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.


    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  6. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective (United States)

    Sadeh, Eligar


    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  7. Redmedial Action Plan for the Risk-Based Remediation of Site ST14 (SWMU 68), LPSTID 104819; the Former Base Refueling Area (A0C7); the French Underdrain System (SWMU 64); and the North Oil/Water Separator (SWMU 67), Carswell Air Force Base, Naval Air Station Fort Worth Joint Reserve Base, Texas. Volume 1: Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) to prepare a remedial action plan (RAP) in support of a risk-based remediation decision for soil and groundwater contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons at Site ST14 at Carswell Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...

  8. Fractional Reserve in Banking System


    Valkonen, Maria


    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  9. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettweis, G.


    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  10. Unemployment insurance and reservation wages : evidence from administrative data


    Le Barbanchon, Thomas; Rathelot, Roland; Roulet, Alexandra


    Although the reservation wage plays a central role in job search models, empirical evidence on the determinants of reservation wages, including key policy variables such as unemployment insurance (UI), is scarce. In France, unemployed people must declare their reservation wage to the Public Employment Service when they register to claim UI benefits. We take advantage of these rich French administrative data and of a reform of UI rules to estimate the effect of the Potential Benefit Duration (...

  11. CERN anti-fraud policy

    CERN Multimedia


    In 2011, a working group on improved fraud prevention and management was established. The group was composed of the Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, the Head of the Human Resources Department, and the Heads of the Legal Service and Internal Audit. It recommended the adoption of a global fraud prevention and management policy.   The global fraud prevention and management policy was implemented through the CERN Anti-Fraud Policy, which was endorsed by the Enlarged Directorate in May 2012 and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 1 January 2013. The CERN Anti-Fraud Policy defines the Organization’s policy in matters of fraud.  CERN has a zero tolerance approach towards fraud, as it would compromise the accomplishment of its objectives and undermine its functioning, credibility and reputation. The policy also states CERN’s commitment to the prevention, identification and investigation of fraud. All CERN contributors have a key rol...

  12. Considerations upon sales force management


    Codruţ Dura


    Sales management involves sales planning (the process of establishing a broad set of goals, policies and procedures for achieving objectives), organizing the sales function (by establishing sales organizations structured geographically, by product types, by market or customer classes, or by function), staffing the sales function (including recruiting salespeople and interviewing, testing and hiring them), directing the sales force (via training and motivating) and evaluating and controlling s...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The recent crisis demonstrated once again the importance of maintaining an adequate level of the international reserves as part of the defense of a country against the shocks internationally transmitted. Liquidity buffers aided the good functioning of financial systems, and allowed countries to cope with sudden foreign capital stops or to manage massive outflows without facing a costly crisis. This logic has been strengthened in the context of the crisis from 2008, when countries with lots of reserves, such as China or Brazil, came through better than those with lower liquid assets. Economists have argued that developing countries need reserves mainly to cover urgent imports and short-term debts. The current level of global reserves far exceeds this traditional postulate. In this context, it is necessary to rethink the adequacy of the level of constituting the reserves portfolio. The dominance of the dollar as a reserve currency, another important feature of the current reserves portfolio, makes the holders become vulnerable to the monetary policy of FED. A greater flexibility of the currency will also be needed. The often called the “trilemma” of international economics dictates: when capital is mobile, countries must choose between fixing their currencies and controlling their domestic monetary conditions. They cannot do both. The domestic currency inflexibility will ultimately lead to asset bubbles and inflation. The pressure of capital flows will depend on the prospects of rich economies, especially America’s. The increment of emerging economies availability to allow the exchange rate to move will depend on what China does - and China may remain forever linked to the dollar. The emergence of a global currency that constitute a genuine means of exchange or the use of cross-border multifaceted cash pools common to IMF members would reduce systemic risks. International regulations for countries with persistent trade surpluses could be a

  14. The role of financial intermediaries in monetary policy transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Colciago, A.; Pfajfar, D.

    The recent financial crisis has stimulated theoretical and empirical research on the propagation mechanisms underlying business cycles, in particular on the role of financial frictions. Many issues concerning the interactions between banking and monetary policy forced policy makers to redefine

  15. The Warriors Future Directions in Japanese Security Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Norman


    .... We focused on two key areas in making our assessment: the broad policy trends in Japan and Japanese perspectives on evolving regional and global developments, and the force structure and operational capabilities of Japan's Self-Defense Forces (SDF...

  16. Israel's Gender Equality Policy in Education: Revolution or Containment? (United States)

    Eden, Devorah


    Examines Israel's policy of gender equality in education, discussing: social and economic forces that created the demand for equality; political processes for implementing the policy; and policy content. Data from interviews and document reviews indicate that the policy was devised to address concerns of high-tech industries and women,…

  17. Competition policy costs to firms


    Agostinho, André Demmich Barbosa


    The existence of competition policy forces companies to adjust their behaviour. This is also costly. Using a database from a company on contracts, I will try to estimate if a specific competition policy disposition, supply contracts cannot be longer than 60 months, has costs for the coffee suppliers operating in the Portuguese “on-trade” coffee market. The estimation method used in this paper will be OLS. The results suggest that limiting the duration of exclusivity contracts t...

  18. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success. (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc


    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C


    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  20. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications. (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina


    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Globalization and US Foreign Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amland, George


    .... Globalization is the force that in some instances is assisting US foreign policy. At the same time, other elements of globalization are eroding US desires with respect to Iranian programs in WMD...

  2. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations. (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  3. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve? (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico


    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  4. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  5. DelPhiForce web server: electrostatic forces and energy calculations and visualization. (United States)

    Li, Lin; Jia, Zhe; Peng, Yunhui; Chakravorty, Arghya; Sun, Lexuan; Alexov, Emil


    Electrostatic force is an essential component of the total force acting between atoms and macromolecules. Therefore, accurate calculations of electrostatic forces are crucial for revealing the mechanisms of many biological processes. We developed a DelPhiForce web server to calculate and visualize the electrostatic forces at molecular level. DelPhiForce web server enables modeling of electrostatic forces on individual atoms, residues, domains and molecules, and generates an output that can be visualized by VMD software. Here we demonstrate the usage of the server for various biological problems including protein-cofactor, domain-domain, protein-protein, protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions. The DelPhiForce web server is available at: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Reserve Officer Commissioning Program (ROCP) Officer and Reserve Personnel Readiness (United States)


    Women in the Armed Forces. [13] Becker , Sasha O., and Andrea Inchino. 2002. “Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Based on Propensity Scores.” The...service officers into the SMCR. This study looks at the performance of the ROCP candidates and their effect on SMCR personnel readiness. We find that...created to recruit non-prior-service officers into the SMCR. This study looks at the performance of the ROCP candidates and their effect on SMCR

  7. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  8. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen


    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  9. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim


    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  10. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León


    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  11. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles


    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David


    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  12. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  13. A Range-Balanced Force: An Alternate Force Structure Adapted to New Defense Priorities (United States)


    forces will likely feature two aircraft types not currently contemplated in Air Force budgets—a medium-range unmanned combat aerial vehi- cle ( UCAV ...Dassault nEURon UCAV , scheduled to fly in 2012, doing what they think America’s cutting-edge Air Force is “supposed to do.” That pres- sure includes the OSD...long-legged, stealthy UCAV will cer- tainly cause policy analysts, budget-waste cutters, and Congress to ask why the Air Force isn’t buying the same

  14. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars (United States)


    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  15. Do we need an energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey.


    The debate on the two alternatives of planning or the free operation of market forces as a means of securing the nation's energy supply is of obvious political interest in this pre-election period in the United Kingdom. In UK Energy Policy Post Privatisation, the study reported here, the authors argue for an energy policy that is environment driven. (author)

  16. Emerging Policy Challenges in Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Fujiura, Glenn T.; Parish, Susan L.


    The forces shaping intellectual disability policy-making are diverse; while many of the policy issues reviewed in this issue are specific to intellectual disabilities, there are others that transcend disability-specific concerns. Our review is organized around six emerging demographic and socio-cultural trends that may directly and profoundly…

  17. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  18. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai


    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  19. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.


    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  20. Reserve reporting in the United States coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily


    United States energy policymaking can be better supported with accurate and consistent data on coal reserves, both in the public and private sectors. In particular, reserve data for coal and other energy resources should be directly comparable so that decision-makers can easily understand the relationship among available resources. Long-term policy and investment choices regarding energy security, the environment, and resource allocation depend on accurate information, but existing and easily available data on the magnitude of geologically, environmentally, economically, socially, and legally accessible coal reserves are of insufficient quality to guide such decisions. Even still, these data are often presented for use in policy and energy analysis. Currently, coal reserves are overstated relative to competitor energy resource reserves, in part because coal reporting standards have historically been more liberal and vague than standards for resources like natural gas. Overstating the marketable coal resource could lead to inefficient allocation of limited capital investment that can be difficult to reverse. US government bodies like the Energy Information Administration, United States Geological Survey, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Bureau of Land Management can help correct deficiencies by clarifying standards and collecting data that are relevant for decision-makers, such as energy-based reserve information. - Highlights: ► US Coal reserves are important to public and private policy and investment decisions. ► Poor quality data and coal reserve overreporting misrepresent reality. ► Choices made based on bad information can lead to long-term capital misallocation. ► Numerous government agencies are tasked with providing public data on coal reserves. ► Clearer, more restrictive reserves reporting standards can aid decision-makers.

  1. Developing a policy manual. (United States)

    Hotta, Tracey A


    Do you really need to have a policy and procedure in the office? Frequently they are seen sitting on the shelf, collecting dust. The answer is yes for a number of very important reasons. A policy and procedure manual is a tool to set guidelines and expectations on the basis of the mission and vision of the office. A well-written manual is a powerful training tool for new staff so they can get a feel for the office culture. Furthermore, it is a provincial or state legislative requirement that can reduce management's concern about potential legal issues or problems. If an office does not have a manual to set guidelines, the employees may be forced to make their own decisions to solve problems, which can often result in confusion, inconsistencies, and mistakes.

  2. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve. (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D


    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))


    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  5. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... with more diverse militaries, such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, include recognition of diversity as a societal imperative to sustain the legitimacy of the armed forces, the necessity of systematically collecting and reporting personnel data to guide policy, the necessity of patience...

  6. Ending homelessness. Policy challenges. (United States)

    Kondratas, A


    The extent and nature of homelessness is discussed. Only after understanding these parameters was the federal government able to develop an appropriate homelessness policy, including an explicit goal to help end, rather than simply address, the problem. The article describes how, with increased information, federal programs for the homeless have evolved, beginning with emergency remedies and shifting to more permanent solutions. Significantly increased cooperation at federal, state, and local levels is called for to effectively address this multifaceted problem. In the long term, we must wage a broad attack on poverty if we are to eradicate the root problems that force people into homelessness.

  7. Forced migration: health and human rights issues among refugee populations. (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Boyle, Joyceen S


    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that is manifest in diverse contexts. In this article, we examine the situations that precipitate the movement of large numbers of people across several African countries, producing a unique type of undocumented migrant--the refugee. These refugee movements impact already fragile African health care systems and often involve human rights violations that are of particular concern, such as gender-based violence and child soldiers. We use examples from several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current research, and our personal international experiences, we provide an overview of forced migration and discuss implications and opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice, and policy related to refugee health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. U.S. climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Blandine


    The international climate agreement does make sense if they are supported by the United States, the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gas (GHG) per capita. But this country is now bound by any treaty that forced him to reduce this pollution. The national energy transition is delayed: the lifestyle and the American system of production are still largely rely on fossil fuels. The coming to power of Barack Obama, who announced his intention to engage in action against climate change, had raised hopes of the international community: the Copenhagen compromise and agreements resulting from Cancun also directly the involvement of American and Chinese leaders. Since then, however, the context has changed dramatically: the economic crisis makes priority policies to boost growth. The abandonment of the climate bills in Congress, the Supreme Court decision restricting States' initiatives and actions taken by the Republican opposition to block the regulations of the Federal Agency for Environmental Protection (EPA) led to a slowing of presidential ambitions. They are focusing on an energy security strategy, providing for the operation of large domestic reserves of oil, reducing import dependency - constant of U.S. policy since the presidency of Richard Nixon - the use of alternatives energy, and finally the acceleration of energy efficiency in transport and construction. This orientation requires a staunch support to innovation, according to the will of American leadership in global technology industry green. Internationally, the meeting between Chinese and U.S. presidents in Copenhagen has identified the concessions acceptable to each of these key players in the negotiations. The special envoy of the White House reminds happy: the United States does not object to a new global agreement but discussions about it should only take the implementation of measures adopted in Cancun, whose variation to be the main issue of the Durban conference in late November 2011. Washington

  9. 10 CFR 51.11 - Relationship to other subparts. [Reserved (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to other subparts. [Reserved] 51.11 Section 51.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations...

  10. The principle of complementarity in the design of reserve networks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Explicit, quantitative procedures for identifying biodiversity priority areas are replacing the often ad hoc procedures used in the past to design networks of reserves to conserve biodiversity. This change facilitates more informed choices by policy makers, and thereby makes possible greater satisfaction of conservation goals ...

  11. Global Deployment of Reserve Soldiers: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, Wendy; Healy-Morrow, Isabel


    ...? Is there an overlap in organizational cultures, or does military leadership need to provide special attention for these unique soldiers? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a deeper understanding of the overlap between civilian and military organizational culture can improve the psychological preparedness of Reserve Force soldiers who are mobilized for full-time military operations.

  12. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael


    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  13. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account (United States)


    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  14. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  15. The Australian Defence Force: Broadened Concepts of Security Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wing, Ian


    ...-fighting role and could result in fundamental force structure and resource changes. More Australian Government policy changes are possible, and increased participation in counter-drug operations has been foreshadowed...

  16. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Forward-Engaged Naval Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Looney, Robert E; Schrady, David A; Brown, Ronald L


    In preparing for the 1997 quadrennial defense review, U.S. Navy leaders asked the Naval Postgraduate School to study the economic benefits of forward-engaged naval forces and communicate them to policy makers and the public...

  17. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva


    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...

  18. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kirby, Brendan [Kirby Consultant; Ma, Ookie [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  19. Improving Deterministic Reserve Requirements for Security Constrained Unit Commitment and Scheduling Problems in Power Systems (United States)

    Wang, Fengyu

    Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve zone, but intra-zonal congestion may block the deliverability of operating reserves within a zone. Thus, improving reserve policies such as reserve zones may improve the location and deliverability of reserve. As more non-dispatchable renewable resources are integrated into the grid, it will become increasingly difficult to predict the transfer capabilities and the network congestion. At the same time, renewable resources require operators to acquire more operating reserves. With existing deterministic reserve requirements unable to ensure optimal reserve locations, the importance of reserve location and reserve deliverability will increase. While stochastic programming can be used to determine reserve by explicitly modelling uncertainties, there are still scalability as well as pricing issues. Therefore, new methods to improve existing deterministic reserve requirements are desired. One key barrier of improving existing deterministic reserve requirements is its potential market impacts. A metric, quality of service, is proposed in this thesis to evaluate the price signal and market impacts of proposed hourly reserve zones. Three main goals of this thesis are: 1) to develop a theoretical and mathematical model to better locate reserve while maintaining the deterministic unit commitment and economic dispatch

  20. Exportação de democracia na política externa norte-americana no pós-Guerra-Fria: doutrinas e o uso da força Exporting of democracy in American foreign policy in the post-Cold War period: the doctrine and the use of force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Castro Santos


    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os pilares da política externa americana no pós-guerra fria, mirando o lugar que ai ocupa democracia e sua relação com segurança. Busca-se mais especificamente as bases da doutrina da política externa que justificam a exportação de democracia pelo uso da força. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo quantitativa e qualitativa de 415 discursos dos Presidentes e Secretários de Estado entre 1989 e 2008.The article analyses the pillars of the American foreign policy in the post-cold war period, focusing on the importance democracy vis-à-vis security plays in it as well as their relationship. More specifically the work aims to define the bases of the doctrine of the foreign policy that justify exporting democracy by the use of force. It was used quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 414 speeches of the Presidents and Secretaries of States in the period 1989-2008.

  1. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz, Justin (Gus); Layton, Roslyn


    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented......‟t stand up well to critical analysis. This paper collects and responds to a number of these premises that, collectively, underlie much popular, political, and academic support for increased telecommunications regulation in the United States and Europe – as well as much of the rest of the world....

  2. Mechanical forces in skin disorders. (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Harn, Hans I-Chen; Hughes, Michael W; Tang, Ming-Jer; Yang, Chao-Chun


    Mechanical forces are known to regulate homeostasis of the skin and play a role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases. The epidermis consists of keratinocytes that are tightly adhered to each other by cell junctions. Defects in keratins or desmosomal/hemidesmosomal proteins lead to the attenuation of mechanical strength and formation of intraepidermal blisters in the case of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The dermis is rich in extracellular matrix, especially collagen, and provides the majority of tensile force in the skin. Keloid and hypertrophic scar, which is the result of over-production of collagen by fibroblasts during the wound healing, are associated with extrinsic tensile forces and changes of intrinsic mechanical properties of the cell. Increasing evidences shows that stiffness of the skin environment determines the regenerative ability during wound healing process. Mechanotransduction pathways are also involved in the morphogenesis and cyclic growth of hair follicles. The development of androgenetic alopecia is correlated to tensile forces generated by the fibrous tissue underlying the scalp. Acral melanoma predominantly occurs in the weight-bearing area of the foot suggesting the role of mechanical stress. Increased dermal stiffness from fibrosis might be the cause of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa associated squamous cell carcinoma. Strategies to change the mechanical forces or modify the mechanotransduction signals may lead to a new way to treat skin diseases and promote skin regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ford


    Full Text Available This article examines the dilemmas facing trade unions seeking to engage on questions of forced labour and human trafficking. The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings. However, trade unions have limited capacity to effect real change in relation to these issues because of limitations on their influence, determined largely by membership density and the limited number of sectors in which they are present, but also internal assessments of what constitutes ‘core business’. As a consequence, while trade unions may advocate for legislative or policy change, partner with non-governmental organisations to deal with particular cases, or even engage directly with vulnerable populations, the integration of those populations into the day to day concerns of trade unions necessarily remains elusive—particularly in the global south, where forced labour is most prevalent.

  4. Dialética do desenvolvimento periférico: dependência, superexploração da força de trabalho e política econômica Dialectics of peripheral development: dependence, superexploitation of labor force and economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dias Carcanholo


    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura discutir as possibilidades de desenvolvimento na periferia da economia mundial, enfatizando dois aspectos. Em primeiro lugar, observa-se que as políticas econômicas neoliberais e a reestruturação produtiva foram formas encontradas pelo capital para responder à sua própria crise dos anos 1970, e que essas formas aprofundaram a condição de dependência das economias periféricas dentro da lógica mundial de acumulação capitalista. Em segundo lugar, constata-se que a única maneira de desenvolvimento capitalista na periferia, tendo em vista o aprofundamento da dependência, é a superexploração da força de trabalho. Por fim, argumenta-se que as alternativas para a periferia passam pela redução dessa superexploração da força de trabalho e/ou da luta contra a própria exploração capitalista da força de trabalho como forma de extração de excedente.This paper aims to discuss the possibilities of development in the periphery of the world economy emphasizing two points. Firstly, there is that the neoliberal economic policies and productive restructuring were forms found by capital to respond to its own crisis of 70's, and that these forms deepened the condition of dependency of peripheral economies within the logic of global capitalist accumulation. Secondly, it appears that the only way of capitalist development in the periphery, with a view to deepening dependence, is the superexploitation of labor force. Finally, it is argued that the alternatives to the periphery are the reduction of superexploitation of labor force and/or the fight against the capitalist exploitation of the labor force as a form of extraction of surplus.

  5. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.


    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  6. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.


    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  7. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.


    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  8. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations


    Musto, Richard J.


    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  9. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  10. Population policy. (United States)


    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  11. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.


    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....



    Reserve Component.”91 While this is a step toward Total Force integration , there are certain limitations. One of the most significant disadvantages to...AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TOTAL FORCE INTEGRATION : PROVIDING STABILITY FOR CITIZEN SOLDIERS IN AN EVER...CHANGING AIR FORCE by Patricia M. Adams, Major, USAFR A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation

  13. The five competitive forces that shape strategy. (United States)

    Porter, Michael E


    In 1979, a young associate professor at Harvard Business School published his first article for HBR, "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy." In the years that followed, Michael Porter's explication of the five forces that determine the long-run profitability of any industry has shaped a generation of academic research and business practice. In this article, Porter undertakes a thorough reaffirmation and extension of his classic work of strategy formulation, which includes substantial new sections showing how to put the five forces analysis into practice. The five forces govern the profit structure of an industry by determining how the economic value it creates is apportioned. That value may be drained away through the rivalry among existing competitors, of course, but it can also be bargained away through the power of suppliers or the power of customers or be constrained by the threat of new entrants or the threat of substitutes. Strategy can be viewed as building defenses against the competitive forces or as finding a position in an industry where the forces are weaker. Changes in the strength of the forces signal changes in the competitive landscape critical to ongoing strategy formulation. In exploring the implications of the five forces framework, Porter explains why a fast-growing industry is not always a profitable one, how eliminating today's competitors through mergers and acquisitions can reduce an industry's profit potential, how government policies play a role by changing the relative strength of the forces, and how to use the forces to understand complements. He then shows how a company can influence the key forces in its industry to create a more favorable structure for itself or to expand the pie altogether. The five forces reveal why industry profitability is what it is. Only by understanding them can a company incorporate industry conditions into strategy.

  14. White Paper No 54 (2000-2001). Norwegian Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This White Paper from the Norwegian Government discusses the climate problem as a global challenge, Norway's strategy for meeting the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, the national climate policies of other countries, Norwegian national climate policy in the short term, and Norwegian national climate policy with the Kyoto agreement in force

  15. 76 FR 38389 - Policy Statement Concerning Adjustments to the Insurance Premiums and Policy Statement on the... (United States)


    ... impact of governmental farm policy and the effect of the globalization of agriculture on opportunities... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Policy Statement Concerning Adjustments to the Insurance Premiums and Policy Statement on the Secure Base Amount and Allocated Insurance Reserves Accounts AGENCY...

  16. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.


    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  17. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam


    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  18. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo


    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  19. Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor. (United States)

    Dziekoński, Cezary; Dera, Wojciech; Jarząbek, Dariusz M


    In this paper we present a simple and direct method for the lateral force calibration constant determination. Our procedure does not require any knowledge about material or geometrical parameters of an investigated cantilever. We apply a commercially available microforce sensor with advanced electronics for direct measurement of the friction force applied by the cantilever's tip to a flat surface of the microforce sensor measuring beam. Due to the third law of dynamics, the friction force of the equal value tilts the AFM cantilever. Therefore, torsional (lateral force) signal is compared with the signal from the microforce sensor and the lateral force calibration constant is determined. The method is easy to perform and could be widely used for the lateral force calibration constant determination in many types of atomic force microscopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of force in private security: a primer. (United States)

    Mains, Paul


    The need for private security to provide an effective response to physical threats has become more important, according to the author. Both the security director and administrator, he states, must determine an effective policy in advance. The article outlines such a use of force policy as well as discussing other considerations that are involved in carrying it out.

  1. Global mega forces: Implications for the future of natural resources (United States)

    George H. Kubik


    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of leading global mega forces and their importance to the future of natural resource decisionmaking, policy development, and operation. Global mega forces are defined as a combination of major trends, preferences, and probabilities that come together to produce the potential for future high-impact outcomes. These...

  2. 12 CFR 339.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 339.7... GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If... not covered by flood insurance or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the amount...

  3. Women\\'s Labor Force Participation and Introduction of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this paper was to analyze the relationship between women\\'s labor force participation and socioeconomic changes associated with structural adjustment in China and Congo Brazzaville. We conclude that structural adjustment policies have led to an increase in feminization of the labor force in these two ...

  4. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...... actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks...

  5. Computerized screening devices and performance assessment: development of a policy towards automation. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial. (United States)

    Bartels, P H; Bibbo, M; Hutchinson, M L; Gahm, T; Grohs, H K; Gwi-Mak, E; Kaufman, E A; Kaufman, R H; Knight, B K; Koss, L G; Magruder, L E; Mango, L J; McCallum, S M; Melamed, M R; Peebles, A; Richart, R M; Robinowitz, M; Rosenthal, D L; Sauer, T; Schenck, U; Tanaka, N; Topalidis, T; Verhest, A P; Wertlake, P T; Wilbur, D C


    The extension of automation to the diagnostic assessment of clinical materials raises issues of professional responsibility, on the part of both the medical professional and designer of the device. The International Academy of Cytology (IAC) and other professional cytology societies should develop a policy towards automation in the diagnostic assessment of clinical cytologic materials. The following summarizes the discussion of the initial position statement at the International Expert Conference on Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century, Hawaii, June 1997. 1. The professional in charge of a clinical cytopathology laboratory continues to bear the ultimate medical responsibility for diagnostic decisions made at the facility, whether automated devices are involved or not. 2. The introduction of automated procedures into clinical cytology should under no circumstances lead to a lowering of standards of performance. A prime objective of any guidelines should be to ensure that an automated procedure, in principle, does not expose any patient to new risks, nor should it increase already-existing, inherent risks. 3. Automated devices should provide capabilities for the medical professional to conduct periodic tests of the appropriate performance of the device. 4. Supervisory personnel should continue visual quality control screening of a certain percentage of slides dismissed at primary screening as within normal limits (WNL), even when automated procedures are employed in the laboratory. 5. Specifications for the design of primary screening devices for the detection of cervical cancer issued by the IAC in 1984 were reaffirmed. 6. The setting of numeric performance criteria is the proper charge of regulatory agencies, which also have the power of enforcement. 7. Human expert verification of results represents the "gold standard" at this time. Performance characteristics of computerized cytology devices should be determined by adherence to defined and well

  6. Labor Force Participation Rate (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  7. Aerodynamic Lifting Force. (United States)

    Weltner, Klaus


    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  8. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.


    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  9. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    reserve market, identifying the operational constraints that inhibit a multi-purpose dam facility to meet the desired flexible energy demand. The second study transitions from the hydroelectric facility as the decision maker providing flex reserve services to the wind plant as the decision maker purchasing these services. In this second study, methods for allocating the costs of flex reserve services under different wind policy scenarios are explored that aggregate farms into different groupings to identify the least-cost strategy for balancing the costs of hourly day-ahead forecast errors. The least-cost strategy may be different for an individual wind plant and for the system operator, noting that the least-cost strategy is highly sensitive to cost allocation and aggregation schemes. The latter may also cause cross-subsidies in the cost for balancing wind forecast errors among the different wind farms. The third study builds from the second, with the objective to quantify the amount of flex reserves needed for balancing future forecast errors using a probabilistic approach (quantile regression) to estimating future forecast errors. The results further examine the usefulness of separate flexible markets PJM could use for balancing oversupply and undersupply events, similar to the regulation up and down markets used in Europe. These three studies provide the following results and insights to large-scale wind integration using actual PJM wind farm data that describe the markets and generators within PJM. • Chapter 2 provides an in-depth analysis of the valuable, yet highly-constrained, energy services multi-purpose hydroelectric facilities can provide, though the opportunity cost for providing these services can result in large deviations from the reservoir policies with minimal revenue gain in comparison to dedicating the whole of dam capacity to providing day-ahead, baseload generation. • Chapter 3 quantifies the system-wide efficiency gains and the distributive

  10. Antibiotic policy


    Gyssens, Inge


    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  11. Internet Policy (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  12. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.


    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  13. Forces in General Relativity (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.


    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  14. Climate change policy position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is a firm believer in the need to take action to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, and that clear government policy is called for. The principles of sustainable development must guide this policy development effort. The initiatives required to address greenhouse gas emissions over both the short and long term must be carefully considered, and it is up to industries to ensure their production efficiency and emission intensity. Promoting improved performance of industries in Canada and developing technology that can be deployed internationally for larger global effects represents Canada's best contribution to progress on greenhouse gas emissions. The increase in energy demand along with increases in population and economic growth have contributed to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improved energy efficiency in industry. Significant damage to the economy will result if Canada is to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, forcing the country to buy large quantities of foreign credits instead of using those funds for increased research and development. CAPP indicated that an effective plan must be: balanced, equitable, responsible, competitive, focused on technology and innovation, and based on agreements on sectoral plans. Each of these principles were discussed, followed by the fundamentals of approach for upstream oil and gas. The framework for climate change policy was described as well as the elements of a sector plan. CAPP wants to work with all levels of government on an appropriate plan for Canada, that considers our unique circumstances. Canada can play a significant role on the international stage by properly implementing the policy position proposed by the CAPP without unnecessary risks to the economy. refs

  15. Towards a New Russia Policy (United States)


    politics and culture. It must be realized that this is a patient, long-term policy, not one that seeks immediate gratification or is motivated instant , forceful, and externally imposed regime change. That lesson should induce behavior change in 84 Washington first before we seek 3. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty Newsline, September 10, 2007, September 11, 2007. 4. Moscow, Agentstvo Voyennykh Novstey Internet Version

  16. Australia's approach to monetary policy


    Jane Sneddon Little


    According to Australia's Reserve Bank Act, the central bank's broad policy objectives include maintaining the stability of the currency, full employment, and the economic prosperity and welfare of the people of Australia. In 1993 the Reserve Bank of Australia adopted a specific, and thus transparent, inflation target as its operating objective; it aims to keep overall inflation between 2 percent and 3 percent on average over the business cycle.

  17. Kinetic Ductility and Force-Spike Resistance of Proteins from Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Cossio, Pilar; Hummer, Gerhard; Szabo, Attila


    Ductile materials can absorb spikes in mechanical force, whereas brittle ones fail catastrophically. Here we develop a theory to quantify the kinetic ductility of single molecules from force spectroscopy experiments, relating force-spike resistance to the differential responses of the intact protein and the unfolding transition state to an applied mechanical force. We introduce a class of unistable one-dimensional potential surfaces that encompass previous models as special cases and continuously cover the entire range from ductile to brittle. Compact analytic expressions for force-dependent rates and rupture-force distributions allow us to analyze force-clamp and force-ramp pulling experiments. We find that the force-transmitting protein domains of filamin and titin are kinetically ductile when pulled from their two termini, making them resistant to force spikes. For the mechanostable muscle protein titin, a highly ductile model reconciles data over 10 orders of magnitude in force loading rate from experiment and simulation. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanoparticle movement: plasmonic forces and physical constraints. (United States)

    Batson, P E; Reyes-Coronado, A; Barrera, R G; Rivacoba, A; Echenique, P M; Aizpurua, J


    Nanoparticle structures observed in aberration-corrected electron microscopes exhibit many types of behavior, some of which are dominated by intrinsic conditions, unrelated to the microscope environment. Some behaviors are clearly driven by the electron beam, however, and the question arises as to whether these are similar to intrinsic mechanisms, useful for understanding nanoscale behavior, or whether they should be regarded as unwanted modification of as-built specimens. We have studied a particular kind of beam-specimen interaction - plasmon dielectric forces caused by the electric fields imposed by a passing swift electron - identifying four types of forced motion, including both attractive and repulsive forces on single nanoparticles, and coalescent and non-coalescent forces in groups of two or more nanoparticles. We suggest that these forces might be useful for deliberate electron beam guided movement of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental policy (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    With a defined set of policy goals, policy makers face an important decision on how and at what cost to the economy environmental compliance can be achieved. The costs of environmental compliance for Macedonia are still to be determined. However, environmental cost estimates, even those done with the highest degree of precision will not provide the actual burden that the society will face. The level of actual costs and their distribution in the economy will depend on the type of instruments that will be used by policy makers. In general, there are two policy options to be considered, namely command and control which relies on administrative instruments and market based which uses economic instrument. The command and control based environmental policy requires that ambient standards, emission standards and new source performance standards are in place, together with a permitting system and compliance monitoring to ensure enforcement. A market based environmental policy aims at achieving higher levels of environmental quality by correcting the imperfections of the market. This is done by what is called internalizing negative environmental externalities. In simple words, polluters are forced to pay a pollution charge or a tax and include the costs of pollution in the costs of production and finally in the prices of goods. (author)

  20. Assessing U.S. coal resources and reserves (United States)

    Shaffer, Brian N.


    The U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program, conducts systematic, geology-based, regional assessments of significant coal beds in major coal basins in the United States. These assessments detail the quantity, quality, location, and economic potential of the Nation’s remaining coal resources and reserves and provide objective scientific information that assists in the formulation of energy strategies, environmental policies, land-use management practices, and economic projections.

  1. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change. (United States)

    Seddon, Toby


    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was established in 1975 as an emergency response to the 1973 Arab oil embargo. It is authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), and by the comprehensive energy plans of all Administrations since 1975, in recognition of the long-term dependence of the US on imported crude oil and petroleum products. Section 165 of EPCA requires the Secretary of Energy to submit an Annual Report to the President and the Congress. On May 13, 1998, the Department published a Statement of Administration Policy which reaffirmed its commitment to maintain a Government-owned and controlled, centrally located Strategic Petroleum Reserve of crude oil. The Reserve is to be used solely for responding to the types of severe oil supply interruptions presently contemplated in EPCA. Over the past twenty years, the Reserve has grown as large as 592 million barrels--a peak reached in 1994. From 1994 to 1996, nearly 28 million barrels were sold to raise revenues for the U S Treasury. As of December 31, 1998, the crude oil inventory was 561,108,127 barrels which equated to 60 days of net oil imports during 1998. The US now relies on a combination of both the Reserve and private stocks to meet its oil storage obligations to the International Energy Agency.

  3. Statistics of force networks (United States)

    Tighe, Brian


    We study the statistics of contact forces in the force network ensemble, a minimal model of jammed granular media that emphasizes the role of vector force balance. We show that the force probability distribution can be calculated analytically by way of an analogy to equilibrium ensemble methods. In two dimensions the large force tail decays asymptotically as a Gaussian, distinct from earlier predictions, due to the existence of a conserved quantity related to the presence of local vector force balance. We confirm our predictions with highly accurate statistical sampling -- we sample the force distribution over more than 40 decades -- permitting unambiguous confrontation of theory with numerics. We show how the conserved quantity arises naturally within the context of any constant stress ensemble.

  4. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder


    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Clichici


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the main differences and similarities between the European Central Bank (ECB and US Federal Reserve (FED in terms of their functional framework and monetary policy. The research is based on a comparative analysis of the history of establishing the Eurosystem and the Federal Reserve System, which has influenced the way these central banks operate today. It also analyzes the policy responses of the two institutions to the 2007 global financial crisis, since both their non-conventional policy measures and the effects thereof on growth, inflation and unemployment rates were slightly different. The paper finds that there are differences between the ECB and FED rather regarding the organization and functioning of the Committees for monetary policy and monetary policy objectives than the institutional structure and policy framework

  6. Environmental Communication Instruments for Environmental Policy Integration (United States)

    Lagzdina, Erika


    Two public policy concepts - modernization of governance and environmental policy integration - serve as the basis for this work. The author links them up with environmental communication (EC) as an integration instrument approach, and tests application at the local level in Latvia. Totally 30 case studies were analysed and survey methods used to interview over 70 people. The article verifies driving forces affecting the internal and external integration of environmental policy, explicates EC instrumentality for integration by assessing policy instruments and stakeholders. The final conclusions affirm that, in order to integrate environmental management into municipal development, it is necessary to establish a complementary set of policy instruments, what might be enabled by wise use of all EC components in their interactivity. The complementarity of EC instruments and stakeholder group efforts forms synergy and enhances better environmental policy integration.

  7. Developing Iraq's mental health policy. (United States)

    Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita


    As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.

  8. Final Environmental Assessment Realignment of Jenkins Armed Forces Reserve Center (AFRC), Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, BRAC 2005 (United States)


    Materials Hazardous materials such as pesticides , herbicides, and chemicals associated with the operation of research laboratories, fire control...any problems, let me know and I’ll see what I can do with it. Evelyn Watkins NEPA Program Manager Enviromental Management Branch Kirtland AFB, NM

  9. Environmental Assessment: BRAC Construction and Operation of Armed Forces Reserve Center at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Great Falls, Montana (United States)


    the preferred site area. Although a National Historic Landmark, " Portage around MALMSTROM AFB, GREAT FALLS, MONTANA 4-6 JUNE 2009 the Great Falls...Avenue North, and the other is located near the southwest end of the runway (USAF, 2007). An inventory of wetland sites on Malmstrom AFB, conducted in...settlement. Cultural Resource Inventories and Section 106 Consultations Research was conducted via the Montana SHPO to determine the locations and

  10. CERN's new safety policy

    CERN Multimedia


    The documents below, published on 29 September 2014 on the HSE website, together replace the document SAPOCO 42 as well as Safety Codes A1, A5, A9, A10, which are no longer in force. As from the publication date of these documents any reference made to the document SAPOCO 42 or to Safety Codes A1, A5, A9 and A10 in contractual documents or CERN rules and regulations shall be deemed to constitute a reference to the corresponding provisions of the documents listed below.   "The CERN Safety Policy" "Safety Regulation SR-SO - Responsibilities and organisational structure in matters of Safety at CERN" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-1 - Departmental Safety Officer (DSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-2 - Territorial Safety Officer (TSO)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-3 - Safety Linkperson (SLP)" "General Safety Instruction GSI-SO-4 - Large Experiment Group Leader In Matters of Safety (LEXGLI...

  11. U.S. Theater Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.A.


    In the brief period between May 1978 and December 12, 1979, U.S. policy, and the policy of the NATO Alliance, toward theater nuclear forces (TNF) changed dramatically. The consequences of this change now dominate the political agenda in East-West (and West-West) relations. The ultimate outcome of the now renamed intermediate-range nuclear force (INF) debate will have far-reaching consequences for the future of the Atlantic Alliance. How did this issue emerge? Why did the US change its policy? How did it work with its Alliance to change NATO policy? These questions, among others, are now figuring in the debate. The answers to these questions are discussed in detail

  12. Time-averaged currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  13. 38 CFR 8.13 - Policy loans. (United States)


    ... exceed 94 percent of the reserve, and any indebtedness on the policy shall be deducted from the amount.... Treasury Securities for the month of June of the year of calculation rounded down to the next whole...

  14. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.


    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  15. Policy implications for familial searching. (United States)

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H


    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  16. Nellis and Creech Air Force Bases Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment (United States)


    57th Wing, other Air Force units, Navy, Marine Corps and allied air forces. Creech AFB is also the primary training site for the United States Air...Forces, Air National Guard, U.S. Air Force Reserve, Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and allied air forces. They are led by a Blue Forces commander who...includes desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), zebra-tailed lizard (Callosaurus draconoides), side-blotched lizard, horned lizards (Phrynosoma spp

  17. Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda (United States)


    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXI Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda... Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  18. Health Status and Labour Force Status of Older Working-Age Australian Men


    Lixin Cai; Guyonne Kalb


    The trend of declining labour force participation by older working-age men, combined with an ageing population, has led many industrialised nations to develop policies encouraging older male workers to remain in the labour force. A better understanding of how an individual’s health influences the labour force participation decision among this group of workers would facilitate the development of effective policies. The current research uses the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australi...

  19. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.


    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  20. Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence (United States)


    forward the initial report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence . This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions of Section 591...programs and policies associated with domestic violence in the military. These programs are commonly referred to within the Department of Defense as...Department in addressing domestic violence matters. During our initial meeting on April 24-26, 2000, we formed four standing workgroups: (1) Community

  1. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark


    This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...

  2. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard


    outperformed existing tools with Bi-Force at least when following the evaluation protocols from Eren et al. Bi-Force is implemented in Java and integrated into the open source software package of BiCluE. The software as well as all used datasets are publicly available at of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...

  3. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N


    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  4. Macroscopic forces from supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K


    We argue that theories in which supersymmetry breaking originates at low energies often contain scalar particles that mediate coherent gravitational strength forces at distances less than a cm. We estimate the strength and range of these forces in several cases. Present limits on such forces are inadequate. However new techniques, such as those based on small cryogenic mechanical oscillators, may improve the present limits by ten orders of magnitude or discover new forces as weak as 1 \\% of gravity at distances down to 40 microns.

  5. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.


    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  6. Forced marriage, forced sex: the perils of childhood for girls. (United States)

    Ouattara, M; Sen, P; Thomson, M


    A recently formed interagency Forum on the Rights of Girls and Women in Marriage is investigating the widespread problem of nonconsensual marriage and forced sex and advocating for legislative and policy initiatives. This article reviews three research projects in this area: research by Anti-Slavery International on child marriage in parts of West Africa, an investigation by Save the Children of children's views of early marriage, and research conducted by CHANGE on women's resistance to domestic violence in Calcutta, India. Girls who marry before 15 years of age are more likely to be illiterate than their older counterparts, more likely to be dowry payment brides, less likely to come into contact with development projects, have higher rates of infant mortality, and are most vulnerable to sexual violence. In many cases, intercourse is initiated before the girl begins to menstruate. Although adult women also face sexual violence within marriage, this problem is all the more traumatic for girls who lack any information about sexuality. Sex with girls below a certain age is usually covered by rape legislation, but, in countries such as India, this is mitigated by the religiously defined personal laws. The absence of adequate legal and policy action frameworks to deal with the rights of girls, coupled with the lack of sanctions against these abuses, comprise state complicity and neglect of duty under international law to this vulnerable group.

  7. Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes


    Diaz-Roldan; Carmelo Monteagudo-Cuerva


    In the particular policy framework of a monetary union, the management of fiscal policy becomes an issue of special relevance, because the fiscal discipline imposed by the monetary agreements could limit the scope of stabilization fiscal policies, and its implications on economic growth. Therefore, is not trivial to manage fiscal policy in such particular economic framework. In this paper we will review the implications of fiscal policy in open economies. But we will pay special attention to ...

  8. 78 FR 43184 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force (United States)


    ..., Director, Operational Planning, Policy and Strategy, Deputy Chief of Staff, Operations, Plans and... Staff, and Major General James McLaughlin, Commander, 24th Air Force and Commander, Air Forces Cyber...; (e) maintains a peacetime rotation force to support operational tempo goals of 1:2 for regular...

  9. 75 FR 59698 - Federal Advisory Committee; Department of Defense Task Force on the Care, Management, and... (United States)


    ... for the continuous improvements of such policies and programs. The Task Force, pursuant to section 724...-medical case management; iv. The disability evaluation process for members of the Armed Forces; v... Task Force on the Care, Management, and Transition of Recovering Wounded, Ill, and Injured Member of...

  10. Climate forcings and feedbacks (United States)

    Hansen, James


    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  11. The Politics of Trade and Industrial Policy in Africa : Forced ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ISBN : 1552501256 ... Ha-Joon Chang est professeur à la faculté d'économie et de politique de l'université de Cambridge et membre du comité de rédaction du Cambridge Journal of Economics. Il a travaillé comme consultant pour de nombreuses ...

  12. REDD+ and the global economy; Competing forces and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, P.; Putzel, L.; Obidzinski, K.; Schoneveld, G.C.


    The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while feeding a growing population and meeting global demand for fibre and energy, are attracting increasing attention (Kissinger 2011; Wollenberg et al. 2011). This chapter presents an overview of current trade and investment-related

  13. 78 FR 16675 - First Technology Transitions; Policy Task Force Workshop (United States)


    ... allow time to go through our security process. Lunch: Attendees may pre-order lunch, to be picked up by FCC staff, from the Potbelly Sandwich Shop. To place your order online, go to

  14. The Politics of Trade and Industrial Policy in Africa: Forced ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2004 ... For nearly two decades, Professor Soludo has been a visiting scholar and consultant to many international organizations, and has published extensively on ... Libéralisation du commerce des biens et services TIC : enjeux et implications pour la mise en oeuvre de politiques publiques en Afrique de l'Ouest.

  15. Elementary Particles and Forces. (United States)

    Quigg, Chris


    Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…

  16. The forces in Nature

    CERN Multimedia



    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies of phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  17. Forces in yeast flocculation (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.


    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.





    RESUME:Cette note évalue les conséquences de la politique des réserves obligatoires (ro) sur l’équilibrede long terme dans économie en développement à la Bencivenga et Smith (1992). Ces derniersmontrent que le taux des réserves obligatoires optimal est constant. Dans cette contribution,nous montrons que le taux optimal des ro devient endogène, lorsque les entrepreneurs sontneutres vis-à-vis du risque. Les banques peuvent constituer des réserves libres, déjouant ainsi lapolitique des réserves ...

  19. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  20. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  1. Local people's perceptions as decision support for protected area management in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, China. (United States)

    Xu, Jianying; Chen, Liding; Lu, Yihe; Fu, Bojie


    This paper examines local people's knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards Wolong Biosphere Reserve (WBR) and its management policies. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and group discussions. This study revealed that local people's perceptions were affected by many factors, including education, gender, residence location, household size and acreage of land owned. Although most respondents had limited knowledge about WBR because of their absence in WBR management, they held a positive attitude towards WBR. An in-depth analysis of their attitudes and perceptions showed that two potential conflicts might affect biodiversity conservation and protected area management. One of them was the imbalance between the limited cropland holding and the oversupply of the labor force, and the other one was the increase in electricity price versus the decrease in economic incentives for the Natural Forest Protection Project. The study also revealed that relocation was considered unacceptable to most respondents. However, those residing far from the main road were willing to relocate more than those near the main road. Based on our studies, some recommendations are given for improvement of WBR management.

  2. Finger forces in fastball baseball pitching. (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi; Nasu, Daiki; Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S


    Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball. Data were collected from 11 pitchers who placed the fingertip of their index, middle, ring, or thumb on the transducer, and threw four-seam fastballs to a target cage from a flat mound. For the index and middle fingers, resultant ball reaction force exhibited a bimodal pattern with initial and second peaks at 38-39ms and 6-7ms before ball release, and their amplitudes were around 97N each. The ring finger and thumb produced single-peak forces of approximately 50 and 83N, respectively. Shear forces for the index and middle fingers formed distinct peak at 4-5ms before release, and the peaks summed to 102N; a kinetic source for backspin on the ball. An additional experiment with submaximal pitching effort showed a linear relationship of peak forces with ball velocity. The peak ball reaction force for fastballs exceeded 80% of maximum finger strength measured, suggesting that strengthening of the distal muscles is important both for enhancing performance and for avoiding injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Forced Normalization: Antagonism Between Epilepsy and Psychosis. (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Itoh, Yasuhiko


    The antagonism between epilepsy and psychosis has been discussed for a long time. Landolt coined the term "forced normalization" in the 1950s to describe psychotic episodes associated with the remission of seizures and disappearance of epileptiform activity on electroencephalograms in individuals with epilepsy. Since then, neurologists and psychiatrists have been intrigued by this phenomenon. However, although collaborative clinical studies and basic experimental researches have been performed, the mechanism of forced normalization remains unknown. In this review article, we present a historical overview of the concept of forced normalization, and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms and clinical diagnosis. We also discuss the role of dopamine, which appears to be a key factor in the mechanism of forced normalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Ghostly Workings of Danish Accountability Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk


    This article proposes a framework for thinking about the ghostly, thus arguing that policy can be understood as a landscape of intersecting and colliding temporalities from which arouse curious workings of barely-there forces, spooky energies and vibrating saturations of affective ambivalences. I...... present an empirical study of a policy agenda of introducing an assessment culture and improving the management of the Danish public school. I explore how all the routines and habits deemed outdated and sought annihilated by a new policy paradigm continue to haunt head teachers as seething presence...... of lurking resistance towards the policy aims as well as insidious doubts. Thinking about the ghostly contributes to studies of education policy by locating the reality of power in the mundane everyday doings and experiences of educational practitioners and insisting on the very tangled way people sense...

  5. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention


    Stern, Yaakov


    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic ev...

  6. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter


    makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description......This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  7. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter


    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  8. 75 FR 45606 - Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force-Final Recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force (United States)


    .../oceans or by writing to The Council on Environmental Quality, Attn: Michael Weiss, 722 Jackson Place, NW., Washington, DC 20503. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Weiss, Deputy Associate Director for Ocean and...

  9. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica


    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  10. Modelling mobility aspects of security policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; van Eck, Pascal; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    Security policies are rules that constrain the behaviour of a system. Different, largely unrelated sets of rules typically govern the physical and logical worlds. However, increased hardware and software mobility forces us to consider those rules in an integrated fashion. We present SPIN models of

  11. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. N.


    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  12. 32 CFR 156.3 - Policy. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 156.3 Section 156.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY... employee of the Department of Defense, accepted for entrance into the Armed Forces of the United States...

  13. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will take a pragmatic approach to dealing with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the effects of increasing population pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through ...

  14. The U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation Mission: A Mission for the Air Reserve Components (United States)


    for one night of lodging for out of town members per UTA .75 With most out of town members driving up the night before to be in place for a 0700 am...had lost all objectivity. Most important, I would like to thank my wife and daughter for the amount of time they allowed me to spend on the...colossal undertaking of completing the ASCS On -Line Master’s Program, of which, this paper is the final culmination. Thank you to my wife, for reading my

  15. Building A Better Force: Regular Army / Reserve Components Integration In The Army Chemical Corps (United States)


    Fort Hood , TX, CPT Mike Larmore cased the colors of the 46th Chemical Company for the last time, signifying its inactivation from the Regular Army... Joshua E. Kastenberg, Shaping US Military Law: Governing a Constitutional Military, (Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2014), 204-5, accessed December 28, 2015...Kastenberg, Joshua E. Shaping US Military Law: Governing a Constitutional Military. Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2014. Accessed December 28, 2015



    AF) is attempting a transformative effort to instill a Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) mindset into its culture. Known by its program name of...required. Given diverse operational requirements, the DoD Components shall have full flexibility to identify CPI/LSS focus areas and training plans...possible. Each of them must decide how CPI best fits into their individual leadership practices. Until such time as a CPI mindset is embedded into the

  17. 1979 Reserve Force Studies Surveys: Survey Design, Sample Design and Administrative Procedures, (United States)


    Dental Service 17 Reception Cnt. 11Other 46 Total 2914 The heterogeneity of the units poses a problem for a unit sampling plan. Namely, if the...regular schoel or collae 04. What is tha ZIP Code ZIP Cods thats you think you will ama c0oMsil In tha futura? If af tha placa whare your highest grade

  18. Environmental Assessment: Construction and Operation of Headquarters Air Force Reserve Command Campus (United States)


    calling in the Ocmulgee floodplain on Robins AFB), the bronze frog ( Rana clamitans clamitans), the bull frog ( Rana catesbeiana ), and the carpenter...frog ( Rana virgatipes) (Wharton, 1978). Reptiles in this habitat include the rainbow snake, cottonmouth, and yellow-bellied turtle (Chrysemys scripta

  19. Annual Report of the Secretary of Defense on Reserve Forces for Fiscal Year 1975 (United States)


    Color Guards wore operational, prseantint, a strong poaiti~e image at the’ grass-roots l- ovul of the Army’c contribuP~2ons to our mation’s ’heritage...MCM ships nearly doubled during Fiscal Year 1974. The percentage of units reporting Cl and C2 was 26% on I July 1974 and increased to 50% on I July...Coronado, Ca. -consisttng uf 5 PTFs, 2 PCFs an-d ’MSSCs’ and COSRVIVOI 11’at Mare I’sland, Ca.#. coý.$Jstin~ 01 14 PBRs , 9 -ATCs an~d I CCB. Ove~rall

  20. Costs of Flying Units in Air Force Active and Reserve Components (United States)


    puerto Rico ANG headquarters x Radar Evaluation Squadron x Range Control Squadron x Range Squadron x Range Support Squadron x Rapid Reaction Squadron x...Within operational units, aircrews must meet frequency and currency standards for spe- cific types of sorties and events in order to maintain mission

  1. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Twin Cities Air Force Reserve Base, Minnesota. (United States)


    Sandstone, white, mediu poorly sorted and silty.!0-80+ Galesville Sandstone Sandstone, yellow to whi grained, poorly cemented Eau Claire Sandstone 0-150...Quality Data All potable water for Twin Cities AFRB is obtained from the City of Minneapolis. The potable water is supplied to the base by one 12-inch main...34 Exploration drilling, testing, and design of well fields for potable water supply with an installed capacity of over 65 mgd. " Determination of

  2. Installation Restoration Program Phase 1 - Records Search, O’Hare Air Reserve Forces Facility, Illinois (United States)


    Chemical Engineering, 1979, University of Notre Dame B.A. in Art , 1979, University of Notre Dame M.S. in Chemical Engineering, 1980, University of...IMMEDIATELY EAST OF SOUTH P0L AREA Date of Operation or Occurrence: PRIOR TO 1970 Owner/Operator: NARE ARFF Comests /escription: VACUUM TUBE DISPOSED OF INTO...Engineering, 1979, University of Notre Dame S.A. in Art , 1979, University of Notre Dame M.S. in Chemical Engineering, 1980, University of Notre Dame

  3. 28 CFR 0.17 - Office of Investigative Agency Policies. (United States)


    ... policies relating to procurement for the criminal investigative agencies of the Department, including but... effective policy-level coordination of criminal investigations by the criminal investigative agencies of the... and prosecution of violations of federal criminal law. (f) Reservation. This policy is set forth...

  4. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.


    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  5. Factor Structure of the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test: Analysis and Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carreta, Thomas


    The Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) is used to qualify men and women for commissions in the Air Force, classify them for pilot and navigator jobs, and award Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) scholarships...

  6. Forced magnetic reconnection (United States)

    Vekstein, G.


    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  7. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J


    development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  8. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...... between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future...

  9. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang


    A classification framework of the secondary resources was applied to evaluate the framework's applicability and to assess secondary aluminum reserves for 19 countries. Estimated amounts of secondary aluminum reserves in 2010 were 85 million tonnes in the United States, 65 million tonnes in China......, 29 million tonnes in Japan, and 413 million tonnes globally. For the United States, its secondary reserves are larger than its primary reserves, although the global primary reserves (28,000 million tonnes) are much larger than the estimated secondary reserves. Considerable amounts of secondary...

  10. The Impact of Funding Policies on Higher Education in Jamaica (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Huisman, Jeroen; Powell, Philip


    This paper analyses the changes in the higher education funding policies and resource allocation models of the Jamaican government in the period 1962-2003. Throughout these four decades, four different systems were in force. This paper focuses particularly on the arguments for the funding policies and models and the impact of the models on the…

  11. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems: The Role of Public Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Feb 29, 2012 ... This book explores how policies targeting public research institutions, such as universities, contribute to the appropriation of biotechnology through national innovation systems. Around the world, biotechnology has become a driving force for dramatic change in systems and policies intended to spur ...

  12. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.

  13. Migrant Smuggling between Two Logics: Migration Dynamics and State Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, J.


    Migration processes are driven by forces that are by their very nature difficult to address with government policies, especially when these are aimed at control and restriction. Yet, in response to domestic and international policies, governments, jointly and individually, seek to intervene

  14. An Early Assessment of Reagan Defense Policy and Programs. (United States)

    Oliver, James K.


    Assesses Reagan's defense policy and programs, contending that arms control negotiations were not integral to the administration's policies. Discusses the reestablishment of public support for U.S. globalism, and examines the use of U.S. military forces during the Reagan years. Analyzes Reagan's efforts at breaking the Vietnam Syndrome. (RW)

  15. 32 CFR 631.17 - Marine Corps policy. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Marine Corps policy. 631.17 Section 631.17... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Off-Installation Operations (Military Patrols and Investigative Activities) and Policy § 631.17...

  16. Theater Civil Affairs Soldiers: A Force at Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florig, William R


    .... To make it relevant for the nation building operations of the future, the Active force needs to be greatly expanded while the Reserve Component must be right-sized and realigned to reflect recruiting...

  17. Public Policy and Health Informatics. (United States)

    Bell, Katherine


    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Policy Archaeology: A New Policy Studies Methodology. (United States)

    Scheurich, James Joseph


    Discusses policy archaeology, a radically different approach to policy studies in education drawn from the poststructuralist work of Foucault. Policy archaeology examines the social construction of problems before they become visible, focusing on five social regularities (race, gender, class, governmentality, and professionalization) comprising…

  19. Objective Force Warrior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shisler, Vernon


    This presentation concerns technology aimed at the dismounted soldier, Capstone demonstrations for FY06-07, fielding in the Objective Force time frame, strong interest in a lightweight weapon family...

  20. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.


    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  1. Hanscom Air Force Base (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  2. On the fifth forces (United States)

    Treder, Hans-Jürgen


    We discuss the possibility of “fifth forces” in relativistic gravitation theories of fourth order. The fifth force may be an analog to the “weak forces” in the theories of electroweak interactions.

  3. 48 CFR 9904.410-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  4. 48 CFR 9904.409-10 - [Reserved (United States)



  5. University students' reservations about dietetics as a career choice. (United States)

    Lordly, Daphne


    Dietetics students' reservations about their career choice were investigated. In several dietetics programs in various provinces, an in-class or online survey was administered to students in the early or late stages of their education (n=397). Data were coded and analyzed, using descriptive statistics. Chi-square testing for independence was used to establish significant relationships. Forty-three percent (n=149) of those responding to the research question (n=344) indicated they had reservations about a dietetics career, primarily because of internship, salary, and employment concerns. Students enrolled in a coordinated internship/degree program experienced no reservations about internship. Students experienced fewer career reservations when they had made their career decision before grade 12, were influenced by a dietitian, or were in the later stages of their education. Findings have implications for dietetics recruitment, retention, research, and education. An understanding of sources of reservations about career choice will allow policy-makers, researchers, and educators to address issues to ensure that potential professionals are well informed about career components and that educational programs meet students' needs.

  6. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves. (United States)

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G


    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically.

  7. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  8. Security Force Assistance (United States)


    Group 8-59. Cultures may be individualistic or collectivist in their orientation. An individualist culture is one in which the ties between...relatively little weight on offensive and defensive operations from a U.S. perspective . However, when U.S. forces accompany foreign security forces (FSF) in...precedence when conducting SFA. As a result, the brigade combat team (BCT) may be a supported command from a U.S. perspective as well as acting as

  9. Joint Force Fires Coordination: Towards a Joint Force Answer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fearn, William


    .... Components compete for decisive effect not only with each other but with the joint force. The contemporary joint force is confederated, the joint force headquarters a weak arbitration authority...

  10. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov


    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  11. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2. Clipboard : Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve ... Keywords. Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ...

  12. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry


    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  13. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  14. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  15. Dollar as the world's reserve currency: Challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Radovan


    Full Text Available The US dollar gained the status of the world's reserve currency in the Bretton Woods system and has preserved it until the present day. Such position in international finance entails both advantages and disadvantages to the USA as the issuer of this currency, and to the rest of the world using it in trading, as store of value, and for the purpose of various financial operations and transactions. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the regime of fixed FX rates was replaced by floating FX rates. Yet, regardless of this change, the dollar kept its role of the world's reserve currency. Numerous banking and currency crises following the transfer to the floating FX rates regime, along with the shifts in international capital flows, forced the developing countries and countries in transition to increase their FX reserves. In the tendency to store their value, central banks usually invest them into US Treasury securities, as liquid and reliable assets. However, due to the risk incurred by the reliance on a single national currency in the role of the world's reserve currency, there have been many proposals to reform the international monetary system. According to the current global tendencies, the most serious candidates for acquiring the status of the world's reserve currency in the future are the dollar, the euro, and the Chinese yuan.

  16. Defense Science Board Force Protection Panel Report to DSB (United States)


    staffs from the Air Force Policy Agency at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico and other staff members from the Pentagon. The Air Staff 20 Force Protection...Assessments; and Programs and Requirements. BG en C o ’Y: .......... •’ .. .. Joint Stami -u34 Chairman’s Tasks From DoD Combating Terrorism...Defense and Aviation ( MODA ) on going D- 40 Physical Security Construction Requirements Eskan Village, Saudi Arabia - Created 400’ exclusion zone, north side

  17. Declaration of energetic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This statement shows the interest that the Government of Niger covers the energy sector. This area has potential both varied valuable, is developing efficient. Indeed, the energy sector is primarily organized into four (4) sub-sectors, namely electricity sub-sector where more than half the energy consumption is imported. Regarding the hydrocarbon subsector, surveys have shown that Niger has significant reserves. As the sub-sector renewable energy sources are exploited biomass, solar and wind energy. Finally, the sub-sector domestic energy is characterized by the predominance of traditional energy.To ensure the development and implementation of strategies and energy policies the Government has developed institutional and regulatory framework, for the energy sector participates in the economic and social development [fr

  18. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana


    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  19. The oil at 50$: reserves depletion or OPEC revenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.


    Although the oil price is still far from its historical maximum, the oil market is today in crisis. To explain this situation the author discusses the nature of the supply constraints. The reserves are today better known and so more plentiful than at a previous period of the oil history and the russian production since 2004 is stagnating. The main factor seems to be the OPEC policy and in particular the will of limiting the oil production to defend upper prices. (A.L.B.)

  20. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar


    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy......-country variation in organic food consumption is explained by differences in the packages of policy instruments applied, controlling for numerous systemic and individual-level alternative explanations. The analysis suggests that for environmental and political reasons, governments should apply more demand......-side instruments when introducing environmental policies....

  1. Policy Feedback System (PFS) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  2. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves. (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane


    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  3. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

  4. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  5. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  6. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da


    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  7. John Brainerd and the First Indian Reservation. (United States)

    Harper, Susanne Banta


    Describes the humanitarian founding in 1758 of the nation's first reservation--the Brotherton reservation for New Jersey's Lenni Lenape (Algonquin) Indians. The people were demoralized, sick, and decimated in numbers; and so the venture failed. In 1801 those few remaining sold the reservation and moved to join related tribes in New York. (DS)

  8. Economics and rational conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, G.E.


    Energy analysts have been concerned with the apparently low level of energy-efficient investments and have suggested the presence of various market barriers and failures that hinder investment. The concept of a barrier as defined here is some force that is working against investment in energy-efficient technologies. Market failures, on the other hand, are failures of the competitive paradigm that lead to economically inefficient outcomes. Market barriers require no particular response on the part of government while market failures may call for some policy response. (author)

  9. The Law of Force or The Force of Law: Does Following The Rule of Law Assist Security Forces in Defeating an Armed Insurgency? (United States)


    and Policy in International Relations (Spring): 40-79 Arendt , Hannah . 1963. On revolution. New York: Viking Cohen, Eliot A., John Horvath, and...conditions, where the armed forces can be trusted to obey the civil authorities” ( Arendt 1965, 40). This is especially the case in countries where

  10. Reasons for and challenges of recent increases in teen birth rates: a study of family planning service policies and demographic changes at the state level. (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Gaydos, Laura M


    After declining for over a decade, the birth rate in the United States for adolescents aged 15-19 years increased by 3% in 2006 and 1% again in 2007. We examined demographic and policy reasons for this trend at state level. With data merged from multiple sources, descriptive analysis was used to detect state-level trends in birth rate and policy changes from 2000 to 2006, and variations in the distribution of teen birth rates, sex education, and family planning service policies, and demographic features across each state in 2006. Regression analysis was then conducted to estimate the effect of several reproductive health policies and demographic features on teen birth rates at the state level. Instrument variable was used to correct possible bias in the regression analysis. Medicaid family planning waivers were found to reduce teen birth rates across all ages and races. Abstinence-only education programs were found to cause an increase in teen birth rates among white and black teens. The increasing Hispanic population is another driving force for high teen birth rates. Both demographic factors and policy changes contributed to the increase in teen birth rates between 2000 and 2006. Future policy and behavioral interventions should focus on promoting and increasing access to contraceptive use. Family planning policies should be crafted to address the special needs of teens from different cultural backgrounds, especially Hispanics. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Policy implications for familial searching


    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H


    Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforce...

  12. Single molecule atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy of chitosan. (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Grandbois, Michel; Cuccia, Louis A


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM-based force spectroscopy was used to study the desorption of individual chitosan polymer chains from substrates with varying chemical composition. AFM images of chitosan adsorbed onto a flat mica substrate show elongated single strands or aggregated bundles. The aggregated state of the polymer is consistent with the high level of flexibility and mobility expected for a highly positively charged polymer strand. Conversely, the visualization of elongated strands indicated the presence of stabilizing interactions with the substrate. Surfaces with varying chemical composition (glass, self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoundecanoic acid/decanethiol and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) were probed with chitosan modified AFM tips and the corresponding desorption energies, calculated from plateau-like features, were attributed to the desorption of individual polymer strands. Desorption energies of 2.0±0.3×10(-20)J, 1.8±0.3×10(-20)J and 3.5±0.3×10(-20)J were obtained for glass, SAM of mercaptoundecanoic/dodecanethiol and PTFE, respectively. These single molecule level results can be used as a basis for investigating chitosan and chitosan-based materials for biomaterial applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Russia’s New Irredentist Foreign Policy Approach & Energy Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail KÖSE


    Full Text Available Soon after Industrial Revolution fossil energy resources became extremely one of the irrevocable essentials of humankind. Nowadays, use of fossil energy resources paved the way of several problems. Throughout last two hundred years of human history disagreements to share energy resources led dramatic conflicts and wars broke out. Notably WWII and Cold War were a kind of proxy clashes over energy resources. In 1991 the long lasting Cold War came to an end yet neither energy disputes nor conflicts related to the sharing of energy resources have not ended. Starting with Industrial Revolution so far oil and coal are were unmatched basic energy sources to run the engines of industry. Especially after 1980’s hitherto natural gas and shale gas gained a new status in the energy need of humanity. Because both are more effective, clean and environment friendly. Beside shale gas, Europe and Turkey do not have natural gas reserves nowadays border neighborhood of Russian Federation has rich reserves. In other words Russian Federation is between rich reserves owing Central Asian countries and importer European countries. This fact led Russia to use energy card as a tool of foreign policy. Especially after the collapse of SU, the successor state Russia has not stopped intervening domestic affairs of post-communist countries. While intervening domestic affairs of former Iron-Curtain countries Russia uses numerous excuses such as to protect the rights of Russian originated people, to save its former citizens’ lives despite the fact nobody asked such a protection. Russia also argues that it has cultural and territorial rights in former Iron-Curtain countries. This kind of foreign policy aspects in international relations are called “irredentism” and European states could not force Russia to stop such conflict escalating policies. European dependency on Russian natural gas and energy problems one way or another affects European foreign policy priorities on

  14. Time-consistency and credible monetary policy after the crisis


    James M. Nason; Charles I. Plosser


    The economic crisis and its aftermath have posed significant challenges to policymakers. To help meet those challenges, the Federal Reserve deployed several innovative policy tools to help relieve the stress in financial markets during the crisis. These tools have created their own significant challenges for the conduct of monetary policy in the post-crisis era. The wider range of policy options now available to policymakers makes it more difficult to credibly commit to a particular policy co...

  15. Intersegmental kinetics significantly impact mapping from finger musculotendon forces to fingertip forces. (United States)

    Qiu, Dan; Lee, Sang Wook; Amine, Mukarram; Kamper, Derek G


    Predicting the fingertip force vector resulting from excitation of a given muscle remains a challenging but essential task in finger biomechanical modeling. While the conversion of musculotendon force to fingertip force can significantly be affected by finger posture, current techniques utilizing geometric moment arms may not capture such complex postural effects. Here, we attempted to elucidate the postural effects on the mapping between musculotendon force and fingertip force through in vitro experiments. Computer-controlled tendon loading was implemented on the 7 index finger musculotendons of 5 fresh-frozen cadaveric hands across different postures. The resulting fingertip forces/moments were used to compute the effective static moment arm (ESMA), relating tendon force to joint torque, at each joint. The ESMAs were subsequently modeled in three different manners: independent of joint angle; dependent only upon the corresponding joint angle; or dependent upon all joint angles. We found that, for the reconstruction of the fingertip force vector, the multi-joint ESMA model yielded the best outcome, both in terms of direction and magnitude of the vector (mean reconstruction error force transmission through a joint is affected by the posture of neighboring joints. Interestingly, the ESMA model that considers geometric changes of individual joints, the standard model used in biomechanical stimulations, often yielded worse reconstruction results than the simple constant-value ESMA model. Our results emphasize the importance of accurate description of the multi-joint dependency of the conversion of tendon force to joint moment for proper prediction of fingertip force direction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System. (United States)

    Alagona, Peter S


    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines the founding of the Hastings Reservation, and asks how it managed to grow and develop, in the 1940s and 1950s, during a time of declining support for natural history research. It shows how faculty and staff courted the support of key institutional allies, presented themselves as the guardians of a venerable tradition in nature study, and emphasized the station's capacity to document ecological change and inform environmental policy and management. In the years since, Hastings and other U.C. reserves have played crucial roles in California environmental politics. Biological field stations in the post-war era deserve more attention not only from historians of biology, but also from environmental historians and other scholars interested in the role of science in society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinina M.


    Full Text Available Introduction. To achieve increase of profitability of agricultural producers it is possible at the expense of: increase of agricultural production in the final realization price of products; use of cooperative principles to eliminate intermediaries; introduction of guaranteed minimum prices, etc. However, in resolving these tasks, along with state support, it is important to create an agricultural holding company own reserves, the funds of which are formed in accordance with the economic opportunities of the agricultural producer and are spent on the needs that the producer considers most promising at this time. Creation of own reserves is considered as a reduction of the financial burden of the state in providing assistance to rural economy. Purpose. The main tasks are to identify the essence of the concepts of “reserve” and “reserve”, as well as the rationale for the need to create them in agricultural enterprises. Study of existing accounting techniques for reserves. Results. The article highlights the accounting for the formation and use of reserves in agricultural organizations. Summarizing the definition of the term “reserve” in the general sense, we consider that the reserve is the source of the necessary new means and forces, formed initially in the form of a stock of opportunities in case of need for them in the future. The considered term is represented in the form of a scheme as a set of tools and capabilities that are considered in its characteristic from the position of three time reference points: the past, present and future. Reserves are created to cover future losses of the enterprise. Conclusions. As a result of studying the historical development of the system of reservation as an object of accounting, the link between the application of the object under consideration and the emergence of categories of accounting for profits and losses, income and expenses of the enterprise is traced. Reserves are created to

  18. Coal: geology, resources and reserves. Political economy of mineral coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, Maurice; Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie


    A first article indicates the different types of coal (lignite, coking coal, thermal coal) and their calorific power. The author discusses the geology and genesis of coal, and then evokes the various extraction techniques. He comments the definition used regarding resources and reserves, comments various resource assessments, and discusses the future evolution of resources and reserves. He comments the consequences of coal geology for perspectives and costs of production. The second article comments the strong increase of World coal consumption since 1980 (a table is given with data for each continent), outlines that thermoelectricity is the engine of coal demand, that extraction costs and transport costs remained limited (when extraction costs become too high, the mining site is generally closed). The author comments the development of international trade on very competitive markets, and outlines that national coal policies are much different among countries


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU


    Full Text Available Monetary policy is one of the economic policy "tools" through which it acts on the currency demand and supply in the economy. The importance of monetary policy results from its primary objective - price stability, plus limiting inflation and maintaining internal and external value of the currency. Responsibility for achieving these objectives rests with the Central Bank, which has a monopoly in the formulation and the implementation of monetary policy targets. Price stability is the primary objective of monetary policy and also the central objective of economic policy, alongside with: sustainable economic growth, full employment of labor force, balance of external payments equilibrium. To achieve these overall objectives of economic policy, monetary policy acts through currency as an instrument of action and it represents the overall action exercised by the monetary authority to influence economic development and to ensure price stability. In economic processes numerous factors emerge to the sale or purchase of capital available for a shorter or longer period and to achieving their aspirations of maximize capital gains, they are negotiating, they are confronting and agreeing within specific market relationships. The entirety of relations between various economic issues, enterprises and individuals, between them and the banking intermediaries, as well as the relationship between banks and other credit institutions on the transfer of cash money as specific form of debt and fructification of capital, form capital markets or credit markets. These markets are carved up according to the nature and purposes of the participants.

  20. UPM: unified policy-based network management (United States)

    Law, Eddie; Saxena, Achint


    Besides providing network management to the Internet, it has become essential to offer different Quality of Service (QoS) to users. Policy-based management provides control on network routers to achieve this goal. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed a two-tier architecture whose implementation is based on the Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). However, there are several limitations to this design such as scalability and cross-vendor hardware compatibility. To address these issues, we present a functionally enhanced multi-tier policy management architecture design in this paper. Several extensions are introduced thereby adding flexibility and scalability. In particular, an intermediate entity between the policy server and policy rule database called the Policy Enforcement Agent (PEA) is introduced. By keeping internal data in a common format, using a standard protocol, and by interpreting and translating request and decision messages from multi-vendor hardware, this agent allows a dynamic Unified Information Model throughout the architecture. We have tailor-made this unique information system to save policy rules in the directory server and allow executions of policy rules with dynamic addition of new equipment during run-time.

  1. Does weightlifting increase residual force enhancement? (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Kurch, David; Blickhan, Reinhard; Stutzig, Norman


    The force maintained following stretching of an active muscle exceeds the isometric force at the same muscle length. This residual force enhancement (RFE) is different for various muscles. It is currently unknown whether training induces changes in RFE. Weightlifters perform a large number of eccentric contractions during training, and RFE might be functionally relevant. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is increased RFE in weightlifters versus a reference group. Therefore, we measured external reaction forces during a multi-joint leg extension in weightlifters (n=10) and a reference group (n=11) using a motor driven leg press dynamometer (ISOMED 2000). Steady state isometric forces after stretching were compared to the corresponding forces obtained during isometric reference contractions. Statistical analyses yielded a significant RFE for both groups (pweightlifting group versus the reference group. We conclude that long-term weightlifting has only a minor influence on RFE. We speculate that the specific training including a combination of eccentric and concentric exercises induced almost no changes in titin-isoform expression which may be responsible for generation of RFE after active muscle stretching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov


    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in individuals with higher educational or occupational attainment. It is convenient to think of two types of reserve: brain reserve, which refers to actual differences in the brain itself that may increase tolerance of pathology, and cognitive reserve. Cognitive reserve refers to individual differences in how tasks are performed that may allow some people to be more resilient than others. The concept of cognitive reserve holds out the promise of interventions that could slow cognitive aging or reduce the risk of dementia. PMID:23079557

  3. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Scherbov


    Full Text Available Background: Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. Objective: To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. Methods: We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels of labor force participation rates to the projected populations. We introduce the notion of a relative burden, which is the ratio of the fraction of the income of people in the labor market in 2050 that they transfer to adults out of the labor market to the same fraction in 2009. We use this indicator to investigate the trade-offs between changes in normal pension ages and the general level of labor force participation rates. Results: We show that, in most European countries, a difference in policies that results in an increase in average labor force participation rates by an additional one to two percentage points by 2050 can substitute for a one-year increase in the normal pension age. This is important because, in many European countries, without additional increases in labor force participation rates, normal pension ages would have to be raised well above 68 by 2050 to keep the burden on those working manageable. Conclusions: Because of anticipated increases in life expectancy and health at older ages as well as because of financial necessity, some mix of increases in pension ages and in labor force participation rates will be needed. Pension age changes by themselves will not be sufficient.

  4. Shaping drug policy in Poland. (United States)

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia


    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors. (United States)

    Unger, Nadine; Bond, Tami C; Wang, James S; Koch, Dorothy M; Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T; Bauer, Susanne


    A much-cited bar chart provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change displays the climate impact, as expressed by radiative forcing in watts per meter squared, of individual chemical species. The organization of the chart reflects the history of atmospheric chemistry, in which investigators typically focused on a single species of interest. However, changes in pollutant emissions and concentrations are a symptom, not a cause, of the primary driver of anthropogenic climate change: human activity. In this paper, we suggest organizing the bar chart according to drivers of change-that is, by economic sector. Climate impacts of tropospheric ozone, fine aerosols, aerosol-cloud interactions, methane, and long-lived greenhouse gases are considered. We quantify the future evolution of the total radiative forcing due to perpetual constant year 2000 emissions by sector, most relevant for the development of climate policy now, and focus on two specific time points, near-term at 2020 and long-term at 2100. Because sector profiles differ greatly, this approach fosters the development of smart climate policy and is useful to identify effective opportunities for rapid mitigation of anthropogenic radiative forcing.

  6. Population health outcome models in suicide prevention policy. (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L


    Suicide is a leading cause of death in the U.S. and results in immense suffering and significant cost. Effective suicide prevention interventions could reduce this burden, but policy makers need estimates of health outcomes achieved by alternative interventions to focus implementation efforts. To illustrate the utility of health outcome models to help in achieving goals defined by the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force. The approach is illustrated specifically with psychotherapeutic interventions to prevent suicide reattempt in emergency department settings. A health outcome model using decision analysis with secondary data was applied to estimate suicide attempts and deaths averted from evidence-based interventions. Under optimal conditions, the model estimated that over 1 year, implementing evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions in emergency departments could decrease the number of suicide attempts by 18,737, and if offered over 5 years, it could avert 109,306 attempts. Over 1 year, the model estimated 2,498 fewer deaths from suicide, and over 5 years, about 13,928 fewer suicide deaths. Health outcome models could aid in suicide prevention policy by helping focus implementation efforts. Further research developing more sophisticated models of the impact of suicide prevention interventions that include a more complex understanding of suicidal behavior, longer time frames, and inclusion of additional outcomes that capture the full benefits and costs of interventions would be helpful next steps. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  8. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  9. Working for Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colebatch, H.K.; Hoppe, Robertus; Noordegraaf, Mirko


    Though democratic government calls for well-designed and implemented policy, there is surprisingly little expert guidance available for policy makers and politicians. Working for Policy fills that gap, addressing the nature of policy work and offering necessary guidance. The contributors bring

  10. Education Policy Outlook: Austria (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie


    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  11. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron


    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  12. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)


    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  13. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...... consumers. A sustainable entrepreneurship framework is developed. A method for crowdsourcing policy innovations is outlined....

  14. Trends in U.S. nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.C.


    To further the debate on complex issues that involve technical, regional, and strategic aspects, Ifri Security Studies Department organizes each year, in collaboration with the Atomic Energy Commission, a series of closed seminars dealing with WMD proliferation, disarmament, and non-proliferation. The Proliferation Papers is a collection, in the original version, of selected texts from these presentations. The following text is based on a presentation given by William C. Potter at Ifri on March 15, 2005. The author analyzes and discusses the following topics: declaratory policy, which may or may not correspond closely with, arms control and nonproliferation policy, which also should but does not always appear to be highly correlated with either, targeting and Employment policy and/or force modernization and research and development policy. (A.L.B.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria IORDACHI


    Full Text Available The actuality of the given research is determined by the importance of establishing the adequatevolume of international reserves held by the Central Bank. The main purpose of the article is investigationof new methods of calculating the adequate level of international reserves for emerging economies,proposed by the IMF and those existing in international practice. The main research methods weresystemic analysis and logic synthesis. The main result obtained in this article, as a result of the research,is proposing a special approach in applying the IMF methodology in the Republic of Moldova,considering the dependence of the economy on the export of labor. The conducted calculations show asignificant decrease in the level of international reserves of NBM over the past two years and theirapproach to the critical value. To overcome internal imbalances, the international reserves managementshould suppose the accumulation of a higher volume than the average, which would partly compensate theshortcomings in implementing reforms of transforming the economy of the Republic of Moldova,improving their efficiency and quality of domestic policy.

  16. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid


    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  17. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã


    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  18. The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest. (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V


    A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.


    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  20. ForcePAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars


    ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and engin......ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design...

  1. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  2. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.


    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  3. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan


    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

  4. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid


    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  5. Employment Policies in an Aging Society: Review of the Experiences of the OECD Countries with Population Aging and Their Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Heon Kim


    Full Text Available In this paper we review the experiences of OECD countries with population aging and their policy responses, and suggest directions and measures of medium and long-term employment policies to cope with population aging in a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, following the policy objective of sustainable economic growth, we systematically classify policy types to cope with population aging and review possibilities and limitations of each policy type, while also considering Korea-specific situations as well as the experiences of other OECD countries. There are two broad types of employment policies to sustain economic growth in an aging society. One is to increase the quantity of labor force and the other is to enhance the quality of labor force. Policies to increase the quantity of labor force include pro-natalist policies, immigration policies, and policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people. Policies to enhance the quality of labor force include human resource development and flexicurity policies in the labor market. Our review suggests that direct pro-natalist policies seem to be ineffective. Also immigration policies cannot fundamentally solve the problem caused by population aging. Policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people seem to be the most effective policy. However, labor productivity should be an engine of economic growth in the long run when labor input reaches the limit of its capacity. In conclusion, in the long run, it is most important to enhance the quality of human capital and improve the functioning of the labor market to cope with the challenges of population aging.

  6. Market forces can help lower waste volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavins, R.N.


    Market forces can go a long way toward helping communities solve their mounting solid-waste problems. In most communities the increasing costs of solid-waste disposal are invisible to the average homeowner because they are buried in local property tax rates. Even in the few communities that list disposal costs separately on tax bills, individual costs are not related to the volume of waste generated. Fundamental to an effective waste-management strategy is the removal of these distortions by getting the prices right. But even with improved price signals, there is no silver bullet of public policy for solid- and hazardous-waste management. Until the ubiquitous NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) problem is addressed, even the most innovative set of waste management policies will remain, at best, a partial solution

  7. Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia (United States)

    Tan, Charlene


    This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

  8. Forced Labor during the Romanian Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Chioveanu


    Full Text Available My paper aims to retrieve and present in general lines one aspect of the Romanian Holocaust that was since recently ignored by most scholars in the field, namely the forced labor of the Jewish population. Part of the deliberate anti-Jewish policy of the Antonescu government, the issue of forced labor is relevant as it completes the picture of the Holocaust in Romania, at the same time indicating the border between the Romanian apartheid society and the Romanian genocidal state. The paper thus points at the necessity for the scholars to continue their research in the field of holocaust studies at large, a topic that is far from exhausting its resources and significance.

  9. A Study on Improving United States Air Force Space Systems Engineering and Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stahr, Jeremiah B


    ...) and United States Air Force (USAF) policies and practices, many government systems engineers today lack the systems engineering/management skills required to successfully execute national security space programs...

  10. Strategic Change and the Joint Terrorism Task Force: Ideas and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Angelo, Anthony P


    ... and the multidisciplinary Joint Terrorism Task Forces. The terrorist attacks served as a catalyst for evaluating cultural, psychological and organizational processes, policies and procedures that influenced the FBI and impacted the JTTF program...

  11. Optimization of Shipboard Manning Levels Using Imprint Pro Forces Module (United States)


    fleet we believe suffered because of it” ( Fuentes , 2011). In the case of the LCS, the initial aim was to achieve a core crew of only 40 sailors...Department of the Navy. (2007). Navy total force manpower policies procedures – OPNAVIST 1000.16K. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Navy. Fuentes , G

  12. 75 FR 7197 - Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity (United States)


    ... a result, our children may live shorter lives than their parents. Obesity has been recognized as a... that will prevent and combat obesity. Such strategies include updating child nutrition policies in a... Childhood Obesity (Task Force) to develop an interagency action plan to solve the problem of obesity among...

  13. U.S. Military Assistance to Philippine Ground Forces (United States)


    assistance to the Philippines is not optimum and that more, or different, aid is warranted. The study profiles the communist insurgency; the Aquino...aid is warranted. The study profiles the communist insurgency; the Aquino administration’s counterinsurgency policies; and the composition of AFP ground... Barangay Immersion Program . 67 Concerns . . . . . . . 68 Strengths .. . . .72 7. CURRENT SECURITY ASSISTANCE TO PHILIPPINE GROUND FORCES . . . . . . 74

  14. Unemployment and labour force market in Republic of Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mic UKAJ, Msc.


    The very high rate of unemployment in Republic of Kosova presents one of main challenges that Country faces for a long time. The purpose of this research is to analyze the situation of labour force in Kosova, and come up with conclusions and recommendations regarding the creation of genuine economic policy which would cause the reduction of unemployment rate in country.

  15. TMI-2 Lessons Learned Task Force. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In its final report reviewing the Three Mile Island accident, the TMI-2 Lessons Learned Task Force has suggested change in several fundamental aspects of basic safety policy for nuclear power plants. Changes in nuclear power plant design and operations and in the regulatory process are discussed in terms of general goals. The appendix sets forth specific recommendations for reaching these goals

  16. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies. (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H


    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Headings for an EEC common energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.


    Although self-sufficiency in energy supplies during the 1980s may make a purely national UK energy policy look attractive, the author argues that it is in the long-term interest of all nine community members if policy is coordinated on an EEC scale. Any possible common energy policy would probably consist of separate policies for coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear power. It would follow the same general principles as the Common Agricultural Policy in maximising production of coal, natural gas and nuclear power but oil would be covered by negotiating with OPEC for current supplies and treating indigenous supplies as a strategic reserve, with Community finance available for development of marginal fields. (author)

  18. Forced Migration and Global Responsibility for Health (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Razum, Oliver


    Forced migration has become a world-wide phenomenon in the past century, affecting increasing numbers of countries and people. It entails important challenges from a global health perspective. Leppold et al have critically discussed the Japanese interpretation of global responsibility for health in the context of forced migration. This commentary complements their analysis by outlining three priority areas of global health responsibility for European Union (EU) countries. We highlight important stages of the migration phases related to forced migration and propose three arguments. First, the chronic neglect of the large number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the discourses on the "refugee crisis" needs to be corrected in order to develop sustainable solutions with a framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Second, protection gaps in the global system of protection need to be effectively closed to resolve conflicts with border management and normative global health frameworks. Third, effective policies need to be developed and implemented to meet the health and humanitarian needs of forced migrants; at the same time, the solidarity crisis within the EU needs to be overcome. These stakes are high. EU countries, being committed to global health, should urgently address these areas. PMID:28812838

  19. Task force report on health effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.; Hushon, J.


    From April to August, 1978 MITRE supported the Health Effects Assessment Task Force sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for the Environment at DOE. The findings of that Task Force are incorporated in this report and include a detailed definition of health effects assessment, a survey of the mandates for health effects assessments within DOE/EV, a review of current DOE-EV health effects assessment activities, an analysis of the constraints affecting the health effects assessment process and a discussion of the Task Force recommendations. Included as appendices are summaries of two workshops conducted by the Task Force to determine the state-of-the-art of health effects assessment and modeling and a review of risk assessment activities in other federal agencies. The primary recommendation of the panel was that an office be designated or created under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for the Environment to coordinate the Health Effects Risk Assessment effort covering up to 40 program and policy areas; a similar need was expressed for the environmental effects assessment area. 1 tab

  20. labour force in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women in Nigeria must be integrated in the development process through active mobilization and the liberalization of access to new economic opportunities especially in agriculture, emphasizing the past policies with gender bias in favour of men, needed to be modified. This paper examines the factors that affect women in ...

  1. due to Capillary Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad


    Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.

  2. The fifth force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.


    We present a phenomenological description of the ''fifth force'' which focuses on the implications of the existing data from satellite and geophysical measurements of gravity, the Eoetvoes experiment, decays into hyperphotons, and the energy-dependence of the K 0 - anti K 0 parameters

  3. Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon

    Principle of MFM In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the magnetic stray field above a very flat specimen, or sample, is detected by placing a small magnetic element, the tip, mounted on a cantilever spring very close to the surface of the sample (Figure 1). Typical dimensions are a cantilever length

  4. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich


    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012

  5. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces (United States)


    expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and...military forces located there. The masked men appeared to be shooting and the army responded, shooting back.284 Whatever the stories

  6. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  7. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1987. (United States)


    Paraguay Barbuda Ecuador India Peru Argentina Egypt Israel Philippines Australia England Italy Portugal Austria Fiji Jamaica Puerto Rico Bahamas France...Baguero Commander, Ecuadoran First Air Presidente , Junta Civic Archidona, Zone Ecuador * Navarrete, Colonel William * Marsh, Honorable John 0. Jr...Mobilization Concepts (Policy) Development Center " Shiguango, Mr. Sharimiat 0 Temple, Lieutenant General Herbert Presidente , Conncejo Archidona, R. Jr

  8. 42 CFR 50.305 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 50.305 Section 50.305 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service § 50.305 ...

  9. 15 CFR 742.12 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 742.12 Section 742.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742...

  10. 15 CFR 742.16 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 742.16 Section 742.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742...

  11. 37 CFR 404.9 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 404.9 Section 404.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.9 ...

  12. Students, Economics, and the Federal Reserve (United States)

    Bernanke, Ben S.


    Students with an understanding of economics are better equipped to comprehend the forces that influence people's standard of living and overall financial well-being. Broad-based economic literacy supports an environment where students can participate in America's democracy as well-informed and responsible citizens, whose collective actions may…

  13. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501 [Reserved...

  14. 7 CFR 300.1 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 300.1 Section 300.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.1 [Reserved...

  15. 7 CFR 305.4 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 305.4 Section 305.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.4 [Reserved...

  16. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photography. [Reserved] 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography. [Reserved] ...

  17. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a [Reserved] ...

  18. 40 CFR 406.43 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.43 Section 406.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.43 [Reserved] ...

  19. 40 CFR 406.23 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.23 Section 406.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.23 [Reserved] ...

  20. 40 CFR 406.13 - [Reserved (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.13 Section 406.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.13 [Reserved] ...