WorldWideScience

Sample records for reseda lutea resedaceae

  1. Flavononol Glycosides of Reseda arabica (Resedaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djemaa Berrehal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Five flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3,7-di-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (1 , isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (2 , kaempferol 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (3 , isorhamnetin 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (4, Kaempferol 3-O- β -xylopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (5, have been isolated from the aerial parts of Reseda arabica. Their structures were established on the basis of physical and spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with the literature data.

  2. Kaempferol triosides from Reseda muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, N H; Omara, N M; Yousef, A K; Farag, A M; Mabry, T J

    2001-06-01

    A flavonoid trioside and its coumaryl ester together with seven known flavonoids and five phenolic acids were isolated from the leaves of Reseda muricata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, FAB MS, 1H, 13C and 2D-NMR, DEPT, HMBC and HMQC experiments. The two compounds were identified as kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1''' --> 2'')-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1''' --> 2'')-O-alpha-L rhamnopyranoside 7-O-beta-D-(6''''-O-E-coumarylglucopyranoside), respectively.

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Reseda Luteola L. and their antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasiriboroumand, Majid Nasiri; Montazer, Majid; Dutschk, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Among different methods to synthesize silver nanoparticles (SNPs), the biological method has been the most extensively investigated. This study presents a facile and rapid method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Weld (Reseda Luteola L.) as a natural dye. An aqueous extract of the dye

  4. Lightcurves and Periods for Asteroids 1081 Reseda 2117 Danmark, 2315 Czechoslovakia, 2871 Schober, 6392 Takashimizuno, and (6409) 1992 VC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankov, Arten; Ditteon, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ten asteroids were observed at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory on six nights during the months of 2008 July and August. The asteroids were 1081 Reseda, 1421 Esperanto, 2117 Danmark, 2315 Czechoslovakia, 2871 Schober, 6392 Takashimizuno, (6409) 1992 VC, 7046 Reshetnev, (14276) 2000 CF2, and (32219) 2000 OU20.

  5. Alkaloids of Nelumbo lutea (Wild.) pers. (Nymphaeaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, S G

    1977-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of an alcoholic extract of the petioles of Nelumbo lutea resulted in the identification of the alkaloids N-methylasimilobine, anonaine, and roemerine. The alkaloids nuciferine, armepavine, N-nornuciferine, and N-norarmepavine, previously previously reported in the whole plant, were also identified.

  6. Gastroprotective effects of leaf extracts of Carpolobia lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethyl acetate extract (770 mg/kg) consistently and effectively reduced the ulcer index significantly (p<0.01 - 0.001) than the ethanol, chloroform and nhexane extracts of C. lutea in all the experimentally induced ulcer models studied. C. lutea could be exploited in the treatment of peptic ulcer in man justifying its ...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Carpolobia lutea extracts and fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carpolobia lutea (G. Don) (Polygalaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant putative in traditional medicines against gonorrhea, gingivitis, infertility, antiulcer and malaria. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial, antifungal and antihelicobacter effects of extracts C. lutea leaf, stem and root. The extracts were examined using ...

  8. Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    Reef sites Pink line syndrome (PLS) in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea Accepted: 10 May 2002 / Published online: 5 July 2002 C211 Springer-Verlag 2002 We describe here an unreport- ed diseased state of Porites lutea (Milne-Edwards and Haime...)ontheKavarattireefof the Lakshadweep group of is- lands (11C176 N; 71C176E). Pink line syndrome (PLS) causes partial mortality of the coral P. lutea around Kavaratti Island (Fig. 1), and about 10% of colonies were found to be af- fected by PLS. The dead patches were colonized by a...

  9. Whitening Agents from Reseda luteola L. and Their Chemical Characterization Using Combination of CPC, UPLC-HRMS and NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Burger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Skin whitening agents occupy an important part of the dermo-cosmetic market nowadays. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders, or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone. The use of traditional skin bleachers (e.g., hydroquinone, corticoids is now strictly regulated due to their side effects. When considering this and the growing consumers’ interest for more natural ingredients, plant extracts can be seen as safe and natural alternatives. In this perspective, in vitro bioassays were undertaken to assess cosmetic potential of Reseda luteola, and particularly its promising whitening activities. A bioguided purification procedure employing centrifugal partition chromatography, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS and NMR was developed to isolate and identify the whitening agents (i.e., luteolin and apigenin from aerial parts of R. luteola. UPLC-HRMS also enabled the characterization of acetylated luteolin- and apigenin-O-glycosides, which occurrence is reported for the first time in R. luteola.

  10. SEPARATION, IDENTIFICATION ANO CUANTIFICATION OF TANNINS OF CALATHEA LUTEA "BIJAO"

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre M., R.; Departamento de Química Analítica e Instrumentación, FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Tomás Ch., G.; Departamento de Química Orgánica FQIQ- Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Huamán M., J.; Departamento de Química Orgánica FQIQ-Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Galarreta D., H.; Departamento Académico de Química Inorgánica, FQIQ - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Ccaccia C., A.; Escuela de Química, FQIQ - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    We work with Calathea lutea "bijao" of Pucallpa. In the phitochemist analysis, saponines, fiavonoids, cumarines, alkaloids and phenolic compounds: catechin tannins were found. A high per cent of tannins were found, this was realized by volumetric analysis. Se trabajó con Calathea lutea "bijao" de Pucallpa. En el análisis fitoquímico se ha encontrado saponinas, fiavonoides, cumarinas, alcaloides y compuestos fenólicos: taninos catéquicos. Se encontró un alto porcentaje de taninos realizado ...

  11. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three ...

  12. Fungi in Porites lutea: Association with healthy and diseased corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

    It is found that fungi to occur regularly in healthy, partially dead, bleached and pink-line syndrome (PLS)-affected scleractinian coral, Porites lutea, in the reefs of Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. Mostly terrestrial species of fungi were isolated...

  13. Allelopathic potential ofnuphar lutea (L.) Sibth. & Sm. (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elakovich, S D; Wooten, J W

    1991-04-01

    Aqueous extracts ofNuphar lutea (L.) Sibth. & Sm. leaves (blades plus petioles) and roots plus rhizomes were tested for allelopathic activity using lettuce seedling andLemna minor L. assay systems. The 12.5, 25, 125, and 250 parts per thousand (ppt) treatments of both extracts killed the lettuce seedlings. At 2.5 ppt of extract, radicle growth of lettuce was 29% of the control for leaves and 31% of the control for roots plus rhizomes.Lemna minor frond number was reduced to 34% of the control by the 25 ppt leaf extract and to 43% of the control by the 25 ppt roots plus rhizomes extract.L. minor was killed by concentrations of 125 ppt and above of both plant part extracts. As expected, the frond number and total chlorophyll content measured by theL. minor assay were highly correlated. Osmotic potentials below 143 mOsmol/kg had no influence onL. minor growth. Neither the osmotic potential nor the pH of the undiluted extracts ofN. lutea were in the range known to influence the growth of either lettuce seedlings orL. minor. Nuphar lutea extracts were many times more inhibitory than 16 other hydrophytes we previously examined.

  14. Flower color preferences of insects and livestock: effects on Gentiana lutea reproductive success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Sobral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperms diversification was primarily driven by pollinator agents, but non-pollinator agents also promoted floral evolution. Gentiana lutea shows pollinator driven flower color variation in NW Spain. We test whether insect herbivores and livestock, which frequently feed in G.lutea, play a role in G. lutea flower color variation, by answering the following questions: (i Do insect herbivores and grazing livestock show flower color preferences when feeding on G. lutea? (ii Do mutualists (pollinators and antagonists (seed predators, insect herbivores and livestock jointly affect G. lutea reproductive success? Insect herbivores fed more often on yellow flowering individuals but they did not affect seed production, whereas livestock affected seed production but did not show clear color preferences. Our data indicate that flower color variation of G. lutea is not affected by insect herbivores or grazing livestock.

  15. 75 FR 45592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... lutea that we published in the Federal Register on March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11080), the two expanded... Maple Hill. Carex lutea occurs in the Pine Savanna (Very Wet Clay Variant) natural community type..., the Service has expanded the area of proposed subunit 8C from 1.6 ac (0.6 ha) to 9.8 ac (4.0 ha), for...

  16. Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Gentian Lutea Root and Its Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana Lutea root (G. Lutea is a medicinal herb, traditionally used as a bitter tonic in gastrointestinal ailments for improving the digestive system. The active principles of G. Lutea were found to be secoiridoid bitter compounds as well as many other active compounds causing the pharmacological effects. No study to date has yet determined the potential of G. Lutea antioxidant activity on lipid oxidation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an extract of G. Lutea on lipid oxidation during storage of an emulsion. G. Lutea extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging assay and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. An amount of 0.5% w/w G. Lutea lyophilise was able to inhibit lipid oxidation throughout storage (p < 0.05. A mixture of G. Lutea with 0.1% (w/w BSA showed a good synergic effect and better antioxidant activity in the emulsion. Quantitative results of HPLC showed that G. Lutea contained secoiridoid-glycosides (gentiopiocroside and sweroside and post column analysis displayed radical scavenging activity of G. Lutea extract towards the ABTS radical. The results from this study highlight the potential of G. Lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier food commodities.

  17. Multiple gene sequences delimit Botryosphaeria australis sp. nov. from B. lutea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Fourie, G.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Botryosphaeria lutea (anamorph Fusicoccum luteum) most easily is distinguished from other Botryosphaeria spp. by a yellow pigment that is formed in young cultures. This fungus has been reported from a number of cultivated hosts in New Zealand and Portugal. During a survey of Botryosphaeria fungi

  18. Studies on luteinizing hormone receptors of human corpora lutea during menstrual cycle and pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yasushi (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-10-01

    With the purpose of explicating the lifespan of human corpora lutea, using human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, binding of /sup 125/I-LH to the 20,000g cell membrane fraction was examined. 1) Specific bindings of /sup 125/I-LH, /sup 125/I-HCG were demonstrated in the 20,000g cell membrane fraction. Although LH and HCG were parallel in inhibiting /sup 125/I-LH binding, HCG was found to be more effective. FSH did not inhibit binding. 2) Binding of /sup 125/I-LH was dependent on time, temperature, /sup 125/I-LH concentration, amount of the cell membrane fraction protein and pH. The highest binding was seen at pH 6.0 while incubating for 60 min at 37/sup 0/C. 3) The number of LH receptors in human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle increased towards midluteal phase, especially on 5th day from ovulation, and decreased towards late luteal phase. LH receptor was not found in corpus albicans. The apparent dissociation constant of each corpus luteum did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. 4) Corpora lutea of pregnancy contained a few or no receptors which bound /sup 125/I-LH specifically. These data suggest that LH receptor is an important factor regulating the lifespan of corpus luteum and exogenous HCG has effect on luteal insufficiency, but the effect of HCG on threatened abortion is uncertain.

  19. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    1987-05-01

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.

  20. Studies on luteinizing hormone receptors of human corpora lutea during menstrual cycle and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yasushi

    1982-01-01

    With the purpose of explicating the lifespan of human corpora lutea, using human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, binding of 125 I-LH to the 20,000g cell membrane fraction was examined. 1) Specific bindings of 125 I-LH, 125 I-HCG were demonstrated in the 20,000g cell membrane fraction. Although LH and HCG were parallel in inhibiting 125 I-LH binding, HCG was found to be more effective. FSH did not inhibit binding. 2) Binding of 125 I-LH was dependent on time, temperature, 125 I-LH concentration, amount of the cell membrane fraction protein and pH. The highest binding was seen at pH 6.0 while incubating for 60 min at 37 0 C. 3) The number of LH receptors in human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle increased towards midluteal phase, especiallt on 5th day from ovulation, and decreased towards late luteal phase. LH receptor was not found in corpus albicans. The apparent dissociation constant of each corpus luteum did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. 4) Corpora lutea of pregnancy contained a few or no receptors which bound 125 I-LH specifically. These data suggest that LH receptor is an important factor regulating the lifespan of corpus luteum and exogenous HCG has effect on luteal insufficiency, but the effect of HCG on threatened abortion is uncertain. (author)

  1. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver. This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.

  2. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 125 I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle

  3. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  4. Genetic Variation of the Endangered Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (Gentianaceae in Populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea L. (G. lutea L. is an endangered plant, patchily distributed along the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. In this study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in this species within and among populations of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca of the Cantabrian Mountains (Northwest Iberian Peninsula. Samples of G. lutea L. collected at different locations of the Pyrenees and samples of G. lutea L. subsp. vardjanii of the Dolomites Alps were also analyzed for comparison. Using nine ISSR primers, 106 bands were generated, and 89.6% of those were polymorphic. The populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula were clustered in three different groups, with a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca showed 19.8% private loci and demonstrated a remarkable level of genetic variation, both among populations and within populations; those populations with the highest level of isolation show the lowest genetic variation within populations. The low number of individuals, as well as the observed genetic structure of the analyzed populations makes it necessary to protect them to ensure their survival before they are too small to persist naturally.

  5. Immunolocalization of lipoxygenase in the microspore of Gagea lutea (L. Ker.-Gaw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szczuka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization of lipoxygenase (LOX in the microspore of Gagea lutea (L. Ker.-Gaw. was investigated with the immunogold labelling method. The enzyme was found in the cytoplasm, nucleus and sporoderm. The most intensive reaction was observed in the cytoplasm, where the immunogold particles were sometimes grouped into clusters of several or more and showed the highest density. The smallest amount of particles occured in the sporoderm. The role of lipoxygenase in the microspore is discussed.

  6. Network formation by rhizomorphs of Armillaria lutea in natural soil: their description and ecological significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamour, A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Volker, D.; Jeger, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Armillaria lutea rhizomorphs in soil were mapped over areas of 25¿m2 at a Pinus nigra (site I) and a Picea abies (site II) plantation. Rhizomorph density was 4.3 and 6.1¿m¿m¿2 soil surface with 84% and 48% of the total rhizomorph length in the mapped area interconnected in a network at site I and

  7. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  8. Comparative evaluation of the aphrodisiac efficacy of sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea root extract in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Ayobami; Salami, Shakiru Ademola; Kunle-Alabi, Olufadekemi Tolulope; Akindele, Opeyemi Oreofe; Raji, Yinusa

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as a sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study compares the efficacy of methanol extract of C. lutea root (MECLR) and sildenafil on the sexual activity of male rabbits. 20 adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2 ml/kg 1% Tween-20 (vehicle), 40 mg/kg MECLR, 80 mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (SC), respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group were assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0, 1, 3, and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. MECLR caused a dose-dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency (EL) while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post EL (similar to SC) when compared with the control. MECLR also caused significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides a novel scientific rationale for the use of C. lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido.

  9. Induction of canine deciduoma in some reproductive stages with the different condition of corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K

    1997-03-01

    Bitches were examined to see whether canine deciduoma could be induced at some reproductive stages with the different conditions of corpora lutea by inserting a silk suture into the uterine lumen. The bitches stimulated in the early and middle stages of diestrus or in unilateral pregnancy corresponding to these diestrous stages formed deciduoma at a high induction rate, however, no difference in the strength of decidual reaction between the pregnant and diestrous stages was recognized. On the other hand, no reaction could be seen in bitches in late diestrus, the late stage of unilateral pregnancy or the post partum repair phase in which stromal decidual cells similar to those of the rodentia can be seen. In already implanted uteri, however, no deciduoma was formed in the interplacental areas. Even though the corpora lutea were functional, new additional stimulations were not accepted at the interplacental area in which the uterine horn had already been influenced by fertilized ova. From these results, it was suggested that in the dog as well as the rodentia, the endometrium has to be under the influence of functional corpora lutea in order to form deciduoma.

  10. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Lourdes; Veiga, Tania; Ni, Xiuzhen; Farré, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Guitián, Javier; Guitián, Pablo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca) is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea). We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1) and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in petals of

  11. Red Anthocyanins and Yellow Carotenoids Form the Color of Orange-Flower Gentian (Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Berman

    Full Text Available Flower color is an important characteristic that determines the commercial value of ornamental plants. Gentian flowers occur in a limited range of colors because this species is not widely cultivated as a cut flower. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (abbr, aurantiaca is characterized by its orange flowers, but the specific pigments responsible for this coloration are unknown. We therefore investigated the carotenoid and flavonoid composition of petals during flower development in the orange-flowered gentian variety of aurantiaca and the yellow-flowered variety of G. lutea L. var. lutea (abbr, lutea. We observed minor varietal differences in the concentration of carotenoids at the early and final stages, but only aurantiaca petals accumulated pelargonidin glycosides, whereas these compounds were not found in lutea petals. We cloned and sequenced the anthocyanin biosynthetic gene fragments from petals, and analyzed the expression of these genes in the petals of both varieties to determine the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in petal color. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the isolated anthocyanin cDNA fragments indicated that chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, anthocyanidin synthase 1 (ANS1 and ANS2 are identical in both aurantiaca and lutea varieties whereas minor amino acid differences of the deduced flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR between both varieties were observed. The aurantiaca petals expressed substantially higher levels of transcripts representing CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase genes, compared to lutea petals. Pelargonidin glycoside synthesis in aurantiaca petals therefore appears to reflect the higher steady-state levels of pelargonidin synthesis transcripts. Moreover, possible changes in the substrate specificity of DFR enzymes may represent additional mechanisms for producing red pelargonidin glycosides in

  12. New dammarane triterpenes from the aerial parts of Ibicella lutea grown in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Jiménez, Carlos; Rodríguez, Jaime; Giordano, Oscar S; Tonn, Carlos E

    2003-12-01

    Two new dammarane triterpenes have been isolated from the aerial parts of Ibicella lutea, 3-acetyl-24-epi-polacandrin (1) and 1,3-diacetyl-24-epi-polacandrin (2), and were obtained along with the known compounds 20S,24S-epoxy-3beta,12beta,25-trihydroxydammarane (3) and apigenin. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were deduced by spectroscopic studies and by chemical transformations leading to the preparation of derivatives 4-11. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were verified by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The natural compounds and selected semisynthetic derivatives were evaluated against several tumor cells.

  13. Distribution of three nymphaeid macrophytes (Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze) in relation to alkalinity and uptake of inorganic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.J.M.; Lyon, de M.J.H.; Velde, van der G.; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The presence/absence data of Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze in 588 water bodies throughout The Netherlands were converted into logistic response curves with respect to alkalinity. For Nuphar lutea and Nymphoides peltata maximum probability of

  14. Yimella lutea gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium of the family Dermacoccaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Yun; Schumann, Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2010-03-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, non-motile, halotolerant actinobacterium, designated YIM 45900(T), was found as a contaminant on an agar plate in the laboratory of Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, China. The peptidoglycan type was A4alpha with an (L)-Lys-(L)-Ser-(D)-Asp interpeptide bridge. The cell-wall sugars contained galactose and fucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H(4)). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, a glucosamine-containing phospholipid and an unknown phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 65.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism falls within the radius of the suborder Micrococcineae and its closest phylogenetic neighbours are the genera of the family Dermacoccaceae. Strain YIM 45900(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequences similarity values of 93.1-95.9 % with members of the genera Dermacoccus, Demetria and Kytococcus. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of the actinobacterium, a novel genus and species, Yimella lutea gen. nov., sp. nov., are proposed. The type strain of Yimella lutea is YIM 45900(T) (=DSM 19828(T) =KCTC 19231(T) =CCTCC AB 207007(T)).

  15. A Comparative Assessment of Biological Effects and Chemical Profile of Italian Asphodeline lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Melucci

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of Asphodeline lutea (AL, a wild edible plant of the Mediterranean diet. Roots, aerial parts, and flowers of AL at two different phenological stages were collected from three locations in Italy. The inhibitory activities of extracts on strategic enzymes linked to human diseases were assessed. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro, using six standard bioassays. The phenolic and anthraquinone profiles were also established using HPLC-PDA. Zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper contents were also determined. All the samples inhibited acetylcholinesterase (from 1.51 to 2.20 mg GALAEs/g extract, tyrosinase (from 7.50 to 25.3 mg KAEs/g extract, and α-amylase (from 0.37 to 0.51 mmol ACAEs/g extract. Aloe-emodin and physcion were present in all parts, while rhein was not detected. The phenolic profile and the heavy metals composition of specimens gathered from three different regions of Italy were different. It can be argued that samples collected near the street can contain higher concentrations of heavy metals. The experimental data confirm that the A. lutea species could be considered as a potential source of bioactive metabolites, and its consumption could play a positive and safe role in human health maintenance.

  16. Autotrophic and heterotrophic responses of the coral Porites lutea to large amplitude internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacherres, Cesar O; Schmidt, Gertraud M; Richter, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Large amplitude internal waves (LAIW) cause frequent and severe changes in the physico-chemical environment of Andaman Sea coral reefs and are a potentially important source of disturbance for corals. To explore the coral response to LAIW, prey capture disposition and photosynthesis were investigated in relation to changes in seawater temperature, pH, flow speed and food availability in LAIW simulation studies under controlled laboratory conditions, using Porites lutea as a model organism. Although food presence stimulated polyp expansion, we found an overriding effect of low temperature (19°C) causing retraction of the coral polyps into their calices, particularly when pH was altered concomitantly. Decreases in pH alone, however, caused the expansion of the polyps. The exposure history of the colonies played a crucial role in coral responses: prior field exposure to LAIW yielded lower retraction levels than in LAIW-inexperienced corals, suggesting acclimatization. Low temperature (19°C) exposure did not seem to influence the photosynthetic performance, but LAIW-experienced corals showed higher values of maximum dark-adapted quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II than LAIW-inexperienced controls. Collectively, these data suggest that P. lutea, the dominant hermatypic coral in the Andaman Sea, can acclimatize to extreme changes in its abiotic environment by modulating its mixotrophic nutrition, through polyp expansion and potential feeding, as well as its photosynthetic efficiency.

  17. Aqueous extract of Carpolobia lutea root ameliorates paroxetine-induced anti-androgenic activity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The reversibility and/or enhanced synthesis of testosterone and androgen dependent parameters by the C. lutea root which confers anabolic and androgenic activities on the plant may explain the rationale for its use in the management of sexual dysfunction and fertility in animals.

  18. Skeleton microstructure of Porites lutea in Kondang Merak, Malang, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, Oktiyas Muzaky; Sontodipoero, R. M. Agung M. Rizqon; Isdianto, Andik; Setyohadi, Daduk; Jauhari, Alfan; Januarsa, I. Nyoman

    2017-11-01

    Research on coral microstructure in Indonesia, especially in East Java is rarely done. Therefore, this study aims to examine the shape of Aragonite Crystal coral Porites lutea in Pantai Kondak Merak, East Java, especially in 1998 which is the time of El Nino and has a global impact on coral growth. The shape of the aragonite crystal on the reef can be seen using the Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersion X-Ray (SEM - EDX). Based on the coral aragonite crystal form, the increasing temperature in 1998 was not proven to have a devastating effect on the growth of corals of Pantai Kondang Merak. In contrast, the temperature at this site should support corals in order to grow rapidly, but there are other environmental factors that ultimately inhibit the growth of the coral.

  19. Iridoid glucosides of Paederota lutea and the relationships between Paederota and Veronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    In a chemical investigation of the water soluble compounds in Paederota lutea eight known iridoids were isolated together with a new one with a 8,9-double bond, namely paederotoside (10-O-benzoyl-6'-O-alpha-arabino(1-6)-beta-glucopyranosyl arborescosidic acid) and the 6-hydroxy-flavone glucoside...... scutellarein 4'-methyl ether 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside. The known iridoid glucosides were mussaenosidic acid, gardoside, aucubin, catalpol and the 6-O-catalpol esters veronicoside, catalposide, amphicoside and verproside. The compounds isolated show that Paederota has a glycoside content almost identical...... to that of a general Veronica species, and this is in good agreement with the results from recent investigations of the phylogeny of Veronica and its closest relatives, where Paederota is placed as a sister-group next to Veronica. In an analysis of the iridoid glucosides from some of these relatives, it is shown...

  20. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk, P; Bouwman, E G; Chen, T Y; Koopmanschap, R E; Soede, N M

    2017-07-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n=11) or fully fed throughout (n=10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11 in samples taken from blood vessels draining an ovary. Ultrasonographic measurements of the size of the corpora lutea did not show any effect of fasting either. However, fasted gilts had 10 to 30% lower systemic progesterone from Day 12 through Day 15 after conception (Pgilts farrowed, but fasted gilts had fewer born piglets than fully fed gilts (8.8±0.8 vs 10.9±0.5 respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, fasting during embryo elongation can compromise embryonic survival by affecting ovarian function in the days after fasting, without having an immediate effect on LH secretion and progesterone output by the ovaries.

  1. Chemical Composition, Biological and Cytotoxic Activities of Plant Extracts and Compounds Isolated from Ferula lutea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Znati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the phytochemical study on Ferula lutea flowers. Total phenolics and flavonoids of the n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts were quantified (phenolics [40.68–52.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight], flavonoids [12.38–14.72 mg quercitin/g dry weight]. Two diastereoisomers were isolated and identified using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR and GC-MS. The extracts and diastereoisomers were tested for antioxidant, antiacetylcholinesterase, antimicrobial, antidiabectic, cytotoxic (leukemia cell line activities and allelopathic potentialities. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained for the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 12.8 ± 1.29 µg/mL. The two extracts exhibited high antidiabetic activity (54.1 and 52.1% at 40 µg/mL.

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Th. ME+SA-SI+S-Z. 26.7. Resedaceae. Ochradenus baccatus Delile. Per. Nph. SA-SI. 33.3. Reseda decursiva Forssk. Ann. Th. SA-SI. 6.7. Rutaceae. Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) Juss. Per. H. SA-SI. 3.3. Scrophulariaceae. Kickxia aegyptiaca (L.) NÜbelek. Per. Ch. ME+SA-SI. 3.3. Scophularia deserti Delile. Per. Ch.

  3. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on inositol phospholipid metabolism in isolated rat corpora lutea of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, M.; West, L.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The sensitivity of rat corpora lutea to luteolytic agents increases with luteal age. We examined the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and [D-Ala6,Des-Gly10]GnRH ethylamide (GnRHa) on inositol phospholipid metabolism in day 2 and day 7 corpora lutea from PMSG-treated rats. Isolated corpora lutea were incubated with 32PO4 or [3H]inositol and were treated with LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa. Phospholipids were purified by TLC, and the water-soluble products of phospholipase-C activity (inositol phosphates) were isolated by ion exchange chromatography. In day 2 corpora lutea, PGF2 alpha, (10 microM) and GnRHa (100 ng/ml) significantly increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but not into other fractions. LH provoked slight increases in PA. Results were similar with 30 min of prelabeling or simultaneous addition of 32PO4 and stimulants. In other experiments, PGF2 alpha and GnRHa provoked rapid increases (1-5 min) in the accumulation of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates. LH did not significantly increase inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated cAMP accumulation in 2-day-old corpora lutea. Inositol phospholipid metabolism was increased in day 7 corpora lutea compared to that in day 2 corpora lutea. This increase was associated with increased incorporation of 32PO4 into PA and PI and increased accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. In day 7 corpora lutea, which are very sensitive to the luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha, the PG-induced increase in PA labeling was small and inconsistent, whereas PI labeling was unaffected in 30-min incubations. GnRHa was without effect in such corpora lutea. LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 7-day-old corpora lutea. These studies demonstrate that the transformation of young (day 2) to mature (day 7) corpora lutea is associated with an increase in luteal inositol phospholipid metabolism

  4. Differences in pollination success between local and foreign flower color phenotypes: a translocation experiment with Gentiana lutea (Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Guitián

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The adaptive maintenance of flower color variation is frequently attributed to pollinators partly because they preferentially visit certain flower phenotypes. We tested whether Gentiana lutea—which shows a flower color variation (from orange to yellow in the Cantabrian Mountains range (north of Spain—is locally adapted to the pollinator community. Methods We transplanted orange-flowering individuals to a population with yellow-flowering individuals and vice versa, in order to assess whether there is a pollination advantage in the local morph by comparing its visitation rate with the foreign morph. Results Our reciprocal transplant experiment did not show clear local morph advantage in overall visitation rate: local orange flowers received more visits than foreign yellow flowers in the orange population, while both local and foreign flowers received the same visits in the yellow population; thus, there is no evidence of local adaptation in Gentiana lutea to the pollinator assemblage. However, some floral visitor groups (such as Bombus pratorum, B. soroensis ancaricus and B. lapidarius decipiens consistently preferred the local morph to the foreign morph whereas others (such as Bombus terrestris consistently preferred the foreign morph. Discussion We concluded that there is no evidence of local adaptation to the pollinator community in each of the two G. lutea populations studied. The consequences for local adaptation to pollinator on G. lutea flower color would depend on the variation along the Cantabrian Mountains range in morph frequency and pollinator community composition.

  5. ADAPTATION OF THE OBTAINED in vitro Gentiana lutea L. PLANTS TO ex vitro AND in situ CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to develop the technology of introduction of the obtained by microclonal propagation Gentiana lutea L. plants into conditions in situ. Methods of cultivation of plant objects in vitro were used. There were chosen optimal conditions for rooting G. lutea shoots obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro: МS/2 medium with twice decreased concentration of NH4NO3 without vitamins and sucrose supplemented with 3 g/l of mannite and 0.05 mg/l kinetin, and agar (4 mg/l in combination with perlite (16 g/l used as a maintaining substrate; or the nutrient medium (MS/2 without vitamins and smaller concentration of N4NO3 with gradual decrease of carbohydrates from 10 g/l to 2 g/l, and further rooting experimental shoots in tap water. Rooted plants were adapted to conditions ex vitro through planting them into flowerpots with soil and gradual changing hothouse regime for exposed one. The share of adapted to in situ conditions plants (21% after a year of planting proves the suggested method to be efficient and promising. There was suggested this technology is the most efficient ones for revival of disturbed G. lutea populations that includes repatriation of rooted and adapted to ex vitro conditions plants obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro.

  6. Highly heterogeneous bacterial communities associated with the South China Sea reef corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species.

  7. Management, breeding, and health records from a captive colony of pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea), 2001 - 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Cláudio E F; de Oliveira, Luiz G S; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Zimermann, Francielli C; Stein, Gisele; Marks, Fernanda; Cerva, Cristine; Lieberknecht, Carlos; Canal, Claudio W; Driemeier, David

    2011-09-01

    Pekin robins (Leiothrix lutea) were once the most widely kept softbills in captivity. As a result of the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES-1997), the worldwide trade of wild-caught pekin robins has been prohibited due to the depletion of native populations of this species. In Brazil, as in other countries, pekin robins imported prior to the enactment of the CITES have disappeared from aviaries because the end of the birds' natural life span has passed, and only very few captive-bred pekin robins now exist. While captive propagation fails to address the primary causes of wild bird population decline, it might help the recovery of populations of this species. This article presents records made over a 10-yr period of a captive colony of pekin robins. Emphasis is placed on the management of the flock, the ailments affecting the birds, and the findings associated with bird losses. The main causes of bird losses included rearing management failures and age-related disorders.

  8. Abnormal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macula lutea in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, LiYan; Liu, Ying; Li, XiaoHong; Bai, QuanHao; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    We investigated possible abnormalities in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macula lutea of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and tested for any correlation with the severity of dementia. A total of 72 subjects, comprising 25 AD patients, 26 MCI patients and 21 healthy individuals (controls) were enrolled in this study. The thickness of the RNFL and volume of the macula lutea was determined using optical coherence tomography (OCT). When compared with controls, we found statistically significant thinning of the RNFL in AD patients at all clock-hour positions except 12:00, and nasal quadrant, 2:00, 3:00 and 4:00. After adjusting several risk factors, the average thickness of the RNFL was reduced in MCI patients compared to AD patients, with specific reductions at inferior quadrant, 5:00 and 6:00. Compared to controls, MCI patients showed a significant decrease in RNFL thickness only in the temporal quadrant, 8:00, 9:00 and 10:00. We found significant reduction in the volume of the macula lutea both in AD and MCI patients. Finally, we could not establish any correlation between patient Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (an estimation of the severity of cognitive impairment) and any OCT parameter. Retinal degeneration in AD and MCI patients results in decreased thickness of the RNFL, and reduced macular volume in AD and MCI patients. However, there seems to be no correlation between these changes and the severity of dementia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Level set segmentation of bovine corpora lutea in ex situ ovarian ultrasound images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Gregg P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the viability of level set image segmentation methods for the detection of corpora lutea (corpus luteum, CL boundaries in ultrasonographic ovarian images. It was hypothesized that bovine CL boundaries could be located within 1–2 mm by a level set image segmentation methodology. Methods Level set methods embed a 2D contour in a 3D surface and evolve that surface over time according to an image-dependent speed function. A speed function suitable for segmentation of CL's in ovarian ultrasound images was developed. An initial contour was manually placed and contour evolution was allowed to proceed until the rate of change of the area was sufficiently small. The method was tested on ovarian ultrasonographic images (n = 8 obtained ex situ. A expert in ovarian ultrasound interpretation delineated CL boundaries manually to serve as a "ground truth". Accuracy of the level set segmentation algorithm was determined by comparing semi-automatically determined contours with ground truth contours using the mean absolute difference (MAD, root mean squared difference (RMSD, Hausdorff distance (HD, sensitivity, and specificity metrics. Results and discussion The mean MAD was 0.87 mm (sigma = 0.36 mm, RMSD was 1.1 mm (sigma = 0.47 mm, and HD was 3.4 mm (sigma = 2.0 mm indicating that, on average, boundaries were accurate within 1–2 mm, however, deviations in excess of 3 mm from the ground truth were observed indicating under- or over-expansion of the contour. Mean sensitivity and specificity were 0.814 (sigma = 0.171 and 0.990 (sigma = 0.00786, respectively, indicating that CLs were consistently undersegmented but rarely did the contour interior include pixels that were judged by the human expert not to be part of the CL. It was observed that in localities where gradient magnitudes within the CL were strong due to high contrast speckle, contour expansion stopped too early. Conclusion The

  10. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telleria Carlos M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  11. The Herbal Bitter Drug Gentiana lutea Modulates Lipid Synthesis in Human Keratinocytes In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhaus, Birgit; Seiwerth, Jasmin; Cawelius, Anja; Schwabe, Kay; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Schempp, Christoph M.

    2017-01-01

    Gentiana lutea is a herbal bitter drug that is used to enhance gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Recently we have shown that amarogentin, a characteristic bitter compound of Gentiana lutea extract (GE), binds to the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R38 in human keratinocytes, and stimulates the synthesis of epidermal barrier proteins. Here, we wondered if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes. To address this issue, human primary keratinocytes were incubated for 6 days with GE. Nile Red labeling revealed that GE significantly increased lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. Similarly, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector indicated that GE increases the amount of triglycerides in keratinocytes. GE induced the expression of epidermal ceramide synthase 3, but not sphingomyelinase. Lipid synthesis, as well as ceramide synthase 3 expression, could be specifically blocked by inhibitors of the p38 MAPK and PPARγ signaling pathway. To assess if GE also modulates lipid synthesis in vivo, we performed a proof of concept half side comparison on the volar forearms of 33 volunteers. In comparison to placebo, GE significantly increased the lipid content of the treated skin areas, as measured with a sebumeter. Thus, GE enhances lipid synthesis in human keratinocytes that is essential for building an intact epidermal barrier. Therefore, GE might be used to improve skin disorders with an impaired epidermal barrier, e.g., very dry skin and atopic eczema. PMID:28829355

  12. The effects of combined treatment of irradiation and heat on bacteria escherichia coli and sarcina lutea in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikham; Hilmy, Nazly

    1987-01-01

    The effects of combination treatment of irradiation and heat on bacteria escherichia coli and sarcina lutea in dry condition. Investigation on the effects of combined irradiation + heat and heat + irradiation treatments have been carried out i.e. at the doses of 0; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 kGy with heating at 50 0 C for 10; 20; and 30 minutes on escherichia coli B/r, escherichia coli from sludge and sarcine lutea. Samples of bacteria were prepared in dry condition by using sterile fine sand as carrier. Irradiation was done in aerobic condition with RH 90% and the time range between irradiation and heating was not more than 2 hours. The results showed that the D 10 value did not give significant difference between the combined irradiation + heat, and heat + irradiation treatments for the 3 species of bacteria, compared to irradiation only (p 0.05). Doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy combined with heating at 50 0 C for 10 and 20 minutes gave better results compared to irradiation only. 17 refs

  13. Validation of transrectal ultrasonography for assessment of corpora lutea characteristics in pregnant sows and its relationship with litter characteristics at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima Alvares da Silva, Carolina; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Knol, E.F.; Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    In experiment 1 we investigated the accuracy of transrectal ultrasonography (TUS) to assess the number (OR) and diameter of corpora lutea (CL) in 45 and 25 sows, respectively, at 23.4 ± 2.9 d of pregnancy. The diameter was calculated as the average diameter of 10 biggest CL. Sows were subsequently

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of a Nuphar lutea partially purified leaf extract in murine models of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, J; Levi, T; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Gopas, J

    2015-02-23

    Various plant organs of Nuphar lutea (L.) SM. (Nymphaeaceae) are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of arthritis, fever, aches, pains and inflammation. The main purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of Nuphar lutea leaf extract (NUP) in two septic shock models: (1) Survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS, determination of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum, as well as in peritoneal macrophages in cell culture. (2) The effect of NUP in a murine model of fecal-induced peritonitis. NUP pre-treatment partially protected mice in two models of acute septic shock. We concluded that NUP is anti-inflammatory by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, modulating cytokine production and ERK phosphorylation. A significant average survival rate (60%) of LPS lethally-challenged mice was achieved by pre-treatment with NUP. In addition, NUP pre-treatment reduced nuclear NF-κB translocation in peritoneal macrophages. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12, in the sera of LPS-treated mice or in the supernatants of peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS for 2-6 h was also decreased by NUP. Pre-treatment with NUP caused a significant increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The NUP pre-treatment reduced and delayed mortality in mice with fecal-induced peritonitis. Our studies also revealed that NUP pre-treatment induced a dose-dependent phosphorylation of ERK in peritoneal macrophages. Since most of the reports about the anti-inflammatory effect of Nuphar lutea refer to rhizome and root powder and extracts, it is important to clarify the effectiveness of leaf extract as a source for such activity. NUP pre-treatment partially protected mice in two models of acute septic shock. We concluded that NUP is anti-inflammatory by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, modulating cytokine production and ERK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The correlations between phenotypical characthers in selected families by Gentiana lutea L. and the chemical compounds of underground organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea BARBU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The ground organs of Gentiana lutea L. contain active principles, which have certain properties recommended for anorexia or convalescence.Along the year we tried to show cast the existent correlations between the main morphological characters and the productivity elements, such as the concentration in active principles. It is proved that the development of a character influence either the development of positive correlation or negative correlation [7].Having in mind that the phonotypical expression is influenced by the phases of vegetation, a very important thing to know is the morph chemical characteristics of specie in different phases of vegetation. The superior quality of the raw materials obtained by different sowing methods defined during our research, will decrease the crop from our country wild flora [10].

  16. The impact of climatic variations on the reproductive success of Gentiana lutea L. in a Mediterranean mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuena-Lombraña, Alba; Fois, Mauro; Fenu, Giuseppe; Cogoni, Donatella; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2018-03-30

    Increases in temperature have been predicted and reported for the Mediterranean mountain ranges due to global warming and this phenomenon is expected to have profound consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We hereby present the case of Gentiana lutea L. subsp. lutea, a rhizomatous long-lived plant living in Central-Southern Europe, which is at the edge of its ecological and distributional range in Sardinia. Concretely, we analysed the reproductive success experienced during three phenological cycles (2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016) in four representative populations, with particular attention to the phenological cycle of 2014/2015, which has been recorded as one of the warmest periods of the last decades. The Smirnov-Grubbs test was used to evaluate differences in temperature and precipitation regimes among historical data and the analysed years, while the Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Wilcoxon test was used to measure differences between anthesis and reproductive performances among cycles and populations. In addition, generalised linear models were carried out to check relationships between climate variables and reproductive performance. Significant differences among climate variables and analysed cycles were highlighted, especially for maximum and mean temperatures. Such variations determined a non-flowering stage in two of the four analysed populations in 2014/2015 and significant differences of further five reproductive traits among cycles. These results confirmed that in current unstable climatic conditions, which are particularly evident in seasonal climates, reproductive success can be a sensitive and easily observable indicator of climatic anomalies. Considering the importance of this issue and the ease and cost-effectiveness of reproductive success monitoring, we argue that research in this sense can be a supporting tool for the enhancement of future crucial targets such as biodiversity conservation and the mitigation of global

  17. Identification of two organic bands showing different chemical composition within the skeleton of Porites lutea: a confocal Raman microscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nehrke; M. Wall

    2012-01-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy mapping was used to investigate the organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines showed an elemental composition that differed from the incremental growth layers. The position and shape of the latter growth lines resemble either denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former s...

  18. Demonstration of luteotrophic responses of human recombinant gamma interferon in porcine corpora lutea using an in-vivo microdialysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B S; Pedina, J; Steiner, A; Wuttke, W

    1997-01-01

    Conceptuses from several mammalian species prior to implantation secrete proteins belonging to the family of interferons. The main species of interferons known to be secreted by the pig blastocyst is interferon gamma (IFNgamma), the precise role of which is unclear. We decided to explore its effects on corpus luteum (CL) function using the novel microdialysis technique in vivo. Six cycling miniature pigs were monitored for estrus by daily plasma progesterone analysis and visual symptoms. On day nine of the cycle (day zero being the day of ovulation) the animals underwent surgery, and microdialysis tubing (vitafiber, Amicon U.S.A, cut off mol. wt. 1 million) were implanted in 17 corpora lutea. The inlets and outlets of all tubings were exteriorized and the entry and exit points of tubings in the CLs sealed with tissue glue. The afferent extension tubings were connected to a fraction collector and the system was continuously flushed with Ringer at a flow rate of 2.4 ml/h. After an initial flushout phase of 8 h, fractions were collected every half hour over 3 days. On days 10, 11 and 12 post estrus 12 CLs were stimulated for 4 h with 10(-7) M, 2 x 10(7) M and 4 x 10(-7) M human recombinant IFNgamma (Pharma Biotechnologie) respectively. Simultaneously, fractions were also collected from the remaining five unstimulated corpora lutea which served as controls. Progesterone concentrations in the dialysates were estimated by a sensitive enzymeimmunoassay (EIA). A significant increase (P < 0.01) in progesterone release was observed in all 3 days following stimulation. The progesterone increase was more marked on the first day of stimulation (1 x 10[-7] M) with the hormone levels rising further even after the end of stimulation. The overall increase in progesterone concentration was 2-fold on day 10 in comparison to 15-30% on subsequent days even though IFN concentrations for stimulation were 2- and 4-fold higher. In the unstimulated CLs, a gradual decline (P < 0.01) in

  19. Clinical research on intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macula lutea and retinal edema of ocular fundus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Wang, Tao; Cao, Jing; Wang, Meng; Li, Fenghua

    2015-07-01

    This paper aimed to explore clinically curative effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macula lutea and retinal edema of ocular fundus disease. The number of 300 patients (390 eyes) with ocular fundus diseases including retinal vein occlusion (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), choridal new vessel (CNV) received and cured in the hospital from February 2010 to February 2014 were given intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.5mg) with once per month and a total of 2-3 times. Results of patients' vision and fluorescence fundus angiography (FFA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after treatment were compared and curative effects were evaluated. Vision of 349 eyes (89.49%) improved obviously with the average of more than 2 lines, patient's intraocular pressure (IOP) was normal and all indexes were clearly better; vision of 26 eyes (6.67%) was stable before the treatment and without any changes after the treatment, the situation of fundus got better without increased IOP; vision of 15 eyes (3.85%) decreased to some extent, and the symptoms eased slightly after symptomatic treatment. In the 1st day after intravitreal injection, best-corrected visual acuity increased to 0.239±0.175, best-corrected visual acuity in 1 m was 0.315±0.182, in 3m continuously climbed to 0.350±0.270, and in 6 m was 0.362±0.282. Compared with vision before injection, t value was t=3.184, t=7.213, t=9.274 and t=9.970 (P=0.002, P=0.000, P=0.000 and P=0.000) respectively, and all P were less than 0.01. Furthermore, the difference was significant if a=0.01, which could confirm that 1m best corrected visual acuity of patients after intravitreal injection improved clearly in combination with before injection and 3m and 6 m visions enhanced constantly after injection. To sum up, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in treating ocular fundus disease improves patient's vision

  20. Nuclear weapons produced236U,239Pu and240Pu archived in a Porites Lutea coral from Enewetak Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Wallner, A; Fifield, L K

    2017-11-01

    A slice from a Porites Lutea coral core collected inside the Enewetak Atoll lagoon, within 15 km of all major nuclear tests conducted at the atoll, was analysed for 236 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu over the time interval 1952-1964 using a higher time resolution than previously reported for a parallel slice from the same core. In addition two sediment samples from the Koa and Oak craters were analysed. The strong peaks in the concentrations of 236 U and 239 Pu in the testing years are confirmed to be considerably wider than the flushing time of the lagoon. This is likely due to the growth mechanism of the coral. Following the last test in 1958 atom concentrations of both 236 U and 239 Pu decreased from their peak values by more than 95% and showed a seasonal signal thereafter. Between 1959 and 1964 the weighted average of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio is 0.124 ± 0.008 which is similar to that in the lagoon sediments (0.129 ± 0.006) but quite distinct from the global fallout value of ∼0.18. This, and the high 239,240 Pu and 236 U concentrations in the sediments, provides clear evidence that the post-testing signal in the coral is dominated by remobilisation of the isotopes from the lagoon sediments rather than from global fallout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of an atypical manifestation of black band disease on Porites lutea in the Western Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Séré

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent surveys conducted on Reunion Island coral reefs revealed an atypical manifestation of black band disease on the main framework building coral, Porites lutea. This BBD manifestation (PorBBD presented a thick lighter-colored band, which preceded the typical BBD lesion. Whilst BBD aetiology has been intensively described worldwide, it remains unclear if corals with apparently similar lesions across coral reefs are affected by the same pathogens. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach involving field surveys, gross lesion monitoring, histopathology and 454-pyrosequencing was employed to provide the first comprehensive characterization of this particular manifestation. Surveys conducted within two geomorphological zones over two consecutive summers and winters showed spatial and seasonal patterns consistent with those found for typical BBD. Genetic analyses suggested an uncharacteristically high level of Vibrio spp. bacterial infection within PorBBD. However, microscopic analysis revealed high densities of cyanobacteria, penetrating the compromised tissue as well as the presence of basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates in the living tissue, adjacent to the bacterial mat. Additionally, classical BBD-associated cyanobacterial strains, genetically related to Pseudoscillatoria coralii and Roseofilum reptotaenium were identified and isolated and the presence of sulfate-reducers or sulfide-oxidizers such as Desulfovibrio and Arcobacter, previously shown to be associated with anoxic microenvironment within typical BBD was also observed, confirming that PorBBD is a manifestation of classical BBD.

  2. Reconstructing skeletal fiber arrangement and growth mode in the coral Porites lutea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia: a confocal Raman microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nehrke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM mapping was used to investigate the microstructural arrangement and organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Relative changes in the crystallographic orientation of crystals within the fibrous fan-system could be mapped, without the need to prepare thin sections, as required if this information is obtained by polarized light microscopy. Simultaneously, incremental growth lines can be visualized without the necessity of etching and hence alteration of sample surface. Using these methods two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines resemble denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former spines or skeletal surfaces. We hypothesize that these lines represent the outer skeletal surface before another growth cycle of elongation, infilling and thickening of skeletal areas continues. We show that CRM mapping with high spatial resolution can significantly improve our understanding of the micro-structural arrangement and growth patterns in coral skeletons.

  3. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Waltenberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1 from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4, swerchirin (6, and methylswertianin (7 showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  4. Copper (Cu) content in Porites lutea at South Java Sea: Case study at Pantai Kondang Merak, Malang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, Oktiyas Muzaky; Rijatmoko, Sigit; Isdianto, Andik; Setyohadi, Daduk; Jauhari, Alfan; Lubis, Ali Arman

    2017-11-01

    The reef flat area in Pantai Kondang Merak is similar to others that are influenced by the high and low tide. Coral in this area should deal with high water temperature during low tide and should withstand exposure to air. These conditions lead to coral stress. Another stressor is heavy metals such copper. Annual band in Porites lutea can be a bioindicator to investigate the heavy metal contaminations as resulted from the human and natural activity. To measure heavy metal copper in the coral skeleton, we used ICP-OES (iCAP 7400 Series). Heavy metal was absorbed by coral tissue and is bind in their aragonite. This research showed 7 years of the heavy metal sample in coral banding were 9.3; 9.223; 10.09; 10.67; 8.7 and 10.37 mg/Kg (KM1). While in sample 2 (KM2) the concentration of copper was 12.98; 12.5; 15.023; 15.27; 19.811; 28.229 mg/kg. The average of heavy metal KM2 (19.157 mg/kg) is higher than KM1 (0.765 mg/kg). From these data, we can know the amount of heavy metal in South Java Sea from the past or sclerochronology.

  5. Effects of the multiple stressors copper and reduced salinity on the metabolism of the hermatypic coral Porites lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alutoin, S; Boberg, J; Nyström, M; Tedengren, M

    2001-09-01

    This study investigates the physiological responses in the hermatypic coral Porites lutea when exposed to a combination of reduced salinity (from ambient 30 psu to 20 psu) and two concentrations of copper (CuS04), 10 microg 1(-1) and 30 microg 1(-1). Corals were exposed for 14 h and changes in metabolism in terms of primary production rate per chlorophyll a and respiration per surface area (cm2) were used as measures of stress. The results showed no significant changes in respiration rate in any of the treatments compared with controls, or between treatments. The primary production rate, however, displayed a more complex pattern. Corals exposed to reduced salinity, 30 microg 1(-1) copper, and the combination of the two stressors significantly reduced the production rate, whereas corals exposed to 10 microg 1(-1) only, remained unaffected. However, adding 10 microg 1(-1) copper to reduced salinity did not affect the production rate thus indicating an antagonistic effect.

  6. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea, and leaves of Annona muricata. Materials and methods Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund’s adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. Results The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group (Pmuricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits. PMID:27877047

  7. Antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa, flowers of Cordia lutea and leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Acevedo, Jorge; Franco-Quino, Cesar; Ruiz-Ramirez, Eliberto; Chávez-Asmat, Roberto; Anampa-Guzmán, Andrea; Raéz-González, Ernesto; Cabanillas-Coral, José

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are a problem that greatly affects the population, and hence the use of antiallergic medications is fairly widespread. However, these drugs have many adverse effects. The use of medicinal plants could be an option, but they need to be evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the antiallergic effect of the atomized extract of rhizome of Curcuma longa , flowers of Cordia lutea , and leaves of Annona muricata . Twenty-four New Zealand white albino rabbits were randomized into 2 groups. Group A received the atomized extract diluted in physiological saline (APS) and group B received it diluted in Freund's adjuvant (FA). Then, the back of each rabbit was divided into 4 quadrants. The A-I quadrant received only physiological saline. The A-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the PS group. The following 3 quadrants received the APS in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The B-I quadrant received only FA. The B-I quadrants of each rabbit conformed the FA group. The following 3 quadrants received the AFA in 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The occurrence of erythema and edema was recorded according to the Draize scoring system and the primary irritation index. After 72 hours, biopsies were performed. The AFA group presented significantly less erythema and edema compared to the FA group ( P muricata lacks antigenic effect but could have an antiallergenic effect in a model of dermal irritation in rabbits.

  8. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21′N, 111°11′E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982–2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.

  9. Mesures conjointes des rapports Sr/Ca et δ 18O effectuées sur Acropora nobilis et Pontes lutea: le paléothermomètre Sr/Ca est-il toujours fiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiseau, Muriel; Cornu, Hélène; Turpin, Laurent; Juillet-Leclerc, Anne

    1997-11-01

    We measured the Sr/Ca and 18O/ 16O ratios in Acropora nobilis and Porites lutea, from the Mayotte lagoon. As the variations of δ 18O seawater are negligible, coral δ 18O aragonite reflects only seasonal temperature variations. While there is a good agreement between the Sr/Ca ratio and δ 18O for Acropora nobilis, it is not the case for Porites lutea. Coral biological and environmental parameters cannot explain the discrepancies between Sr/Ca ratios and isotopic measurements. However, transport mechanisms of Sr 2+ and Ca 2+ and the presence of two mineralogical structures of strontium may affect the Sr/Ca ratio.

  10. Comparative transcriptome of wild type and selected strains of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea provides insights into the genetic basis, lipid metabolism and the life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Carrier

    Full Text Available The applied exploitation of microalgae cultures has to date almost exclusively involved the use of wild type strains, deposited over decades in dedicated culture collections. Concomitantly, the concept of improving algae with selection programs for particular specific purposes is slowly emerging. Studying since a decade an economically and ecologically important haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea (Tiso, we took advantage of the availability of wild type (Tiso-Wt and selected (Tiso-S2M2 strains to conduct a molecular variations study. This endeavour presented substantial challenges: the genome assembly was not yet available, the life cycle unknown and genetic diversity of Tiso-Wt poorly documented. This study brings the first molecular data in order to set up a selection strategy for that microalgae. Following high-throughput Illumina sequencing, transcriptomes of Tiso-Wt and Tiso-S2M2 were de novo assembled and annotated. Genetic diversity between both strains was analyzed and revealed a clear conservation, while a comparison of transcriptomes allowed identification of polymorphisms resulting from the selection program. Of 34,374 transcripts, 291 were differentially expressed and 165 contained positional polymorphisms (SNP, Indel. We focused on lipid over-accumulation of the Tiso-S2M2 strain and 8 candidate genes were identified by combining analysis of positional polymorphism, differential expression levels, selection signature and by study of putative gene function. Moreover, genetic analysis also suggests the existence of a sexual cycle and genetic recombination in Tisochrysis lutea.

  11. Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA)); Hartman, P.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

  12. High quality draft genome sequence of the type strain of Pseudomonas lutea OK2(T), a phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Park, Gun-Seok; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lutea OK2(T) (=LMG 21974(T), CECT 5822(T)) is the type strain of the species and was isolated from the rhizosphere of grass growing in Spain in 2003 based on its phosphate-solubilizing capacity. In order to identify the functional significance of phosphate solubilization in Pseudomonas Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, we describe here the phenotypic characteristics of strain OK2(T) along with its high-quality draft genome sequence, its annotation, and analysis. The genome is comprised of 5,647,497 bp with 60.15 % G + C content. The sequence includes 4,846 protein-coding genes and 95 RNA genes.

  13. Antidiabetic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction of Ficus lutea (Moraceae) leaf extract: comparison of an in vitro assay with an in vivo obese mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaokun, Oyinlola O; McGaw, Lyndy J; Janse van Rensburg, Ilse; Eloff, Jacobus N; Naidoo, Vinny

    2016-03-31

    Ficus lutea crude acetone leaf extracts were previously shown to stimulate glucose uptake and insulin secretion of established cells and, inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. For this study, F. lutea acetone extracts were subjected to solvent-solvent fractionation to yield fractions with differing polarities (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) in an attempt to obtain a more potent fraction with in vitro and probably in vivo activity. Among these fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total polyphenol content (100.5 ± 1.6 mg GAE/g dried extract) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (126.8 ± 30.6 μg/ml). It also stimulated the highest glucose uptake of C2C12 muscle cells and decreased extracellular glucose concentration of H-4-II-E liver cells with low cytotoxic activity. The ethyl acetate fraction (10.88 ± 0.55 μg/L at 250 μg/ml) enhanced insulin secretion in RIN-m5F pancreatic β-cells to the same degree as the positive control glibenclamide (11.09 ± 0.07 μg/L at 1μM). While fractionation increased α-glucosidase inhibition and glucose uptake of cells, in the ethyl acetate fraction, the α-amylase inhibition and insulin secretion decreased. The weight reducing and glucose control potential of the ethyl acetate fraction in an obese mouse model, important factors in the amelioration of type II diabetes was determined. The extract had no statistical significant weight reducing activity. A major finding was the decrease in the area under the curve of the glucose concentration over time in animals that were treated with both a change in diet and with the plant extract. This is linked to increased glucose uptake within the cells, the most likely mechanism is either an increased insulin response or increased insulin secretion.

  14. Two-step statistical optimization for cold active β-glucosidase production from Pseudomonas lutea BG8 and its application for improving saccharification of paddy straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rameshwar; Pranaw, Kumar; Singh, Surender; Nain, Pawan K S; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Nain, Lata

    2016-09-01

    β-Glucosidase is an essential part of cellulase enzyme system for efficient and complete hydrolysis of biomass. Psychrotolerant Pseudomonas lutea BG8 produced β-glucosidase with lower temperature optima and hence can play important role in bringing down the energy requirement for bioethanol production. To enhance β-glucosidase production, two statistical tools: Taguchi and Box-Behnken designs were applied to reveal the most influential factors and their respective concentration for maximum production of β-glucosidase under submerged fermentation. The optimal medium composition for maximum β-glucosidase production were 2.99% (w/v) bagasse, 0.33% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.38% (w/v) Triton X-100, 0.39% (w/v) NaNO 3 , and pH 8.0 at temperature 30 °C. Under optimized conditions, β-glucosidase production increased up to 9.12-fold (17.52 ± 0.24 IU/g) in shake flask. Large-scale production in 7-L stirred tank bioreactor resulted in higher β-glucosidase production (23.29 ± 0.23 IU/g) within 80 H of incubation, which was 1.34-fold higher than shake flask studies. Commercial cellulase (Celluclast ® 1.5L) when supplemented with this crude β-glucosidase resulted in improved sugar release (548.4 ± 2.76 mg/gds) from paddy straw at comparatively low temperature (40 °C) of saccharification. P. lutea BG8 therefore showed great potential for cold active β-glucosidase production and can be used as accessory enzyme along with commercial cellulase to improve saccharification efficiency. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Pethia lutea, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae and new records of P. punctata from northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of barb Pethia lutea is described from the Kundalika River in the northern part of the Western Ghats. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in India based on a combination of characters including a distinct humped nape, absence of barbels, complete lateral line, lips thick, lateral fold on snout, 19-22 lateral line scales, 8 predorsal scales, 9-10 prepelvic scales, 14-15 preanal scales, 4-4.5 transverse scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 2.5-3 transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base, 6-9 pair of serrae on the distal half of the dorsal fin spine, 13-15 branched pectoral fin rays, 7 branched pelvic fin rays, 4+26 total vertebrae, 4+13 abdominal and 13 caudal vertebrae, body with one vertical humeral and one caudal blotch and dorsal fin without any bands or blotches. Additionally, we provide new records of Pethia punctata from the rivers of Maharashtra State along with a description of its osteology.

  16. Tolerability of the combination of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), gentian (Gentiana lutea) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in patients with cancer-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanatani, Michael; Younus, Jawaid; Stitt, Larry; Malik, Nazish

    2015-03-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom for patients with advanced cancer. Gentian, ginger, and turmeric have traditionally been used to stimulate appetite. We tested these agents in combination, in a pilot study to assess tolerability in patients indicating 4/10 or worse anorexia on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, and who were not currently on chemotherapy. We collected exploratory data on the patient's appetite using a visual analogue scale. Between 2009 and 2012, 17 patients were enrolled in arm 1 (turmeric 1 g and ginger 1 g orally twice daily, and gentiana lutea tincture 1 mL three times a day, for 14 days). The three patients enrolled in arm 2 received the same doses of ginger and turmeric but no gentian. All patients completed a daily appetite diary and a weekly symptom assessment. In arm 1, seven patients (41%) completed treatment. Seven patients (41%) stopped early because of unacceptable toxicity or patient-initiated discontinuation, and 3 stopped because of other reasons. All patients in arm 2 stopped taking the study medication within few days of starting the treatment, leading the study committee to recommend stopping the trial. The most common adverse effects attributed to study drugs were nausea (6 patients), vomiting (3), fatigue (3), diarrhea (2) and bloating (2). There was no statistically significant effect seen on appetite. At the doses used in this study, the combination of ginger, turmeric, and gentian is not tolerated well in cancer patients. Future studies should use fewer agents or lower doses.

  17. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    Hainan\\'s coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Características de qualidade do suco polposo de cajá (Spondias lutea L. obtido por extração mecânico-enzimática Quality characteristics of pulpy caja fruit juice (Spondias lutea L. obtained by enzymatic-mechanical extration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Pádua Valença DA SILVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Cajás (Spondias lutea L., oriundas do município de Maranguape (CE - Brasil, em estádio de plena maturação foram processadas em escala-piloto para obtenção de suco integral através do processo de extração mecânico-enzimática. O produto final foi analisado com relação as suas características físico-químicas bem quanto ao perfil sensorial após estocagem de 120 dias à temperatura ambiente (28°C. A polpa foi tratada com 120 ppm de enzimas pectinolíticas (Pectinex Ultra SP-L por 30 min, à temperatura de 25°C, o pH natural (2,98, seguido o processo mecânico de extração. Foi empregado como processo de preservação do suco integral o método "hot-fill" + aditivos. Segundo o ponto de vista estatístico as características físico-químicas permaneceram inalteradas ao longo de 120 dias, apresentando os seguintes valores médios: pH (2,78, sólidos solúveis (11,19 °Brix, acidez titulável total (1,46 g% de ácido cítrico, açúcares redutores (6,91 g% em glicose, taninos (77,36 mg% de ácido tânico, cor (0,125 em leitura de absorbância a 440 nm, pectina (0,12 g% em pectato de cálcio e viscosidade (10,8 cps. A análise sensorial classificou o suco polposo como de "boa" e "muito boa", sendo que as maiores médias couberam aos parâmetros aparência, cor e sabor.Caja fruit (Spondias lutea L. from Maranguape (Ceará-Brazil obtained at the full maturity stage were processed at a pilot-scale level with the purpose to obtain pulpy juice through enzymatic-mechanical process. The final product was analysed regarding physical-chemical characteristics as well as in relation to sensorial profile after 120 days of storage at room temperature (28°C. The pulp was treated by 120 ppm of pectinolytics enzymes (Pectinex Ultra SP-L during 30 minutes at 25°C, keeping natural pulp pH (2,98. The "hot-fill " + aditives were used as a preservation process for the pulpy juice. At a statistical point of view physical-chemical characteristics

  19. Plant Guide: Yellow beeplant (Cleome lutea Hook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Jim Cane; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Yellow beeplant is a valuable native forage species for bees wasps and butterflies. Over 140 species of native bees have been observed foraging for nectar or pollen on yellow beeplant in southern Utah (Cane, 2008). Yellow beeplant is an annual forb which could provide food to insects in the first growing season of a range seeding (Ogle and others, 2011a). This...

  20. variation in maize tolerance to striga lutea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-03-30

    Mar 30, 2012 ... 26: 125-137. Morris, L.M. (1994). Assessing the benefits of international maize breeding research: An overview of the global maize impact study. CIMMYT maize research impacts survey. Pp 29-34. Norman, J.R. and Hooker, J.E. (2000). Sporulation of Phytophthora fragariae shows a greater stimulation by.

  1. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  2. Is Oligomeris (Resedaceae) indigenous to North America? Molecular evidence for a natural colonization from the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Bravo, Santiago; Vargas, Pablo; Luceño, Modesto

    2009-02-01

    Oligomeris linifolia constitutes one of the few examples of intercontinental disjunctions at the species level between the arid regions of the Old World and SW North America. The status of the American populations has been obscure, with some authors considering the populations to be introduced, whereas others believe them to be native. To clarify these conflicting opinions, we performed phylogeographic analyses using nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnL-F and rps16 sequences to infer the origin of the disjunct American populations. Two independent molecular clock approaches based on ITS and cpDNA sequences (rbcL, matK, trnL-F) were used to estimate a divergence time of O. linifolia. Low levels of sequence divergence and estimates of relatively recent splits of Oligomeris lineages disagree with the vicariance hypotheses traditionally suggested to account for New-Old World disjunctions. In addition, significant genetic differentiation of American populations does not indicate a recent anthropogenic introduction. Morphological uniformity and the sharing of haplotypes between disjunct populations, together with the molecular clock results, suggest that a long-distance dispersal event from the Old Word to SW North America may have taken place during the Quaternary, in spite of limited dispersal mechanisms in Oligomeris.

  3. Gastroprotective effects of leaf extracts of Carpolobia lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... and frequent ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (Peskar and Maricic, 1998; Belaiche et ... ethanol extracts revealed the following compounds: flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloid and cardiac glycosides. Animals. Wistar rats of male sex, weighing between 91 – 252 g and albino.

  4. Antidiarrheal Mechanism And Ionic Profile Of Carpolobia Lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism elucidated using yohimbine, isosorbide dinitrate, and diphenoxylate. The elemental and ionic profile of ESE was established using inductively coupled argon-plasma emission spectrometer and potentiometric titration respectively. The finger print of ESE was revealed by Jasco (Tokyo, Japan), HPLC and ...

  5. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    The effect of the extract on cognitive memory was investigated using the Novel Object recognition task (NORT) while the effect on visuospatial learning and memory was studied using the Morris Water maze (MWM). The results obtained in the NORT show that the index of habituation was significantly lower following acute ...

  6. Combining ability for grain yield, agronomic traits and Striga lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    striga endemic locations of Southwestern Nigeria under artificial infestation in 1998 growing seasons. The results showed ... than their parent inbreds for striga tolerance rating and maize grain yield under artificial infestation. General combining .... of leaves causing premature death or collapse of the host plants and no ear ...

  7. A Porites lutea climate record from Sodwana Bay, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An overall decrease in coral growth rate was seen over this period, possibly linked to global temperature and acidification trends. ... The insignificant ocean warming recorded in the coral supports the existence of a local, self-regulating, cold-water upwelling system from the adjacent shelf break and canyons that is ...

  8. Amino acid, Antioxidant and Ion Profiles of Carpolobia lutea Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    synthesis depends on the local availability of amino acid pool found in the organism [2]. Healing of dermal lesions require synthesis of newly formed collagen at different times. Antioxidants, such as polyphenols ..... in vitamin B12, a co-enzyme in some biochemical processes [24]; these metals and some of their complexes ...

  9. Demequina lutea sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup

    2009-01-01

    demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H4) could be identified with any degree of confidence. Phylogenetic analysis and differences in physiological and biochemical characteristics between the strains and Demequina aestuarii JC2054T indicate that these isolates belong to a novel species within the genus Demequina, for which......Two Gram-stain-positive, pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, pleomorphic, rod-shaped bacteria (strains SV45T and SV47), isolated from a permafrost soil collected from the Adventdalen valley, Spitsbergen, northern Norway, have been characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach....... Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two permafrost isolates formed a distinct phyletic line within the suborder Micrococcineae of the order Actinomycetales. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses indicate that strains SV45T and SV47 are closely related (60-69 % relatedness...

  10. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Bouwman, E.G.; Chen, T.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Soede, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n = 11) or fully fed throughout (n = 10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11

  11. Histological observations on the scleractinian coral Porites lutea affected by pink-line syndrome

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    and occur nearby, and requires vectors to mediate po l len among conspecific plants. In C. religiosa , the natural fruit - set is low when compared to the high flower production. Different factors could a f f ect fruit - set. First is the floral... galls formation, which leads to loss of productivity. Secondly, the intensive pollen co l- lecting behaviour of attending bees and their te n dency to confine to the same plant that they first forage may result in more wastefu l self - pollen tran...

  12. Pink-line syndrome, a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    with such an array of factors affecting corals, the etiology of diseases needs to be studied in detail to evolve better management plans for preservation of coral reefs. 3 Several fungi and a cyanobacterium Phormidium valderianum were isolated from PLS... supply and 12:12 h of light and dark regime. 2.4.4. Inducing PLS using abiotic factors 2.4.4.1. Elevating pCO2 around the healthy coral polyps Carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) reported in various photosynthetic organisms like cyanobacteria...

  13. 75 FR 11080 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... budgetary and workload constraints. On December 19, 2007, the Center for Biological Diversity filed a... are: (1) Unit 1: Watkins Savanna, (2) Unit 2: Haws Run Mitigation Site, (3) Unit 3: Maple Hill School Road Savanna, (4) Unit 4: Southwest Ridge Savanna, (5) Unit 5: Sandy Run Savannas, (6) Unit 6: The Neck...

  14. 76 FR 11086 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... and a moderate to dense herb layer. The savanna/hardwood swamp ecotone is subject to frequent fires.... The herb layer is dense, and dominated by combinations of toothache grass (Ctenium aromaticum... the species. Herbicide treatment to maintain vegetation in rights-of-ways has the potential to kill...

  15. STUDY CHEMISTRY ANO PHITOCHEMISTRY OF TAGETES ELIPT/CA "CHINCHO" Y CALATHEA LUTEA "BIJAO" AS FUNCTIONAL FOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Ch, G.; Huamán M., J.; Aguirre M., R.; Guerrero A., M.; Orihuela R., C.; Candia T., K.; Barreda T., M.

    2014-01-01

    We work with Tagetes etiptica "ch incho" of Huancayo y Catathea tutea "bijao" of Pucallpa. Oil obtained of "chincho" contained doubles bonds. "bijao· doesn't contain oil. The diclhorometane extrae! of "chincho" contains yelllow crystals TE1 and white powder TE2. The chromatographic analysis shows polar metabolites in both samples. Using phitochemist analysis we found, esteroidal triterpenoids, flavonoids, tanines, quinonas, antocianinas and alcaloides in te "chincho", In tehe "bijao" sample w...

  16. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    (14), Malvaceae (15), Orchidaceae (110-115), Paeoniaceae (39), Papaveraceae (40, 122), Poaceae (28-36, 57, 73-79, 140), Polygonaceae (16, 17, 128), Polypodiaceae (82), Ranunculaceae (99, 100), Resedaceae (41), Rhamnaceae (101, 102), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (18, 48, 103), Sapindaceae (69...

  17. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  18. Calor específico e densidade da polpa de cajá (Spondias lutea L. com diferentes concentrações de sólidos solúveis sob baixas temperaturas Cajá pulp (Spondias lutea L. specific heat and density for different soluble solids concentrations at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. R. M. Cavalcanti Mata

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A polpa de cajá tem sido exportada da região Nordeste para todo o Brasil, e uma das maneiras de conservá-la é processando-a e armazenado-a na forma congelada. Durante o processamento, existem dois fatores que favorecem a qualidade do produto a ser armazenado: a rapidez com que o produto é congelado e a adição de açúcar como forma de dificultar a ação microbiológica. Na linha de processo, algumas propriedades termofísicas, como o calor específico e a densidade, se alteram com as temperaturas negativas e com o teor de sólidos solúveis totais; dessa forma, para o dimensionamento adequado de máquinas e equipamentos, torna-se necessário conhecer essas propriedades, principalmente quando se operam equipamentos criogênicos, onde as temperaturas podem chegar a -196 ºC. Neste trabalho, determinaram-se a densidade e o calor específico da polpa do cajá com quatro diferentes níveis de sólidos solúveis totais (natural da polpa; 20; 40 e 60% e temperaturas entre -196 ºC e -18 ºC. A densidade foi obtida pela razão entre a massa da polpa e o seu volume. O volume foi determinado pelo método do deslocamento de massa (água e o calor específico por meio de balanço de calor entre a massa da polpa, a massa do cilindro que contém a polpa e a massa do gelo. Conclui-se que a densidade da polpa de cajá aumenta em função da redução da temperatura e do aumento do teor de sólidos solúveis totais de 9 para 60 °Brix e que o calor específico da polpa diminui com a diminuição de temperatura e aumenta com a concentração de sólidos solúveis totais.The cajá pulp has been exported from the Northeast area to all parts of Brazil, and one of the ways of conserving it is processing and storing it in the frozen form. During the processing, there are two factors that favor the quality of the product to be stored; the speed that the product is frozen and the addition of sugar as a form of hindering the microbiologic action. In the process line, some thermo-physics properties like the specific heat and the density change themselves according to the negative temperatures and the total soluble solids content. Then, it's necessary to know those properties mainly when cryogenic equipments are operated, where the temperatures can be -196 ºC to have the appropriate dimension of machines and equipment. Therefore, in this work, it was determined the cajá pulp density and the specific heat for 4 different levels of total soluble solids (natural of the pulp; 20; 40 and 60% and temperatures from -196 to -18 ºC. The density was obtained by the rate between mass of the pulp and its volume. The volume was determined by the displacement of mass (water and the specific heat was determined by the balance of heating among the mass of the pulp, the mass of the cylinder that contains the pulp and the mass of the ice. The results allow to conclude that: a the cajá pulp density increases in function of the variation of the temperature from -18 to -196 °C, and also as a function of the increase of the total soluble solids content from 9 to 60 °Brix; b the cajá pulp specific heat decreases according to the decrease of the temperature and it increases according to the concentration of total soluble solids.

  19. A Summary of Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring at Selected Locations in Pools 4, 8, 13, and 26 and La Grange Pool of the Upper Mississippi River System. 1993 Annual Status Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus Nymphaeaceae American lotus Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. Nymphaeaceae White waterlily Nymphaea odorata Ait... Nymphaeaceae Yellow pondlily Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm Onagraceae Floating primrosewillow Jussiaea repens L. Pontederiaceae Water stargrass, Heteranthera dubia

  20. IOGURTE DE LEITE DE BÚFALA SABOR CAJÁ (SPONDIAS LUTEA L.: CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E ACEITAÇÃO SENSORIAL ENTRE INDIVÍDUOS DE 11 A 16 ANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina BORGES

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar físico-quimica e sensorialmente o iogurte batido elaborado com leite bubalino acrescido de calda de cajá e compará-lo com o tradicional iogurte bovino. Foram elaborados dois grupos experimentais: IB (iogurte elaborado com leite de búfala e IV (iogurte elaborado com leite de vaca, os quais receberam calda de cajá na proporção 15% (p/p. Os dois grupos de iogurtes foram analisados quanto ao pH, acidez (ºDornic, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteína, gordura, açúcares redutores e redutores totais (%. O painel sensorial composto por 90 alunos com idades entre 11 e 16 anos de uma escola pública avaliou os atributos aparência, aroma, consistência e sabor utilizando escala hedônica de nove pontos Os resultados mostraram que houve diferença estatística (p<0,05 entre os grupos IB e IV, sobretudo para o teor de sólidos totais (23,86 e 15,68% IB e IV, espectivamente e proteína (5,50 e 4,77% IB e IV, respectivamente. O iogurte bubalino apresentou escore sensorial superior (p<0,05 em todos os atributos sensoriais analisados. Conclui-se, dessa forma, que o iogurte bubalino apresenta diferenças marcantes do ponto de vista físico-químico e sensorial em relação ao iogurte bovino.

  1. Sediment Dynamics in a Vegetated Tidally Influenced Interdistributary Island: Wax Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    interior. The emergence of American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) in summer forms a dense canopy over the island reducing wave and current energy, increasing the...environmental concerns of this century (Nicholls and Cazenave 2010). An encroaching sea increases the likelihood of flooding and storm inundation, imposing...aquatic vegetation is the American lotus (Nelumbo lutea). Nelumbo lutea is an emergent, aquatic plant common to the southeastern United States and grows

  2. Notes à La Flore de Corse, XXV

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    These “notes” deal with 110 noteworthy taxa amongst which 21 are new to the island's flora. One of these taxa is native: Reseda alba subsp. hookeri and 20 are introduced: Abies pinsapo, Acer ×coriaceum, Albizia julibrissin, Arundo micrantha, Azolla filiculoides, Bolboschoenus laticarpus, Digitaria ciliaris, Digitaria violascens, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, Genista januensis subsp. lydia, Hedera helix subsp. maroccana, Morus kagayamae, Oenothera rosea, Paspalum vaginatum, Puccinelli...

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Relocation of the 146th Tactical Airlift Wing of the California Air National Guard. Volume 1. EIS Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    plan areas, including the Mission Hills-Panorama City- Sepulveda District Plan immediately to the no "th of the Airport and the Encino-Tarzana...significant from a biological resource viewpoint, since monocultural plant communities support very little species diversity and have no sig , ificant...Association Tarzana Property Owner’s Association Studio City Residents Reseda Community Association Sepulveda Homeowner’s Association V!-3 Community Groups

  4. A checklist of the flora of Shanjan protected area, East Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Taheri, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The flora of protected Shanjan rangeland in Shabestar district, Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran was studied using a 1 m × 1 m quadrate in spring and summer 2011. The climate of this area is cold and dry. In this area 94 plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation. The families in the area are Amaryllidaceae, Boraginaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophllaceae, Cistaceae, Compositea, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, Dipesaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Hypericaceae, Linaceae, Melvaceae, Orobachaceae, Papaveraceae, Paronychiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polygolaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Valerianacea. Floristic composition is Irano-Turanian elements. Detailed analysis showed that Biennial plants were 3.19%, Annual 41.49% and Perennial 55.32%.

  5. Removal of natural organic dyes from wool-implications for ancient textile provenance studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Vanden Berghe, Ina; Frei, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Ancient wool textiles recovered from archaeological sites are in many cases originally dyed with natural organic dyestuffs from vegetable sources. These include among others woad (Isatis tinctoria L.), weld (Reseda luteola L.), and madder (Rubia tinctorum L.). These dyestuffs could be a threat...... to the use of the strontium isotopic system as a tracer for provenance studies of ancient wool, because they could potentially contaminate the signature of the textile's raw material. We present a novel method which allows for efficient removal of organic dyestuffs in wool prior to strontium isotopic...

  6. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  7. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  8. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the neutron polarization analyzer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, the small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1/-2, the very-small-angle neutron diffractometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  9. Mahe, Seychelles Stable Isotope (delta 18O) Data for 1846 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seychelles coral oxygen-18 time series, data are monthly values of d18O from July 1846 to February 1995 from a 3-m Porites lutea coral colony collected from Beau...

  10. Nwidu et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(2):257 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Andreo et al., 2006). Carpolobia ... The chromatographic fingerprint of the C. lutea stem-bark extract was established using a Jasco (Tokyo, Japan), liquid chromatograph equipped ..... Biology 315 – Quantitative Biology Lecture Notes. University ...

  11. Effects of cold-stratification, gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cold-stratification, gibberellic acid and potassium nitrate on seed germination of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) Fadil Millaku, Bekim Gashi, Kasamedin Abdullai, Sali Aliu, Mirsade Osmani, Elez Krasniqi, Valbona Mata, Agim Rysha ...

  12. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susceptibility of selected multi-drug resistant clinical isolates to leaves of Carpolobia lutea · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ibikunle Anibijuwon, Ifeoluwa Gbala, Jumai Abioye, 117-124 ...

  13. Endometrial cytology in the female cat (Felis catus) during diestrus

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Riquelme, Alfonso; Arias Ruiz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and quantify cytological findings in the cat’s endometrium (Felis catus). Twenty genital tracts were obtained by ovariohysterectomy. To establish the status of the estrous cycle, vaginal cytology was evaluated and ovarian structures were recorded, resulting that all females were in the luteal phase. According to the presence of corpora lutea and follicles, a classification of the luteal phase was proposed: early diestrus: corpora lutea and follicles of...

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E; Fabian, David M; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2013-08-21

    Identifying natural, organic dyes and pigments is important for the conservation, preservation, and historical interpretation of works of art. Although previous SERS studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and selectivity for red lake pigments using various pretreatment conditions, corresponding investigations of yellow lake pigments and paints are relatively sparse. Here, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is used to identify a variety of yellow organic dyestuffs and lake pigments in oil paint. High-quality SERS spectra of yellow dyestuffs (i.e., turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries) and corresponding paints could be obtained with or without sample pretreatment using microliter quantities of HCl and methanol at room temperature. However, the SERS spectra of yellow lake pigments (i.e., Stil de Grain, Reseda lake) and their corresponding oil paints were only observed upon sample pretreatment. Ultimately, we demonstrate a reliable sample treatment protocol for SERS-based identification of turmeric, old fustic, Buckthorn berries, Stil de Grain, and Reseda lake as well as for microscopic samples of the corresponding oil paints.

  15. Contamination as the Cause of Erroneous Records of Brochosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brochosomes are ultramicroscopic particles produced in large quantities by the Malpighian tubules of leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, and Cicadellidae and applied by leafhoppers as a coat to their integuments. A recent study has described brochosomes on museum specimens of Heteroptera and Psylloidea, suggesting a wider distribution of brochosomes among Hemiptera. Here, I report that the majority of adult Sthenarus rotermundi (Scholtz (Miridae and Kleidocerys resedae (Panzer (Lygaeidae reared in captivity and handled with clean tools had no brochosomes on them, suggesting that the earlier records of brochosomes in these and perhaps other species outside of the Cicadellidae were due to contamination. Additionally, simple experiments demonstrated that insects can become contaminated with brochosomes via entomological tools that had been in contact with leafhoppers and via preservation in ethanol together with leafhoppers. Contamination of host plants, predators, and parasites of leafhoppers with brochosomes is also expected but remains to be demonstrated.

  16. Ultrastructure of the midgut in Heteroptera (Hemiptera) with different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Helen Pinto; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Vilimova, Jitka; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Heteroptera have diverse feeding habits with phytophagous, zoophagous, and haematophagous species. This dietary diversity associated with the monophyly of Heteroptera makes these insects a good object for comparative studies of the digestive tract. This work compares the ultrastructure of the middle midgut region in the phytophagous Coptosoma scutellatum (Plataspidae), Graphosoma lineatum (Pentatomidae), Kleidocerys resedae (Lygaeidae), and zoophagous Rhynocoris iracundus (Reduviidae), Nabis rugosus (Nabidae), and Himacerus apterus (Nabidae), to verify if diet affects midgut cells in phylogenetically related insects. The middle region of the midgut was used for comparison because it is the main site for digestion and absorption of the midgut. The digestive cell ultrastructure was similar in the six species, with features of secretory, absorptive, transport, storage, and excretory cells, suggesting a stronger correlation of middle digestive cell ultrastructure with the phylogeny of these species than with the different heteropteran feeding habits.

  17. De Centauriebremraap (Orobanche elatior Sutton) in Zuid-Limburg: een nieuwe soort voor de Nederlandse flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutz, C.A.J.

    1989-01-01

    From 1973 onwards an Orobanche species was found repeatedly (though at intervals of several years) on a chalk slope in the South of Limburg. At first the plant was identified as O. lutea, but the author argues that in fact it is O. elatior. Presumably its host is Centaurea scabiosa.

  18. The new Dytiscidae and Gyrinidae collected during the recent scientific Sumatra- Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régimbart, M.

    1880-01-01

    Oblongo-ovalis, postice paululum attenuatus, subtilissime reticulatus, infra fusco-ferrugineus, antennis pedibusque testaceo-ferrugineis; capite ac prothorace fulvis, hoc ad basin leviter infuscato; elytris nigro-fuscis, crebre et irregulariter fulvo-irroratis, ad basin fascia lutea transversa et

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 270 ... (Rhodophyta, Corallinales): A new threat to massive coral Porites lutea at Reunion Island, Western Indian Ocean, Abstract PDF. Mathieu Sere, M. H. Schleyer, P. Chabanet, J. P. Quod. Vol 3, No 2 (2004), Impact of Improvement of the Entrance Channel on the Rate of Sediment Deposition into the Dar ...

  20. Susceptibility of Selected Multi-Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... pharmacological potentials that could show efficiency in the treatment of bacterial infections. Keywords: Carpolobia lutea, antifungal, antibacterial, multi-drug ..... Antimicrobial Resistance 2016;7: 41-144. 21. Yoon Y, Kim J, Sohn J, Yang K, Kim M. Role of piperacillin/tazobactam as a carbapenem-sparing.

  1. Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candoussau, F.; Boqueras, M.; Gómez-Bolea, A.

    2007-01-01

     Technical abstract:  New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs...... from Neobarya. A key to species is provided.     ...

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2486547

    2011-03-10

    Mar 10, 2011 ... (estimated from the number of corpora lutea on the ovaries), foetuses observed on day 55 of gestation, lambs born per ewe and mass ... significant effect on ovulation rate, pregnancy status, the number of lambs born per ewe or ewe weight after lambing. .... Effects of diet type on establishment of pregnancy ...

  3. Effect of different dose rates administration of FSH + LH (Pergonal®)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups administered of 19.0 IU, 38.0 IU and 76.0 IU FSH + LH (Pergonal®) and 1.0 ml physiological saline as the control treatment. The treatments were administered intramuscularly for 3 days consecutively. The results on the number of corpora lutea on the ovary did not ...

  4. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    bluestar (Amsonia tabernaemontana), mints ( Mentha spp.), nodding ladies’ tresses (Spiranthes cernua), clustered Blacksnakeroot (Sanicula odorata...Indian pink (Spigelia marilandica), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis ), yellow passion flower (Passiflora lutea), and ruellia (Ruellia carolinensis...on Robins AFB), feral pig (Sus scrofa), raccoon (Procyon lotor), opos- sum, swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), beaver (Castor canadensis ), river

  5. Temporal expression of tenascin-C and type I collagen in response to gonadotropins in the immature rat ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavandoss, P

    2014-09-01

    Ovarian morphogenesis and physiology in mammals take place in the context of hormones, paracrine factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Both fibrillar type I collagen and the multidomain tenascin-C are matrix molecules capable of modulating the behavior of both normal and neoplastic cells in many organs. Therefore, the objective of this qualitative study was to simultaneously examine the distribution of both tenascin-C and type I collagen in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea induced to develop in response to gonadotropin treatments. In preantral follicles both matrix proteins were present in the focimatrix, theca externa and the interstitium. Equine gonadotropin induced the appearance of both proteins in the theca interna. Subsequent to administration with human chorionic gonadotropin, tenascin-C appearance in the thecal capillaries preceded type I collagen expression. Tenascin-C was also observed in the capillaries of functional and regressing corpora lutea, while type I collagen was predominantly present in the interstitium and tunica albuginea. Western blots showed both an increase in and degradation of tenascin-C in the regressing corpora lutea. The ovarian surface epithelium also showed immunoreactivity for both tenascin-C and type I collagen. The study reveals that tenascin-C and type I collagen may participate in the morphogenesis of ovarian follicles, and in the formation and regression of corpora lutea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with signs of tissue sloughing) and white plague- like (without any signs of tissue sloughing) diseases, respectively, while P. lutea (14.4 ± 5.10%) from Flic en Flac was affected mostly by pink pigmentation response. The dominant coral species at Belle Mare,. A. muricata, was affected by white plague-like (20.0. ± 3.33%) ...

  7. Expression of PCV2 antigen in the ovarian tissues of gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUMMARUK, Padet; PEARODWONG, Pachara

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the expression of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antigen in the ovarian tissue of naturally infected gilts. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 11 culled gilts. The ovarian tissues sections were divided into two groups according to PCV2 DNA detection using PCR. PCV2 antigen was assessed in the paraffin embedded ovarian tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. A total of 2,131 ovarian follicles (i.e., 1,437 primordial, 133 primary, 353 secondary and 208 antral follicles), 66 atretic follicles and 131 corpora lutea were evaluated. It was found that PCV2 antigen was detected in 280 ovarian follicles (i.e., 239 primordial follicles, 12 primary follicles, 10 secondary follicles and 19 antral follicles), 1 atretic follicles and 3 corpora lutea (P<0.05). PCV2 antigen was detected in primordial follicles more often than in secondary follicles, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (P<0.05). The detection of PCV2 antigen was found mainly in oocytes. PCV2 antigen was found in both PCV2 DNA positive and negative ovarian tissues. It can be concluded that PCV2 antigen is expressed in all types of the ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. Further studies should be carried out to determine the influence of PCV2 on porcine ovarian function and oocyte quality. PMID:26522687

  8. Observations on ovarian structure and development of the southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of vesicular follicles and corpora lutea (CL), without evidence of ovulation, in late fetuses and during prepubertal life was confirmed in the southern giraffe. In this, and other respects, the pattern of ovarian development is similar in the southern giraffe to the northern subspecies. This early ovarian activity ...

  9. Physiological factors affecting the production of an antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    moustafa el-naggar

    Escherichia coli or Sarcina lutea. Growth of S. violatus and production of antibiotic in a starch-nitrate medium were monitored over a period of 14 days. The organism produced a blue pigment associated with the antibiotic appearance in the cultures. Optimization of antibiotic production in batch cultures has been carried out.

  10. Sunbirds hover at flowers of Salvia and Lycium | Wester | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here I present detailed observations of foraging behaviour in two sunbird species (Malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa and Southern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris chalybeus) at flowers of three Salvia species (Salvia africana-lutea, S. lanceolata and S. africana-caerulea; Lamiaceae) and one natural hybrid as well as ...

  11. Fermentation and antimicrobial activities of extracts from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY The present paper discusses the effects of the crude extracts of Trichoderma spp. on a number of fungal and bacterial organisms. These include Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium notatum, Nematospora corylii, Mucor miehei, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter dissolvens and Sarcina lutea. The culture ...

  12. The Buffalo Creek Archaeological Project. Volume 1: Background and Testing at 3MS346 and 3CG847 Mississippi and Craighead Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    and winged elm (Ulnus alata ) are ound in dry upland habitat (TJ-W--Corps of Engineers 1973:24T---On---f-Tl drained ridge top soils, undergrowth may...racemosa, Uvularia grandiflora, Geranium maculatum, Sedum ternatum, Passiflora lutea, Cynaglossum virginianum, Soliduge caesia and Eupatorium regosum

  13. ~i ~i ~~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More- over, injections of oxytocin or oestrogenic substances have been shown to inhibit functional corpora lutea and reduce the plasma progesterone level in cattle. (Armstrong & Hansel, 1959; Kaltenbach, Niswender,. Zimmerman & Wiltbank, 1964). The rationale for using potentiating agents was to improve the response to.

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adesoye, AI. Vol 1, No 1 (2012) - Articles Variation in maize tolerance to Striga Lutea (Lour) and influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2384-681X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  15. Stress response of two coral species in the Kavaratti atoll of the Lakshadweep Archipelago, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harithsa, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Dalal, S.G.

    . The loss in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll c and zooxanthellae density in the transitional stage of semi-bleaching in the branched coral A. formosa was 80, 75 and 80% respectively. The losses were much less in the massive coral P. lutea, being 20, 50 and 25...

  16. Cell-specific immuno-localization of progesterone receptor alpha in the rabbit ovary during pregnancy and after parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elkareem, Mahmoud

    2017-05-01

    Progesterone receptor alpha (PRA) has a central coordinator role in the ovarian functions in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of PRA in the rabbit ovary during pregnancy and after parturition. The rabbit ovary during pregnancy and after parturition had moderate cytoplasmic and moderate to intense nuclear PRA immunostaining in the ovarian surface epithelial cells, stromal cells and interstitial gland cells. The PRA was also present in granulosa cells and theca interna cells of the growing, small antral and mature Graafian follicles. Theca interna cells of the atretic antral follicle in addition to endothelial and fibroblast cells had PRA immunoreactivity. The PRA were also observed in the theca externa smooth muscle-like cells of the growing and antral follicles and in the telocytes. In the present study, the corpora haemorrhagica and early developing corpora lutea had, slight cytoplasmic and nuclear PRA immunostaining in the large lutein and small lutein cells. The endothelial cells of the corpora haemorrhagica and corpora lutea had an intense nuclear PRA immune signal. The corpora lutea at an advanced stage of development had moderate cytoplasmic and nuclear PRA immunostaining in the large lutein cells and intense nuclear PRA immunostaining in the small lutein cells. The regressed corpora lutea did not have PRA immunostaining in the apoptotic large lutein cells and moderate cytoplasmic and intense nuclear PRA immunostaining in the small lutein cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...

  18. Annual reproductive pattern in the dassie Procavia capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1982, 17(3) haematoxylin and eosin. In those containing corpora lutea these were removed and their volume calculated. Morphology of the ovaries was ..... Mgmt Ass. 3:65-73. FAIRALL, N. 1981. A conceptual integrated scheme for the control of the hyrax (Procavia capensis) in South Africa based on pre- liminary research.

  19. Aquatic Field Survey at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant, Chattanooga, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-24

    species, Spirulina laxissima and Gomphosphaeria lacustris at Stations A, B-l, C, and Y-1 Other important blue-green species were: Dscillatoria...characterize the background water quality. RetaTs, except for hardness ( calcium and magnesium), were run by flame atomic absorption...Microcoleus lynbyaccous Oscillatoria lutea Oscillatoria submembranceae Schizothrix arenaria Schizothrix calcicola Spirulina subsala X X X X X

  20. Effects of menotrophin and chorulon on superovulation in Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... result showed that the combination of Menotrophin and Chorulon effectively produces multiple ovulations as a result the use this combination is ... regression of corpora lutea after superovulatory treatment in goats and to ... response were expressed as mean ± SEM and analyzed by post-hoc using the ...

  1. Seasonal variation in plasma and corpus luteum oestradiol.17[3and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Ellerman Museum, Department of Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa .... analysis. During autopsy of gravid females, corpora lutea were excised from ovaries, and those collected in the same month were pooled, weighed to the nearest 0, I mg .... Multiple Range Test; p < 0,05).

  2. Effect of intraband variability on stable isotope and density time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Density, 18O and 13C were measured along two tracks, one close to the central growth axis and the other, ∼20° off the axis, in a coral (Porites lutea) collected from the Stanley Reef, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The 18O variations in the coral are well correlated with sea surface temperature changes.

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ajiwhen, IO. Vol 28, No 2 (2013) - Articles Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae) root on learning and memory in CD1 mice. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-859X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  4. Environmental effects on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-11-10

    The timing of band formation and linear skeletal growth rate based on environmental changes were investigated using alizarin red S (ARS) in Porites lutea coral at Khang Khao Island, the Gulf of Thailand from November 10, 1999 to March 15, 2001. The X-radiograph of the vertical section of the Porites coral skeleton was ...

  5. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Selected Vranac Wines Against Six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess potential antimicrobial effectiveness of selected red wines from Balkan region, made from autochthonic Vranac V. vinifera L. grape variety. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of Vranac wines against Gram-positive: C. perfringens, B. subtillis, S. aureus, L. inocua, S. Lutea, and M.

  6. Evaluation of the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content of extracts of ten African Ficus species (Moraceae) used traditionally to treat diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaokun, Oyinlola O; McGaw, Lyndy J; Eloff, Jacobus N; Naidoo, Vinny

    2013-05-04

    Some Ficus species have been used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of diabetes. The antidiabetic potential of certain species has been confirmed in vivo but the mechanism of activity remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the activity and to investigate the mechanism of antidiabetic activity of ten selected Ficus species through inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, and the possible relationship between these activities, the total polyphenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Dried acetone leaf extracts were reconstituted with appropriate solvents and used to determine total polyphenolic content antioxidant activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The crude acetone extract of F. lutea had the highest polyphenolic content (56.85 ± 1.82 mg GAE/g of dry material) and the strongest antioxidant activity with a TEAC value of 4.80 ± 0.90. The antioxidant activity of the acetone extracts of the Ficus species may not be ascribed to total polyphenolic content alone. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of F. lutea (64.3 ± 3.6%) had the best α-glucosidase (sucrase) inhibitory activity. The EC50 of F. lutea (290 ± 111 μg/ml) was not significantly different from that of F. sycomorus (217 ± 69 μg/ml). The α-amylase inhibitory activity of F. lutea (95.4 ± 1.2%) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was the highest among the Ficus species screened. The EC50 for F. lutea (9.42 ± 2.01 μ g/ml), though the highest, was not significantly different (p < 0.05) from that of F. craterostoma and F. natalensis. It was apparent that the crude acetone extract of F. lutea is a partially non-competitive inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Based on correlation coefficients polyphenolics may be responsible for α-glucosidase activity but probably not for α-amylase activity. Antidiabetic activity potential via inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase was

  7. Luteolin protects mice from severe acute pancreatitis by exerting HO-1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jie; Wang, Kezhou; Yuan, Chunxiao; Xing, Rong; Ni, Jianbo; Hu, Guoyong; Chen, Fengling; Wang, Xingpeng

    2017-01-01

    Reseda odorata L. has long been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative injury and acute inflammation, such as endotoxemia, acute lung injury, acute myocardial infarction and hepatitis. Luteolin, the main component of Reseda odorata L., which is also widely found in many natural herbs and vege-tables, has been shown to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of luteolin on mice with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Cerulein and lipopolysaccharide were used to induce SAP in male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice in the SAP group. The SAP group was divided into 4 subgroups, as follows: the vehicle, luteolin, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) only, and luteolin (Lut) + ZnPP (luteolin plus zinc protoporphyrin treatment) groups. The wet/dry weight ratios, hematoxylin and eosin staining and pathological scores of pancreatic tissues were assessed and compared to those of the control mice. Amylase, lipase, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and myeloperoxidase activities, and malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and HO-1 levels, as well as the expression of HO-1 were determined in serum and/or pancreatic tissue samples. SAP was successfully induced in male mice compared to normal control mice. The wet/dry weight ratios, pathological scores, and amylase and lipase activity, as well as the levels of TNFα and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the pancreatic tissues of the mice in the Lut group compared with those of the mice in the vehicle group. The Lut group exhibited a significant increase in HO-1 expression in the pancreas and enhanced serum HO-1 and IL-10 levels compared with the vehicle group. The suppression of HO-1 activity in the ZnPP group significantly abolished the protective effects of luteolin. NF-κB expression in

  8. Reproduction in female Hartmann's zebra, Equus zebra hartmannae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlin-van Aarde, L M; van Aarde, R J; Skinner, J D

    1988-11-01

    Ovaries, fetuses and plasma were collected from zebra mares shot in the Etosha National Park in Namibia between 15 and 25 August 1983. Ovarian weight was affected by reproductive status and most of the non-pregnant mares were anoestrous. The number of follicles varied between individuals and only pro-oestrous/oestrous mares had follicles larger than 20 mm in diameter. The largest follicle in pregnant mares was only 9 mm in diameter. Corpora lutea and corpora albicantia were found in non-pregnant as well as pregnant mares: 4 pregnant mares had only corpora albicantia. The presence of secondary corpora lutea could not be confirmed in any of the pregnant mares. Implantation was estimated to occur at around 73 days of gestation, and most mares (84%) had conceived between November and April. Peripheral concentrations of plasma progesterone during pregnancy varied from 0.5 to 2.4 ng/ml.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of kombucha made from Rtanj tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage with special therapeutic properties produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in sweetened black tea (traditional cultivation medium. The antimicrobial activity of kombucha (for consumption made from black tea and Rtanj tea, as well as particular control samples, was examined by the modified disc diffusion method. Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Sarcina lutea, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Rhodotorula sp. Candida pseudotropi-calis and Saccharomyces cerevisae have been used as test organisms. Acetic acid and kombucha samples show significant antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except Sarcina lutea. The other control samples (neutralized kombucha, tea and a "model sistem" show less bacteriostatic activity. Kombucha and acetic acid solution show borderline inhibitory activity against some moulds, while was no activity against yeasts.

  10. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of...

  11. Propagation and Establishment of Native Plants for Vegetative Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. All product names and trademarks cited are the property of their...Vallisneria americana submersed Yes No American lotus** Nelumbo lutea floating-leaved No Yes Blue water lily Nymphaea elegans floating-leaved No Yes...trials (with and without fertilizer amendments , see below) to ascertain suitability for supporting aquatic plant growth. Because floating- leaved

  12. Investigation of the antioxidant properties of five aromatic plants in model food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azman, Nurul Aini Binti Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD it has been analyzed the antioxidant activity of five plants: Camelia sinensis, Gentian lutea, Betula pendula, Convolvulus arvensis and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. An Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance has been tuned up to determine the antiradical activity of white tea against the methoxy radical using ferulic acid as a standard. It has been proven that the components with more antiradical activity, against the methoxy radical, are the ones with the gallate group, EGCG and ECG. ...

  13. Response of maize ( Zea mays L.) to varied moisture levels under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory and glasshouse trials were used to determine the response of maize plants to varied moisture levels under Striga lutea infestation. Six moisture levels (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 ml) were applied to striga seed for germination count in the laboratory, while five moisture levels (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 ml) ...

  14. State of the eyes in welders of Division M-5, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gos, R.; Stepien, J.; Horowski, P.

    1984-01-01

    Sight organ impairments have been compared in a group of M-5 Division welders, Brown Coal Mine in Belchatow, and control group of randomly selected administration workers. In the group of welders statistically more frequent were degenerative changes in the eye macula, melanomatosis and conjunctivitis. Those with changes in the area of the macua lutea and melanosis conjunctivae should undergo periodic ophthalmological control (dispensary groups).

  15. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9...

  16. Plant traits and environment: floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Peter F; van der Velde, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Floating leaf blades of waterlilies fulfill several functions in wetland ecosystems by production, decomposition and turnover as well as exchange processes. Production and turnover rates of floating leaf blades of three waterlily species, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm., Nymphaea alba L. and Nymphaea candida Presl, were studied in three freshwater bodies, differing in trophic status, pH and alkalinity. Length and percentages of leaf loss of marked leaf blades were measured weekly during the growing season. Area and biomass were calculated based on leaf length and were used to calculate the turnover rate of floating leaf blades. Seasonal changes in floating leaf production showed that values decreased in the order: Nymphaea alba , Nuphar lutea , Nymphaea candida . The highest production was reached for Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba in alkaline, eutrophic water bodies. The production per leaf was relatively high for both species in the acid water body. Nymphaea candida showed a very short vegetation period and low turnover rates. The ratio Total potential leaf biomass/Maximum potential leaf biomass (P/B max ) of the three species ranged from 1.35-2.25. The ratio Vegetation period (Period with floating leaves)/Mean leaf life span ranged from 2.94-4.63, the ratio Growth period (Period with appearance of new floating leaves)/Vegetation period from 0.53-0.73. The clear differences between Nymphaea candida versus Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba , may be due to adaptations of Nymphaea candida to an Euro-Siberic climate with short-lasting summer conditions.

  17. Plant traits and environment: floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Klok

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Floating leaf blades of waterlilies fulfill several functions in wetland ecosystems by production, decomposition and turnover as well as exchange processes. Production and turnover rates of floating leaf blades of three waterlily species, Nuphar lutea (L. Sm., Nymphaea alba L. and Nymphaea candida Presl, were studied in three freshwater bodies, differing in trophic status, pH and alkalinity. Length and percentages of leaf loss of marked leaf blades were measured weekly during the growing season. Area and biomass were calculated based on leaf length and were used to calculate the turnover rate of floating leaf blades. Seasonal changes in floating leaf production showed that values decreased in the order: Nymphaea alba, Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea candida. The highest production was reached for Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba in alkaline, eutrophic water bodies. The production per leaf was relatively high for both species in the acid water body. Nymphaea candida showed a very short vegetation period and low turnover rates. The ratio Total potential leaf biomass/Maximum potential leaf biomass (P/Bmax of the three species ranged from 1.35–2.25. The ratio Vegetation period (Period with floating leaves/Mean leaf life span ranged from 2.94–4.63, the ratio Growth period (Period with appearance of new floating leaves/Vegetation period from 0.53–0.73. The clear differences between Nymphaea candida versus Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba, may be due to adaptations of Nymphaea candida to an Euro-Siberic climate with short-lasting summer conditions.

  18. Morphometrical investigations on the reproductive activity of the ovaries in rats subjected to immobilization and to motion activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, N.; Cheresharov, L.; Toshkova, S.

    1982-01-01

    Wistar-strain white female rats were divided into three groups, with the first group subjected to motion loading, the second used as control, and the third group was immobilized. A considerable reduction in numbers of corpora lutea was observed in the immobilized group, together with smaller numbers of embryos, high percent of embryo mortality, fetal growth retardation, and endometrium disorders. The control group showed no deviation from normal conditions, and there was slight improvement in reproductive activity of animals under motion loading.

  19. appraisal of indigenous pig procution and management practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Adesope

    ABSTRACT. The effects of Ovine FSH, Porcine FSH (FSH-P) and HMG treatments on embryo generation and embryo quality were studied in West African dwarf goats The results on the number of corpora lutea (CL) on the ovary was (10.12 + 0.06) in FSH-P and (11.35 + 1.75) in FSH-O. However, they differed significantly (P ...

  20. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Bernd; Guscetti Franco; Boos Alois; Gram Aykut; Michel Erika; Kowalewski Mariusz P; Aslan Selim; Reichler Iris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4) of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL) is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of g...

  1. Model suggests potential for Porites coral population recovery after removal of anthropogenic disturbance (Luhuitou, Hainan, South China Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meixia; Riegl, Bernhard; Yu, Kefu; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Qiaomin; Liu, Guohui; Yang, Hongqiang; Yan, Hongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Population models are important for resource management and can inform about potential trajectories useful for planning purposes, even with incomplete monitoring data. From size frequency data on Luhuitou fringing reef, Hainan, South China Sea, a matrix population model of massive corals (Porites lutea) was developed and trajectories over 100 years under no disturbance and random disturbances were projected. The model reflects a largely open population of Porites lutea, with low local recruitment and preponderance of imported recruitment. Under no further disturbance, the population of Porites lutea will grow and its size structure will change from predominance of small size classes to large size classes. Therewith, total Porites cover will increase. Even under random disturbances every 10 to 20 years, the Porites population could remain viable, albeit at lower space cover. The models suggest recovery at Luhuitou following the removal of chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Extending the area of coral reef reserves to protect the open coral community and the path of connectivity is advisable and imperative for the conservation of Hainan’s coral reefs.

  2. Bacterial communities associated with Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS on three western Indian Ocean (WIO coral reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu G Séré

    Full Text Available The scleractinian coral Porites lutea, an important reef-building coral on western Indian Ocean reefs (WIO, is affected by a newly-reported white syndrome (WS the Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS. Histopathology and culture-independent molecular techniques were used to characterise the microbial communities associated with this emerging disease. Microscopy showed extensive tissue fragmentation generally associated with ovoid basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates. Results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed a high variability between bacterial communities associated with PWPS-infected and healthy tissues in P. lutea, a pattern previously reported in other coral diseases such as black band disease (BBD, white band disease (WBD and white plague diseases (WPD. Furthermore, substantial variations in bacterial communities were observed at the different sampling locations, suggesting that there is no strong bacterial association in Porites lutea on WIO reefs. Several sequences affiliated with potential pathogens belonging to the Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were identified, mainly in PWPS-infected coral tissues. Among them, only two ribotypes affiliated to Shimia marina (NR043300.1 and Vibrio hepatarius (NR025575.1 were consistently found in diseased tissues from the three geographically distant sampling localities. The role of these bacterial species in PWPS needs to be tested experimentally.

  3. Concentration of fulvic acid in the growth bands of hermatypic corals in relation to local precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lee-Shing; Chou, Yi-Cheng

    1992-12-01

    Coral growth rate and the concentrations of fulvic acid in the growth bands of the hermatypic coral Porites lutea Edwards & Haime and Favia maxima Veron were investigated in samples taken from 1986 to 1988 in the waters of southern Taiwan (22°05'≈36'N, 120°24'≈50'E). These were analyzed against the local annual precipitation, the locality of the sampling sites, the construction activity on nearby land and coral species. The results showed that the annual growth rate of P. lutea was 1.08±0.12 cm while F. maxima was 0.83±0.09 cm. The amount of fulvic acid incorporated in the growth band was positively correlated with the local annual precipitation. However, the correlation coefficient varied from as high as 0.9519 to as low as 0.0921 due to different topographies of the sampling sites, dilution factors from the ocean and construction activities along the coast. F. maxima was found to be more sensitive than P. lutea in terms of fulvic acid uptake from the surrounding waters. The study of fluorescence in the skeleton of hermatypic corals is a reasonable approach to biomonitor the environment after consideration of local factors.

  4. Evaluating the Effect of Coral Topography on the Climate Signal in Porites spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobel, A. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Maupin, C. R.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding how the record of environmental variations in the surface waters of tropical oceans is encoded in the skeletal geochemistry of corals is essential to deciding how to extract a signal from their skeletons. A few previous investigators have studied coral growth patterns and corresponding geochemical signals; however despite this attention, questions remain about the best way to extract a climate record from coral cores with regard to skeletal topography and drill path location. Utilizing a slabbed core of Porites lutea from Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (~15°06'S, 166°52'E) we extracted coral samples along growth bands to evaluate geochemical variations within skeletal isochrons. Coral samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer to determine Sr/Ca ratios, a proxy for sea surface temperature (SST.) Ninety-three Sr/Ca determinations were made from the first isochron; the average value was 8.982 ± 0.030 mmol/mol. The variation about the mean is nearly identical to the analytical precision associated with the Sr/Ca determination. These results suggest that drilling a diachronous path along any axis of growth in a coral skeleton should yield similar results. A second isochron extracted from the coral is being processed to replicate these initial results. In a second experiment, utilizing another slabbed core of Porites lutea from Efate, Vanuatu (~17°34'S, 168°14'E) two sets of paths were drilled through sections of coral characterized by pronounced skeletal topography. In each of these pairs, one path was drilled along an axis of minimum growth and another along an axis of maximum growth. Coral samples were analyzed in the same way as described above to determine Sr/Ca ratios and these analytical determinations are being compared to the instrumental record of SST variations in the region. These results will show whether growth topography is an important variable to monitor when extracting a climate signal from

  5. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-2 in Brahman cows. PGE1 or PGE2 may alter cow luteal FGF-2, ANG-1, or ANG-2 but not VEGF to prevent luteolysis; however, species or breed differences may exist. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Niche acclimatization in Red Sea corals is dependent on flexibility of host-symbiont association

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2015-08-06

    Knowledge of host-symbiont specificity and acclimatization capacity of corals is crucial for understanding implications of environmental change. Whilst some corals have been shown to associate with a number of symbionts that may comprise different physiologies, most corals associate with only one dominant Symbiodinium species at a time. Coral communities in the Red Sea thrive under large fluctuations of environmental conditions, but the degree and mechanisms of coral acclimatization are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the potential for niche acclimatization in 2 dominant corals from the central Red Sea, Pocillopora verrucosa and Porites lutea, in relation to the fidelity of the underlying coral-symbiont association. Repeated sampling over 2 seasons along a cross-shelf and depth gradient revealed a stable symbiont association in P. verrucosa and flexible association in P. lutea. A statistical biological-environmental matching routine revealed that the high plasticity of photophysiology and photopigments in the stable Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) community in P. verrucosa were correlated with environmental influences along spatio-temporal dimensions. In contrast, photophysiology and pigments were less variable within each symbiont type from P. lutea indicating that niche acclimatization was rather regulated by a flexible association with a variable Symbiodinium community. Based on these data, we advocate an extended concept of phenotypic plasticity of the coral holobiont, in which the scleractinian host either associates with a specific Symbiodinium type with a broad physiological tolerance, or the host-symbiont pairing is more flexible to accommodate for different symbiont associations, each adapted to specific environmental settings.

  7. Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, Washington. Master Plan (DM 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    CIADRASTIS Leguminosae C22..1 C..lutea Yellowwood 202 C. sinensis -- 11A CLE2E’AT IS Ranunculaceae C22. C. flammula -- 119 C2--2 C. heracleifl1ora var...procumbens Wintergreen 304 G.3 shallon Salal 23B, 25, 27, 102, 120, 205, 208, 209, 213, 304, 327 GENISTA Leguminosae S. G. hispanica Spanish Gorse U19 2 C...LOCATIOII3 :1.BER BOTANICAL NAME - COMMON NAME BED # LASUR.NU Leguminosae L1.1 L. anagyroides Golden Chain Tree 23A, 24, 25, 29, 201 LEDMI Ericaceae L2.1 L

  8. Structure of the principal carotenoid pigment of Cellulomonas biazotea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, O B; Montes, A R; Andrewes, A G

    1980-01-01

    The yellow-pigmented Cellulomonas biazotea, ATCC 486, contains a mixture of carotenoids. The principal compound is a decapreno carotenoid (C50H72O2) tentatively characterized as 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butenyl)-gamma,gamma-carotene on the basis of electronic absorption, infrared, proton magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometries. The carotenoid is presumed to be identical to sarcinaxanthin from Sarcina lutea pro-synon. Micrococcus luteus and, therefore, is isomeric with decaprenoxanthin from Cellulomonas dehydrogenans. PMID:6245065

  9. The distribution and habitat requirements of the genus Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae in SE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the genus Orobanche in SE Poland is presented. The study area stretches between the Vistula and the Bug rivers, and comprises the Polish areas of the Lublin-Lwów Upland, the Wołyń Upland and the southern part of Polesie. Eight species of the genus Orobanche: O. alba, O. alsatica, O. arenaria, O. caryophyllacea, O. elatior, O. lutea, O. pallidiflora, O. picridis, were collected during floristic investigations conducted between 1999 and 2010. The hosts, abundance and habitat preferences at the localities are given and a supplemented map of the distribution in SE Poland is included.

  10. Occurrence of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae parasitizing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B nymphs on cotton plants was observed during a research on resistance of cotton genotypes to this whitefly. The experiment was set in a greenhouse at the Experimental Station of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples of the parasitized nymphs were collected and maintained in laboratory to monitor the parasitism and obtain the adult parasitoids. A total of 129 adult parasitoids were obtained, including one Encarsia inaron (Walker, 13 En. lutea (Masi, and 115 Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. This is the first report of Er. mundus in Brazil.

  11. Comparing two different superovulation protocols on ovarian activity and fecal glucocorticoid levels in the brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Eveline S; Munerato, Marina S; Cursino, Marina S; Duarte, José Maurício B

    2014-03-19

    Stress is a limiting factor in assisted reproduction in wild animals maintained in captivity. However, the knowledge of assisted reproduction techniques for wild animals is useful for future in situ and ex situ conservation programs. Thus, this study evaluated the ovulation rate, presence of functional corpora lutea and fecal glucocorticoid levels following treatments promoting superovulation in captive brown brocket deer. The crossover design used six hinds, allocated to two groups (n=6): eCG Treatment, CIDR for 8 days, followed by 0.25 mg of EB on day 0, 700 IU of eCG on day 4 following device insertion and 265 mug of PGF2alfa on day 8; and FSH Treatment, CIDR for 7.5 days, followed by 0.25 mg of EB on day 0, 130 mg of FSH in 8 equal doses and 265 mug of PGF2alfa on day 7.5. Induced adrenal activity and treatment efficacy were evaluated by corpora lutea (CL) counts and fecal glucocorticoid and progestin concentration (ng/g feces) analyses for five different phases: Pre, two days before treatment; Early, first four days of treatment; Late, last four days of treatment; Total, entire treatment period; and Post, five days posttreatment. eCG Treatment resulted in the highest number of CL (P lower than 0.05). There was no significant difference for fecal glucocorticoid concentrations in five different time periods between the treatments; however Pre fecal glucocorticoid concentrations (90.06+/-19.64) were significantly different from Late (200.76+/-26.39) within FSH Treatment. The mean fecal progestin concentration and mean ovulation rate were higher in eCG Treatment (4293.69+/-769.47, 7.0+/-1.8) than in FSH Treatment (1571.26+/-240.28, 2.6+/-0.8) (P lower than or equal to 0.05). Although the eCG Treatment induced a good superovulatory response, with the formation of functional corpora lutea, we cannot yet affirm that we have established a suitable protocol for induction of SOV in the species M. gouazoubira because approximately 65% of the deer showed premature

  12. Effects of anestrus dog serum on superovulation in rats and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Vaseghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of anestrus dog serum in rodents (contains high amount of FSH compared with two common superovulatory programs. Methods: Rats (n=30 at diestrus phase were evenly divided into pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins (PMSG group (administrated with 30 IU PMSG, and 48 h later following by 25 IU hCG, recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH group (reducing dose every 12 h from 5 to 1 IU, then following by 25 IU hCG and anestrus dog serum group (reducing dose every 12 h from 0.6 to 0.1 mL, then following by 25 IU of hCG. Mice (n=30 were also evenly divided into PMSG group (5 IU PMSG used at 13 pm, and 48 h later following by 5 IU of hCG, rFSH group (from 13 pm, reducing dose every 12 h from 2.5 to 0.5 IU, then following by 5 IU hCG and anestrous dog serum group (from 13 pm, reducing dose every 12 h from 0.100 to 0.025 mL, then following by 5 IU hCG. Mice and rats placed with males for 24 h after last injection. Histology samples of ovaries were prepared and the numbers of corpus lutea were counted on day 14 after mating. Results: In mice, the differences among mean number of corpus lutea in all groups (P=0.01 and between FSH and dog serum group were significant (P=0.000 7. But no significant differences were found between the mean number of corpus lutea in dog serum and PMSG, or between FSH and PMSG groups. In rats, mean number of corpus lutea were significant differences among three groups (P=0.01, and between PMSG and dog serum groups (P=0.02. Conclusions: Superovulatory response in anestrus dog serum group is similar to PMSG group in mice, which is relatively similar to FSH in rats.

  13. Crystallite sizes of porites species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhlia Zafarina Zakaria; Julynnie Wajir; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the crystallite sizes of Porites species. A set of 9 Porites skeletons i.e. Porites australiensis, Porites cylindrica, Porites lutea, Porites lichen, Porites digitata, Porites nigrescens, Porites rus, Porites annae and Porites sp. were studied by using X-Ray Diffraction method. The values of FWHM and theta (θ) are used in Scherrer equation to determine the crystallite sizes of all Porites samples. It was found that the crystallite sizes were in the range of 1000.78 - 1706.04 Angstrom. (author)

  14. Physical and chemical characteristics of Vietnamese natural corals used as substitutes for bone grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Cong Toai; To Phuong Vu; Tran Bac Hai; Doan Binh

    1999-01-01

    Coral has been used as substitutes for bone grafts in France and the United State of American. In Vietnam, research on coral has been done at the Biomaterial Research Laboratory, The University Training Centre since 1994. Among the studies are the determination of physical and chemical characteristics of natural coral blocks obtained by the scientists of the NhaTrang Maritime Institute. We found that it was quite necessary to establish a standard formula for processing coral as biomaterial graft. The selected coral was cut into blocks approximately 1x1x1 cm or 1x1x2 cm and cleaned. We measured the density, porous rate, water loading speed (at room temperature and at boiled temperature with low pressure, mechanical strength and content of soluble protein, chitosan in coral rods. (1140 samples of three types of corals). The density of Porites australiensis was heavier than that of Porites lutea. But, Porites lutea has more porous rate than Porites australiensis. This experiment has also showed that mechanical strength of Porites australiensis was harder than that of Porites lutea. To measure the water loading speed, the coral rods were treated at boiled temperature with low pressure versus at room temperature. We found that the water loading speed of Porites australiensis at boiled temperature was faster than that at room temperature. Porites lutea and Montastrea annuligera showed as the same result. The efficiency of water loading rate is quite low approximately 116 - 121 % for 45 minutes at room temperature versus 135 - 155 % for only I 0 minutes at boiled temperature with low pressure. We measured the content of soluble protein by both Lowry and Biuret methods, the content of soluble protein after washing with 0.9% sodium chloride, 1210 degree C, 60 minutes is very low (below limit of tests). The content of chitosan from dried coral rods treated with HCI 36 - 38 % and NAOH 0.01N is about 0.1 - 0.6 %. Our study determined some physical and chemical characteristics

  15. Growth and development in Syrian Awassi ewes during patterns of ovarian follicular different reproductive stages monitored by laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Soukouti, A.

    2009-06-01

    An in situ study was conducted on Syrian Awassi ewes, inside and outside the breeding season, untreated or treated with vaginal sponges together with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin aiming at monitoring the ovaries' diameters, number of different follicular categories, number, diameters and lifespan of corpora lutea in each ovary using a laparoscope and finding out the relationship among these parameters and progesterone concentration. For the first time, it has been possible to characterise the Syrian Awassi sheep at the ovarian follicles level during different reproductive stages using a laparoscope. (author)

  16. Wetlands Research Program. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling Vegetation and Delineating Wetlands Transition Zones in Southern Louisiana, January 1979-May 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    woods such as sweetgum, tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), dogwood (Cornus florida), winged elm (Ulmus alata ), beech (Fagus grandifolia...C, B, Al, ClQ -i’ c artagnis (Jarcquirt) macbride Womeed B1 Quer-ci. alba L Whifte oak B Quercus phellos L. Willow ok B, B2 Ulmus alata Michaux...2.50 1.33 ramineiae sp. 3.33 3.33 1.00 Unknown herb 3.33 3.33 1.00 Arisaema triphyllum 3.33 3.33 1.00 Passiflora lutea 3.33 3.33 1.00

  17. Neutron resonance spin echo with longitudinal DC fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautloher, Maximilian; Kindervater, Jonas; Keller, Thomas; Häußler, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    We report on the design, construction, and performance of a neutron resonance spin echo (NRSE) instrument employing radio frequency (RF) spin flippers combining RF fields with DC fields, the latter oriented parallel (longitudinal) to the neutron propagation direction (longitudinal NRSE (LNRSE)). The advantage of the longitudinal configuration is the inherent homogeneity of the effective magnetic path integrals. In the center of the RF coils, the sign of the spin precession phase is inverted by a π flip of the neutron spins, such that non-uniform spin precession at the boundaries of the RF flippers is canceled. The residual inhomogeneity can be reduced by Fresnel- or Pythagoras-coils as in the case of conventional spin echo instruments (neutron spin echo (NSE)). Due to the good intrinsic homogeneity of the B0 coils, the current densities required for the correction coils are at least a factor of three less than in conventional NSE. As the precision and the current density of the correction coils are the limiting factors for the resolution of both NSE and LNRSE, the latter has the intrinsic potential to surpass the energy resolution of present NSE instruments. Our prototype LNRSE spectrometer described here was implemented at the resonance spin echo for diverse applications (RESEDA) beamline at the MLZ in Garching, Germany. The DC fields are generated by B0 coils, based on resistive split-pair solenoids with an active shielding for low stray fields along the beam path. One pair of RF flippers at a distance of 2 m generates a field integral of ˜0.5 Tm. The LNRSE technique is a future alternative for high-resolution spectroscopy of quasi-elastic excitations. In addition, it also incorporates the MIEZE technique, which allows to achieve spin echo resolution for spin depolarizing samples and sample environments. Here we present the results of numerical optimization of the coil geometry and first data from the prototype instrument.

  18. Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities; Analyse de nocivite de defauts dans les structures nucleaires: R et D associee aux problemes industriels - synthese des activites de recherche, d'encadrement et d'enseignement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, St

    2007-06-15

    Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

  19. Phylogenetic evidence for a Miocene origin of Mediterranean lineages: species diversity, reproductive traits and geographical isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, P; Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Heleno, R

    2018-01-01

    A review of 27 angiosperm clades (26 genera) of species-rich and species-poor plant groups of the Mediterranean floristic region was performed with phylogenetic and biological trait data. The emergent pattern is that a majority of Mediterranean plant clades split from their sister groups between the Miocene (23-5 Ma) and the Oligocene (34-23 Ma), far earlier than the onset of the Mediterranean climate (ca. 3.2 Ma). In addition, 12 of 14 clades of the species-poor group have stem ages inferred for each clade in the Miocene or older, and six of 13 clades within the species-rich group show divergence of each stem clade within the Oligocene and/or Miocene. High levels of species diversity are related to an ancient (Paleocene-Miocene) origin and also to recent origin (Pliocene-Pleistocene) followed by active speciation and even explosive radiations: some species and lineages diversified over a short period (Aquilegia, Cistus, Dianthus, Linaria sect. Supinae, Reseda). In the species-rich group, key reproductive characters were found to be significantly more important for species recognition than key vegetative characters in eight clades, but no difference was found in four clades, and vegetative characters were predominant in one clade (Saxifraga). Geographical differentiation is proposed as predominant over divergence driven by pollination ecology. We hypothesise an evolutionary process in which lineages adapted to pre-Mediterranean (pre-Pliocene) conditions in relatively small, xeric areas became strongly competitive and expanded as the Mediterranean climate became dominant (Pliocene-Quaternary) across the Mediterranean Basin. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, St.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

  1. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of dyes identified in textiles from Mount Athos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzouris, Dimitrios; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Valianou, Lemonia; Panayiotou, Costas

    2011-03-01

    Organic colorants contained in 30 textiles (16th to early 20th century) from the monastery of Simonos Petra (Mount Athos) have been investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The components of natural dyes identified in samples treated by the standard HCl dyestuff extraction method were: alizarin, apigenin, butein, carminic acid, chrysoeriol, dcII, dcIV, dcVII, ellagic acid, emodin, fisetin, flavokermesic acid, fustin, genistein, haematein derivative (Hae'), indigotin, indirubin, isoliquiritigenin, isorhamnetin, kaempferide, kaempferol, kermesic acid, luteolin, naringenin, purpurin, quercetin, rhamnazin, rhamnetin, sulfuretin, and type B and type C compounds (last two are markers for Caesalpinia trees). Early, semi-synthetic dyes, for example indigo carmine, fuchsin components, and rhodamine B were identified in objects dated late 19th to early 20th century. A dyestuff extraction method which involves use of TFA, instead of HCl, was applied to selected historical samples, showing that the mild method enables efficient extraction of weld (Reseda luteola L.) and dyer's broom (Genista tinctoria L.) glycosides. The marker compound (Hae') for logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum L.) identification after treatment with HCl was investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in negative electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(-)) mode. LC-MS in negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-MS-APCI(-)) mode was used, probably for the first time, to investigate cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) samples. Positive electrospray ionization (LC-MS-ESI(+)) mode was used for identification of fuchsin components. Detailed HPLC-DAD studies were performed on young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) and Persian berries (Rhamnus trees).

  2. Culture of porcine luteal cells as a substrate for in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes. Establishment and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplitz MA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish and characterize the porcine luteal cells (PLC culture for the subsequent coculture with porcine COC. The final purpose is to promote the oocyte maturation. The PLC was established using corpora lutea obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries. Corpora lutea were dissected and luteal tissue submitted to a mechanical and enzymatic digestion with collagenase IV. The cell suspension was filtered and centrifuged and the cells obtained were diluted in 15 mL of DMEM-F12 supplemented media. Diluted cells were seeded in 3 culture flasks T25, staying in a controlled environment and changing the medium every 2 days. For the analysis and characterization, the cells were assessed by the Nile red staining to detect intracellular lipids, immunocytochemistry (ICC for 3β-hydroxy steroid dehidrogenase (3β-HSD and ELISA for P4 determination. We observed the presence of lipid intracellular droplets. Also, we observed an increase of P4 concentration at 48, 96 y 144 h of primary culture and almost all the cells were positive to the ICC evaluation for 3β-HSD, showing the steroidogenic capacity of the culture cells.

  3. Response of wild and weedy broomrapes to synthetic strigolactone analogue GR24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Matusova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic plants of genera Orobanche and Phelipanche germinate after exposition to chemical signals exuded by roots of the host plants. The most studied germination stimulants belong to strigolactones (SLs, the newly discovered plant hormones which are stimulating hyphal branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and are involved in regulation of shoot and root architecture of plants. However, little is known about the effect of strigolactones on germination of non-weedy broomrapes. The objective of our study was to investigate the sensitivity of seeds of non-weedy broomrapes to synthetic analogue of SLs, GR24. The seeds of non-weedy broomrapes Orobanche alba, O. alsatica, O. caryophyllacea, O. elatior, O. flava, O. lutea, O. pallidiflora, O. reticulata, Phelipanche arenaria, P. purpurea and weedy species P. ramosa were collected in natural and cropland plant communities in Slovakia. Seeds of P. ramosa and P. purpurea were highly sensitive to GR24. On the other hand, effectivity of GR24 in inducing germination of several wild species, O. alba, O. caryophyllacea and P. arenaria was low, while the stimulant shown to be completely not effective on other non-weedy species O. alsatica, O. elatior, O. flava, O. lutea, O. pallidiflora, and O. reticulata. The results point out there are differences in the requirement for germination signals that possibly depend on the host.

  4. Marked hybridization and introgression in Ophrys sect. Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrim, Helena; Monteiro, Filipa; Sousa, Eva; Pinto, Manuel J; Fay, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    Orchids in the genus Ophrys represent extraordinary cases of tight coevolution between plants and their pollinators, and as a result, they present opportunities for studying hybridization, or a lack thereof, during speciation. However, few studies assess the real effect of hybridization in diversification. The three most representative species of section Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula-O. dyris, O. fusca, and O. lutea-were chosen to study evolutionary relationships and examine speciation. Using eight specific nuclear microsatellite loci, 357 individuals from 28 locations were studied; 142 of these samples were also studied with four plastid microsatellite loci. Data were analyzed using Bayesian cluster analysis, a median-joint network, and multivariate analysis. Many O. dyris and O. fusca specimens had three or four alleles and were therefore treated as tetraploid. Ophrys dyris is poorly genetically separated from O. fusca, and pure populations are rare. Ophrys fusca and O. lutea are distinct, but hybrids/introgressed individuals were detected in most of the populations and supported by plastid haplotypes. Ophrys fusca is subdivided into three well-delimited genetic lineages with a strict geographic correspondence confirmed by plastid haplotypes. Because postzygotic barriers are weak, leakage in this highly specialized orchid-pollinator system contributes to hybridization and introgression. These leakages may have occurred during periods of past climate change, promoting homogenization and the potential for generations of new biodiversity via production of novel genotypes/phenotypes interacting with pollinators. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Royal Belgian Institute of Sciences, Brussels, with descriptions of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The type status is described of 57 taxa from the superfamily Orthalicoidea in the collection of the Brussels museum. Two new species are described: Stenostylus perturbatus sp. n., and Suniellus adriani sp. n. New lectotypes are designated for Bulimulus (Naesiotus) amastroides Ancey, 1887; Bulimulus blanfordianus Ancey, 1903; Bulimulus montivagus chacoensis Ancey, 1897; Bulimus coloratus Nyst, 1845; Plecochilus dalmasi Dautzenberg, 1900; Placostylus porphyrostomus elata Dautzenberg, 1923; Bulimulus ephippium Ancey, 1904; Bulimus fulminans Nyst, 1843; Bulimus funckii Nyst, 1843; Orphnus thompsoni lutea Cousin, 1887; Bulimus melanocheilus Nyst, 1845; Orphnus thompsoni nigricans Cousin, 1887; Orphnus thompsoni olivacea Cousin, 1887; Bulimulus pollonerae Ancey, 1897; Orphnus thompsoni zebra Cousin, 1887. New combinations are: Bostryx borellii (Ancey, 1897); Bostryx carandaitiensis (Preston, 1907); Protoglyptus mazei (Crosse, 1874); Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus) sanborni (Haas, 1947). New synonymies are established for the following nominal taxa: Orphnus thompsoni var. lutea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Thaumastus nystianus var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Drymaeus (Drymaeus) nystianus (Pfeiffer, 1853); Orphnus thompsoni var. olivacea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845); Orphnus thompsoni var. zebra Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845). PMID:21747669

  6. Roles of conceptus secretory proteins in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa; Thatcher, William W

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction in ruminant species is a highly complex biological process requiring a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling and regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia and transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph, also known as the secretome, that are required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation by the elongating conceptus. Pregnancy recognition signaling as related to sustaining the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea, is required to sustain the functional life-span of corpora lutea for production of progesterone which is essential for uterine functions supportive of implantation and placentation required for successful outcomes of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur in ruminants due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. The endocrine status of the pregnant ruminant and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The challenge is to understand the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in humans and animals and to use that knowledge to enhance fertility and reproductive health of ruminant species in livestock enterprises.

  7. Effect of follicular wave synchronization on superovulatory response of Girolando embryo donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Esquerdo Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the follicular wave synchronization method on the superovulatory response of Girolando embryo donors. Seven cows and five heifers were divided into three treatments according to the method of the follicular wave synchronization prior to superovulation. The donors were superovulated with eight FSH decreasing doses, adding 133 mg per animal. The superovulatory response was evaluated using an ultrasound device to quantify the number of corpora lutea. The number and quality of recovered structures were also evaluated. Animal category (cow or heifer and genetic group influenced the superovulatory response, in which heifers showed a greater response (100% in all treatments compared with cows, which showed 85.7%, 57.1% and 57.1% superovulatory response for standing estrus, GnRH and P4 + BE groups, respectively. The genetic group also showed influence on superovulatory response, in which the 3/8 animals had an average of 10.3 corpora lutea per donor compared with the 3/4 animals, which showed 4.9. The follicular wave synchronization treatments did not show differences in superovulatory response, recovered structures and viable structures. The treatment of follicular wave synchronization with GnRH or with P4 + BE can be used in Girolando donors with the same efficiency as the standing estrus group, and 3/8 Girolando heifers respond better to the superovulatory treatment.

  8. Pregnancy and conception rate after two intravaginal inseminations with dog semen frozen either with 5% glycerol or 5% ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Ada; Milani, C; Romagnoli, S; Zucchini, P; Mollo, A

    2010-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare the effects of 5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 5% glycerol (G) on fertility of frozen-thawed dog semen following intravaginal insemination. The sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate of three male dogs was collected, pooled and divided into two aliquots, and then frozen with a Tris-glucose-egg yolk-citric acid extender containing either 5% G or 5% EG. A total of 10 bitches were inseminated twice, five with G-frozen-thawed semen and five with EG-frozen-thawed semen; intravaginal inseminations were performed the 4th and the 5th day after the estimated LH peak; four straws, thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath for 1 min and diluted in a Tris buffer, were used for insemination (200 x 10(6) spermatozoa); the insemination dose was introduced in the cranial vagina of the bitch using a sterile plastic catheter. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in all bitches between days 29 and 31 after the calculated LH surge, and pregnancy status, and the number of conceptuses and corpora lutea were recorded. All bitches were pregnant. Neither the number of conceptuses, nor the ratio of conceptuses to corpora lutea (conception rate) was significantly different between groups. In this first screening, with a limited number of bitches, EG-frozen semen did not show a higher fertility than G-frozen semen when used for two intravaginal inseminations. Irrespective of the semen used, conception rate was 0.50.

  9. Fucoxanthin and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Co-Extraction by a Green Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Delbrut

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By their autotrophic nature and their molecular richness, microalgae are serious assets in the context of current environmental and societal challenges. Some species produce both omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and xanthophylls, two molecular families widely studied for their bioactivities in the fields of nutrition and cosmetics. Whereas most studies separately deal with the two families, synergies could be exploited with extracts containing both PUFAs and xanthophylls. The purpose of our work was to determine cost effective and eco-friendly parameters for their co-extraction. The effect of several parameters (solvent, solvent/biomass ratio, temperature, duration were studied, using two microalgal species, the non-calcifying Haptophyta Tisochrysis lutea, and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that presents a silicified frustule. Analyses of PUFAs and fucoxanthin (Fx, the main xanthophyll, allowed to compare kinetics and extraction yields between experimental protocols. Co-extraction yields achieved using 96% ethanol as solvent were 100% for Fx and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in one hour from T. lutea biomass, and respectively 95% and 89% for Fx and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA in eight hours from P. tricornutum. These conditions are compatible with industrial applications.

  10. Morphological and hormonal changes after superovulation in cows treated with Neutra-PMSG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boryczko, Z.; Gajewski, Z.; Witkowski, M. [Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw (Poland); Bostedt, H.; Hoffmann, B. [Dept. of Animal Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Morphological changes in ovaries and hormonal changes as well as changes in Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P blood plasma levels were observed after superovulation induced by the administration of PMSG and the neutralization of this hormone with monoclonal antibodies Neutra-PMSG administered either 72 or 108 h later. The introduction of Neutra-PMSG 108 h after PMSG injection clearly decreases the number of surviving non-ovulated follicles with a diameter >10 mm (1.7{+-}0.8 vesicle in an individual cow on the average) in comparison to the group without Neutra-PMSG (19.4{+-}9.5). The efficiency of ovulation in the group treated with Neutra-PMSG in the 108th of the experiment (8.2{+-}4.6 corpora lutea per cow on the average), did not differ statistically from the group treated with PMSG only (12.4{+-}10.6). Early administration of Neutra-PMSG (72 h), totally inhibits superovulation. Observations showed, that injection of Neutra-PMSG in the 108th h, caused a considerable decrease in the estradiol level, beginning with the 120th h of the experiment. Determination of the progesterone blood plasma level reflects the number of corpora lutea and can be helpful in evaluating the effects of superovulation. Superovulation did not effect the level of Na, K, Mg, and P in the blood plasma. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Faillure in the effect of the analogue (hCG of luteinizing hormone on the luteal angiogenesis in rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonçalves Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the mechanisms that affect the control of the ovarian activity is essential for the success of reproduction biotechnologies. Although a number of studies have been carried out in which the luteinizing hormone (LH was used to control the ovarian activity, little is known about its influence in the morphology and vascular formation of the corpus luteum, aiming to increase the local blood flow. Thus, the objective of the present experiment was the quantification of the vascular density of corpora lutea (Cls in animals treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG just after ovulation. Therefore, eighteen wistar rats were used in this experiment. Eight rats in the treated group and ten rats in the control group. Corpora lutea were divided into two groups: group (A treated with hCG in the following morning after copulation, and group (B control animals which received an injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Ovaries from each group were used for preparation of histological sections for vascular density qualification. No statistical significance was found between the two groups tested.

  12. Effect of additional human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on follicular growth and ovulation in gonadotrophin-treated gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Cassar, Glen; Friendship, Robert M.; Garcia, José C.; Dominguez, J. Carlos; Kirkwood, Roy N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of additional human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on the ovarian response of gilts previously treated with 200 IU hCG combined with 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) (eCG/hCG). Seventy-one prepuberal gilts (105 ± 7.5 kg) were assigned to groups: i) eCG/hCG (hCG-0; n = 25); ii) eCG/hCG followed by 100 IU of hCG at 24 h (hCG-100; n = 24); iii) eCG/hCG followed by 200 IU hCG at 24 h (hCG-200; n = 10); and iv) controls (CON; n = 12). Ovulation response was assessed by ovarian dissection or real-time ultrasonography. Additional hCG did not significantly improve numbers of gilts ovulating. Numbers of corpora lutea increased with hCG, and was higher in hCG-200 (P hCG-0, the frequency of cysts in gilts was higher in hCG-100 (P hCG-200 (P hCG. We conclude that supplemental hCG will increase the number of corpora lutea but will be associated with follicular cyst development in a dose dependent manner. PMID:26130853

  13. Understanding cold bias: Variable response of skeletal Sr/Ca to seawater pCO2 in acclimated massive Porites corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Catherine; Finch, Adrian; Hintz, Christopher; Hintz, Kenneth; Allison, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Coral skeletal Sr/Ca is a palaeothermometer commonly used to produce high resolution seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) records and to investigate the amplitude and frequency of ENSO and interdecadal climate events. The proxy relationship is typically calibrated by matching seasonal SST and skeletal Sr/Ca maxima and minima in modern corals. Applying these calibrations to fossil corals assumes that the temperature sensitivity of skeletal Sr/Ca is conserved, despite substantial changes in seawater carbonate chemistry between the modern and glacial ocean. We present Sr/Ca analyses of 3 genotypes of massive Porites spp. corals (the genus most commonly used for palaeoclimate reconstruction), cultured under seawater pCO2 reflecting modern, future (year 2100) and last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions. Skeletal Sr/Ca is indistinguishable between duplicate colonies of the same genotype cultured under the same conditions, but varies significantly in response to seawater pCO2 in two genotypes of Porites lutea, whilst Porites murrayensis is unaffected. Within P. lutea, the response is not systematic: skeletal Sr/Ca increases significantly (by 2–4%) at high seawater pCO2 relative to modern in both genotypes, and also increases significantly (by 4%) at low seawater pCO2 in one genotype. This magnitude of variation equates to errors in reconstructed SST of up to −5 °C. PMID:27241795

  14. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Piña-Guzmán, Belem; Shibayama, Mineko; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel

    2015-12-15

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 μg/kgbw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12-15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Roles of Conceptus Secretory Proteins in Establishment and Maintenance of Pregnancy in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller W. Bazer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction in ruminant species is a highly complex biological process requiring a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling and regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia and transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph, also known as the secretome, that are required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation by the elongating conceptus. Pregnancy recognition signaling as related to sustaining the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea, is required to sustain the functional life-span of corpora lutea for production of progesterone which is essential for uterine functions supportive of implantation and placentation required for successful outcomes of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur in ruminants due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. The endocrine status of the pregnant ruminant and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. The challenge is to understand the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in humans and animals and to use that knowledge to enhance fertility and reproductive health of ruminant species in livestock enterprises.

  16. Uses of the word "macula" in written English, 1400-present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Leffler, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    We compiled uses of the word "macula" in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America's Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. "Macula" has been used: as a non-medical "spot" or "stain", literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole ("retina tinta di un color giallo") in 1782, but did not use the word "macula". "Macula lutea" was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both "macula" and "macula lutea" following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. "Macula" has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of a full grown tree of Pinus cembra L. from the Calimani mountains (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apetrei Lungu Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the essential oils of Pinus cembra L. needles and twigs. The chemical composition was analyzed using both GC and GC-MS techniques. α-Pinene (69.14% was the major constituent of the needle essential oil while the twig essential oil was characterized by a high content of limonene+ β-phellandrene (40.97% and α-pinene (24.94%. The needle and twig essential oils showed weak DPPH radical scavenging effects (EC50=19.93±0.75 and EC50=18.66±0.70 mg ml-1, respectively. In antimicrobial assays, both essential oils showed high activity against Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus and no activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The needle and twig essential oils had similar antimicrobial effects against Sarcina lutea with MIC and MBC values of 0.12 and 0.24 mg ml-1, respectively. The twig essential oil (MIC=1.95 mg ml-1, MBC=3.9 mg ml-1 was more active against Staphylococcus aureus than the needle essential oil (MIC=3.9 mg ml-1, MBC=15.62 mg ml-1 and also exhibited a moderate activity against Candida albicans (MIC=7.81 mg ml-1, MFC=15.62 mg ml-1.

  18. Prenatal Growth in Uterus of Does by Superovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah-grade does (BW 20.4-44.2 kg, age 2.5-7 years were used to study the efficacy of increasing secretion of endogenous hormones of pregnancy by superovulation of does to stimulate of growth prenatal in uterus. The does were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG, 0 IU/kg BW [grouped into nonsuperovulation-NSO] and 15 IU/kg BW [grouped into Superovulation-SO]. Intravaginal sponge (60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was applied for 14 days to synchronize estrus cycle. Twenty four hours prior to sponge removal, PMSG was injected to stimulate superovulation. After sponge removal, five experimental does were mixed with one buck for natural mating. Superovulation prior to mating increased number of corpora lutea, mean of maternal serum estradiol concentration, progesterone concentration, litter size, average birth weight and average milk yield, by 112, 67, 42, 27, 32, and 35%, respectively. Those were correlated with the increase of uterine, corpora lutea, and individual birth weight.

  19. Effects of Chamomile Hydro-Alcoholic Extract (Matricaria chamomilla on the Aborted Fetuses, Serum Sex Hormones and Ovarian Follicles in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mirzakhani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowadays, female infertility and abortion is considered one of the most important issues in the medical world. Due to high consumption of chamomile as a medicinal herb, this study aimed to investigate the effects of chamomile consumption on abortion, estrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH hormones and ovarian follicles in adult female rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 80 adult female rats were divided to 2 categories in 5 groups of 8 pregnant and non-pregnant rats, including control groups, sham group and groups receiving intraperitoneal doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg chamomile hydro-alcoholic extract. At the end of the day 16 of pregnancy, aborted fetuses in pregnant groups were counted, and in day 21, the number of follicles and corpora-lutea in non-pregnant groups was obtained by separating ovaries, and sexual hormone levels were measured after phlebotomizing the samples. The results were analyzed by SPSS software (Ver.18 using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Significant difference of data was set at p≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that chamomile caused a significant increase in the number of aborted fetuses and follicle atresia and a significant decrease (p≤0.05 in serum level of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones as well as the number of pre-antral follicle, antral follicles, graph and corpora-lutea. Conclusion: The results showed chamomile extract decreased LH and FSH, thereby decreasing ovarian follicles, sexual hormones and aborted fetuses.

  20. Locus coeruleus lesions and PCOS: role of the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system in the ovarian function of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction”. “Autonomic and central nervous systems play important roles in the regulation of ovarian physiology”. The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC plays a central role in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and synaptically connected to the preganglionic cell bodies of the ovarian sympathetic pathway and its activation is essential to trigger spontaneous or induced LH surges. This study evaluates sympathetic outflow in central and peripheral pathways in PCO rats. Objective: Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate LC activity in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to antagonized alpha2a adrenoceptor in systemic conditions with yohimbine. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats were divided into two groups: 1 LC and yohimbine and 2 control. Every group subdivided in two groups: eighteen rats were treated with estradiol valerate for induction of follicular cysts and the remainders were sesame oil groups. Results: Estradiol concentration was significantly augmented by the LC lesion in PCO rats (p<0.001, while LC lesion could not alter serum concentrations of LH and FSH, like yohimbine. The morphological observations of ovaries of LC lesion rats showed follicles with hyperthecosis, but yohimbine reduced the number of cysts, increased corpus lutea and developed follicles. Conclusion: Rats with EV-induced PCO increased sympathetic activity. LC lesion and yohimbine decreased the number of cysts and yohimbine increased corpus lutea and developed follicles in PCO rats.

  1. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  2. Pertumbuhan Prenatal dalam Kandungan Kambing Melalui Superovulasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah-grade does (BW 20.4-44.2 kg, age 2.5-7 years were used to study the efficacy of increasing secretion of endogenous hormones of pregnancy by superovulation of does to stimulate of growth prenatal in uterus. The does were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG, 0 IU/kg BW [grouped into nonsuperovulation-NSO] and 15 IU/kg BW [grouped into Superovulation-SO]. Intravaginal sponge (60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was applied for 14 days to synchronize estrus cycle. Twenty four hours prior to sponge removal, PMSG was injected to stimulate superovulation. After sponge removal, five experimental does were mixed with one buck for natural mating. Superovulation prior to mating increased number of corpora lutea, mean of maternal serum estradiol concentration, progesterone concentration, litter size, average birth weight and average milk yield, by 112, 67, 42, 27, 32, and 35%, respectively. Those were correlated with the increase of uterine, corpora lutea, and individual birth weight.

  3. Efeito da icterícia obstrutiva na fertilidade, morfologia ovariana e desenvolvimento fetal em ratas Effect of jaundice on fertility, ovarian morphology and fetal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Resende

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da icterícia obstrutiva na capacidade reprodutiva, morfologia ovariana e desenvolvimento fetal em ratas, utilizando 53 ratas sexualmente maduras, distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n = 28 - ligadura do ducto biliopancreático e grupo 2 (n = 25 - controle. Pode-se concluir que, em presença de hiperbilirrubinemia, a fertilização é viável, a capacidade reprodutiva é muito reduzida, os ciclos estrais tornam-se irregulares, o epitélio vaginal permanece cornificado, os corpos lúteos ovarianos regridem, os corpos lúteos gravídicos não são alterados, aumentando progressivamente durante a prenhez, e o desenvolvimento fetal é gravemente alterado.The effect of jaundice on the reproductive capacity, ovarian morphology and fetal development in rats was assessed in 53 sexually mature rats divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 28 - submitted to ligature of the biliopancreatic duct and group 2 (n = 25 - control - submitted only to sham operation. In jaundice rats fertilization is viable, the reproductive capacity is intensive reduced, the estrus cycles becomes irregular, the corpi lutea is presented in regression, the gravidic lutea is not modified increasing gradually during the pregnancy and the fetal development is seriously impaired.

  4. Expression of orexins and their precursor in the porcine ovary and the influence of orexins on ovarian steroidogenesis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkiewicz, Anna; Smolinska, Nina; Maleszka, Anna; Chojnowska, Katarzyna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2014-07-01

    Orexins A and B are hypothalamic neuropeptides associated with homeostasis and the reproductive system. The aim of the study was to compare the expression of the prepro-orexin gene and the intensity of orexins immunoreactivity in the porcine ovary (corpora lutea, granulosa and theca interna cells) during four different stages of the oestrous cycle (days: 2-3, 10-12, 14-16 and 17-19) and to examine the in vitro effect of orexins on the secretion of steroid hormones by porcine luteal, granulosa and theca interna cells. The highest expression of prepro-orexin mRNA was observed in theca interna cells on days 17-19 of the oestrous cycle. The highest content of immunoreactive orexin A was noted in corpora lutea on days 10-12 and the highest level of immunoreactive orexin B on days 14-16 of the cycle. Immunoreactive orexin A concentrations were higher in theca interna cells than in granulosa cells, whereas similar levels of immunoreactive orexin B were observed in both cell types. Under in vitro conditions, at the concentration of 10 nM, orexins A and B inhibited FSH-induced oestradiol secretion by granulosa cells. The obtained results suggest that the pattern of orexin peptide expression in the porcine ovary is related to the animals' hormonal status. Our findings imply that orexins can affect porcine reproductive functions through modulation of ovarian steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovarian activity and embryo yield in relation to the postpartum period in superovulated dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate superovulation response in cows at various postpartum periods (early postpartum period up to 3.5 months; middle postpartum period 3.7–7 months; later postpartum period above 7.5 months after calving. The data included observation of 55 Holstein cows superovulated at one farm in the Czech Republic during the years 2010 and 2013. Reproduction traits (dependent variable were represented as number of the corpora lutea, number of transferable embryos, morulae, blastocysts, total number of embryos and embryo recovery. For statistical evaluation we used the PROC GLM of SAS® with fixed effect - breeding value of milk production. The study results show significant differences (P < 0.05–0.01 in the three postpartum periods (early, middle, and later postpartum periods and the number of corpora lutea (4.6; 7.4; 10.8, number of total embryos (3.2; 2.9; 6.5 and transferable embryos (1.8; 1.7; 4.4. Effective timing of embryo transfer in the later postpartum period resulted in greater ovarian activity and embryo yield compared to early lactation periods.

  6. Light-enhanced calcification in hermatypic corals: new insights from light spectral responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay eCohen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light enhanced calcification (LEC is a well documented phenomenon in reef-building corals. The main mechanism proposed for LEC is that photosynthetic CO2 uptake by the algal symbionts elevates the pH and thus enhances calcification. We evaluated the role of light and of photosynthesis on calcification by assessing the response of the corals Porites lutea and Acropora variabilis to different components of the light spectrum. Calcification and photosynthesis of both species decreased under lagoon blue, green and red light (peaks at 500, 550 and 600nm respectively. However, blue light (peak at 455nm enhanced calcification rates of P. lutea and A. variabilis (up to 4.1 and 10.5 fold of dark values, respectively reaching levels comparable to those measured under full spectrum illumination. However, contrary to our expectations, photosynthetic oxygen production was considerably reduced under blue light, to the extent that it remained below the compensation point even under illumination as high as 400µmol photons m-2 s-1. It is the first time that a direct effect of light not mediated by the photosynthetic process has been demonstrated to trigger LEC in corals. We propose that blue light signaling, and animal receptors thereof may be involved in the enhancement of calcification by hermatypic corals.

  7. Alternative treatment of ovarian cysts with Tribulus terrestris extract: a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, A; Esfandiari, A; Bigdeli, S Momeni

    2012-02-01

    Tribulus terrestris has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of T. terrestris extract in the treatment of polycystic ovary (PCO) in Wistar rat. Estradiol valerate was injected to 15 mature Wistar rats to induce PCO. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (control, low-dose and high-dose groups) of five each and received 0, 5 and 10 mg of T. terrestris extract, respectively.Treatments began on days 50 and 61 after estradiol injection; at the same time, vaginal smear was prepared. The ovaries were removed on day 62, and histological sections were prepared accordingly. The number and diameter of corpora lutea, thickness of the theca interna layer and the number of all follicles were evaluated in both ovaries. In comparison with the control group, the number of corpora lutea and primary and secondary follicles significantly increased following T. terrestris treatment; however, the number of ovarian cysts significantly decreased. It can be concluded that T. terrestris have a luteinizing effect on ovarian cysts, which may relate to its gonadotropin-like activity; also, a high dose of the extract can efficiently remove ovarian cysts and resume ovarian activity. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Manipulation of reproductive seasonality using melatonin implantation in Anglo-Nubian does treated with controlled internal drug release and equine chorionic gonadotropin during the nonbreeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mokadem, M Y; El-Din, A N M Nour; Ramadan, T A; Rashad, A M A; Taha, T A; Samak, M A

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in anestrous Anglo-Nubian does during the nonbreeding season (February to May). A total of 48 multiparous does were divided into 2 groups (24 lactating does and 24 dry does). In each group, animals were allocated randomly into 2 equal subgroups (12 does each). In the first subgroup, does received a single 18-mg melatonin implant for 42 d followed by a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device for 19 d in conjunction with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) i.m. on the day of CIDR device removal. The second subgroup received CIDR combined with eCG in parallel with the first subgroup. Melatonin implantation induced a luteotrophic effect, expressed as an increasing number of corpora lutea, increased serum progesterone concentration, and reduced estradiol concentration. Regardless of treatment, dry does showed greater value of progesterone concentration. With the advancement of day of treatment, number of total follicles, small follicles, and medium follicles tended to increase to the greatest values at the day of CIDR device insertion. Furthermore, at day of mating, the numbers of large follicles reached the greatest value, which was associated with the lowest value of the number of corpora lutea. At day of mating, serum progesterone concentration achieved the lowest value, which increased until d 56 of pregnancy. The estradiol:progesterone ratio showed the opposite trend. The detrimental effect of reproductive seasonality, expressed as cessation of estrus behavior and fertile mating during the nonbreeding season, was successfully alleviated by the CIDR-eCG protocol. Furthermore, melatonin implantation in conjunction with the CIDR-eCG protocol enhanced conception rate and fecundity at d 28 of pregnancy and prolificacy at d 56 of pregnancy compared with does that were not implanted. Interestingly, does that failed to conceive

  9. In vivo intra-luteal implants of prostaglandin (PG) E1 or E2 (PGE1, PGE2) prevent luteolysis in cows. II: mRNA for PGF2α, EP1, EP2, EP3 (A-D), EP3A, EP3B, EP3C, EP3D, and EP4 prostanoid receptors in luteal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Yoshie S; Bridges, Phillip J; Jeoung, Myoungkun; Arreguin-Arevalo, J Alejandro; Nett, Torrance M; Vann, Rhonda C; Ford, Stephen P; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2012-01-01

    Previously, it was reported that chronic intra-uterine infusion of PGE(1) or PGE(2) every 4h inhibited luteolysis in ewes by altering luteal mRNA for luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors and unoccupied and occupied luteal LH receptors. However, estradiol-17β or PGE(2) given intra-uterine every 8h did not inhibit luteolysis in cows, but infusion of estradiol+PGE(2) inhibited luteolysis. In contrast, intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2) in Angus or Brahman cows also inhibited the decline in circulating progesterone, mRNA for LH receptors, and loss of unoccupied and occupied receptors for LH to prevent luteolysis. The objective of this experiment was to determine how intra-luteal implants of PGE(1) or PGE(2) alter mRNA for prostanoid receptors and how this could influence luteolysis in Brahman or Angus cows. On day-13 Angus cows received no intra-luteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved or Angus and Brahman cows received intra-luteal silastic implants containing Vehicle, PGE(1), or PGE(2) and corpora lutea were retrieved on day-19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for mRNA for prostanoid receptors (FP, EP1, EP2, EP3 (A-D), EP3A, EP3B, EP3C, EP3D, and EP4) by RT-PCR. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as pre-luteolytic controls. mRNA for FP receptors decreased in day-19 Vehicle controls compared to day-13 Vehicle controls regardless of breed. PGE(1) and PGE(2) up-regulated FP gene expression on day-19 compared to day-19 Vehicle controls regardless of breed. EP1 mRNA was not altered by any treatment. PGE(1) and PGE(2) down-regulated EP2 and EP4 mRNA compared to day-19 Vehicle controls regardless of breed. PGE(1) or PGE(2) up-regulated mRNA EP3B receptor subtype compared to day-19 Vehicle control cows regardless of breed. The similarities in relative gene expression profiles induced by PGE(1) and PGE(2) support their agonistic effects. We conclude that both PGE(1) and PGE(2) may prevent luteolysis by altering expression of mRNA for prostanoid

  10. Dos traducciones costarricenses de Guy de Maupassant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alvarado Quirós

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la traducción literaria en Costa Rica ya tiene buena documentación académica que corrobora su desarrollo y su persistencia. Desde los años tempranos del siglo xx, no pocos escritores dedicaron su pluma, a modo de oficio paralelo, tanto a su creación literaria como a la traducción. Sin duda alguna, porque las obras que tradujeron significaban, en buena medida, sus verdaderos modelos de escritura, pero también porque como traductores, entendieron desde temprano que misión suya era también verter al español, y para Costa Rica, obras que de otro modo difícilmente se conocerían con prontitud en el medio. Un insigne escritor costarricense de aquella etapa inicial de las letras nacionales fue Alejandro Alvarado Quirós (1876-1945, autor de crónicas, crítica literaria y ensayos de singular interés. Como escritor asociado al modernismo costarricense, fue asiduo lector de las letras francesas de la segunda mitad del siglo xix, y varios de los grandes narradores del realismo y el simbolismo francés fueron sus preferidos. En 1912 reunió en el pequeño tomo titulado Lilas y resedas (Imprenta Alcina, San José varios cuentos franceses, especialmente del ilustre cuentista Guy de Maupassant. De esa colección se han extraído dos, para esta sección de Letras: «Nuestras cartas» y «Adiós», que pulcramente Alvarado Quirós vertió al español; desde luego, un español culto, al modo del discurso modernista, como conscientemente el traductor ejecutó su labor. Como Alvarado Quirós, no pocos modernistas se vieron seducidos por el oficio de traducir: Roberto Brenes Mesén, Ricardo Fernández Guardia, Fabio Baudrit, José Fabio Garnier. Fue una empresa que se fue convirtiendo en tarea obligada y, con el tiempo, en una especie de tradición solapada, que hasta nuestros días se extiende.

  11. Comparison of extraction methods for the analysis of natural dyes in historical textiles by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valianou, Lemonia; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

    2009-12-01

    Different methods for the extraction of Dactylopius coccus Costa, Rubia tinctorum L., Isatis tinctoria L., Reseda luteola L., Curcuma longa L. and Cotinus coggygria Scop. from wool fibres are investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The efficiencies of five extraction methods which include the use of HCl (widely used extraction method), citric acid, oxalic acid, TFA and a combination of HCOOH and EDTA are compared on the basis of the (a) number, (b) relative quantities, measured as HPLC peak areas and (c) signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of the compounds extracted from the wool substrates. Flavonoid glycosides and curcuminoids contained in R. luteola L. and C. longa L., respectively, according to liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) identifications, are not detected after treating the fibres with HCl. All the other milder methods are successful in extracting these compounds. Experiments are performed using HPLC-DAD to compare the HPLC peak areas and the S/N of the following extracted compounds: indigotin, indirubin, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, fisetin, sulfuretin, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin, carminic acid, alizarin, puruprin and rubiadin. It is shown that the TFA method provides overall the best results as it gives elevated extraction yields except for fisetin, luteolin, apigenin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside and highest S/N except for fisetin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. It is noteworthy that treatment of the fibres with the typical HCl extraction method results overall in very low S/N. The TFA method is selected for further studies, as follows. First, it is applied on silk dyed samples and compared with the HCl method. The same relative differences of the TFA and HCl methods observed for the wool dyed samples are reported for the silk dyed samples too, except for rubiadin, luteolin and apigenin. Thus, in most cases, the nature of the substrate (wool or silk

  12. Teçume d’Amazônia: fortalecimento político das mulheres produzindo vitalidade de conhecimentos tradicionais

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Marília de Jesus Silva; Bezerra, Nelissa Peralta; Leoni, Juliana Menegassi; Oliveira, Maria Marly das Chagas; Amaral, Maria Rosenize Assis

    2017-01-01

    Os conhecimentos tradicionais associados ao uso da fibra vegetal Cauaçu (Calathea lutea) para produção de artesanato fazem parte de um conjunto de práticas e técnicas corporais reproduzidas no cotidiano de um grupo de mulheres da RDS Amanã (AM). Este trabalho apresenta uma etnografia da produção de artesanato de cauaçu descrevendo a cadeia operatória e seus significados sociais. O estudo de caso mostra que a vitalização da produção de conhecimentos tradicionais não passa apenas por um “resgat...

  13. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in three captive African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Langan, Jennifer N; Haskins, Samantha; Landolfi, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia are common in domestic canids and are suspected to develop as a consequence of elevated progesterone levels. Reports of uterine pathology in exotic canids are limited, with some speculating of association with contraception. This report describes pyometra, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, and ovariohysterectomy in three African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus). Ovarian corpora lutea were detected in two of the dogs, suggesting endogenous progesterone production. One dog had a uterine adenocarcinoma and two had ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, vulvar discharge, polyuria, polydipsia, and abdominal distention. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, physical examination, bloodwork, radiography, and ultrasonography, with confirmation through histopathologic evaluation of tissues. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, and uterine neoplasia have rarely been diagnosed in exotic canids; however, they should be considered as differential diagnoses in intact bitches that present with suspected reproductive disease.

  14. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Royal Belgian Institute of Sciences, Brussels, with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  The type status is described of 57 taxa from the superfamily Orthalicoidea in the collection of the Brussels museum. Two new species are described: Stenostylus perturbatus spec. nov., and Suniellus adriani spec. nov. A new lectotype is designated for Thaumastus alausiensis Cousin, 1887. New combinations are: Bostryx borellii (Ancey, 1897; Bostryx carandaitensis (Preston, 1907; Protoglyptus mazei (Crosse, 1874; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus sanborni (Haas, 1947. New synonymies are established for the following nominal taxa: Orphnus thompsoni var. lutea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845; Orphnus thompsoni var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845; Thaumastus nystianus var. nigricans Cousin, 1887 = Drymaeus (Drymaeus nystianus (Pfeiffer, 1853; Orphnus thompsoni var. olivacea Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845; Orphnus thompsoni var. zebra Cousin, 1887 = Kara thompsonii (Pfeiffer, 1845.

  15. Underexploited tropical plants with promising economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The apparent advantages of staple plants over the minor tropical plants often result only from the disproportionate research attention they have been given. A world-wide inquiry resulted in a list of 400 promising but neglected species. The 36 most important species are described in compact monographs and concern cereals (Echinochloa turnerana, grain amaranths, quinua and Zosterea mazina), roots and tubers (Arrachacha, cocoyams and taro), vegetables (chaya, hearts of palms, wax gourd, winged bean), fruits (durian, mangosteen, naranjilla, pejibaye, pummelo, soursop, uvilla), oilseeds (babassu palm, buffalo gourd, Caryocar species, Hessenia polycarpa and jojoba), forage (Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum Cassia sturtii, saltbushes and tamarugo) and other crops (buriti palm, Calathea lutea, candelilla, guar, guayule, Paspalum vaginatum, ramie and Spirulina).

  16. Review of the Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of the Genus Markhamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mutiat Bolanle; Kaushik, Nutan; Sowemimo, Abimbola Adepeju; Odukoya, Olukemi A

    2016-01-01

    Natural product compounds obtained from medicinal plants have been great contributions in the discovery of numerous clinically useful drugs. Markhamia species have been reportedly used by many cultures in human and veterinary traditional medicines. The five identified species of Markhamia, that is, Markhamia lutea, Markhamia obtusifolia, Markhamia stipulata, Markhamia tomentosa, and Markhamia zanzibarica have been the subject of chemical investigations that have led to the characterization of their secondary metabolites. Plants of the genus with the identified phytoconstituents, including phenylpropanoid glycosides (PhGs), terpenoids, phytosterols, lignans, quinones, and flavonoids, have been claimed to possess antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, analgesic, antiinflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological research studies have reported the validation of the medicinal properties of plants of this genus. The present review analyzes published data from the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of plants of the genus Markhamia.

  17. Histomorphometric Evaluation of Superovulation Effect on Follicular Development after Autologous Ovarian Transplantation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tamadon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superovulation by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG on autologous transplanted ovaries in the lumbar muscles of mice was histomorphometrically evaluated using the indices of number and volume of different kind of follicles and volume of corpora lutea, ovary, and stroma. Angiogenesis was observed after mouse ovarian transplantation on days 14 and 21 after ovarian grafting. After transplantation, the total number and volume of primary and secondary follicles reduced, while PMSG superovulation increased the total number and total volume of tertiary follicles and also the ovarian volume after transplantation. Transplantation increased the average size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles. Therefore, primary and secondary follicles can survive after autologous transplantation but their reservations diminished by increasing the time of transplantation. However, number of tertiary follicles and their response to superovulation increased over time after transplantation.

  18. Nutrition-reproduction relationships in small ruminants in mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaldi, G.; Lassoued, N.

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to study the influence of the nutritional level and physical condition of Barbary ewes on their sensitivity to the male effect, reproductive performance and the intensity of seasonal anoestrus. The results show that undernourishment of ewes during gestation and/or lactation leads to a deterioration of their physical condition, increases the intensity of seasonal anoestrus and alters the quality of their corpus luteum (corpora lutea) induced by the male effect. These effects persist even when these females are overfed between the dry period and the introduction of rams in spring. However, improvement in the nutritional level of such ewes before mating appreciably raises their ovulation, fertility and prolificacy rates. (author). 25 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...... and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the c...

  20. Studies on ultraviolet inactivation of air-borne microorganisms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shin-ichi; Doi, Hitoshi; Yamayoshi, Takao; Nunoura, Masako; Tatsumi, Noriyuki.

    1989-01-01

    UV(254nm) inactivation of air-borne bacteria in an air-controlling apparatus was studied. The appratus was composed of a chamber for vaporizing a bacterial suspension and an irradiation duct equipped with an UV lamp(GL-30). The bacterial which passed through the irradiation duct impinged on a petri dish by an air slit sampler. Selected bacteria for the experiment were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Sarcina lutea and Bacillus subtilis(spores). The apparatus was useful for the study of the susceptibility of air-borne bacteria to UV radiation. UV dose necessary to inhibit colony formation in 90% of individual bacteria in the controlled air was as low as 27 to 35% of the dose required for the agar plate method. (author)

  1. Antibacterial activity of combined medicinal plants extract against multiple drug resistant strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the combined antibacterial efficacy of Aegle marmelos, Aphanamixis polystachya, Cuscuta reflexa and Aesclynomene indica against bacterial pathogens. Methods: Antibacterial potency of combined plant extracts has been tested against Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Xanthomonas campestris IAM 1671, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 10031, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 321 and Pseudomonas denitrificans KACC 32026 by disc diffusion assay. Commercially available standard antibiotic discs were also used to find out antibiotic resistance pattern of test organisms. Results: Among the test organisms, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus denitrificans showed resistance against multiple commercially available antibiotics. On the other hand, these multiple drug resistant organisms showed susceptibility against combined plant extracts. Conclusions: These combined plants extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity and could lead to new antibacterial drug designing.

  2. Multimodal hyperspectral optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Irina V.; Smallwood, Chuck R.; Gong, Yu; Hu, Dehong; Hendricks, Leif; Evans, James E.; Bhattarai, Ashish; Hess, Wayne P.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.

    2017-11-01

    We describe a unique approach to hyperspectral optical microscopy, herein achieved by coupling a hyperspectral imager to various optical microscopes. Hyperspectral fluorescence micrographs of isolated fluorescent beads are first employed to ensure spectral calibration of our detector and to gauge the attainable spatial resolution of our measurements. Different science applications of our instrument are then described. Spatially over-sampled absorption spectroscopy of a single lipid (18:1 Liss Rhod PE) layer reveals that optical densities on the order of 10-3 can be resolved by spatially averaging the recorded optical signatures. This is followed by three applications in the general areas of plasmonics and bioimaging. Notably, we deploy hyperspectral absorption microscopy to identify and image pigments within a simple biological system, namely, a single live Tisochrysis lutea cell. Overall, this work paves the way for multimodal spectral imaging measurements spanning the realms of several scientific disciplines.

  3. Review of the Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of the Genus Markhamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mutiat Bolanle; Kaushik, Nutan; Sowemimo, Abimbola Adepeju; Odukoya, Olukemi A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural product compounds obtained from medicinal plants have been great contributions in the discovery of numerous clinically useful drugs. Markhamia species have been reportedly used by many cultures in human and veterinary traditional medicines. The five identified species of Markhamia, that is, Markhamia lutea, Markhamia obtusifolia, Markhamia stipulata, Markhamia tomentosa, and Markhamia zanzibarica have been the subject of chemical investigations that have led to the characterization of their secondary metabolites. Plants of the genus with the identified phytoconstituents, including phenylpropanoid glycosides (PhGs), terpenoids, phytosterols, lignans, quinones, and flavonoids, have been claimed to possess antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, analgesic, antiinflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological research studies have reported the validation of the medicinal properties of plants of this genus. The present review analyzes published data from the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of plants of the genus Markhamia. PMID:27041874

  4. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...... follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using...... the GnRHa trigger suggest an association between the reproductive outcome after IVF treatment and the mid-luteal-phase serum progesterone concentration. It appears that a minimum mid-luteal progesterone threshold of approximately 80-100 nmol/l exists, which, when surpassed, results in reduced early...

  5. Plasma oestrogen, progesterone and other reproductive responses of gilts to photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, R R; King, G J; Ntunde, B N; Narendran, R

    1979-11-01

    Yorkshire gilts in 18 cool-white fluorescent light with 6 h dark daily and those in 9.0-10.8 h natural light exhibited puberty earlier (165 and 175 days: P less than 0.05) and had more corpora lutea (13.5 and 12.6: P less than 0.05) than those reared in complete darkness (200 days and 11.3 respectively). Weekly samples of plasma showed significant fluctuations of progesterone which confirmed the different times of the first over oestrus (puberty). In all 3 groups total oestrogen concentrations showed a peak at about 135 days. The correlation between oestrogen and progesterone values changed from a positive to a negative value at about 135 days of age. It is suggested that the oestrogen peak marks a time of change in sensitivity of the reproductive system to hormonal feedback.

  6. Basic and clinical application progression of invigorating blood and dissolving stasis Chinese medicine in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Invigorating blood and dissolving stasis method is a kind of unique therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCMtreatment, which efficacy has become increasingly prominent in the treatment of ophthalmology. With the further studies of blood stasis and invigorating blood and dissolving stasis therapy, it is widely used in clinical ophthalmology, and get good effects beyond thought, especially when western medicine has no curative effects. It improved the cure rate of fundus oculi disease from the eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, vitreous body to the choroid and retina, optic nerve and macula lutea, from surface to fundus, or pathological changes related to inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, atrophy, hyperplasia of fibrous tissue hyperplasia. This paper is aim to explain the definition of invigorating blood and dissolving stasis and make a review of basic research and clinical application about it in several diseases.

  7. Radiocarbon and stable isotopes in Palmyra corals during the past century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druffel-Rodriguez, Kevin C.; Vetter, Desiree; Griffin, Sheila; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Mucciarone, David A.; Ziolkowski, Lori A.; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2012-04-01

    Annual samples from two Palmyra Atoll corals (Porites lutea) that lived during the past 110 years were analyzed for radiocarbon (Δ14C) and δ18O. The Δ14C values decreased 7.6‰ from 1896 to 1953, similar to other coral records from the tropical and subtropical Pacific. Δ14C values rose from ˜-60‰ to ˜+110‰ by 1980 due to the input of bomb radiocarbon from the atmosphere. Elevated Δ14C values were observed for the mid- to late-1950s, suggesting early input of bomb radiocarbon, possibly from the largest Marshall Islands bomb tests in 1954. Secondary aragonite precipitation was identified in a portion of one core using scanning electron microscopy and X-radiography, and was responsible for high δ18O and δ13C values and a correlation between them. The Δ14C results were more resistant to alteration, except when contamination was from the bomb era (>1956).

  8. Target organ of hCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanaginuma, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Takuro

    1974-01-01

    The author and his associated gave intravenous infusions of hCG labeled with 125 I to female rats and investigated its distribution in their brains. The results showed a significantly higher radioactivity in the median eminence than in the other parts of the brain. This indicated that there were receptors of hCG in the median eminence of the hypothalamus of a female rat. The mechanism of gonadotropin action was also discussed in this report. By giving 125 I and 125 I-BSA to the same rats which had been used in the study of hCG distribution in the brain, and by investigating the radioactivity of their ovaries, the author explained the receptor of gonadotropin in corpora lutea. (Serizawa, K.)

  9. HemoHIM improves ovarian morphology and decreases expression of nerve growth factor in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Park, Hae Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol valerate (EV)-induced polycystic ovaries (PCOs) in rats cause the anovulation and cystic ovarian morphology. We investigated whether treatment with HemoHIM influences the ovarian morphology and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in an EV-induced PCO rat model. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of EV (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. HemoHIM was either administered orally (100 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 35 consecutive days or injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg of body weight) every other day after EV injection. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized, and NGF was normalized in the PCO + HemoHIM group. HemoHIM lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in PCOs. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of HemoHIM in the prevention and treatment of PCO syndrome.

  10. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.; Baev, I.; Bajrakova, A.

    1976-01-01

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F 1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  11. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  12. Is the infertility in hypothyroidism mainly due to ovarian or pituitary functional changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armada-Dias L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism affects the reproductive system of adult female rats by evaluating ovarian morphology, uterus weight and the changes in serum and pituitary concentrations of prolactin and gonadotropins. Three-month-old female rats were divided into three groups: control (N = 10, hypothyroid (N = 10, treated with 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU in drinking water for 60 days, and T4-treated group (N = 10, receiving daily sc injections of L-thyroxine (0.8 µg/100 g body weight during the last 10 days of the experiment. At the end of 50 days of hypothyroidism no hypothyroid animal showed a regular cycle, while 71% of controls as well as the T4-treated rats showed regular cycles. Corpora lutea, growing follicles and mature Graafian follicles were found in all ovaries studied. The corpora lutea were smaller in both the hypothyroid and T4-replaced rats. Graafian follicles were found in 72% of controls and only in 34% of hypothyroid and 43% of T4-treated animals. Serum LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ among the three groups. Serum prolactin concentration and the pituitary content of the three hormones studied were higher in the hypothyroid animals compared to control. T4 treatment restored serum prolactin concentration to the level found in controls, but only partially normalized the pituitary content of gonadotropins and prolactin. In conclusion, the morphological changes caused by hypothyroidism can be a consequence of higher prolactin production that can block the secretion and action of gonadotropins, being the main cause of the changes observed.

  13. Angiogenesis in The Ovary - The Most Important Regulatory Event for Follicle and Corpus Luteum Development and Function in Cow - An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, B; Schams, D; Rodler, D; Pfaffl, M W

    2016-04-01

    In the ovary, the development of new capillaries from pre-existing ones (angiogenesis) is a complex event regulated by numerous local factors. The dominant regulators of angiogenesis in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), angiopoietin (ANPT) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family members. Antral follicles in our study were classified according to the oestradiol-17-beta (E2) content in follicular fluid (FF) and were divided into five classes (E2 180 ng/ml FF). The corresponding sizes of follicles were 5-7, 8-10, 10-13, 12-14 and >14 mm, respectively. Follicle tissue was separated in theca interna (TI) and granulosa cells (GC). The corpora lutea (CL) in our study were assigned to the following stages: days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12 13-16 and >18 of the oestrous cycle and months 1-2, 3-4, 6-7 and >8 of pregnancy. The dominant regulators were measured at mRNA and protein expression levels; mRNA was quantified by RT-qPCR, hormone concentrations by RIA or EIA and their localization by immunohistochemistry. The highest expression for VEGF-A, FGF-2, IGF-1 and IGF-2, ANPT-2/ANPT-1 and HIF-1-alpha was found during final follicle maturation and in CL during the early luteal phase (days 1-4) followed by a lower plateau afterwards. The results suggest the importance of these factors for angiogenesis and maintenance of capillary structures for final follicle maturation, CL development and function. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in the corpus luteum and placenta of the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus, during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, T; Taki, S; Nakayama, K; Mason, J I; Kominami, S; Harada, N; Kita, I

    2001-04-01

    The Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus, is a seasonal breeder and shows delayed implantation for several months during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to clarify the steroidogenic capability of the corpus luteum and placenta during pregnancy, including both delayed implantation and fetal development, by immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in these organs of the Japanese black bear. Ovaries and placentae from 15 wild Japanese black bears, which had been killed legally by hunters and were thought to be pregnant, were used in an immunocytochemical study to localize the cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), 17alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method using polyclonal antisera raised in mammals against P450scc, 3betaHSD, P450c17 and P450arom. P450scc and 3betaHSD were localized in all luteal cells throughout pregnancy. P450c17 was present in a few luteal cells, especially in the outer area of the corpus luteum throughout pregnancy, but the number of positively immunostained cells decreased during the post-implantation period. Cells positively immunostained for P450c17 were significantly smaller than negatively immunostained cells (P black bear, corpora lutea are a source of progesterone which may play an important role in the maintenance of delayed implantation and fetal development during pregnancy. Corpora lutea have a minimum capability to synthesize androgen in small luteal cells and oestrogen in normal-sized luteal cells during pregnancy, and placentae have the ability to synthesize oestrogen during late pregnancy.

  15. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Piña-Guzmán, Belem

    2015-01-01

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 μg/kg bw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12–15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. - Highlights: • Bisphenol A targets the fertilization ability of oocytes. • Bisphenol A does not alter ovulation. • Young adult females may be susceptible to the effects of bisphenol A on fertilization.

  16. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol 125 I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function

  17. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics

  18. Coming of age: - Do female harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena from the North Sea and Baltic Sea have sufficient time to reproduce in a human influenced environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kesselring

    Full Text Available The harbour porpoise is the only cetacean species native to German waters. Since human pressures are suggested to shorten their reproductive lifespan, basic knowledge on reproduction is strongly required. One parameter is the onset of sexual maturity in female harbour porpoises. Therefore, we investigated the first signs of sexual maturity for a period of almost two decades (1990-2016. Ovaries from 111 female harbour porpoises from the German North Sea and Baltic Sea were examined for the presence and morphological structure of follicles, corpora lutea and corpora albicantia. Based on the ovarian characteristics we performed the first model-based estimation of age at sexual maturity for harbour porpoises from German waters. Additionally, we produced a demographical age structure based on all female strandings and bycatches from German coasts. Our results showed that corpora lutea and corpora albicantia as signs of former ovulation could be found in individuals at an age of 4.95 (± 0.6 years. No significant differences between specimens from the North Sea and Baltic Sea were detected. However, the average age at death differed significantly with 5.70 (± 0.27 years for North Sea animals and 3.67 (± 0.30 years for those in the Baltic Sea. Growing evidence exists that the shortened lifespan of Baltic Sea harbour porpoises is linked to an anthropogenically influenced environment with rising bycatch mortalities due to local gillnet fisheries. Thus, our findings support the idea of local management plans based on a model-based detection of age at sexual maturity and considering the anthropogenic impacts on the population for effective protection of harbour porpoises and the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

  19. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  20. Use of progesterone radioimmunoassay for assessing the response of the female Damascus Goats to the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the synthetic prostaglandin, Prosolvin, on oestrous synchronization in the Damascus does inside the breeding season, in addition to other related parameters. Ten female Damascus goats aged around 3.5 years, with an average live-weight of 56.3 kg were used. The does were injected intramuscularly with 7.5 mg of Prosolvin twice, with an interval of 12 days. A fertile Damascus buck was introduced into all does 18 hours after the second injection of Prosolvin for oestrus detection and natural mating. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the does' blood using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. The results indicate that oestrus appeared in the does on average in 83.3 hours (range: 51-196 hours; 3.47 days, range: 2.13-8.17 days) after the second injection of Prosolvin. Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.23 n mol/l. The treatment, using a dose level at 7.5 mg of Prosolvin, had no clear effect on synchronizing the oestrous cycle of Damascus does inside the breeding season, nor resulted in formation of active corpora lutea in the ovaries of most does, However, the treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea present in the ovaries, where progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second Prosolvin injection. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. it could be concluded that the dose level at 7.5 mg of Prosolvin, had no clear effect on synchronizing the oestrous cycle of Damascus does inside the breeding season and other doses of Prosolvin could be tested on Damascus does to achieve the optimal dose. (author)

  1. Is the infertility in hypothyroidism mainly due to ovarian or pituitary functional changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Armada-Dias

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism affects the reproductive system of adult female rats by evaluating ovarian morphology, uterus weight and the changes in serum and pituitary concentrations of prolactin and gonadotropins. Three-month-old female rats were divided into three groups: control (N = 10, hypothyroid (N = 10, treated with 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU in drinking water for 60 days, and T4-treated group (N = 10, receiving daily sc injections of L-thyroxine (0.8 µg/100 g body weight during the last 10 days of the experiment. At the end of 50 days of hypothyroidism no hypothyroid animal showed a regular cycle, while 71% of controls as well as the T4-treated rats showed regular cycles. Corpora lutea, growing follicles and mature Graafian follicles were found in all ovaries studied. The corpora lutea were smaller in both the hypothyroid and T4-replaced rats. Graafian follicles were found in 72% of controls and only in 34% of hypothyroid and 43% of T4-treated animals. Serum LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ among the three groups. Serum prolactin concentration and the pituitary content of the three hormones studied were higher in the hypothyroid animals compared to control. T4 treatment restored serum prolactin concentration to the level found in controls, but only partially normalized the pituitary content of gonadotropins and prolactin. In conclusion, the morphological changes caused by hypothyroidism can be a consequence of higher prolactin production that can block the secretion and action of gonadotropins, being the main cause of the changes observed.

  2. Ovarian function and hormone secretion of gilts actively immunized against androstenedione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnie, M R; Britt, J H; Esbenshade, K L

    1988-12-01

    Fifty crossbred gilts immunized against bovine serum albumin (BSA) or androstenedione conjugated to BSA (AD) were used in three experiments. Primary immunizations were given at 120 d of age and boosters at 148 and 176 d. Gilts were moved to pens containing four to five animals each and exposed to boars beginning at 180 d of age. Immunization against AD did not affect age at puberty, percentage of gilts exhibiting estrus or duration of first estrous cycle. Over the three experiments, ovulation rate was 24% greater for AD-immunized gilts than for controls, and the number of corpora lutea was related positively (r = .82) to the log of the antibody titer. Number of ovulations decreased as interval from booster immunization to onset of estrus increased. During diestrus of the first estrous cycle, gilts immunized against AD had more follicles 5 to 10 mm in diameter, more total ovarian follicles and more total ovarian structures (corpora lutea plus follicles) than controls. Immunization against AD increased the frequency of LH pulses on d 16 but not on d 17 or 18, of the estrous cycle. However, average serum concentrations of LH, FSH and estradiol from 5 d before until 2 d after expected estrus were not different between treatment groups. Concentrations of AD in follicles 4 to 6 and greater than 7 mm in diameter were greater in gilts immunized against AD. Mean serum progesterone was higher on d 9 and 12 after mating in AD immunized gilts than in controls. Immunization against AD had no effect on maintenance of pregnancy or embryo survival rate.

  3. Interactions between polystyrene microplastics and marine phytoplankton lead to species-specific hetero-aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Marc; Paul-Pont, Ika; Hégaret, Hélène; Moriceau, Brivaela; Lambert, Christophe; Huvet, Arnaud; Soudant, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    To understand the fate and impacts of microplastics (MP) in the marine ecosystems, it is essential to investigate their interactions with phytoplankton as these may affect MP bioavailability to marine organisms as well as their fate in the water column. However, the behaviour of MP with marine phytoplanktonic cells remains little studied and thus unpredictable. The present study assessed the potential for phytoplankton cells to form hetero-aggregates with small micro-polystyrene (micro-PS) particles depending on microalgal species and physiological status. A prymnesiophycea, Tisochrysis lutea, a dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa triquetra, and a diatom, Chaetoceros neogracile, were exposed to micro-PS (2 μm diameter; 3.96 μg L -1 ) during their growth culture cycles. Micro-PS were quantified using an innovative flow-cytometry approach, which allowed the monitoring of the micro-PS repartition in microalgal cultures and the distinction between free suspended micro-PS and hetero-aggregates of micro-PS and microalgae. Hetero-aggregation was observed for C. neogracile during the stationary growth phase. The highest levels of micro-PS were "lost" from solution, sticking to flasks, with T. lutea and H. triquetra cultures. This loss of micro-PS sticking to the flask walls increased with the age of the culture for both species. No effects of micro-PS were observed on microalgal physiology in terms of growth and chlorophyll fluorescence. Overall, these results highlight the potential for single phytoplankton cells and residual organic matter to interact with microplastics, and thus potentially influence their distribution and bioavailability in experimental systems and the water column. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of alfaprostol, lasalocid, and once-daily suckling on postpartum interval in Brahman and Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, R P; Randel, R D; Neuendorff, D A; Peterson, L A

    1988-10-01

    Brahman cows (n = 49) and primiparous heifers (n = 11), Brahman x Hereford primiparous F1 heifers (n = 86) and Simmental x Brahman primiparous F1 heifers (n = 13) were randomly allotted by breed, age and date of calving to one of eight treatment groups: 1) control; 2) once-daily suckling; 3) lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d); 4) alfaprostol (5 mg intermuscular injections on Days 21 and 32 post partum); 5) lasalocid + once-daily suckling; 6) alfaprostol + once daily suckling; 7) alfaprostol + lasalocid; 8) alfaprostol + lasalocid + once daily suckling. All animals received 2.3 kg/hd/d of a concentrate (6 corn : 1 cottonseed meal) and lasalocid was mixed and fed in the concentrate. Body weights and condition scores were taken on Day 1 post partum and every 28 d thereafter. All animals were maintained with sterile marker bulls with Brahman and Simmental x Brahman cattle artificially inseminated at first estrus. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting on Day 21 post partum until estrus and at nine to twelve days post estrus when the ovaries were palpated for corpora lutea. After the first postpartum estrus with a corpora lutea, cows were placed with fertile bulls. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were below 0.5 ng/ml prior to treatment. Calf weight gains to 90 d were not affected by age (P > 0.10) but were lower in the once-daily suckling group (P 0.10). Cows had a shorter postpartum interval (P 0.10) but did increase the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 90 d post partum (P 0.10). Both once-daily suckling and alfaprostol were effective in increasing the numbers of animals inseminated by 90 d post partum. The once-daily suckling + alfaprostol treatment resulted in the shortest postpartum interval.

  5. Immunolocalisation of oestrogen receptor beta in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A H; Al-Azzawi, F

    2000-02-01

    Oestrogens exert their actions via specific nuclear protein receptors that are members of the steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily of transcription factors. Recently, a second oestrogen receptor (ERbeta) has been cloned, and using reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry it has been shown to have a wide tissue distribution in the rat that is distinct from the classical oestrogen receptor, ERalpha. Using commercial polyclonal antisera against peptides specific to human ERbeta, we have determined the sites of ERbeta expression in archival and formalin-fixed human tissue and compared its expression with that of ERalpha. ERbeta was localised to the cell nuclei of a wide range of normal adult human tissues including ovary, Fallopian tube, uterus, lung, kidney, brain, heart, prostate and testis. In the ovary, ERbeta was present in multiple cell types including granulosa cells in small, medium and large follicles, theca and corpora lutea, whereas ERalpha was weakly expressed in the nuclei of granulosa cells, but not in the theca nor in the copora lutea. In the endometrium, both ERalpha and ERbeta were observed in luminal epithelial cells and in the nuclei of stromal cells but, significantly, ERbeta was weak or absent from endometrial glandular epithelia. Epithelial cells in most male tissues including the prostate, the urothelium and muscle layers of the bladder, and Sertoli cells in the testis, were also immunopositive for ERbeta. Significant ERbeta immunoreactivity was detected in most areas of the brain, with the exception of the hippocampus - a tissue that stained positively for ERalpha. In conclusion, the almost ubiquitous immunohistochemical localisation of ERbeta indicates that ERbeta may play a major role in the mediation of oestrogen action. The differential expression of ERalpha and ERbeta in some of these tissues suggests a more complex control mechanism in oestrogenic potential than originally envisioned.

  6. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  7. Metabolite Profiling of Red Sea Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Ortega, Jovhana Alejandra

    2016-12-01

    Looking at the metabolite profile of an organism provides insights into the metabolomic state of a cell and hence also into pathways employed. Little is known about the metabolites produced by corals and their algal symbionts. In particular, corals from the central Red Sea are understudied, but interesting study objects, as they live in one of the warmest and most saline environments and can provide clues as to the adjustment of corals to environmental change. In this study, we applied gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC–MS) metabolite profiling to analyze the metabolic profile of four coral species and their associated symbionts: Fungia granulosa, Acropora hemprichii, Porites lutea, and Pocillopora verrucosa. We identified and quantified 102 compounds among primary and secondary metabolites across all samples. F. granulosa and its symbiont showed a total of 59 metabolites which were similar to the 51 displayed by P. verrucosa. P. lutea and A. hemprichii both harbored 40 compounds in conjunction with their respective isolated algae. Comparing across species, 28 metabolites were exclusively present in algae, while 38 were exclusive to corals. A principal component and cluster analyses revealed that metabolite profiles clustered between corals and algae, but each species harbored a distinct catalog of metabolites. The major classes of compounds were carbohydrates and amino acids. Taken together, this study provides a first description of metabolites of Red Sea corals and their associated symbionts. As expected, the metabolites of coral hosts differ from their algal symbionts, but each host and algal species harbor a unique set of metabolites. This corroborates that host-symbiont species pairs display a fine-tuned complementary metabolism that provide insights into the specific nature of the symbiosis. Our analysis also revealed aquatic pollutants, which suggests that metabolite profiling might be used for monitoring pollution levels and assessing

  8. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Miguel Galindo-González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars (CDC Bethune and Lutea, showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time-course at 2, 4, 8 and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI. While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signalling, activation of pathogenesis-related (PR genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these several key genes, that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase (RIPK; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3; the flavonoid

  9. Effects of melatonin in rats in the initial third stage of pregnancy exposed to sub-lethal doses of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lécio Leone de; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho; Soares, Anísio Francisco; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Silva, Valdemiro Amaro da; Vieira Filho, Leucio Duarte; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to the herbicides Paraquat (PQ) and Roundup ® may cause cell lesions due to an increase in oxidative stress levels in different biological systems, even in the reproductive system. Evaluate the possible changes in reproductive parameters and hepatic, as well as its prevention by simultaneous application of melatonin. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 3 months were divided into seven groups: three groups exposed to sub-lethal doses of the herbicides PQ (50mg/kg) and Roundup ® (500mg/kg) (n=5, G2, G3 and G4); three groups exposed to herbicides and simultaneous treatment with 10mg/kg of Melatonin (n=5, G5, G6 and G7) and control group (n=5, G1) from the first to the seventh day of pregnancy. On the seventh day of pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized and euthanized, followed by laparotomy to remove their reproductive tissues and liver. Body and ovary weights were taken and the number of implantation sites, corpora lutea, preimplantation losses, implantation rates were counted and histopathology of the implantation sites, morphometry of the surface and glandular epithelia of endometrium and hepatic oxidative stress were undertaken. The present study shows the decrease in body and ovary weight, decrease in the number of implantation sites, implantation rate, in the total number of corpora lutea and increase of preimplantation percentages were observed when compared to the G1: Fig. 1 and Table 1, (p>0.001 ANOVA/Tukey). The histopathological analysis of the implantation sites showed a disorder of the cytotrophoblast and cell degeneration within the blastocyst cavity in Fig. 4. Morphometry revealed a reduction in surface and glandular epithelia and in the diameter of the endometrial glands (Table 2; p>0.05 ANOVA/Tukey), whereas in liver, serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated (Fig. 2; p>0.001; p>0.05 ANOVA/Tukey), and serum level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was significantly lower (Fig. 3; p>0

  10. Submergence and Uplift Associated to Paleoearthquakes in the Northern Sunda Subduction System: Implications for Future Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Mortlock, R. A.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Akhter, S. H.; Mustaque, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies documented that the northern part of the Sunda subduction zone ruptured several times in the past 1500 years including one in 1762. To better understand megathrust surface ruptures and the hazards associated to them, we surveyed the SE coast of Bangladesh along the Teknaf peninsula and the Saint Martin anticline by dating coral microatolls of Porites lutea species by the U-Th dating method. Porites luteagrows a few centimeters below the low tide level creating a 5-12 mm thick skeletal band per year, which makes them a good indicator of relative sea level change that might be caused during tectonic submergence and uplift. U-Th ages were obtained from coral slabs and their growth bands interpreted from x-rays. The corals and marine terraces uplift were measured with high precision RTK GPS and modeled with high resolution DEM. The coral microatolls along the St. Martin anticline were dated to be ~ 250, 800 and 1300 years old. Since storm and other climatic phenomenon cannot cause uplift, we interpret that 2.5 m uplift was caused by 1762 earthquake that killed the coral microatolls. The coral slabs show three growth interruptions, where skeletal growth bands continued to grow onlapping the older growth bands. These growth onlaps could be the result of smaller uplift events after 1762 that did not result in coral mortality. The subsidence history extracted from vertical growth of the slabs suggests that the island is submerging at a rate of 11 mm/year. Corals growing 250 m from the dead coral colony post date the 1762 earthquake. Today living Porites lutea can be found 2.5 m below the dead coral heads and 9 cm above the spring low tide. The elevation of marine terraces (T1, T2 and T3) along the Teknaf coast is 2.5 m, 5-7 m and 11-13 m above sea level, respectively. A shell bed on top of T1 was dated at 1763 (dated by C14). This and the other two terraces could have been uplifted during the three earthquakes dated from coral microatolls. Considering the

  11. Effect of progesterone on adiponectin system in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyn, K; Smolinska, N; Szeszko, K; Kiezun, M; Maleszka, A; Rytelewska, E; Kaminski, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of progesterone (P4) on adiponectin system genes and protein expression in the endometrium and myometrium during early gestation. Twenty-five gilts were assigned to 1 of 5 groups ( = 5): d 10 to 11 (embryo migration), 12 to 13 (maternal recognition of pregnancy), 15 to 16 (implantation), and 27 to 28 (end of implantation) of pregnancy and d 10 to 11 of the cycle (fully active corpora lutea, corresponding to the corpora lutea activity during gestation). The endometrial and myometrial tissues were cut into 100 mg slices, treated with P4 (10, 100, 1000 nM) and incubated for 24 h. Gene expression was analyzed by the real-time PCR method. Adiponectin secretion was determined by ELISA. Receptor protein content was defined using Western Blot analysis. In the endometrium, on d 10 to 11 of pregnancy, P4 stimulated adiponectin protein secretion. On those days, P4 enhanced adiponectin receptor type 1 () and type 2 () gene expression but inhibited both receptors' protein content. On d 12 to 13 of pregnancy, P4 inhibited adiponectin gene expression. During those period, P4 enhanced gene expression but suppressed both receptors' protein content. On d 15 to 16 of gestation, P4 increased adiponectin gene expression but inhibited the protein secretion. During those days, P4 suppressed gene expression and enhanced AdipoR2 protein content. On d 27 to 28 of gestation, P4 enhanced gene and AdipoR1 protein expression ( gestation, P4 increased both receptors' gene expression but suppressed their protein content. On d 12 to 13 of pregnancy, P4 increased adiponectin and genes and AdipoR1 protein expression but decreased AdipoR2 protein content. On d 15 to 16 of gestation, P4 inhibited adiponectin gene expression. On those days, P4 enhanced gene and protein expression. On d 27 to 28 of gestation, P4 decreased adiponectin gene expression. On those days, P4 increased the myometrial AdipoR2 protein concentration and decreased gene protein

  12. Effects of the plant extract silymarin on prolactin concentrations, mammary gland development, and oxidative stress in gestating gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Lapointe, J; Palin, M-F

    2014-07-01

    The impacts of supplementing the diet of gestating gilts twice daily with 4 g of the plant extract silymarin on circulating hormonal concentrations, oxidative status, mammary development, and mammary gene expression at the end of gestation were determined. Gilts were fed conventional diets during gestation and on d 90 they were assigned as controls (CTL; n = 16) or treated (TRT; n = 17) animals. Treatment consisted of providing 4 g of silymarin twice daily until d 110, at which time all gilts were slaughtered to collect mammary tissue for compositional analyses and measures of gene expression and oxidative status, and liver and corpora lutea for measures of oxidative stress variables. Blood samples for hormonal assays and evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers were obtained on d 89, 94, and 109 of gestation. Silymarin increased (P = 0.05) circulating concentrations of prolactin over all samples in the repeated in time analysis. In separate analyses for each sampling time, prolactin concentrations in TRT gilts tended (P gilts on d 94 of gestation. Repeated in time analysis also revealed that silymarin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) plasmatic accumulation of biomarkers of oxidative damage to protein (protein carbonyls) between d 89 and 109. There was no effect (P > 0.10) of treatment on progesterone, estradiol, leptin, or 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentrations. Percent fat in mammary parenchyma was greater (P ≤ 0.05), percent protein was lesser (P ≤ 0.05), and concentrations of both RNA (P ≤ 0.01) and DNA (P gilts. Mammary parenchyma from TRT gilts had lower (P ≤ 0.05) mRNA abundance for STAT5A and leptin and tended to have lower (P ≤ 0.10) abundance for STAT5B than CTL gilts. Silymarin reduced (P ≤ 0.001) protein carbonyls concentrations in liver of TRT gilts. No effect of treatment was observed on antioxidant gene expression and enzymatic activities in liver samples while total superoxide dismutase activity tended to be higher (P ≤ 0.10) in the corpora

  13. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U

  14. Serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay during the oestrous cycle of indigenous Damascus does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-11-01

    An experiment was conducted on Damascus does to characterize the oestrous cycle, the activity of the corpus luteum and to determine normal progesterone profiles during different phases of the oestrous cycle using radioimmunoassay. Fifteen indigenous cycling Damascus does were used during the normal breeding season for two consecutive oestrous cycles. Average length of the oestrous cycles was 21.2 ± 1.5 days (range: 19 - 26 days), divided into: 2.9 ± 0.8 days (2 - 5 days), where progesterone level was low averaging 0.69 ± 0.85 nmol l -1 (range: 0.00 - 3.08 nmol l -1 , followed by a sharp increase in progesterone secretion, i.e. presence of active corpora lutea, lasted on average for 15.3 ± 1.4 days (range: 13 - 20 days), with an average progesterone level of 13.4 nmol l -1 (range: 3.26 - 27.98 nmol l -1 ), followed by a sharp decline in progesterone level, i.e. inactive corpora lutea, lasted on average for 3.1 ± 0.6 days (range: 2 - 5 days), with an average progesterone level of 0.68 nmol l -1 (range: 0.00 - 2.81 nmol l -1 ). Maximum progesterone level during the luteal phase averaged 18.67 ± 3.15 nmol l -1 (range: 14.00 - 27.98 nmol l -1 ), occurred on average on 12.2 ± 3.2 days of the oestrous cycle. It was possible, for the first time, to characterize the oestrous cycle of the Damascus doe, and to determine normal progesterone profiles during different phases of oestrous cycle. Based on the results reported above, it is also concluded that progesterone levels under 3.18 nmol l -1 were found on average during 2.9 days at the start of the oestrous cycle and during 3.1 days at the end of the oestrous cycle (follicular phase), and that progesterone levels above 3.18 nmol l -1 were found during the luteal phase lasting on average 15.3 days. (Author)

  15. First report of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and persistent organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs and PCNs) and their effects on alcyonacea and scleractinian corals and their endosymbiotic algae from the Persian Gulf, Iran: Inter and intra-species differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Ali; Riyahi Bakhtiari, Alireza; Aliabadian, Mansour; Laetitia, Hédouin; Shadmehri Toosi, Amirhossein; Yap, Chee Kong

    2018-06-15

    The coral reefs of the Persian Gulf are the most diverse systems of life in the marine environment of the Middle East. Unfortunately, they are highly threatened by local and global stressors, particularly oil pollutants. This is the first quantitative and qualitative study aimed at assessing the concentration and sources of n-alkanes and POPs (PAHs, PCBs and PCNs) in coral tissues, symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae), reef sediments and seawaters in coral reefs of Lark and Kharg in the Persian Gulf, Iran. This work was conducted on eight species of six genera and three families of hard corals and one family of soft coral. A significant variation in the concentration of ∑30n-alkanes and POPs (∑40PAHs, ∑22PCBs and 20PCNs) was found in the decreasing order: zooxanthellae > coral tissue > skeleton > reef sediment > seawater. The bioaccumulation of these compounds was 2-times higher in ahermatypic than in hermatypic corals, among which significant variations were observed in both sites. In Kharg, Porites lutea had the highest mean concentration of ∑30n-alkanes and ∑40PAHs in soft tissue, whereas the lowest values were in Platygyra daedalea. A contrasting trend was documented for ∑22PCBs and 20PCNs, with the highest level reported in soft tissue of P. daedalea and the lowest in P. lutea at Kharg. Compositional pattern of AHs and PAHs demonstrated the predominance of LMW-PAHs and n-alkanes. In skeleton and reef sediments, tetra, penta and tri-CBs were the most abundant PCBs congeners followed by di-CB > hexa-CB > hepta-CB > octa-CB,whiletri-CB > di-CB > tetra-CB > penta-CB > hexa-CB > hepta-CB > octa-CB was observed for soft tissue, zooxanthellae and seawater. The results of RAD test indicated significantly negative correlation between total concentration of these compounds with zooxanthellae density, the chlorophyll-a and C 2 in corals at both reefs. This is the first report on levels, health assessment and

  16. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  17. Comparison of three protocols for superovulation of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Eveline dos Santos; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ovulation rate and the presence of functional corpora lutea after treatment by three different protocols designed to cause superovulation in brown brocket deer. Six female received an intravaginal device containing 0.33 g of progesterone (CIDR®) for 8 days, followed by 0.5 mg injection of estradiol benzoate at the time of insertion and 265 µg of cloprostenol at the time of removal. Afterwards, the hinds were divided into three groups (n = 2): Treatment A received injection of 600 IU eCG on Day 4 after CIDR® insertion; Treatment B received injection of 300 IU eCG at the same time; and Treatment C received injection of 250 IU FSH dissolved in PVP, also on Day 4 post-insertion. The treatments were crossed over with 44-48 day intervals after CIDR® removal, such that all the deer were submitted to all three treatments. The mean ovulation rate (Treatment A = 3.40 ± 0.68, Treatment B = 1.40 ± 0.24, Treatment C = 0.80 ± 0.49), total ovarian stimulation (Treatment A = 4.80 ± 1.02, Treatment B = 1.80 ± 0.37, Treatment C = 1.40 ± 0.60), and mean CL diameter (Treatment A = 7.33 ± 0.76 mm, Treatment B = 3.94 ± 0.19 mm, Treatment C = 2.18 ± 0.49 mm) in Treatment A were significantly higher than the mean ovulation rates, total ovarian stimulation, and mean CL diameter in Treatments B and C. The mean fecal progesterone metabolites at the luteal phase in Treatment A (6,277.94±2,232.47 ng/g feces) was significantly different from Treatment C (1,374.82±401.77 ng/g feces). Thus, although fertility was not evaluated directly, Treatment A proved capable of induce superovulation in the species Mazama gouazoubira, presenting the greatest mean ovulation rates, with the formation of functional corpora lutea. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of active immunization against GnRH on serum LH, inhibin A, sexual development and growth rate in Chinese female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X Y; Turkstra, J A; Tsigos, A; Meloen, R H; Liu, X Y; Chen, F Q; Schaaper, W M M; Oonk, H B; Guo, D Z; van de Wiel, D F M

    2002-10-15

    Surgical castration of young female pigs is common practice in Chinese pig farming today. The purpose of the present study is to investigate anti-GnRH immunization as a practical alternative to surgical castration for female pigs. Thirty-six Chinese female crossbred pigs (Chinese Yanan x Yorkshire) were selected from 12 litters, three pigs from each litter, at the age of 10-13 weeks. One pig from each litter was immunized with 62.5 microg D-Lys6-GnRH-tandem-dimer peptide conjugated to ovalbumin in Specol adjuvant at Week 0 (0 week post-vaccination, wpv), and a booster vaccination was given 8 weeks later (8 wpv). Its intact and castrate littermates (surgically castrated at the time of weaning, i.e. at 6 weeks of age) were administered the vehicle and served as controls. Antibody titers, serum LH and inhibin A were determined at the day of first vaccination, every 4 weeks thereafter and at the day of slaughter (18 wpv). At slaughter, ovaries were inspected for the presence of follicles and corpora lutea, and ovarian and uterine weights were recorded. Ten of twelve immunized pigs responded well to the immunization (immunocastrated animals), while the remaining two pigs responded poorly (nonresponders). Antibody titres in immunocastrated animals steadily increased after immunization, became maximal at 12 wpv and remained high until slaughter. Serum LH levels were reduced (P pigs as compared to intact controls and surgical castrates. Serum inhibin A levels decreased after vaccination, and equaled surgical castrate levels from 8 wpv until the end of the experiment. Ovarian and uterine weights (1.3 +/- 0.2 and 43.9 +/- 11.4 g, respectively; mean +/- S.E.M.) were significantly lower (P pigs from 12 wpv to slaughter. Ovarian and uterine weights were similar in nonresponders and in intact controls. Macroscopically, no follicular structures were found in ovaries of immunocastrated pigs, while large follicles or corpora lutea were observed in the ovaries of both nonresponders

  19. The potential of follicle-stimulating hormone peptide-modified triptolide-loaded nanoparticles to induce a mouse model of premature ovarian insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen XY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiu-Ying Chen,1–3 Wu-Lian Chen,4 Min Ma,1–3 Chao Gu,1,2 Xi-Rong Xiao,1,2 Bin Li1,2 1Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, 4State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The use of triptolide (TP is limited by its poor water solubility and severe toxicity. In this study, we developed an active drug delivery system (TP-loaded nanoparticles that could help improve the water solubility of TP and decrease its toxicity. Then, we investigated whether TP-loaded nanoparticles could be used to establish a novel premature ovarian insufficiency mouse model. The mice treated with TP-loaded nanoparticles for 35 days displayed normal growth, decreased serum antimullerian hormone, prominent ovarian fibrosis and vacuolar changes, fewer follicles and corpus lutea, increased collapsed oocytes and follicle apoptosis, and sterility. In conclusion, this model appears to show the reproductive characteristics associated with premature ovarian insufficiency in women and will allow us to study the mechanism of the effects of traditional Chinese medicine on gonadal toxicity. Keywords: peptide, nanoparticles, drug delivery, premature ovarian insufficiency, animal model

  20. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Söderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P number of endometrial glands evaluated blindly coded on a subjective scale was significantly associated with the reproductive stage (P reproductive stages (P reproductive stage when evaluating reproductive organs in the Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clutch size in populations and species of cnemidophorines (Squamata: Teiidae on the eastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDERLAINE A. MENEZES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed some reproductive aspects of 16 coastal populations, belonging to five lizard species (A. ocellifera, A. abaetensis, A. nativo, A. littoralis and C. lacertoides from different restinga habitats along the eastern coast of Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate to what extent the reproductive aspects vary geographically and among species. For each female, we recorded the number of vitellogenic follicles, size and color of the largest follicle, presence and size of corpora lutea, and number and size of oviductal eggs. Clutch size of almost all coastal populations/species of Ameivula had little variation and most clutches were composed of two eggs. There was a significant relationship between female size and the mean clutch size when females from different species were pooled. Mean egg volume, among species, varied from 420 to 655 mm3. Relative clutch mass varied from 0.129 to 0.159 and did not differ significantly among species. We concluded that the five coastal species studied (four bisexuals and one parthenogenetic had similar reproductive characteristics. Most of them presented multiple clutches, low clutch size and low relative clutch mass, similar to other species in the genus and to unisexual and bisexual species of the Teiidae family.

  3. Immune responses induced in rabbits after oral administration of bovine serum albumin in combination with different adjuvants (herb extracts, aluminium hydroxide and platinum nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bižanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activity of 10 different herbal extracts from Vitex agnus-castus, Vinca major, Aloe arborescens and the polyherbal product containing extracts from Sambucus nigra, Primula versis, Pinus alba, Gentiana lutea, Cetraria islandica, Eucaliptus globulus, Citrus limon and aluminium hydroxide, as well as platinum nanoparticles. Rabbits were immunized three times orally with bovine serum albumin (BSA in combination with the components mentioned above. BSA-specific IgA antibodies in saliva and IgG antibodies in serum were examined by ELISA. It was found that the rabbits immunized with BSA in combination with either platinum nanoparticles or aluminium hydroxide had higher titres of BSA-specific IgA antibodies in their saliva at day 56 of observation. Likewise, rabbits treated with BSA and Vinca major or Aloe arborescens extracts showed higher levels of BSA-specific IgG antibodies in the serum at the end of observation. These results suggest that some plant extracts, aluminium hydroxide and platinum nanoparticles components could be used as oral adjuvants or as immunomodulators for rabbits.

  4. Effect of Repeated Administration of hCG on Ovarian Response in PMSG-superovulated Ouled Djellal Ewes (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamraoui, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated administration of hCG on ovarian response in PMSG-superovulated ewes. Intravaginal pessaries containing 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA were inserted in all ewes (n=9 and remained in situ for 14 days. Two days prior to pessary removal, all ewes were treated with 1000 IU of PMSG. On the day of sponge removal (day 0, the females were randomly assigned to 2 treatments. The first group (n=3 did not receive any hCG, while the second group (n=6 treated inter-muscular with hCG (500 IU during days 0-2. On day 8, laparotomy was performed to assess numbers of corpora lutea (CL and anovulatory follicles (AF. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum progesterone (P4 using radioimmunoassay (RIA method. The results obtained for first and second group was in number of CL (6.33±1.15 and 10.50±5.54, number of AF (2 ±3.46 and 4.16±5.70, then the levels of P4 (5.75± 4.45 and 13.22±6.80 ng/ml, respectively. These results indicate that the repeated administration of hCG post-sponge removal increases number of CL and improves luteal function in ewes after PMSG-superovulatory treatment.

  5. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  6. Potential effect of combined xenoestrogens during gestation stages on mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thuy Thi Bich; Nguyen, Phong Van; Duong, Ha Thi Thu; Nguyen, Ton Dang; Huynh, Hu Thi Hue; Nong, Hai Van

    2015-03-01

    The synergistic effect of numerous environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has raised research concern among researchers. To extend previous studies, the measured additional potential interactions among bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert octylphenol (OP) and isobutylparaben (IBP) in mouse model were observed. Pregnant Swiss-albino mice were treated with binary combined chemicals (5, 50 or 500 mg kg(-1) b.wt. day(-1)) from gestation day (GD) 1 to 21. Interestingly, maternal exposure to these EDCs caused fluctuation in GD time, live ratio, female/male ratio, body and organ weights of mouse offspring at postnatal day (PND) 1, 21, and 41 days. At most doses early reduced 0.85 to 1.87 GD compared to controls. Besides females/males ratio showed a significant difference in BPA+ OP, BPA+IBP groups. Female body weight at PND 21 and 41, showed a significant reduction at all combined levels, whereas male offspring showed reduction in weight at dose 50 mg kg(-1) b.wt. day(-1). The potential effects of synergic estrogenicity detected histopathological abnormities, such as ovary analysis revealed increase of corpora lutea, cystic follicles and an endometrial hypertrophy and morphometric changes in uteri measurement. Taken together, these results provided an additional insight into synergistic effects of EDCs toxicology on reproductive tracts.

  7. Sequence capture using RAD probes clarifies phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries in Primula sect. Auricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, F C; Casazza, G; Szövényi, P; Conti, E

    2016-11-01

    Species-rich evolutionary radiations are a common feature of mountain floras worldwide. However, the frequent lack of phylogenetic resolution in species-rich alpine plant groups hampers progress towards clarifying the causes of diversification in mountains. In this study, we use the largest plant group endemic to the European Alpine system, Primula sect. Auricula, as a model system. We employ a newly developed next-generation-sequencing protocol, involving sequence capture with RAD probes, and map reads to the reference genome of Primula veris to obtain DNA matrices with thousands of SNPs. We use these data-rich matrices to infer phylogenetic relationships in Primula sect. Auricula and examine species delimitations in two taxonomically difficult subgroups: the clades formed by the close relatives of P. auricula and P. pedemontana, respectively. Our molecular dataset enables us to resolve most phylogenetic relationships in the group with strong support, and in particular to infer four well-supported clades within sect. Auricula. Our results support existing species delimitations for P. auricula, P. lutea, and P. subpyrenaica, while they suggest that the group formed by P. pedemontana and close relatives might need taxonomic revision. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications of these findings on the biogeographic history of Primula sect. Auricula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial and general toxicity activities of Gymnosperma glutinosum: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, M; Hernández, T; Serrano, R; Hernández, L B; Duran, A; Ríos, V; Sigrist, S; Hernández, H L H; Garcia, A M; Angeles-López, O; Fernández-Araiza, M A; Avila, G

    2007-03-21

    Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng.) Less (Asteraceae) is an important, and an effective herbal medicine which is wide used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Mexico. We examined and compared the antibacterial and antifungal activities through the dilution method and for general toxicity activity by the brine shrimp lethality assay of two samples of Gymnosperma glutinosum from two localities of Mexico: San Rafael-Coxcatlan (Puebla State) and Tepeji del Rio (Hidalgo State). In addition, two bioactive compounds (-)-17-hydroxy-neo-clerod-3-en-15-oic acid (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8,2',4',5'-hexamethoxyflavone (2) were isolated. From the hexane extract from both places was obtained a MeOH partition M(2). M(2) of Tepeji del Rio showed the least MICs (<125 microg/ml) in the majority of the bacterial strains. Sarcina lutea was the most sensitive bacteria (MIC< 125 microg/ml). The hexane extract of both localities showed antifungal activity against all tested fungi. San Rafael's hexane extract was significant more activity than Tepeji del Rio. Aspergillus niger (IC(50)=23.79 microg/ml) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (IC(50)=90.25 microg/ml) were the more sensitive fungus strains. The strongest general toxicity activity was observed with the M(2) partition from Tepeji del Rio (LC(50)=503.7 microg/ml). The results obtained in this investigation, showed differences between the antimicrobial activities of the samples of plants collected in San Rafael (Puebla) and Tepeji del Rio (Hidalgo).

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and its role in exhaustive-exercise-induced changes in female rat ovulatory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Abeer F; Samir, Shereen M; Nagib, R M

    2018-04-01

    Exhaustive exercises can cause delayed menarche or menstrual cycle irregularities in females. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are incorporated into a wide range of benefits in many physiological systems. Our work aimed to assess the role of ω-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the deleterious effects of exhaustive exercise on the female reproductive system in rats. Virgin female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (12 rats in each): control group, omega-3 group treated with DHA, exhaustive exercise group, and exhaustive exercised rats treated with DHA. Omega-3 was given orally to the rats once daily for 4 estrous cycles. Exhaustive exercises revealed lower levels in progesterone and gonadotropins together with histopathological decrease in number of growing follicles and corpora lutea. Moreover, the exercised rats showed low levels of ovarian antioxidants with high level of caspase-3 and plasma cortisol level that lead to disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. ω-3 PUFA DHA has beneficial effects on the number of newly growing follicles in both sedentary and exercised rats with decreasing the level of caspase-3 and increasing the antioxidant activity in ovaries. Exhaustive exercises can cause ovulatory problems in female rats that can be improved by ω-3 supplementation.

  10. Effects of deletion of the prolactin receptor on ovarian gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Paul A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prolactin (PRL exerts pleiotropic physiological effects in various cells and tissues, and is mainly considered as a regulator of reproduction and cell growth. Null mutation of the PRL receptor (R gene leads to female sterility due to a complete failure of embryo implantation. Pre-implantatory egg development, implantation and decidualization in the mouse appear to be dependent on ovarian rather than uterine PRLR expression, since progesterone replacement permits the rescue of normal implantation and early pregnancy. To better understand PRL receptor deficiency, we analyzed in detail ovarian and corpora lutea development of PRLR-/- females. The present study demonstrates that the ovulation rate is not different between PRLR+/+ and PRLR-/- mice. The corpus luteum is formed but an elevated level of apoptosis and extensive inhibition of angiogenesis occur during the luteal transition in the absence of prolactin signaling. These modifications lead to the decrease of LH receptor expression and consequently to a loss of the enzymatic cascades necessary to produce adequate levels of progesterone which are required for the maintenance of pregnancy.

  11. In Utero and Lactational Effects of Aqueous Foeniculum Vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract on Puberty Timing, Estrus Cycle and Sexual Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Parandin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several studies have shown that developmental exposure to phytoestrogens causes adverse effects on the reproductive functions. Fennel as a phytoestrogen plant has a rich history in household use and traditional medicine.So, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of in utero and neonatal exposure with fennel on the puberty onset, estrus cycle, reproductive organs and sexual behavior of their offspring. Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0 (control, 100, 200 and 400 (mg/kg bw aqueous fennel seed extract (AFSE, daily from day 7 of gestation to postnatal day (PND 7. Results: Vaginal opening (sign of puberty onset was advanced in 200 (p<0.01 and 400 AFSE (p<0.001 treated females. A 30 days vaginal smear check indicated that 200 or 400 AFSE treated mice showed a prolonged estrus with decreased proestrus, estrus and metestrus stages and increased and diestrus stage and index. The ovary weight, number of corpora lutea and LH concentration decreased and uterus weight and estradiol concentration increased in the 200 or 400 treated mice in PND 70. 400 AFSE (p<0.01 treated females showed lordosis with a low lordosis quotient (LQ when compared to the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that developmental exposure to AFSE, due to its estrogenic compounds, it may cause the precocious puberty, disrupted estrus cycle, altered weight of reproductive organs, hormonal imbalance and low lordosis behavior.

  12. Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Derived from Tropaeolum majus L. in Rat Preimplantation Embryos: Evidence for the Dehydroepiandrosterone and Estradiol Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown the inhibitory effects of Tropaeolum majus extracts (HETM on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity, no studies have been carried out during the beginning of pregnancy, when humoral and hormonal imbalance may affect zygote and early embryo transport. This study investigates whether HETM can affect embryonic development when administered during the one-cell-blastocyst period. Pregnant Wistar rats received orally the HETM (3, 30, and 300 mg/kg/day from the 1st to the 7th gestational day. Rats were killed on the 8th day of pregnancy and the following parameters were evaluated: clinical symptoms of toxicity (including organ weights, number of corpora lutea, implants per group, preimplantation losses ratio, and the serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, estradiol, and progesterone. No clinical symptoms of maternal toxicity were evidenced. On the 8th day of pregnancy, the levels of DHEA and estradiol were increased and significant preimplantation losses were observed at all doses used. The present study reveals that the HETM can raise levels of DHEA and estradiol and induce difficulty in the embryo implantation in the early stages of pregnancy. The data contributes significantly to the safety aspects of using this natural product when trying to get pregnant or during pregnancy.

  13. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Dacus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass, kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI, which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001. Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002. Mass and conception date (CD were affected (P ≤ 0.001 by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001 and CD (P < 0.04. Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  14. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  15. Study of the reproductive efficiency of dual purpose cattle in Panama through the use of radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reproductive parameters were monitored in 50 post-partum Bos indicus x Bos taurus animals located on four farms in two ecological zones of Panama. Progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations were measured in four of these animals twice a week and their reproductive organs palpated per rectum once a week until 60 days post-artificial-insemination or post-natural-service. The other 46 cows were palpated for early pregnancy between days 45 and 60 post-service. The mean P 4 concentration in cows with palpable corpora lutea (CL) was 10.3±4.0 nmol/L; when no Cl were detected, the mean P 4 level was 2.2±1.6 nmol/L. Of the 46 animals palpated for early pregnancy, 36 (70%) were found to be pregnant, one (2%) exhibited early embryonic death and one (2%) aborted; the other eight cows (17%) were anoestrous. The mean P 4 concentration in pregnant cows was 11.9±4.0 nmol/L and the calving to conception interval was 148 days. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Relationship between concentrations of progesterone, oxytocin, noradrenaline, gene expression and protein level for their receptors in corpus luteum during estrous cycle in the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, R; Nowocin, A; Kotwica, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate of the relationship between luteal concentrations of oxytocin (OT), noradrenaline (NA), progesterone (P4), oxytocin receptors (OT-R) and beta(2)-adrenoreceptors (beta(2)-R) gene expression and their protein level throughout the estrous cycle in cattle. Corpora lutea (CL) collected during days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 of the estrous cycle were used in these studies. Concentrations of P4, OT and NA were determined in tissue extracts. Gene expression and protein level for OT-R and beta(2)-R were investigated by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Luteal concentration of P4 was higher (Pcycle. Concentration of OT was the highest on days 1-5 and 6-10 of the estrous cycle. This concentration decreased (Pcycle. Expression of OT-R mRNA was lower on days 6-16 (Pcycle, whereas it was similar or lower (Pcycle. Protein level for beta(2)-R was the highest on days 1-5 and decreased (Pcycle. Protein level for beta(2)-R was positively correlated (Pcycle. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Induksi Superovulasi dengan Kombinasi CIDR, Hormon FSH dan hCG pada Induk Sapi Potong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Kaiin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of superovulation treatment using combination of CIDR, FSH and hCG in beef cattle as donor embryos using MOET programme. All animals had been palpated to evaluated the ovary status and normal cows were used as donor and synchronized with CIDR (Eazy BreedTM . At day 10 of oestrus cycle, cows were divided into two groups, first group: cows were injected intramuscularly with FSH (Antrin 40 IU per cow with decreasing doses (for 4 days and second group cows were treated the same way but at day 5 after FSH injection, they were injected intramuscularly with 1,500 IU hCG (Chorulon. Embryo collection was done at day 7 after Artificial Insemination (AI. Average number of corpora lutea (CL in animals that superovulated with CIDR, FSH and hCG was significantly higher (P<0.05 compared to animals treated with CIDR and FSH only (5.52. Average number of embryo collection and number of transferable embryos were also higher in group treated with hCG (6.00 vs 5.44 compared with those treated without hCG (4.33 vs 3.17. The conclusion is hCG superovulation injection with CIDR and FSH can increase the respon of superovulation

  18. Estimating the success rate of ovulation and early litter loss rate in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) by examining the ovaries and uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Sawada, Seigo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    In order to develop a method for estimating the success/failure rates of reproductive processes, especially those of ovulation and neonate nurturing, in the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), we examined offspring status, corpora lutea (CLs), placental scars (PSs) and corpora albicantia (CAs) in 159 females (0-23 years old) killed as nuisances on Honshu Island of Japan during 2001-2009. PSs were found to remain in the uterus at least until November of the year of parturition. CA detectability began to decline after September of the year of parturition. Monthly and age-specific proportions of CL-present females revealed that the post-mating season starts in August, and that the age of first ovulation is 4 years. These results indicate that the success rate of ovulation (SRO: the probability that solitary/non-lactating mature females actually succeed in ovulation) can be estimated by calculating the proportion of CL-present females among > or = 4-year-old females without PSs captured from August to November; the early litter loss rate (ELLR: the probability that parenting females lose all of their cubs [0-year-old offspring] before mating season) can be estimated by calculating the proportion of CL-present females among those with PSs and CAs captured in August or later. The estimated values of SRO and ELLR were 0.93 (62/67) and 0.27 (6/22), respectively.

  19. Ovarian function and growth performance of indigenous goats in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Alimon, A.R.; Sharifuddin, W.

    1991-01-01

    Ovarian activity and factors influencing it were studied in the Malaysian indigenous goat using plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay technique and laparoscopic examination of the ovaries. Laparoscopy, complemented by progesterone assay, was found to be a reliable technique for diagnosing the presence of corpora lutea (CL). However, progesterone assay had the limitation that it could not detect the presence of early developing CL. Two morphological types of CL were observed, either protruding or embedded. The mean plasma progesterone concentrations for pregnant, dioestrous and postpartum anoestrous goats were 4.8 ± 0.72, 4.7 ± 1.60 and <0.7 ng/mL respectively. An inhibitory effect of suckling on the resumption of postpartum ovarian activity was also observed. Removal of kids tended to hasten the onset of postpartum ovarian activity. Continuous confinement of goats was suspected to contribute to conception failure and non-regression of the CL. Kids fed improved diet showed higher average daily weight gain than those suckling their dams. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  20. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  1. Quantitative comparison of luteal histology in the rat and rabbit: changes from mid- to late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, A M; Bruce, N W; Meyer, G T

    1989-01-01

    Progesterone secretion by the corpora lutea (CL) of rats and rabbits declines from a peak, at about Day 16 of gestation, to near term (Day 22 rats and 28 rabbits). However there are major differences between the two species in CL growth and blood flow over this period. In the present work quantitative histological measurements were made of CL at these stages to examine the accompanying structural changes. Eight rats and five rabbits were examined at each stage: standard morphometric techniques were used. There was gross discrepancy between the two species in the histology of their CL at peak secretory activity. Although the proportions of the major tissue components were similar, the rabbit luteal cell (52 pl) was five times larger than that in the rat (9 pl). There was substantially less vascular and interstitial space in the rabbit, all characteristics which might affect transport processes between luteal cell cytoplasm and blood. Over the period examined, there was no change in CL volume in the rat but a 37% reduction in the rabbit due to loss of luteal cells. The vascular space in the rat, however, was reduced, whereas that in the rabbit declined only in proportion to the overall decrease in CL volume. These results show that structurally there is a substantial difference in patterns of early regression between the two species which reflect different mechanisms involved. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2621138

  2. Espessura da polpa como condicionante do parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (Diptera:Tephritidae por Hymenoptera: braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickel Eduardo Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as estratégias de manejo integrado de mosca-das-frutas está a manutenção de refúgios, vizinhos aos pomares, para proliferação de inimigos naturais. Objetivando verificar quais hospedeiros de mosca-das-frutas seriam mais adequados para incrementar o controle natural, estabeleceu-se uma correlação entre o nível de parasitismo e a espessura da polpa de frutos. Frutos em maturação de café (Coffea arabica, jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora, cajá-mirim (Spondias lutea e laranja (Citrus aurantium foram coletados e mantidos em bandejas plásticas sobre uma camada de areia. As pupas de mosca-das-frutas retiradas da areia foram mantidas em estufa incubadora para emergência dos adultos. O diâmetro dos frutos e das sementes foi medido para se calcular a espessura da polpa. O café, com 1,8mm de polpa, foi o hospedeiro em que ocorreu maior índice de parasitismo de mosca-das-frutas (13,73%. O nível de parasitismo apresentou uma correlação negativa com a espessura da polpa dos frutos, sendo os frutos de polpa fina mais adequados para proliferação de parasitóides de mosca-das-frutas.

  3. The future of microsurgery in infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R M

    1978-12-01

    Microsurgery is used extensively for reconstruction after an inflammatory disease, for reversal of sterilization, and surgery in young or unmarried women. Peritubal and periovarian adhesions are 2 main causes of infertility in women. In salpingolysis cases, it has been shown that with over 53% ciliated cells in the fibria there can be a 60% pregnancy rate using microsurgery. In salingostomy cases, there is an increased pregnancy rate although still less than 30%; however, there is a corresponding increase in the number of ectopic pregnancies. Cornual occlusions due to salpingitis isthmica nodosa, endometriosis, cornual fibromyomata, endosalpingitis, puerperal infection, or polyposis was corrected by tubal implantation before microsurgery, which avoids the disadvantages of implantation. Nearly 45% of the women with inflamed tubes and 60% of sterilization reversals have achieved intrauterine pregnancies. Surgery for ovarian cysts, bleeding corpora lutea, and acute appendicitis may lead to infertility, but by using microsurgery, adhesion formation is limited or removed entirely; however, for ectopic pregnancies, 50% will probably remain infertile even after microsurgery. It is suggested that microsurgery techniques be practiced on extirpated tubes and hysterectomy specimens.

  4. Antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity of traditional Kombucha and Satureja montana L. Kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetojevic-Simin, D D; Bogdanovic, G M; Cvetkovic, D D; Velicanski, A S

    2008-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary investigation of the biological activity of Kombucha beverages from Camellia sinensis L. (black tea) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory tea), that have consuming acidity. Cell growth effect was measured by sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay on HeLa (cervix epithelioid carcinoma), HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma). Antimicrobial activity to bacteria, yeasts and moulds was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Consuming Kombuchas had the most expressive antimicrobial activity against all investigated bacteria, except Sarcina lutea, while unfermented tea samples had no activity. Traditional Kombucha showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli than acetic acid, while both neutralized Kombuchas had bacteriostatic activity on Salmonella enteritidis. Examined Kombuchas did not stimulate cell proliferation of the investigated cell lines. Antiproliferative activity of winter savory tea Kombucha was comparable to that of traditional Kombucha made from black tea. Furthermore, in HeLa cell line Satureja montana L. Kombucha induced cell growth inhibition by 20% (IC20) at lower concentration compared to the activity of water extract of Satureja montana L. obtained in our previous research. Presence of more active antiproliferative component(s) in Satureja montana L. Kombucha compared to Satureja montana L. water extract and antimicrobial component(s) other than acetic acid in both Kombuchas is suggested.

  5. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazer Fuller W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.

  6. Abundância, Distribuição Espacial de Ninhos de Abelhas Sem Ferrão (Apidae: Meliponini e Espécies Vegetais Utilizadas para Nidificação em um Fragmento de Floresta Secundária em Rio Branco, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco da Silva Correia

    2016-12-01

    Abstract. Was conducted a study of the abundance, distribution of bee nests stingless (Apidae: Meliponini and plant species used for nesting in a fragment of secondary forest in Rio Branco-Acre. The field surveys took place in August 2015 in a forest area measuring 137 ha. The nesting substrates (trees were identified and their location recorded by GPS, and also checked the CAP measures (circumference at breast height and height of entry of the nests from the ground. In total, we found 25 nests of stingless bees distributed in three genera, with Melipona eburnea Friese the most abundant species (n=14, followed by Scaptotrigona sp. (n=7, Melipona crinita Moure & Kerr (n=2 and Tetragona sp. (n=2. The botanical species most provided cavities for foundation of the nests were Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae with seven nests (28% in an only individual, followed by Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and Castilla ulei Warb. (Moraceae, both with three nests (12%. The density of nests was significantly lower (0.18/ha when compared to other studies in the Neotropics, which may be related to fragment size and the degree of disturbance since it is characterized by being in a forest regeneration process.

  7. Secretory pattern of inhibin during estrous cycle and pregnancy in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yuto, Natsuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Shiina, Osamu; Mouri, Yasushi; Narushima, Etsuo; Katayanagi, Masayuki; Sugimura, Keisuke; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The ovary of female elephants has multiple corpora lutea (CL) during the estrous cycle and gestation. The previous reports clearly demonstrated that inhibin was secreted from lutein cells as well as granulosa cells of antral follicles in cyclic Asian elephants. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibin secretion during the pregnancy in African and Asian elephants. Two African elephants and two Asian elephants were subjected to this study. Circulating levels of immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Four pregnant periods of an African elephant and three pregnant periods of an Asian elephant were analyzed in this study. Circulating levels of ir-inhibin started to increase at 1 or 2 week before the ovulation and reached the peak level 3 or 4 weeks earlier than progesterone during the estrous cycle in both African and Asian elephants. After last luteal phase, the serum levels of ir-inhibin remained low throughout pregnancy in both an African and an Asian elephant. The mean levels of ir-inhibin during the pregnancy were lower than the luteal phase in the estrous cycle despite high progesterone levels were maintained throughout the pregnancy. These results strongly suggest that CL secrete a large amount of progesterone but not inhibin during the pregnancy in elephants. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ovarian activity, transuterine embryo migration and prenatal losses in Ethiopian highland ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, F; Tamrat, H; Bekana, M

    2007-02-01

    A study was conducted on 1442 Ethiopian highland ewes to determine the seasonality of ovarian activity, intrauterine embryo migration and prenatal reproductive wastage. Assessment of ovarian follicular activity revealed that a higher (p < 0.01) proportion of ewes ovulated in the dry season than in the heavy and light rainy seasons. However, there was a tendency (p = 0.057) of decline in the mean number of ovulations per ewes during the light rains. The mean diameter of the largest follicle on the ipsilateral ovary was higher (p < 0.01) in both ewes with single and those with twin corpora lutea (CL) than on the contralateral ovary; and, compared to ewes with single CL, it was higher (p < 0.05) in those with twin CL. The right ovary was more active (p < 0.001) only in single-ovulating ewes. Similarly, a higher (p < 0.001) proportion of ewes were pregnant in the right horn. Embryos migrated to the opposite horn in single-, twin- and triple-ovulating ewes. There was a higher (p < 0.001) tendency for the left-to-right migration than the opposite. There was significant (p < 0.01) association between embryo loss and site and number of ovulations. Embryo loss was higher (p < 0.01) in ewes with twin ovulations on the right ovary. It is very likely that these results indicate a better chance of embryo survival in the right uterine horn.

  9. Relationship among preovulatory follicle, corpus luteum and progesterone in oestrus synchronized buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pacelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult buffaloes were used for this study. The animals were synchronized by PRID+PMSG+PGF2α and artificially inseminated. The ovaries were ultrasonografically examined to study the preovulatory follicle (PF and the successive corpus luteum (CL. At the same time, blood sample were collected for P4 determination carried out by RIA. On the basis of echogenic appearance, the corpora lutea (CLs were classified as belonging to grade 1, 2 or 3. Significant difference was found in the diameter of PF and in that of CL in relation to the CL echogenic appearance. Well defined granular CL, distinguishable from the ovarian stroma and dark grey in colour (grade 3 resulted to have a bigger diameter compared with CLs belonging to a grade 1 or 2, and resulted to derive from a larger PF. Positive correlation was found between plasma P4 concentration and CL diameter. The PF diameter was larger in buffaloes become pregnant after AI respect to the non-pregnant. The CL diameter, also, was significantly larger in the pregnant buffalo compared to the non-pregnant since the first observation at day 7, while significant difference in P4 value was found starting from day 21 after AI.

  10. In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae, and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which phytol (27.25%, α-humulene (14.21%, spathulenol (12.12%, 1-octen-3-ol (8.21%, eugenol (6.69% and phenylethyl alcohol (5.81% were the major compounds. The oil (15 μL disk−1 and extracts (300 μg disk−1 of P. integrifolia displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 13867, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031 and Xanthomonas campestries IAM 1671 with their respective zones of inhibition of 12.0 ± 1.2 to 22.1 ± 1.2 mm and MIC values of 62.5–250 μg mL−1. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from P. integrifolia may have potential use in food, pharmaceutical and/or agro industries for preservatives or antimicrobial agents.

  11. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration: mathematical modelling of the hCG concentration in circulation and initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the GnRHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential advances and disadvantages. Based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of hCG, the mathematical modelling of the concentration profiles of hCG during the luteal phase has been evaluated in connection with several different approaches for hCG administration as LPS. It is suggested that the currently employed LPS provided in connection with the GnRHa trigger (i.e. 1.500 IU) is too strong, and that daily micro-dose hCG administration is likely to provide an optimised LPS with the current available drugs. Initial clinical results with the micro-dose hCG approach are presented.

  12. Properties of human gonadotrophins eluted from human corpus luteum and mouse luteoma LH-HCG receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, F.E.; Arquembourg, P.C.; Rice, B.F.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were performed to try to determine if gonadotrophins are altered during their interaction with tissue receptors. Immunologic, electrophoretic and binding properties of lactoperoxidase labelled [ 125 I]HLH and [ 125 I]HCG were examined before and after elution from mouse lutomea and human corpora lutea receptor preparations. The anti-HCG used in these studies at a 1:10 000 dilution precipitated 92% of a freshly iodinated [ 125 I]HCG preparation. Receptor eluted [ 125 I]HCG, derived from the same batch of labelled ligand, was virtually quantitatively precipitated by the same dilution of anti-HCG. [ 125 I]HCG eluted from the human corpus luteum was electrophoretically more homogeneous when compared to its heterogenous parent labelled preparation and migrated to a position similar to that of native HCG. In Ouchterlony double diffusion experiments against anti-HCG antiserum, corpus lutheum eluted [ 125 I]HCG and [ 125 I]HLH showed immunologic identity with each other as well as with native HCG and HLH. Receptor eluted [ 125 I]HCG from the mouse luteoma, following in vivo administration via tail vein injection or after incubation in vitro with labelled hormones, was immunologically indistinguishable from native HCG. The electrophoretic mobility of HCG was retarded when HCG was added to extracts of mouse luteoma, liver and kidney. Eluates of mouse luteoma, applied to Bio-Gel columns previously equilibrated with [ 125 I]HCG showed the ability to concentrate [ 125 I]HCG in the high molecular weight column fractions. (author)

  13. Seasonal variations in sexual activity and endocrine changes associated with follicular maturation and development in the Peulh ewe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenikoye, A.

    1988-01-01

    Annual variations in sexual activity (oestrus and ovulation) and in the endocrine balances which govern follicular maturation and ovulation (the ovarian hormones progesterone and oestradiol-17β, and the pituitary hormones FSH, LH and PRL) were studied in the Peulh ewes of Niger. It was found that two types of disturbances in ovarian function limited the fertility of ewes in semi-arid environment: (a) persistent corpora lutea which occurred in 14% of animals and affected 2.2% of oestrous cycles in the course of the year. Their appearance coincided with increasing humidity (in June and July) or daily temperature (December to April); and (b) seasonal anoestrus, observed in 67% of animals from December to April, and coinciding with maximum daily temperatures. These ovarian anomalies were associated with a weak endogenous rhythm of LH secretion without any change in feedback from the ovarian steroids progesterone and oestradiol-17β on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. A study of seasonal variations in levels of the gonadotrophic hormones indicated that there may be a weaker than usual dependence between the ovary and the pituitary during periods of anomalous sexual activity in Peulh ewes. The results presented suggest that both types of ovarian dysfunction observed in certain Peulh ewes may reflect poorer adaptation to the semi-arid climate. (author). 54 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  14. In vitro germination, protocorm formation and plantlet development of mature versus immature seeds from several Ophrys species (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsaki, C K; Zygouraki, S; Ziobora, M; Kintzios, S

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of genotype, seed maturity and culture medium on the in vitro germination and development of protocorms and plantlets from seeds of 13 different Ophrys species (O. apifera, O. attica, O. cornuta, O. delfinensis, O. ferrum-equinum, O. lutea, O. mammosa, O. speculum, O. spruneri, O. umbilicata, O. argolica, O. irricolor and O. tenthredinifera) collected in Greece, some of which are endemic to this country. Mature seeds (10 months after collection) and immature seeds (2 months after anthesis) were cultured in a coconut milk-enriched or a pineapple-enriched medium (CEM or PEM, respectively). The highest percentage of callogenesis (96%) was observed in immature seeds of O. delphinensis in the CEM, while the highest percentage of protocorm formation (52%) was observed in mature seeds of O. spuneri in the CEM. Protocorm formation was significantly lower in immature seeds than in mature seeds in both culture media. Eventually almost all of the transferred protocorms developed to plantlets, which later formed minitubers. PEM appeared to be the most suitable for the development of minitubers from plantlets. All of the factors investigated--as well as their interactions--significantly affected callogenesis and protocorm formation. The results are discussed with the perspective of applying an improved protocol for in vitro seed germination and plantlet formation in several under-utilized Ophrys species.

  15. [Enteric helminths of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos L., 1758 in the north-western part of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Rzad, Izabella; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Korol, Eleonora N; Sitko, Jiljí; Szałańska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Although the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, is the most common wild duck in Poland, as well as in the entire Palearctic, it is extremely rarely studied by comprehensive parasitological surveys. The aim of this study was to present a synthesis on the species composition of enteric helminths of the mallard in north-western Poland. The study was carried out in 1999-2006 and involved parasitic worms isolated from the alimentary tracts of 187 mallards (Anseriformes: Anatidae). Following isolation, the parasites were preserved in 70% ethylene and stained (flatworms) or viewed in transient light (nematodes and acanthocephalans). Taxonomic identity of the worms was determined using taxonomic keys and numerous original papers. The studies have revealed that the parasitic community of this host in the north-west part of Poland is relatively complex, composed of 51 species of helminths of four systematic groups: 16 digenean species, 23 tapeworms, 9 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans. The material also revealed five new to Polish fauna parasitic species: one trematode (Echinostoma miyagawai) and four tapeworms (Microsomacanthus baeri, M. pachycephala, Monotestilepis tadornae, and Sobolevicanthus aculeostileticus). On the other hand, for another 11 species (Prosthogonimus ovatus, Psilotrema simillimum, Australapatemon minor, Leucochloridiomorpha lutea, Psilostomum brevicolle, Echinocotyle rosseteri, Fimbriarioides sp., Retinometra giranensis, Anisakinae gen. sp., Pseudocapillaria mergi i Polymorphus magnus) the mallard was found to be a new host.

  16. Epoxide hydrolase affects estrogen production in the human ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, N; Fujiwara, H; Maeda, M; Fujii, S; Ueda, M

    2000-09-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of ovarian cell differentiation, we raised a new monoclonal antibody, HCL-3, which reacted with human luteal cells. It also reacted with human and porcine hepatocytes. The immunoaffinity-purified HCL-3 antigen from human corpora lutea (CL) was shown to be a 46-kDa protein. The N-terminal 22 amino acids of the 46-kDa protein from porcine liver exhibited high homology (82%) to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH). The purified HCL-3 antigen from human CL or porcine liver showed EH enzyme activity, confirming that HCL-3 antigen is identical to mEH, which is reported to detoxify the toxic substrates in the liver. In human follicles, mEH was immunohistochemically detected on granulosa and theca interna cells. In the menstrual and pregnant CL, mEH was also expressed on large and small luteal cells. A competitive inhibitor of EH, 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane, inhibited the conversion of estradiol from testosterone by granulosa cells cultured in vitro, indicating the involvement of mEH in ovarian estrogen production. Because anticonvulsant sodium valproate and its analogues were reported to inhibit EH enzyme activity, these findings provide a new insight into the etiology of endocrine disorders that are frequently observed among epileptic patients taking anticonvulsant drugs.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and molecular weight monitoring of a novel Schiff base polymer containing phenol group: Thermal stability, conductivity and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Baran, Nuray; Saçak, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    A novel Schiff base polymer containing phenol group, Poly(3-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol) P(3-DBAP), was prepared by oxidative polycondensation reaction of 3-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol (3-DBAP) using NaOCl, H2O2, O2 oxidants in aqueous alkaline medium. Yield and molecular weight distribution of P(3-DBAP) were monitored depending on oxidant types and concentration, monomer concentration and as well as polymerization temperature and time. UV-Vis, FTIR and 1HNMR techniques were used to identify the structures of Schiff base monomer and polymer. Thermal behavior of P(3-DBAP), which was determined to be thermally stable up to 1200 °C via TG-DTG techniques, was illuminated by Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. It was determined that the electrical conductivity value of the P(3-DBAP) increased 108 fold after doped with iodine for 24 h at 60 °C according to undoped form and it was measured 4.6 × 10-4 S/cm. Also, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the monomer and polymer were assayed against Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Feacalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis bacteria, and Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi.

  18. Temporal changes of aquatic macrophytes vegetation in a Iowland groundwater feed eutrophic course (Klátovské rameno, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Oťahel'ová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Klátovské rameno is the lowland slow-flowing groundwater feed eutrophic tributary of the Malý Dunaj River (Danube Plain, where our study of temporal changes of aquatic macrophytes vegetation was realised in 1999 and 2005. For survey of aquatic vascular macrophytes the Kohler’s method (Janauer 2003 was used, which is compliant with European standard EN 14184. Altogether 35 aquatic macrophyte species were recorded during the survey. Nuphar lutea persisted as the most dominant species in 1996 and 2005. Species diversity increased slightly after the nine years: ten species immigrated to the watercourse. The changes in species abundance have shown weak differences, however the abundance of Sparganium emersum has increased markedly. Alien species Elodea canadensis and both S. emersum and Hydrocharis morsus-ranae significantly enlarged their distribution in the stream. The ecological quality of the river, based on the aquatic macrophytes assessment criteria, was slightly impaired after nine years, but still 90% of its studied course has a high or good ecological status.

  19. Changes in retinal structure and function of Alzheimer's patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease(AD, a neurodegenerative disease, can result in memory loss,cognitive and behavioral deficits. The pathological hallmarkes are β amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles which lead loss of neurons in brain. As the extension of the central nervous system, retina has a similar tissue anatomy with central nervous system. The β amyloid plaques have also been detected in retina of AD. Furthermore, according to eye examinations of AD patients, we have found the loss of retinal ganglion cells, the attenuation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, the smaller changes of macula lutea, the decline of vascular density and so on. And then, there occurs the visual field loss and the decline of contrast sensitivity and so on in AD patients. Thus, the retina has occurred nerve degenerative changes in AD. Meanwhile, there has been proved that the retina nerve degeneration is even earlier than senile plaques formation in brain. In addition,curcumin, a natural and safe fluorescent dye, can be used to label β amyloid plaques in retina. The above suggests that retina can be a window for the early diagnosis of AD.

  20. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: biological role of interferon tau in endometrial function and conceptus elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorniak, P; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2013-04-01

    This review integrates established and new information on the biological role of ovarian progesterone (P4) and interferon tau as well as conceptus- and endometrial-derived factors, PG and cortisol, in endometrial function and conceptus elongation during the periimplantation period of pregnancy in ruminants. Interferon tau is the maternal recognition of pregnancy signal that inhibits production of luteolytic pulses of PGF2α by the endometrium to maintain corpora lutea and their production of P4, the unequivocal hormone of pregnancy. Conceptus-endometrial interactions in ruminants are complex and involve carefully orchestrated temporal and spatial alterations in endometrial gene expression during pregnancy. Available results from studies in sheep support the idea that the individual, interactive, and coordinated actions of P4, interferon tau, PG, and cortisol regulate expression of elongation- and implantation-related genes in the endometrial epithelia and that P4 and PG are essential regulators of conceptus elongation. The outcome of these gene expression changes is alterations in endometrial secretions that govern conceptus elongation via effects on trophectoderm proliferation, migration, attachment, and adhesion. An increased knowledge of conceptus-endometrial interactions during early pregnancy in ruminants is necessary to understand and elucidate the causes of recurrent pregnancy loss and to provide a basis for new strategies to improve pregnancy outcome and reproductive efficiency.

  1. Neonatally Induced Mild Diabetes in Rats and Its Effect on Maternal, Placental, and Fetal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Karen Sinzato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess placental changes and reproductive outcomes in neonatally induced mild diabetic dams and fetal development in their offspring. At birth, female rats were assigned either to control or diabetic group (100 mg of streptozotocin/Kg, subcutaneously. At adulthood, the female rats were mated. During pregnancy, the blood glucose levels and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. At term, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal and placental weight, and placental morphology were analyzed. Diabetic rats had smaller number of living fetuses, implantations and corpora lutea, and increased rate of embryonic loss. Placenta showed morphometric alterations in decidua area. Our results showed that mild diabetes was sufficient to trigger alterations in maternal organism leading to impaired decidua development contributing to failure in embryonic implantation and early embryonic losses. Regardless placental decidua alteration, the labyrinth, which is responsible for the maternal-fetal exchanges, showed no morphometric changes contributing to an appropriate fetal development, which was able to maintain normal fetal weight at term in mild diabetic rats. Thus, this experimental model of diabetes induction at the day of birth was more effective to reproduce the reproductive alterations of diabetic women.

  2. Localization of the Trace Elements Iron, Zinc and Selenium in Relation to Anatomical Structures in Bovine Ovaries by X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceko, Melanie J; Hummitzsch, Katja; Bonner, Wendy M; Aitken, Jade B; Spiers, Kathryn M; Rodgers, Raymond J; Harris, Hugh H

    2015-06-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to image 40 histological cross-sections of bovine ovaries (n=19), focusing on structures including: antral follicles at different stages of growth or atresia, corpora lutea at three stages of development (II-IV), and capillaries, arterioles, and other blood vessels. This method identified three key trace elements [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se)] within the ovarian tissue which appeared to be localized to specific structures. Owing to minimal preprocessing of the ovaries, important high-resolution information regarding the spatial distribution of these elements was obtained with elemental trends and colocalizations of Fe and Zn apparent, as well as the infrequent appearance of Se surrounding the antrum of large follicles, as previously reported. The ability to use synchrotron radiation to measure trace element distributions in bovine ovaries at such high resolution and over such large areas could have a significant impact on understanding the mechanisms of ovarian development. This research is intended to form a baseline study of healthy ovaries which can later be extended to disease states, thereby improving our current understanding of infertility and endocrine diseases involving the ovary.

  3. Molecular and comparative morphological analysis of central European parasitic flatworms of the superfamily Brachylaimoidea Allison, 1943 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    The Brachylaimoidea are digenean parasites of vertebrates, including humans, domestic animals, poultry and wild game. Numerous Brachylaimoidea, particularly adults of Brachylaima and Leucochloridium, are difficult to identify to species. We provide and analyse sequences of two nuclear (18S rDNA, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (CO1, ND1) DNA loci of central European species of the Brachylaimoidea, namely Leucochloridium holostomum, Leucochloridium paradoxum, Leucochloridium perturbatum, Leucochloridium subtilis, Leucochloridium vogtianum, Urotocus rossitensis, Urogonimus macrostomus, Michajlovia migrata, Leucochloridiomorpha lutea, Brachylaima arcuatus, Brachylaima fuscata and Brachylaima mesostoma. We identified three clades in the genus Leucochloridium, which do not correspond to the previously suggested subgenera Neoleucochloridium, Papilloleucochloridium and Leucochloridium. We reject classification of Urotocus and Urogonimus in Leucochloridiinae, and, instead, re-establish the subfamilies Urotocinae and Urogoniminae. We synonymize the genus Renylaima with the genus Brachylaima. We reject M. migrata as a member of Leucochloridiinae sensu stricto or Brachylaimidae suggested by some previous authors. We found that the previously sequenced Glaphyrostomum sp. does not cluster with any hitherto sequenced Brachylaimidae. We also provide comparative measurements of the examined central European Brachylaimoidea, address the the specificity of their localization in the host and discuss their host-specific prevalence and intensity of infections based on the extensive dataset of birds examined in 1962-2015.

  4. Marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Gulf of México, new records and redescription of Erylus trisphaerus (de Laubenfels, 1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Diana; Gómez, Patricia; Simões, Nuno

    2015-01-19

    Marine sponges usually constitute the most diverse group of the benthic community in coral reefs. Although they are reasonably well studied at the northern Gulf of Mexico (GMx), the southern GMx is poorly known and lacks records from many major reef systems that lie off the Mexican coast. The present taxonomic study is the first sponge account from Alacranes reef, the largest coral reef system in the GMx, and from the shallow reef banks of Sisal, both in the northwest Yucatan Peninsula. The 19 species herein described represent the first sponge fauna records from these reefs. Among these, seven species represent new record for GMx: Erylus formosus, Cliona flavifodina, Spirastrella aff. mollis, Strongylacidon bermuda, Topsentia bahamensis, Agelas tubulata and Chelonaplysilla aff. erecta. Twelve species are new records for the Southern GMx: Erylus trisphaerus, Cliona amplicavata, Chondrilla caribensis, Halichondria lutea, Hymeniacidon caerulea, Axinella corrugata, Dragmacidon reticulatum, Chalinula molitba, Amphimedon caribica, A. complanata, Hyatella cavernosa and Dysidea variabilis. Additionally, a redescription of Erylus trisphaerus is presented which had not been reviewed since its original description in 1953 off Western Florida, except that it was listed for north La Habana, Cuba. 

  5. Assessment of female reproductive endpoints in Sprague-Dawley rats developmentally exposed to Diuron: potential ovary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Tony Fernando; Guerra, Marina Trevisan; Perobelli, Juliana Elaine; de Toledo, Fabíola Choqueta; da Silva, Denise Salioni; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma; Barbisan, Luís Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Diuron is widely used in agriculture but its deleterious effects on the reproductive system and mammary gland are still poorly understood. This study evaluated whether early-life-stage exposure to Diuron alters puberty onset or susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats received basal diet or diet containing Diuron at 500, 750, and 1,250 ppm, from gestational day 12 to the end of lactation (postnatal day 21 [PND21]). After weaning, female offspring continued receiving basal diet or diet containing Diuron until PND 51. At PND 51, female Sprague-Dawley offspring received a single dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) for initiation of mammary carcinogenesis. The animals were sacrificed on PND 51, 75, and 226 to 233 (week 25) for mammary gland morphology, reproductive organs and tumor analysis, respectively. There were no significant differences among groups on vaginal opening, estrous cycle, mammary morphology, or carcinogenesis. However, reductions in ovary weight and corpora lutea were observed at PND 75 in the group treated with Diuron at 1,250 ppm. The findings suggesting that Diuron exposure (1,250 ppm) may have been potentially toxic to the ovaries. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. AVALIAÇÕES FENOTÍPICAS E FISIOLÓGICAS DE ESPÉCIES DE SPONDIAS TENDO COMO PORTA ENXERTO O UMBUZEIRO (Spondias tuberosa Cam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacir Pinheiro Lima Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Semi-Arid, Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil aiming to study the behavior of five species of the genus Spondias: umbu-cajá (Spondias sp., umbuguela (Spondias sp., cajá (S. lutea L., cajá-manga (S. cytherea Sonn. e ceriguela (S. purpurea L. grafted on umbuzeiro (S. tuberosa Cam, which presents a specialized root system bearing tubers. Five-years old plants, spaced by 10.0 m x 10.0 m were studied under rainfed conditions based on phenotypic and physiological data acquisition. The results indicated the occurrence of high levels of graft unions and good vegetative performance of all species, suggesting the occurrence of week incompatibility barriers among them and the rootstock. Consequently, all grafted species presented a internal water balance recovering similar to the umbuzeiro due to the presence of tubers in the root system. Despite the improvement on the species' water balance, the values on stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis significantly decreased along the experimental period suggesting the existing of a signal present in the root system that controls the stomatal aperture, although to the umbuzeiro, the reduction on gas exchange was less steeped.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Gliocladium viride Isolated from Mushroom Fly Infested Oak Log Beds Used for Shiitake Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Myeong Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2010-03-01

    A green mold species that has not previously been reported in Korea was isolated from oak log beds used for shiitake (Lentinula edodes) cultivation that were infested by mushroom flies. In this study, we identify the mold species as Gliocladium viride (an anamorph of Hypocrea lutea) and describe its mycological properties. The fungus was cottony on both potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA), but was colored white on PDA and became yellowish green and brown on CYA. Mycelial growth on PDA attained a diameter of 73 mm at 30℃ after 5 days. The fungus grew faster on malt extract agar (> 80 mm, 5 days at 25℃) compared to CYA and PDA (< 68 mm, 5 days at 25℃). Penicillate conidiophores of the fungus are hyaline, smooth walled, branching above typically in four stages, and 120~240 µm in length. Club-shaped or slender phialides are formed on the metulae. Conidia of the fungus were ovate and elliptic, yellowish brown and green, and 2.5~3.0 µm × 1.8~2.3 µm in size. Typically, slimy conidia are formed in a mass and colored brown to dark green to almost black. The internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequences of the fungus isolated here show 99% identity with previously identified G. viride strains.

  8. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  9. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  10. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchang; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  11. Reproductive System of Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus, Schinz 1825, Pilosa, Xenarthra): Anatomy and Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, S M; daSilva, E G; Menezes, J; Guerra, R R; Campos, D B

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Uterus was simplex, with no horns and divided into three parts: a pear-shaped cranial segment and a long caudal uterine segment (both forming the body of the uterus) and two cervices. Uterus presented three layers: mucosa, lined by pseudostratified epithelium, muscular and serosa. The cervices connected the uterus to the urogenital sinus, a distensible cavity with longitudinal mucosal folds lined by transitional epithelium that extended from the external urethral orifice and the external uterine ostia to the vulva, which was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Brown-throated sloth presented a bipartite clitoris with paired crura, bodies and glandes. The presence of a double cervix and a bipartite clitoris was unique features of the species. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Oyedokun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata , is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae , yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer . The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia : 50% and Salmonella shigella : 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata , indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations.

  13. Variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) affected by weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosztola, Beáta; Sárosi, Szilvia; Németh, Eva

    2010-03-01

    In our study we examined the variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) during three years (2005-2007). Twenty-eight populations of wild origin and 4 registered cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea', 'Goral' and 'Bona') were evaluated in open field experiments. It could be established that the experimental populations represented different genetic potential for essential oil accumulation and composition. The best populations of wild growing origin from the Somogy-region and four cultivars produced the highest essential oil contents (above 0.6 g/100g) in each year. Additionally, the quality of the characteristic main compound of the oil determining the "chemotype", according to Schilcher, was found to be stable during the three years period. However, the actual chemosyndroms are significantly influenced by the weather conditions. In the three years' experiment, the moderately warm and relatively wet year of 2006 produced the highest contents of essential oil and also that of its alpha-bisabolol component. Although bisabolol oxide A also showed a high variability through the years, its direct connection with weather conditions could not be proved. A moderate variability was established for the proportions of chamazulene, and the lowest one for bisabolol-oxide B. Considerable genotype-weather interaction was supposed, especially for the essential oil content and for the ratio of bisabolol-oxide A.

  14. Effects of induced maternal hypothyroidism on the ovarian development of offspring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of propylthyouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism of rats during pregnancy and lactation on offspring ovarian development and maturation were studied. Thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations were determined using the radioimmunoassay method in order to verify the hypothyroid status of treated mothers and their two months old pups. The ovaries of the offspring were processed for light microscopy analysis on the day of the first estrus after the 60th day of age. Histological analysis including follicle count was performed on serial sections stained with haematoxyline/eosin and on semithin sections stained with methylene blue. A significant increase of serum TSH and decrease in T3 and T4 levels was observed in treated mothers compared to controls. The levels of measured hormones in the control and PTU-treated two months old rats were not significantly different. Ten percent of 60-dayold treated females did not reach estrus and they were sacrificed in diestrus. The secondary interstitial cells were the dominant structures in the ovaries. The number of healthy growing and early antral follicles was markedly decreased. Ovaries of treated rats contained relatively few antral follicles, significantly more atretic antral follicles and a decreased number of corpora lutea, compared to controls. These results indicate that lack of thyroid hormones during prenatal and early postnatal development impair ovarian development in rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  15. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  16. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9111; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Aspergillus flavus, IMI 111023; Aspergillus niger IMI 31276; Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 16424; Fusarium oxysporum; Rhizoctonia solani; Alternaria alternata; Botrytis fabae and Penicillium chrysogenium. The production media were optimized for maximum yield of secondary metabolites. The metabolites were extracted using n-butanol (1:1, v/v at pH 7.0. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, and MS spectral analyses confirmed that the compound produced by Streptomyces torulosus, T-4 is tunicamycin antibiotic.

  17. Ovulation, pregnancy, placentation and husbandry in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W.R

    2006-01-01

    The African elephant reproduces so efficiently in the wild that overpopulation is now a serious problem in some game parks in Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa. The female reaches puberty between 10 and 12 years of age in the wild and, when in captivity, shows oestrous cycles of 14–15 weeks duration. She readily conceives a singleton in the wild yet her uterus has the capacity for twins. She shows a gestation length of 22 months and, in the wild, shows a population density and feed dependent intercalving interval of 4–8 years. The trophoblast erodes the lumenal epithelium of the endometrium and stimulates upgrowths of blood vessel-containing stromal villi, which develop eventually into the broad, tightly folded lamellae of the zonary, endotheliochorial placenta. Significant quantities of leaked maternal erythrocytes and ferric iron are phagocytosed by specialized trophoblast cells in the haemophagous zones at the lateral edges of the placental band. Although the placenta itself is endocrinologically inert, the foetal gonads, which enlarge greatly during the second half of pregnancy can synthesize 5α-dihydryoprogesterone and other 5α pregnane derivatives from cholesterol and pregnenolone. These products may synergize with progestagens secreted by the 2–8 large corpora lutea which are always present in the maternal ovaries throughout gestation to maintain the pregnancy state. PMID:16627297

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  19. Multilocus sequence analysis of nectar pseudomonads reveals high genetic diversity and contrasting recombination patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Vega, Clara; Herrera, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    The genetic and evolutionary relationships among floral nectar-dwelling Pseudomonas 'sensu stricto' isolates associated to South African and Mediterranean plants were investigated by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of four core housekeeping genes (rrs, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD). A total of 35 different sequence types were found for the 38 nectar bacterial isolates characterised. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in the identification of three main clades [nectar groups (NGs) 1, 2 and 3] of nectar pseudomonads, which were closely related to five intrageneric groups: Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (NG 1); P. fluorescens, P. lutea and P. syringae (NG 2); and P. rhizosphaerae (NG 3). Linkage disequilibrium analysis pointed to a mostly clonal population structure, even when the analysis was restricted to isolates from the same floristic region or belonging to the same NG. Nevertheless, signatures of recombination were observed for NG 3, which exclusively included isolates retrieved from the floral nectar of insect-pollinated Mediterranean plants. In contrast, the other two NGs comprised both South African and Mediterranean isolates. Analyses relating diversification to floristic region and pollinator type revealed that there has been more unique evolution of the nectar pseudomonads within the Mediterranean region than would be expected by chance. This is the first work analysing the sequence of multiple loci to reveal geno- and ecotypes of nectar bacteria.

  20. Embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion intravenously administered to pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Ye, Xiangfeng; Wang, Lingzhi; Peng, Bangjie; Zhang, Yingxue; Bao, Jie; Li, Wanfang; Wei, Jinfeng; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. The drug was intravenously injected to pregnant SD rats at dose levels of 0, 200, 600 and 2000 μg/kg/day from day 6-15 of gestation. All the pregnant animals were observed for body weights and any abnormal changes and subjected to caesarean-section on gestation day (GD) 20; all fetuses obtained from caesarean-section were assessed by external inspection, visceral and skeletal examinations. No treatment-related external alterations as well as visceral and skeletal malformations were observed in honokiol microemulsion groups. There was no significant difference in the body weight gain of the pregnant rats, average number of corpora lutea, and the gravid uterus weight in the honokiol microemulsion groups compared with the vehicle control group. However, at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, there was embryo-fetal developmental toxicity observed, including a decrease in the body length and tail length of fetuses. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of honokiol microemulsion is 600 μg/kg/day, 75 times above the therapeutic dosage and it has embryo-fetal toxicity at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, which is approximately 250 times above the therapeutic dosage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of oral supplementation of the linoleic and gammalinolenic acids on the diabetic pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Consonni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the direct protective action of oral fatty acid supplementation against the deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on maternal reproductive outcomes; fetal growth and development on female Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into four experimental groups: G1= non-diabetic without supplementation (Control group; G2= non-diabetic treated with linoleic (LA and gammalinolenic acid (GLA (1 mL of Gamaline-V/day; G3= diabetic without supplementation and G4= diabetic treated with LA and GLA. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg. At day 21 of pregnancy, the gravid uterus was weighed and dissected to count the dead and live fetuses, resorption, implantation, and corpora lutea numbers. The fetuses were analyzed for external and internal anomalies. The treatment with Gamaline-V supplementation to diabetic rats interfered in the maternal reproductive outcome (reduced number of live fetuses and embryonic implantation; however, it protected the deleterious on the incidence of congenital anomalies caused by hyperglycemia.

  2. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoraszczuk Ewa L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.

  3. The protective effect of dietary Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima against mutagenicity induced by benzo[alpha]pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath; Mojica-Villegas, Angélica; Pages, Nicole; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[α]P) was used to test the possible antimutagenic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima (SP) on male and female mice. SP was orally administered at 0, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of body weight to animals of both sexes for 2 weeks before starting the B[α]P (intraperitoneal injection) at 125 mg/kg of body weight for 5 consecutive days. For the male dominant lethal test, each male was caged with two untreated females per week for 3 weeks. For the female dominant lethal test, each female was caged for 1 week with one untreated male. All the females were evaluated 13-15 days after mating for incidence of pregnancy, total corpora lutea, total implants and pre- and postimplant losses. SP protected from B[α]P-induced pre- and postimplant losses in the male dominant lethal test, and from B[α]P-induced postimplantation losses in treated females. Moreover, SP treatment significantly reduced the detrimental effect of B[α]P on the quality of mouse semen. Our results illustrate the protective effects of SP in relation to B[α]P-induced genetic damage to germ cells. We conclude that SP, owing mainly to the presence of phycocyanin, could be of potential clinical interest in cancer treatment or prevention of relapse.

  4. Vegetation of natural and artificial shorelines in Upper Klamath Basin’s fringe wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew M.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Hamilton, Andy S.

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Klamath Basin (UKB) in northern California and southern Oregon supports large hypereutrophic lakes surrounded by natural and artificial shorelines. Lake shorelines contain fringe wetlands that provide key ecological services to the people of this region. These wetlands also provide a context for drawing inferences about how differing wetland types and wave exposure contribute to the vegetative assemblages in lake-fringe wetlands. Here, we summarize how elevation profiles and vegetation richness vary as a function of wave exposure and wetland type. Our results show that levee wetland shorelines are 4X steeper and support fewer species than other wetland types. We also summarize the occurrence probability of the five common wetland plant species that represent the overwhelming majority of the diversity of these wetlands. In brief, the occurrence probability of the culturally significant Nuphar lutea spp. polysepala and the invasive Phalaris arundinacea in wave exposed and sheltered sites varies based on wetland type. The occurrence probability for P. arundinacea was greatest in exposed portions of deltaic shorelines, but these trends were reversed on levees where the occurrence probability was greater in sheltered sites. The widespread Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus occurred throughout all wetland and exposure type combinations but had a higher probability of occurrence in wave exposed sites. Results from this work will add to our current understanding of how wetland shoreline profiles interact with wave exposure to influence the occurrence probability of the dominant vegetative species in UKB’s shoreline wetlands.

  5. Differential expression and functional characterization of luteinizing hormone receptor splice variants in human luteal cells: implications for luteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Rachel E; Stewart, Alan J; Myers, Michelle; Millar, Robert P; Duncan, W Colin

    2009-06-01

    The human LH receptor (LHR) plays a key role in luteal function and the establishment of pregnancy through its interaction with the gonadotropins LH and human chorionic gonadotropin. We previously identified four splice variants of the LHR in human luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs) and corpora lutea (CL). Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that expression of the full-length LHR (LHRa) and the most truncated form (LHRd) changed significantly in CL harvested at different stages of the ovarian cycle (P < 0.01, ANOVA). LHRa expression was reduced in the late luteal CL (P < 0.05). Conversely, an increase in LHRd expression was observed in the late luteal CL (P < 0.01). Chronic manipulation of human chorionic gonadotropin in LGC primary cultures supported the in vivo findings. LHRd encodes a protein lacking the transmembrane and carboxyl terminal domains. COS-7 cells expressing LHRd were unable to produce cAMP in response to LH stimulation. COS-7 cells coexpressing LHRd and LHRa also failed to generate cAMP in response to LH, suggesting that this truncated form has a negative effect on the signaling of LHRa. Immunofluorescence staining of LGC and COS-7 cells implied that there is a reduction in cell surface expression of LHRa when LHRd is present. Overall, these results imply expression of LHR splice variants is regulated in the human CL. Furthermore, during functional luteolysis a truncated variant could modulate the cell surface expression and activity of full-length LHR.

  6. Response to gonadotrophins differs for gilts from female- and male-biased litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Jemma; Ralph, C R; Tilbrook, A J; Kirkwood, R N

    2017-07-01

    In several species, females masculinised by abnormal androgen exposure in utero have poor reproductive performance and gilts born into litters with a male bias are likely exposed to greater androgen concentrations prenatally than gilts born into female-biased litters. At 24h of age, piglet plasma testosterone concentrations in gilts from male-biased litters (>60% male; n=22) or female-biased litters (>60% female; n=27) were not different. At 18 wks of age, all gilts received an injection of 400IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin plus 200IU human chorionic gonadotrophin to stimulate oestrus. Two weeks after the injection gilts were slaughtered and ovaries collected for determination of numbers of corpora lutea (CL). Compared to gilts from female-biased litters, gilts from male-biased litters were more likely to ovulate (86.0% vs 59.5%, P=0.047) and had more CL (13.1±1.5 vs 7.2±1.7, P=0.015). The present data indicate an effect of birth litter sex-bias on pre-pubertal physiological development, possibly involving organisational effects at the ovarian cellular level impacting on future ovarian function. Potential impacts on subsequent fertility remain to be determined. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) crossbred gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate. The genital organs from 316 gilts were examined for gross abnormalities, and those with normal cyclic ovaries (n=155, 307 ± 4.1 days of age, 148 ± 1.6 kg body weight) were included in the analyses. Number of ovulations was defined by a count of the corpora lutea (CL) from both ovaries. On average, the number of ovulations in LY gilts was 15.9 ± 0.3 (range 4 to 27). The number of ovulations correlated with the body weight (r=0.31, Pgilts, but not with their age (P>0.05). Gilts with a body weight of 141 to 150 kg (17.0 CL, n=31) ovulated more than those with a body weight ≤130 kg (14.1 CL, P=0.014, n=23). In conclusion, both the body weight and growth rate of the gilts were significantly correlated with the number of ovulations. The maximum number of ovulations was found in gilts at a body weight of above 141 kg.

  8. Effect of the Medium Composition on the Zn2+Lixiviation and the Antifouling Properties of a Glass with a High ZnO Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Palomares, Francisco J; Cabal, Belén; López-Píriz, Roberto; Fernández, Adolfo; Sevillano, David; Alou, Luis; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S

    2017-02-13

    The dissolution of an antimicrobial ZnO-glass in the form of powder and in the form of sintered pellets were studied in water, artificial seawater, biological complex media such as common bacterial/yeast growth media (Luria Bertani (LB), yeast extract, tryptone), and human serum. It has been established that the media containing amino acids and proteins produce a high lixiviation of Zn 2+ from the glass due to the ability of zinc and zinc oxide to react with amino acids and proteins to form complex organic compounds. The process of Zn 2+ lixiviation from the glass network has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From these results we can state that the process of lixiviation of Zn 2+ from the glass network is similar to the one observed in sodalime glasses, where Na⁺ is lixiviated to the media first and the fraction of Zn that acts as modifiers (~2/3) is lixiviated in second place. After the subsequent collapse of the outer surface glass layer (about 200-300 nm thick layer) the dissolution process starts again. Antifouling properties against different bacteria ( S. epidermidis , S. aureus , P. aeruginosa , E. coli , and M. lutea ) have also been established for the glass pellets.

  9. Evaluation of freshly irradiated wheat for dominant lethal mutations in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawan, S.C.; Aravindakshan, M.; Kumar, N.S.; Subba Rao, V.; Aiyar, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1977-01-01

    Three independent, serially performed experiments involving acute and chronic feeding of freshly irradiated wheat (75 krad, gamma-irradiation) were carried out in Wistar rats. In the first experiment groups of 10 males were given wheat for 1 week; irradiated wheat was consumed by the animals within 24 h of irradiation. In the other two experiments feeding of males was continued for 6 (10 males per group) and 12 (13 males per group) weeks, respectively, and the irradiated wheat was fed within 7 days of irradiation. At the end of each treatment period each male was paired with 3 females for 7 days and sequentially at weekly intervals for 5 or 8 weeks. Females were killed and examined for live and dead implantations and corpora lutea. There were no differences between groups with regard to fertility nor was there any inter-group difference as regards pre- and post-implantation losses whether the rats were fed irradiated or non-irradiated wheat. This suggested that even feeding of freshly irradiated wheat does not induce any dominant lethal mutations in rats

  10. Toxicology of a Peruvian botanical remedy to support healthy liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Hugh A; Sloley, B Duff; Cabanillas, José; Chiu, Andrea; Aung, Steven K H; Green, Francis H Y

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the safety of a botanical treatment for supporting healthy liver function developed in Peru. The formulation, A4+, contains extracts of Curcuma longa L. rhizome (A4R), Cordia lutea Lam. flower (A4F) and Annona muricata L. leaf (A4L). The tests were used to support an application for a non-traditional Natural Health Product Licence from the Natural Health Product Directorate of Health Canada and future clinical trials. Besides reviewing the scientific and clinical information from Peru on the ingredients and conducting an initial Ames test for mutagenicity, we analysed A4+ for its chemical profile and tested genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and general toxicity (28-day repeated dose). A4+ and extracts from the three plants provided distinctive chemical fingerprints. A4L contained acetogenins, requiring a second chromatographic method to produce a specific fingerprint. The Ames test proved positive at the highest concentration (5,000 μg/mL) but A4+ showed no evidence of genotoxicity in the more specific mouse micronucleus test. The 28-day repeated dose (general toxicity) study in rats showed no toxicity at 2,000 mg/kg. We conclude that under the conditions of these studies, A4+ shows no evidence of toxicity at the levels indicated. A no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 2,000 mg/kg was assigned.

  11. REGISTRO DA COCHONILHA-ROSADA-DO-HIBISCO INFESTANDO FRUTÍFERAS EM MACEIÓ, ALAGOAS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported for the first time the occurrence of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil attacking the following fruit species: soursop (Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae, guava (Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, mango (Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, acerola (Malpighia glaba L. (Malpighiaceae, cajazeiro (Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma gran-diflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (Malvaceae. The percentages of injured plants were recorded for each plant species in the field. Damaged plants showed short internodes, wrinkled leaves, fruit deformation, and sooty mold developed on the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs. Infested plant structures were taken to the Laboratory of Entomology of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Alagoas, where the mealybug species was identified through morphological characteristics. The following injury percentages were recorded on the plants: soursop (100%, guava (10%, mango (10%, carambola (100%, acerola (100%, cajá (50% and cupuaçu (100%. The mealybug collected in Maceió, AL; Brazil was identified as Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. It was the first record of this species in the state of Alagoas and infestation by pink hibiscus mealybug on the host plants mango, acerola and cajazeiro in Brazil.

  12. The presence of ovarian cysts in a captive Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Dzimira, Stanisław

    2017-08-15

    Several pathological changes associated with reproductive systems of marine mammals have been reported in primary literature. However, no such records exist regarding ovarian cysts in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758). A nulliparous female Antillean manatee, held in captivity at the Wroclaw Zoological Garden, died in April 2015. The animal was 370 cm long from nose to tail and weighed 670 kg. The width of manatee's fluke was 80 cm. The post-mortem examination of the reproductive system showed the numerous pathological cysts on the external surface of the left and the right ovaries. Morphologically, the cysts had varying diameters and were attached to the ovaries by stalks. Some of the cysts were thin-walled and contained fluid, while several others were solid or contained a semi-solid mass. The structure of the ovaries displayed features of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The cysts also exhibited positivity with cytokeratin and vimentin. There were no pathological changes within the uterus, uterine tube and vagina. Although we were unable to definitively determine the exact source of the ovarian cysts in the studied manatee, we found that one of the causes may be age-related. Our study also revealed that ovarian cysts in the Antillean manatee form both types of corpora lutea (CL).

  13. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND HOST USE IN HYBRIDIZING SUBSPECIES OF PAPILIO GLAUCUS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Robert H

    1990-12-01

    Two parapatric subspecies of the eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus glaucus and P. g. canadensis, differ greatly in larval survival and growth on host plants in the Magnoliaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae. In the first part of this study, butterflies were collected from 17 sites along a transect from Georgia to Quebec and used for allozyme electrophoresis. Two X- (or Z-)linked enzyme loci (Ldh and Pgd) showed allele frequency differences that delineated a hybrid zone between the subspecies in northern Pennsylvania and south-central New York. No significant linkage disequilibrium could be detected among allozyme loci within the hybrid zone samples. Genetic differentiation at Ldh and Pgd coincides with subspecies differences in diapause control and female mimicry, which are also sex-linked. Larval offspring of butterflies from 13 of the sites were then tested in the laboratory for survival and growth on Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae), Populus deltoïdes (Salicaceae) and Betula lutea (Betulaceae). Steep clines in survival rates matched the position of the hybrid zone. Hybrid zone larvae showed intermediate survival rates and significant heterogeneity among families on all three plants, indicating presence of substantial genetic variation. The results suggest that differential host use by P. g. glaucus and P. g. canadensis is maintained primarily by independent clines in selection intensity for ability to use allopatric sets of host plants, coupled with restricted gene flow across the hybrid zone. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Microscopic fungi on Nymphaeaceae plants of the Lake Płociczno in Drawa National Park (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of micromycetes associated with disease symptoms on the leaves and flowers of three plant species, Nymphaea alba (NA, Nymphaea candida (NC, and Nuphar lutea (NL, forming nympheid phytocoenoses on Lake Płociczno in Drawa National Park during the years 2009 to 2012. From all collected plant specimens, an overall number of 38 distinct taxa of fungi and chromistan fungal analogues was isolated. The largest diversity of taxa was found on NL (37 taxa, the lowest was on NC (4 taxa, and NA contained 12 taxa. Each year, anamorphic forms of Ascomycota were dominant in the taxonomic structure. For the first time in Poland, Septoria nupharis (NA, NL, NC and Colletotrichum nymphaeae (NL, NC were found on their spotted leaves. For both of the mentioned pathogens, Nymphaea candida is a new host plant in Poland. Botrytis cinerea, Elongisporangium undulatum (= Pythium undulatum, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium incarnatum (= F. semitectum, and Gibberella avenacea (= Fusarium avenaceum were found each year in the studied phytocoenoses. The confirmation of NA and NL flower infections by Botrytis cinerea, which leads to gangrene, is an important aspect of the gray mold epidemiology. Until now, the occurrence of smut fungi on nympheids in Drawa National Park was not observed. The taxonomic structure and the predomination of asexual stages of fungi, as well as the similarity coefficients, suggest that the seasonal decomposition of nympheids run naturally and contribute to maintaining the stability of the lake ecosystem.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  16. The Pseudomonas community in metal-contaminated sediments as revealed by quantitative PCR: a link with metal bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Wauven, Corinne Vander; Billon, Gabriel; Matthijs, Sandra; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria are ubiquitous Gram-negative and aerobic microorganisms that are known to harbor metal resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps and intracellular redox enzymes. Specific Pseudomonas bacteria have been quantified in some metal-contaminated environments, but the entire Pseudomonas population has been poorly investigated under these conditions, and the link with metal bioavailability was not previously examined. In the present study, quantitative PCR and cell cultivation were used to monitor and characterize the Pseudomonas population at 4 different sediment sites contaminated with various levels of metals. At the same time, total metals and metal bioavailability (as estimated using an HCl 1 m extraction) were measured. It was found that the total level of Pseudomonas, as determined by qPCR using two different genes (oprI and the 16S rRNA gene), was positively and significantly correlated with total and HCl-extractable Cu, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn, with high correlation coefficients (>0.8). Metal-contaminated sediments featured isolates of the Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas lutea and Pseudomonas aeruginosa groups, with other bacterial genera such as Mycobacterium, Klebsiella and Methylobacterium. It is concluded that Pseudomonas bacteria do proliferate in metal-contaminated sediments, but are still part of a complex community. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of SIRT1 in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome before and after therapeutic intervention with exenatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Zhang, Xiao; Ge, Shu-Qi; Zhang, Er-Hong; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its alteration after exenatide treatment. PCOS rat model was established by dehydroepiandrosterone induction. The animals were randomly divided into exenatide treatment group (EX group, n = 10), metformin treatment group (MF group, n = 10), PCOS group (PCOS group, n = 9) and normal control group (NC group, n = 10). Histological changes of the ovarian tissues were examined by HE staining. SIRT1 expression in the ovarian tissue was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Rats in the PCOS group lost their estrous cycle. Histological observation of the ovary showed saccular dilatation of the follicle, decreased number of corpora lutea, fewer layers of granulosa cells aligned loosely, and thickened layer of theca cells. The changes in reproductive hormones and the development of insulin resistance suggested the successful establishment of the animal models. Immunohistochemistry and Q-PCR detected the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1 in the ovary tissues of rats in the normal control group. The SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in PCOS group than in control group (P ovary tissue decreases in PCOS rats (compare with the normal rats) but can be up-regulated after Ex or MF treatment. These drugs may affect the process and development of PCOS by regulating the SIRT1 expression. Exenatide may be therapeutic for PCOS by up-regulating the SITR1 expression.

  18. Genome sizes of 227 accessions of Gagea (Liliaceae) discriminate between the species from the Netherlands and reveal new ploidies in Gagea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, B J M; Te Linde, B; van den Berg, L-J

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear genome size, as measured by flow cytometry with propidium iodide, was used to investigate the relationships within the genus Gagea (Liliaceae), mainly from the Netherlands. The basic chromosome number for Gagea is x = 12. The inferred ploidy in the Dutch and German accessions varies from diploid to decaploid. Consequently there is a large range of genome sizes (DNA 2C-values) from 14.9 to 75.1 pg. Genome sizes are evaluated here in combination with the results of morphological observations. Five species and the hybrid G. × megapolitana are reported. Apart from 14 diploid G. villosa, six plants of G. villosa with an inferred tetraploidy were found. For the 186 Dutch accessions investigated 85 turned out to be the largely sterile G. pratensis (inferred to be pentaploid). Inferred tetraploid and hexaploid G. pratensis were found in 30 and 20 localities, respectively. In one locality an inferred decaploid (10×) plant was found that could represent a doubled pentaploid G. pratensis. An inferred decaploid G. pratensis was never reported before. The genome size of Gagea × megapolitana from Germany fitted with its origin as a cross between the two hexaploids G. pratensis and G. lutea. Gagea spathacea from the Netherlands was inferred to be nonaploid as was recorded from plants across Europe. The aim of the study was to use flow cytometry as a tool to elucidate the taxonomic position of the Dutch Gagea.

  19. Changes in the reproductive function and developmental phenotypes in mice following intramuscular injection of an activin betaA-expressing plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Kelly E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TGF-beta family protein activin has numerous reported activities with some uncertainty in the reproductive axis and development. The precise roles of activin in in vivo system were investigated using a transient gain of function model. Methods To this end, an expression plasmid, pCMV-rAct, with the activin betaA cDNA fused to the cytomegalovirus promoter, was introduced into muscle of the female adult mice by direct injection. Results Activin betaA mRNA was detected in the muscle by RT-PCR and subsequent Southern blot analysis. Activin betaA was also detected, and western blot analysis revealed a relatively high level of serum activin with correspondingly increased FSH. In the pCMV-rAct-injected female mice, estrus stage within the estrous cycle was extended. Moreover, increased numbers of corpora lutea and a thickened granulosa cell layer with a small antrum in tertiary follicles within the ovary were observed. When injected female mice were mated with males of proven fertility, a subset of embryos died in utero, and most of those that survived exhibited increased body weight. Conclusion Taken together, our data reveal that activin betaA can directly influence the estrous cycle, an integral part of the reproduction in female mice and activin betaA can also influence the embryo development as an endocrine fashion.

  20. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345

  1. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries.

  2. [Clinical observation on treating diabetic macular edema with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Shi, Anna; Shi, Xun; Liu, Weifeng

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide(IVTA) combining with retinal laser treating for diabetic macular edema(DME). Twenty five patients(32 eyes) with DME who has microangioma in macula lutea were randomly divided into group A, B,C and D(8 eyes each group). Eyes in group A were treated with laser photocoagulation. Eyes in group B were treated with multiplier-532 laser photocoagulation and transpupillary thermotherapy. Eyes in group C were treated with multiplier-532 laser photocoagulation and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. Eyes in group D were treated with multiplier-532 laser, transpupillary thermotherapy plus triamcinolone acetonide injection. Intravitreal injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide was done 1 week after laser photocoagulation in group C and D. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure, macular thickness (foveal thickness) of the eyes in 4 groups were observed before and 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure and foveal thickness of the 4 groups before treatment showed no significant difference(p> ). The visual acuity, intraocular pressure, macular thickness of eyes in group A, B were better than those of group C, D at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment, and they had significant difference(p0.05). The effect of laser photocoagulation and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, laser photocoagulation combining with transpupillary thermotherapy plus triamcinolone acetonide injectionvisual treating for DME was better than laser photocoagulation alone, laser photocoagulation combining with transpupillary thermotherapy.

  3. Stable and sporadic symbiotic communities of coral and algal holobionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eric R; Barott, Katie L; Nulton, Jim; Vermeij, Mark JA; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-01-01

    Coral and algal holobionts are assemblages of macroorganisms and microorganisms, including viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, protists and fungi. Despite a decade of research, it remains unclear whether these associations are spatial–temporally stable or species-specific. We hypothesized that conflicting interpretations of the data arise from high noise associated with sporadic microbial symbionts overwhelming signatures of stable holobiont members. To test this hypothesis, the bacterial communities associated with three coral species (Acropora rosaria, Acropora hyacinthus and Porites lutea) and two algal guilds (crustose coralline algae and turf algae) from 131 samples were analyzed using a novel statistical approach termed the Abundance-Ubiquity (AU) test. The AU test determines whether a given bacterial species would be present given additional sampling effort (that is, stable) versus those species that are sporadically associated with a sample. Using the AU test, we show that coral and algal holobionts have a high-diversity group of stable symbionts. Stable symbionts are not exclusive to one species of coral or algae. No single bacterial species was ubiquitously associated with one host, showing that there is not strict heredity of the microbiome. In addition to the stable symbionts, there was a low-diversity community of sporadic symbionts whose abundance varied widely across individual holobionts of the same species. Identification of these two symbiont communities supports the holobiont model and calls into question the hologenome theory of evolution. PMID:26555246

  4. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45 ° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropinreleasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, these PGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  5. Prenatal toxicity of synthetic amorphous silica nanomaterial in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Schneider, Steffen; Wolterbeek, André; van de Sandt, Han; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-15

    Synthetic amorphous silica is a nanostructured material, which is produced and used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. No regulatory prenatal toxicity studies with this substance were reported yet. Therefore, synthetic amorphous silica was tested for prenatal toxicity, according to OECD guideline 414 in Wistar rats following oral (gavage) administration at the dose levels 0, 100, 300, or 1000mg/kg bw/d from gestation day 6-19. At gestation day 20, all pregnant animals were examined by cesarean section. Numbers of corpora lutea, implantations, resorptions, live and dead fetuses were counted. Fetal and placental weights were determined. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral and skeletal abnormalities. No maternal toxicity was observed at any dose level. Likewise, administration of the test compound did not alter cesarean section parameters and did not influence fetal or placental weights. No compound-related increase in the incidence of malformations or variations was observed in the fetuses. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 1000mg/kg bw/d. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicology of Lapachol in rats: embryolethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M de O; Mazoni, A S; Brandão, M A; Peters, V M

    2001-02-01

    Lapachol is a naphtoquinone with therapeutic potential against enterovirus, Chagas disease and is also used as an antimalarial and antiinflamatory agent. In order to study teratogenic potential of Lapachol, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 0.5 ml of distilled water (control group); 0.5 ml of hydroalcoholic solution (vehicle group) and 10 mg of Lapachol in 0.5 ml of hydroalcoholic solution (treated group) by oral gavage from the 8th to the 12th day of pregnancy. The following variables were observed: maternal body weight on days 1, 6, l5 and 21 and food intake on days 2, 6, 15 and 21 of pregnancy. The number of live and dead fetuses and the sites of resorptions were counted. The ovaries were weighed and the corpora lutea were counted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA-one way, Dunnett test and the chi square test. Significance level test alpha = 0.05. Results have shown that mothers were unaffected but there were a 99.2% of fetus mortality, indicative of a strong abortifacient effect of Lapachol in rats.

  7. Interceptive effect of Lapachol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M O; Mazoni, A S; Brandão, M A; Peters, V M

    1999-11-01

    Lapachol is a naphtoquinone with therapeutic potential against Chagas disease and is also used as an antimalarial agent. To study the reproductive toxicity potential of Lapachol, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 0.5 mL of distilled water (control group), 0.5 mL of hydroalcoholic solution (vehicle group), or 20 mg of Lapachol in 0.5 mL of hydroalcoholic solution (treated group) by oral gavage from the 8th to the 12th day of pregnancy. The following variables were observed: maternal body weight on days 1, 6, 15, and 21; food intake on days 2, 6, 15, and 21 of pregnancy. The number of live and dead fetuses and the sites of resorptions were counted. The ovaries were weighed and the corpora lutea were counted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA one-way Dunnett test and chi 2 test. Results showed that mothers were uneffected but there was 100% fetal/embryo mortality, indicative of a strong interceptive effect of Lapachol in rats.

  8. Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supong, Khomsan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Thawai, Chitti

    2013-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, SP03-05(T), was isolated from a marine sponge sample (Xestospongia sp.) collected from Phuket Province of Thailand. The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and produced single spores at the tips of the substrate mycelium. Strain SP03-05(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan; whole-cell sugars were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The polar lipid profile of strain SP03-05(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and unknown polar lipids. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain identified it as a member of the family Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity of the strain to Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora sediminis MS426(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T) (96.80 %), Verrucosispora maris AB-18-032(T) (96.80 %) and Verrucosispora qiuiae RtIII47(T) (95.40 %). The DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the classification of this strain as a representative of a novel species in the genus Verrucosispora, for which the name Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP03-05(T) ( = BCC 45620(T) = NBRC 109075(T)).

  9. Endocrine morphology and reproductive function in athymic nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Holland, J.M.; Hall, J.W.; Gipson, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Athymic BALB/c nude mice were reared and maintained in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) environment in order to assess the impact of genetic athymia on endocrine morphology and reproductive performance. Mice were killed at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 19 weeks of age. Kidneys, testes, ovaries, adrenals, thyroid, and submaxillary gland were processed for histology. Plasma content of estradiol (females) and testosterone (males) was determined. Plasma levels of estradiol and testosterone were comparable in nude and normal mice. The morphology of the ovaries of nude females was similar to normal females although fewer nude females (42%) had corpora lutea at 8 weeks than normal females (84%). Degeneration of the adrenal x-zone was slightly retarded in nude females. The thyroid gland was normal in nude mice; age related changes were observed in both phenotypes. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the morphology of the kidney and submaxillary glands in nude males. The appearance of these dimorphic characteristics corresponded with the appearance of mature spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules of the testes (8 weeks). Male and female nude mice were fertile, however, the survival of young to weaning was less in litters from nude females (28%) than from normal females (42%). These results suggest that abnormalities in endocrine morphology and reproductive performance are less severe in nude mice reared and maintained in SPF environment than those reported by other investigators.

  10. Incidence of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Herbal Medicines from German Retail Markets: Risk Assessments and Implications to Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Lindigkeit, Rainer; Beuerle, Till

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in herbal medicines (HMs) is currently intensely being discussed in Europe. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, particularly the 1,2-unsaturated PAs, are undesired compounds in HMs due to their potential hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. In this study, 98 widely patronized HMs from six popular German retail supermarkets/drugstores, as well as from pharmacies, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of PAs. The results showed that about 63% of the HMs were PA positive, whereas the average PA concentration of the samples was 201 μg/kg, the highest concentration of PAs (3270 μg/kg) was attributed to a product that was purchased from the pharmacy and contained Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) as an active ingredient. In addition, H. perforatum-containing products were frequently contaminated with PAs from Echium spp., while both Cynara cardunculus L. products and fixed-combination products of Gentiana lutea L., Rumex acetosa L., Verbena officinalis L., Sambucus nigra L., and Primula veris L. products were commonly contaminated with PAs of Senecio spp. The study showed that H. perforatum, C. cardunculus, Urtica dioica L., and fixed-combination products were frequently contaminated with PA levels above the recommended values of both the German and European Medicines Agencies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CLARITY reveals dynamics of ovarian follicular architecture and vasculature in three-dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Cui, Peng; Lu, Xiaowei; Hsueh, Brian; Möller Billig, Fredrik; Zarnescu Yanez, Livia; Tomer, Raju; Boerboom, Derek; Carmeliet, Peter; Deisseroth, Karl; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2017-03-23

    Optimal distribution of heterogeneous organelles and cell types within an organ is essential for physiological processes. Unique for the ovary, hormonally regulated folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteal formation/regression and associated vasculature changes lead to tissue remodeling during each reproductive cycle. Using the CLARITY approach and marker immunostaining, we identified individual follicles and corpora lutea in intact ovaries. Monitoring lifetime changes in follicle populations showed age-dependent decreases in total follicles and percentages of advanced follicles. Follicle development from primordial to preovulatory stage was characterized by 3 × 10 5 -fold increases in volume, decreases in roundness, and decreased clustering of same stage follicles. Construction of follicle-vasculature relationship maps indicated age- and gonadotropin-dependent increases in vasculature and branching surrounding follicles. Heterozygous mutant mice with deletion of hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) promoter showed defective ovarian vasculature and decreased ovulatory responses. Unilateral intrabursal injection of axitinib, an inhibitor of VEGF receptors, retarded neo-angiogenesis that was associated with defective ovulation in treated ovaries. Our approach uncovers unique features of ovarian architecture and essential roles of vasculature in organizing follicles to allow future studies on normal and diseased human ovaries. Similar approaches could also reveal roles of neo-angiogenesis during embryonic development and tumorigenesis.

  13. Effect of the Medium Composition on the Zn2+ Lixiviation and the Antifouling Properties of a Glass with a High ZnO Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution of an antimicrobial ZnO-glass in the form of powder and in the form of sintered pellets were studied in water, artificial seawater, biological complex media such as common bacterial/yeast growth media (Luria Bertani (LB, yeast extract, tryptone, and human serum. It has been established that the media containing amino acids and proteins produce a high lixiviation of Zn2+ from the glass due to the ability of zinc and zinc oxide to react with amino acids and proteins to form complex organic compounds. The process of Zn2+ lixiviation from the glass network has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. From these results we can state that the process of lixiviation of Zn2+ from the glass network is similar to the one observed in sodalime glasses, where Na+ is lixiviated to the media first and the fraction of Zn that acts as modifiers (~2/3 is lixiviated in second place. After the subsequent collapse of the outer surface glass layer (about 200–300 nm thick layer the dissolution process starts again. Antifouling properties against different bacteria (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and M. lutea have also been established for the glass pellets.

  14. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the bone morphogenetic protein family in rat ovary cell types during the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimasaki Shunichi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the mammalian ovary, great interest in the expression and function of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP family has been recently generated from evidence of their critical role in determining folliculogenesis and female fertility. Despite extensive work, there is a need to understand the cellular sites of expression of these important regulatory molecules, and how their gene expression changes within the basic ovary cell types through the cycle. Here we have performed a detailed in situ hybridization analysis of the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the BMP ligands (BMP-2, -3, -3b, -4, -6, -7, -15, receptors (BMPR-IA, -IB, -II, and BMP antagonist, follistatin, in rat ovaries over the normal estrous cycle. We have found that: i all of the mRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific manner in the major classes of ovary cell types (oocyte, granulosa, theca interstitial, theca externa, corpora lutea, secondary interstitial, vascular and ovary surface epithelium; and ii most undergo dynamic changes during follicular and corpora luteal morphogenesis and histogenesis. The general principle to emerge from these studies is that the developmental programs of folliculogenesis (recruitment, selection, atresia, ovulation, and luteogenesis (luteinization, luteolysis are accompanied by rather dramatic spatial and temporal changes in the expression patterns of these BMP genes. These results lead us to hypothesize previously unanticipated roles for the BMP family in determining fundamental developmental events that ensure the proper timing and developmental events required for the generation of the estrous cycle.

  15. The genus Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Annelida: Syllidae: Syllinae) from Australia (second part): four new species and re-description of twelve previously described species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Guillermo San; Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Hutchings, Pat

    2017-02-27

    Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818, the type genus of Syllidae, is the largest and most diverse within the family. This genus presents many taxonomic and phylogenetic problems due mainly to the lack of molecular data and morphological synapomorphies for many of the species, but also to poor or inadequate descriptions. In order to improve the knowledge of the genus, we have undertaken a morphological revision of Australian species, based on type material and material from the Australian Museum. Sixteen species are herein described, of which four are new and twelve are redescriptions of alreadyknown species, with six new combinations: Syllis boggemanni, n. sp.; S. joaoi, n. sp.; S. karlae, n. sp.; S. marceloi, n. sp.; S. albanyensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1984) n. comb.; S. erikae (Hartmann-Schröder, 1981) n. comb.; S. krohnii Ehlers 1864; S. lunaris (Imajima, 1966) n. comb.; S. lutea (Hartmann-Schröder, 1960); S. macrodentata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1982) n. comb.; S. monilaris Savigny in Lamarck, 1818; S. nigropunctata Haswell, 1886; S. pectinans Haswell, 1920; S. rosea (Langerhans, 1879); S. warrnamboolensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1987) n. comb.; and S. yallingupensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1982), n. comb.

  16. Prenatal developmental toxicity evaluation of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L) Dunal (Solanaceae) is an important traditional herbal medicine used for thousands of years and is considered as the Indian ginseng. Reports on the effect of Withania somnifera root (WSR) extract on the developing foetus of pregnant rats including mortality, structural abnormalities, changes in growth and effects on dams are not available. The present study was performed to evaluate the prenatal developmental toxicity potential of WSR extract in rats. WSR extract was given orally to pregnant rats during the period of major organogenesis and histogenesis (days 5 to 19 of gestation) at the dose levels of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day. Clinical observations including mortality, moribundity, behavioural changes, signs of overt toxicity, body weight, gross pathological changes of dams and foetal analyses including external malformations, skeletal and soft tissue malformations were evaluated. No evidence of maternal or foetal toxicity was observed. WSR extract caused no changes (p < 0.05) in body weight of parental females, number of corpora lutea, implantations, viable foetuses, external, skeletal and visceral malformations. Under the conditions of the study, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) of WSR extract for maternal and developmental toxicity was concluded to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day.

  17. Detection of polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase biosynthetic genes from antimicrobial coral-associated actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Dong, Jun-De; Yang, Jian; Luo, Xiong-Ming; Zhang, Si

    2014-10-01

    The diversity and properties of actinobacteria, predominant residents in coral holobionts, have been rarely documented. In this study, we aimed to explore the species diversity, antimicrobial activities and biosynthetic potential of culturable actinomycetes within the tissues of the scleractinian corals Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora from the South China Sea. A total of 70 strains representing 13 families and 15 genera of actinobacteria were isolated. The antimicrobial activity and biosynthetic potential of fifteen representative filamentous actinomycetes were estimated. Crude fermentation extracts of 6 strains exhibited comparable or greater activities against Vibrio alginolyticus than ciprofloxacin. Seven of the 15 actinomycetes strains possess type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) genes. Nine tested strains possess type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these PKS and NRPS gene screening positive strains belong to genera Nocardiopsis, Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Amycolatopsis and Prauserella. One PKS-I and four NRPS fragments showed actinomycetes to produce bioactive molecules.

  18. Selective Feeding and Microalgal Consumption Rates by Crown-Of-Thorns Seastar (Acanthaster cf. solaris Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mellin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns seastar (CoTS represent a major cause of coral loss on the Great Barrier Reef. Outbreaks can be explained by enhanced larval survival supported by higher phytoplankton availability after flood events, yet little is known about CoTS larvae feeding behaviour, in particular their potential for selective feeding. Here, single- and mixed-species feeding experiment were conducted on CoTS larvae using five algae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Pavlova lutheri, Tisochrysis lutea, Dunaliella sp. and Chaetoceros sp. and two algal concentrations (1000 and 2500 algae·mL−1. Cell counts using flow-cytometry at the beginning and end of each incubation experiment allowed us to calculate the filtration and ingestion rates of each species by CoTS larvae. In line with previous studies, CoTS larvae ingested more algae when the initial algal concentration was higher. We found evidence for the selective ingestion of some species (Chaetoceros sp., Dunaliella sp. over others (P. lutheri, P. tricornutum. The preferred algal species had the highest energy content, suggesting that CoTS selectively ingested the most energetic algae. Ultimately, combining these results with spatio-temporal patterns in phytoplankton communities will help elucidate the role of larval feeding behaviour in determining the frequency and magnitude of CoTS outbreaks.

  19. GnRH agonist trigger for the induction of oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist IVF cycles: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Humaidan, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger is effective in the induction of oocyte maturation and prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome during IVF treatment. This trigger concept, however, results in early corpora lutea demise and consequently luteal phase dysfunction and impaired endometrial receptivity. The aim of this strenghths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis was to summarize the progress made over the past 15 years to optimize ongoing pregnancy rates after GnRHa trigger. The advantages and potential drawbacks of this type of triggering are reviewed. The current approach to the management of GnRHa trigger in autologous cycles is based on the peak serum oestradiol level or follicle number and aims at a fresh embryo transfer or a segmentation approach with elective cryopreservation policy. We recommend intensive luteal support with transdermal oestradiol and intramuscular progesterone alone if peak serum oestradiol is 4000 or more pg/ml after GnRHa trigger or dual trigger with GnRHa and HCG 1000 IU if peak serum oestradiol is less than 4000 pg/mL. On the contrary, we recommend HCG 1500 IU 35 h after GnRHa trigger if there are less than 25 follicles, or freeze all oocytes or embryos if there are over 25 follicles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  1. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rat. Methods: The study was divided into four groups. The group I received distilled water and served as vehicle treated control. Groups II, III and IV were orally administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight dose of seed extract respectively, for 10 consecutive days and subsequently euthanized twenty four hours after the last dose. Results: The treatment prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage. The analysis of the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone showed significantly decreased levels in dose-dependant manner. Ovarian and uterine weight was significantly reduced as compared to that of the control group. Histoarchitectural observations revealed follicular atresia and degeneration of corpora lutea in ovary. Oviduct showed degeneration of mucosal folds and epithelium cells. Uterus showed evidence of degeneration of endometrial epithelium and endometrial glands. Lamina propria and muscularis layer of vagina were found slightly disorganized. Conclusions: It can be concluded that significant decrease in the hormone levels, reproductive organs weight and alterations in histoarchitecture of reproductive organs might be due to antiestrogenic nature of seed extract.

  2. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  3. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

  4. Effects of melatonin on superovulation and transgenic embryo transplantation in small-tailed han sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chai, Menglong; Tian, Xiuzhi; Wang, Feng; Fu, Yao; He, Changjiu; Deng, Shoulong; Lian, Zhengxing; Feng, Jiangzhong; Tan, Dun-Xian; Liu, Guoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of melatonin on superovulation and the transfer of transgenic embryos were investigated in Small-Tailed Han sheep. Different doses of melatonin (0, 40 or 80 mg/animal) were subcutaneously implanted into both multiparous (4-5 years old) donors and recipients before superovulation and estrus synchronization. The one-year-old young ewes without melatonin treatment served to evaluate the reproductive efficiency of the adult multiparous ewes. Ewes with superovulation were used as embryo donors. The estrus were induced in embryo recipients after embryo transpimplanted. The results showed that the number of corpora lutea of the ewes received subcutaneous 40 or 80 mg melatonin implant (13.4±1.05/ewe, 15.1±1.62/ewe) were significantly higher than that of in control group (8.8±0.37/ewe) (pembryos from the ewes received subcutaneous 40 or 80 mg melatonin implant (10.3±0.84/ewe, 10.9±1.21/ewe) was significantly higher than the control group (6.2±0.60/ewe) (pembryos from 40 or 80 mg melatonin treated donors dramatically improved the pregnancy and birth rates compared to control ewes. In addition, both 40 mg and 80 mg melatonin implatation lead to more lambs born per embryo. These observations provide valuable information for the application of melatonin in increasing superovulation and transgenic embryo transplantation efficiency in sheep.

  5. In Vitro Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Microbial Potentiality Investigation of Different Fractions of Caryota urens Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Shofiul; Mahmud, Md Kayes; Naquib, Md Hamza; Hossain, Saad Mosharraf; Alam, Mohammad Nazmul; Uddin, Md Josim; Sajid, Irfan; Hossain, Muhammad Sazzad; Karim, Md Salimul; Hasan, Md Ali

    2016-07-27

    Caryota urens is a member of the Arecaceae family and a common plant in the Southeast Asian region. This plant has been reported as an anti-microbial agent in recent years. Thus, we aimed to find out the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) against different pathogenic microorganism. The leaves of C. urens were extracted and fractioned using different reagents (chloroform, n -hexane and carbon tetrachloride). Disc diffusion method was implemented for the assessment of in vitro anti-microbial potency (500 and 250 µg/disc). The entire fraction showed good effect (with the zone of inhibition 19-25 mm) against both gram positive ( Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus megaterium , Bacillus cereus , Sarina lutea ) and gram negative ( Vibrio mimicus , Shigella boydii , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) bacterial pathogens and fungal strains ( Aspergillus niger , Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The plants also possess effective free radical scavenging potency with an IC 50 of 130.32 µg/mL. This finding reflects a link between the presence of anti-oxidative material and a substantial anti-microbial activity, and substantiates all previous claims against C. urens .

  6. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species.

  7. Development of embryos in superovulated guinea pigs following active immunization against the inhibin alpha-subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F; Mochida, K; Suzuki, O; Matsuda, J; Ogura, A; Tsonis, C G; Watanabe, G; Suzuki, A K; Taya, K

    2000-08-01

    Embryo recovery and subsequent embryonic development from guinea pigs treated with or without inhibin vaccines were compared to determine the effect of active immunization against the inhibin alpha-subunit. Twenty female guinea pigs of the Hartley strain were injected 3 times either with 1 ml inhibin vaccine (recombinant ovine inhibin a-subunit in oil emulsion: 50 microg/ml, inhibin-immunized group), or 1 ml placebo (saline in oil emulsion; control group) at 4 week intervals. After one estrous cycle following the last injection, females were naturally mated and embryos were collected at 11:00 hr of day 6 of pregnancy (Day 1: sperm in the vaginal smear) for culture in vitro. Active immunization increased the number of corpora lutea (12.6+/-3.0 vs. 4.6+/-0.2, P0.05). During subsequent 8 day culture in vitro, most of the recovered embryos formed trophoblast outgrowth; 100% (14/14) and 88.2% (15/17) in control and immunized groups, respectively. High levels of inhibin antibody titers were sustained in the inhibin-immunized guinea pigs at least for 5 months after the last injection while no antibody titer was detected in the control animals. These results indicate that active immunization against the inhibin a-subunit is a long-acting and efficient method to induce superovulation with normal embryonic development in the guinea pig.

  8. "Oasis de neblina" en los cerros costeros del sur de Iquique, región de Tarapacá, Chile, durante el evento El Niño 1997-1998 Fog oases during the El Niño Southern Oscillation 1997-1998, in the coastal hills south of Iquique, Tarapacá region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÉLICA MUÑOZ-SCHICK

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la flora de cuatro sitios de "oasis de neblina" del desierto costero del Norte de Chile, entre Iquique y la desembocadura del río Loa, muestreados entre los meses de octubre de 1997 y enero de 1998. No existían muestreos anteriores en tres de los sitios: Alto Patache, Punta Lobos y Alto Chipana. Se registraron en esta ocasión 72 especies de plantas vasculares, lo que amplía notablemente el conocimiento florístico de este sector, que poseía a la fecha apenas una veintena de especies registradas. De las especies recolectadas, tres constituyen nuevos registros para la flora chilena: Nolana adansonii (Roem. et Schult. Johnst., Solanum cfr. montanum L. y Ophryosporus cfr. floribundus (DC. King et Rob., mientras que Alstroemeria lutea (Muñoz 2000 constituye una especie nueva para la ciencia. Esta última, junto a Eulychnia aricensis Ritter, Pyrrhocactus saxifragus Ritter y Nolana intonsa Johnst., son endémicas locales. Del total de especies, un 43 % son endémicas y un 52,8 % son nativas no endémicas, existiendo un bajo porcentaje (4,2 % de especies adventicias; 34 especies (47,2 % comparten su área de distribución con el Perú. Las familias Asteraceae, Nolanaceae y Solanaceae son las mejor representadas en el área con más de siete especies cada una. Las condiciones climáticas derivadas del evento El Niño 1997-1998 han favorecido el desarrollo de la vegetación en los oasis de neblina al sur de Iquique. Aunque no hay un aumento de las precipitaciones durante el período 1997-1998, sí se aprecia un incremento en las temperaturas así como en el contenido líquido de la neblina, lo que favorecería el desarrollo de una vegetación más exuberante y la expansión del área de ocupación de algunos elementos florísticosThe flora of four fog oases in the northern Chilean coastal desert, visited between October 1997 and January 1998, is described. These botanical collections are new for Alto Patache, Punta Lobos and Alto Chipana

  9. Gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina: purificação, caracterização e resposta ovariana em ovinos e suínos Equine chorionic gonadotrophin: purification, characterization and ovarian activity in ewes and gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG foi purificada e caracterizada com respeito ao grau de pureza e atividade biológica. A pureza de quatro preparações foi determinada por eletroforese e a atividade biológica pelo incremento do peso ovariano de ratas imaturas (40 - 50g e pela indução de ovulação em ovelhas e leitoas. A análise eletroforética revelou a presença de três bandas polipeptídicas. A atividade biológica media foi de 313 UI/mg de proteína. Sessenta e cinco (65 ovelhas, fora da estação reprodutiva, foram divididas ao acaso em dois grupos os quais receberam implantes vaginais de esponjas impregnadas com acetato de medroxiprogesterona por um período de l l a 14 dias. No grupo I (55 ovelhas, foram injetadas (IM 500UI do eCG purificado no momento da retirada das esponjas, enquanto que no grupo II (10 ovelhas foram injetadas 500UI de eCG comercial. Uma semana após a aplicação do eCG as ovelhas foram submetidas a um exame laparoscópico para avaliar o número de ovulações. Obteve-se uma média de 2,1 ± 0,3 e 1,8 ± 0,3 ovulações (P>0,05 para as ovelhas dos grupos I e II, respectivamente. De 120 leitoas pré-púberes, com peso médio de 87,2 kg, 90 (grupo I foram injetadas com 500UI do eCG purificado e, às 72 horas, 500UI de hCG (gonadotrofina coriônica humana, e 30 leitoas (grupo II não receberam injeção hormonal. Observou-se a presença de 25,9 ± 22,2 e 0,0 corpora lutea (PEquine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG was purified and characterized with respect to its purity and bionological activity. The purity of four preparations was determined by electrophoresis, and the biological activity by increasing of the ovarian weight ot immature female rats (40-50g and induction ot ovulation of ewes and gilts. Electrophoretic analysis revealed three polipeptidic bands. The mean biological activity was 313UI/mg of protein. Sixty-five ewes, not in reproductive season, were divided randomly in two groups that received vaginal

  10. Desenvolvimento pré-embrionário em ratas tratadas com oxcarbazepina nos quatro primeiros dias após a inseminação Pre-embryo development in rats treated with oxcarbazepine in the first four days after insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de O. Guerra

    2000-10-01

    treated with 20 or 200mg oxcarbazepine/Kg body weight by oral gavage, 1,2,3,or 4 days after insemination or, consecutively, from the first to de fourth day aiming at veryfing the amount and the development up to the expanded blastocyst stage. Maternal body weight and signs such as hair bristling and alteration of the locomotion activity were observed in order to verify any signs of maternal toxicity. A number of corpora lutea and ovaries weight were noted for the analysis of the animal reproductive capacity. RESULTS: Neither maternal body weight losses nor any physical alteration indicative of discomfort to the rats was observed. Ovaries weight and number of corpora lutea did not differ between treated and control animals. The average of pre-embryos per mother, the index of embryonic losses, the proportion of expanded blastocysts in relation to the total number of pre-embryos and the average of expanded blastocyst/mother did not differ between treated and control animals. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that oxcarbazepine administered to female rats following the therapeutic procedure mentioned above, did not show any toxic effect on the mother and did not alter the pre-embryo development.

  11. Superovulação em coelhas alimentadas com ração, contendo diferentes fontes de óleos vegetais = Super-ovulation in rabbit does fed on rations containing different sources of vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Andreazzi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta ovulatória de 40 coelhas, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (ração sem adição de óleo e rações contendo 3% de óleo de canola, óleo de milho ou óleo de soja e 10 repetições. Aplicou-se uma dose única de 40 UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina (eCG e, 48 horas após, as coelhas foram cobertas. Decorridas 72 horas das coberturas, as coelhas foram sacrificadas e coletaram-se 10 mL de sangue para análise dos níveis séricos de progesterona e 17β-estradiol. Também foi obtido o peso do útero com os ovários e contado o número de folículos e de corpos lúteos. Para a colheita dos embriões, realizaram-se 3 lavagens por corno uterino, com o meio Dulbecco modificado (PBS. O efluente foi colhido e as estruturasembrionárias avaliadas. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 quanto aos níveis séricos de progesterona e 17β-estradiol, peso do útero com os ovários, número de folículos e de corpos lúteos nos ovários direito e esquerdo e n��mero de estruturas viáveis e degeneradas. Porém, houve efeito (PEffects of super-ovulation on 40 rabbit does were evaluated. Females were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments (oil-free ration and rations with 3% canola oil, corn oil or soybean oil and 10 replications. Each doe received a unique intramuscular dose of 40 UI of equine corionic gonadotrophin (eCG; 48hours later they underwent breeding. After 72 hours of breeding, the does were slaughtered and 10mL blood samples were collected for progesterone and 17β-estradiol serum level analyses. Other parameters, such as weight of uterus with ovaries, number of follicles and of corpora lutea, were obtained. Embryos were recovered by three flushings, per uterine corn, with Dulbecco extender (PBS. The recovered effluent was analyzed to find out structures and classify them according to morphology and age. No differences

  12. Changes in keratin 8/18 expression in human granulosa cell lineage are associated to cell death/survival events: potential implications for the maintenance of the ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, F; Morales, C; Roa, J; Tena-Sempere, M

    2018-04-01

    Is keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) expression linked to cell death/survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage? A close association exists between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/survival events along the human granulosa cell lineage lifespan. In addition to their structural and mechanical functions, K8/K18 play essential roles regulating cell death, survival and differentiation in several non-gonadal epithelial tissues. Transfection of the granulosa-like tumor KGN cells with siRNA to interfere KRT8 and KRT18 expression increases FAS-mediated apoptosis, while an inverse association between K8/K18 expression and cell death has been found in the bovine antral follicles and corpus luteum. Yet, only fragmentary and inconclusive information exists regarding K8/K18 expression in the human ovary. Expression of K8/K18 was assessed by immunohistochemistry at different stages of the granulosa cell lineage, from flattened granulosa cells in primordial follicles to fully luteinized granulosa-lutein cells in the corpus luteum (including corpus luteum of pregnancy). Immunohistochemical detection of K8/K18 was conducted in 40 archival ovarian samples from women aged 17-39 years. K8/K18 expression was analyzed at the different stages of follicle development and corpus luteum lifespan. The proportions of primordial follicles showing all K8/K18-positive, all K8/K18 negative, or a mixture of K8/K18 negative and positive granulosa cells were quantified in 18 ovaries, divided into three age groups: ≤ 25 years (N = 6), 26-30 (N = 6) and 31-36 (N = 6) years. A total number of 1793 primordial, 750 transitional and 140 primary follicles were scored. A close association was found between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/cell survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage. Large secondary and early antral follicles (most of them undergoing atresia) and regressing corpora lutea displayed low/absent K8/K18 expression. Conversely, early growing and some large antral

  13. Effect of algal biofertilizer on yield and protein content of rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antarikanonda, P.; Amarit, P.; Chetsumon; Tancharoenrat, P.

    Four strains of nitrogen fixing blue-green algae, namely Anabaena siamensis, Anabaena lutea, Nostoc sp. 46 and Nostoc sp. 79. Mixed cultures were applied as biofertilizers to four paddy soil samples, taken from Rangsit, Khok Sumrong, Sakhon Nakorn and Surin areas. Pots which were arranged in completely randomized design consisted of 3 replications and 2 treatment in each replication. These treatments comprise an unbiofertilizer and a biofertilizer which biofertilizer rate was applied equally at 4 grams of blue green algae per 10 kilograms of soil sample. The results showed that algal biofertilizer enhanced the growth and yield of the rice significantly, which was noticeable in the dry weight of the straw and grain of rice, for all sources of soil. Grain yield of rice in these soils increased form the check of 32.07, 34.87, 8.86 and 21.49 to 53.14, 49.53, 20.02, and 49.60 grams per pot, respectively. The responsiveness of rice which received algal biofertilizer was different. The percentage increase in yield ranged from 42% in Khok Sumrong soil and 66% in Rangsit soil, to 126 and 131% in Sakhon Nakorn and Surin soil, respectively. Significant increase in protein content of rice with the application of algal biofertilizer was from the check of 5.03, 5.14, 6.75 and 5.25 to 6.45, 6.53, 7.80 and 7.11 percent respectively. The difference in plant N-uptake level, after the application algal biofertilizer gave 383.50, 310.00, 222.20 and 480.70 milligrams per pot, respectively.

  14. Effect of fish oil on agonist-induced receptor internalization of the PG F2αreceptor and cell signaling in bovine luteal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewes, M R; Burns, P D

    2018-04-01

    Many receptors span the plasma membrane allowing for signal transduction, converting extracellular signals into intracellular signals. Following ligand-induced activation, membrane-bound receptors are taken into endocytic vesicles, where they are targeted for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. The objectives of the present study were to determine the influence of fish oil on (1) PGF 2α -induced receptor internalization and trafficking of the PGF 2α (FP) receptor, (2) cytoskeletal structural integrity, and (3) PGF 2α -induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in bovine luteal cells. Bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and corpora lutea (CL; n = 4-6) were digested using collagenase. For all experiments, cells were incubated in either BSA or fish oil-supplemented media for 72 h to allow incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into biological membranes. Confocal microscopy was used to determine the influence of fish oil on PGF 2α -induced receptor internalization and trafficking of the FP receptor and cytoskeletal structural integrity. In addition, Western blotting was used to determine the effects of fish oil on PGF 2α -induced MAPK signaling in bovine luteal cells. Results from the present study demonstrate that fish oil disrupts the colocalization of G αq with both caveola microdomains and FP receptor as well as PGF 2α -induced MAPK signaling. This disruption of the FP receptor with the G-protein alpha subunit may be one mechanism by which a MAPK signaling is diminished following the addition of PGF 2α . Furthermore, fish oil disrupts FP receptor internalization and endosomal protein trafficking without detectable changes in the cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prepubertal zearalenone exposure suppresses N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis but causes severe endocrine disruption in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Yasuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Pei, Ren-Jeng; Yuri, Takashi; Danbara, Naoyuki; Hatano, Takehiko; Tsubura, Airo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of prepubertal exposure to zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin, on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis and its influence on reproductive organs were examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Prepubertal rats were treated daily with either 0.1 or 10 mg/kg body weight of zearalenone between 15 and 19 days of age and compared with zearalenone-untreated animals (30 rats in each group). Six rats in each group were autopsied at 28 days of age, and their growth was evaluated. All remaining rats were given 50 mg/kg body weight MNU at 28 days of age and followed by monitoring for occurrence of mammary tumors > or =1 cm in diameter. Zearalenone did not affect body weight increase, and mammary glands showed similar development at 28 days of age (time at carcinogen administration). Both low- and high-dose zearalenone treatment significantly reduced incidence of mammary tumors > or =1 cm in diameter but did not influence latency (time between MNU administration and harvest of mammary tumor > or =1 cm in diameter) compared with untreated controls. Zearalenone dose dependently suppressed the number of histologically detected tumors (carcinomas) and multiplicity; the suppression was significant with high-dose treatment. However, high-dose treatment caused significantly earlier vaginal opening, both low- and high-dose treatment significantly caused irregularity of estrous cycle (persistent estrus or prolonged diestrus) at 8 to 10 wk of age, and zearalenone dose dependently increased the number of anovulatory rats (ovaries without newly formed corpora lutea) at 37 wk of age. Thus, short-duration zearalenone treatment in the prepubertal period suppressed subsequent mammary cancer occurrence but also severely damaged ovarian functions. This suggests that ingestion of foods containing zearalenone in the infantile period can have dramatic effects in later life.

  16. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  17. Cell differentiation and tissue formation in the unique fruits of devil's claws (Martyniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbens, Melanie; Gao, Jie; Neinhuis, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Martyniaceae are characterized by capsules with two upwardly curved, horn-shaped extensions representing morphologically specialized epizoochorous fruits. Because the capsules are assumed to cling to hooves and ankles of large mammals, fiber arrangement and tissue combinations within the endocarp ensuring proper attachment to the vector's feet during transport are of particular interest. In this first detailed anatomical investigation, the functional adaptation of the fruits and their implications for the specific dispersal mode are provided. The peculiar fiber arrangement may also be of interest for future biomimetic composite materials.• Methods: Endocarp anatomy and details of tissue differentiation were examined in fruits of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisianica subsp. fragrans combining light microscopy, SEM, and x-ray microtomography analysis.• Key results: While tips of the extensions are predominantly reinforced by longitudinally oriented fibers, in the middle segment these fibers are densely packed in individual bundles entwined and separated by transversely elongated cells. Within the capsule wall, the fiber bundles are embedded in a dense mesh of transversely oriented fibers that circularly reinforce and protect the loculus. This fibrous pericarp tissue develops within few days by localized cell divisions and intrusive growth of primarily isodiametric parenchyma cells in the pistil.• Conclusions: The study allows insight into a unique and complex example of functionally driven cell growth and tissue formation. Long-horned fruits of Martyniaceae obviously are highly specialized to epizoochorous dispersal, pointing to primary vector-related seed dispersal. The highly ordered arrangement of fibers results in a great mechanical firmness. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  18. Successful vitrification and autografting of baboon (Papio anubis) ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani A; Jacobs, Sophie; Devireddy, Ram V; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Vanacker, Julie; Jaeger, Jonathan; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2013-08-01

    Can a vitrification protocol using an ethylene glycol/dimethyl sulphoxide-based solution and a cryopin successfully cryopreserve baboon ovarian tissue? Our results show that baboon ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved with our vitrification protocol. Non-human primates have already been used as an animal model to test vitrification protocols for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Ovarian biopsies from five adult baboons were vitrified, warmed and autografted for 5 months. After grafting, follicle survival, growth and function and also the quality of stromal tissue were assessed histologically and by immunohistochemistry. The influence of the vitrification procedure on the cooling rate was evaluated by a computer model. After vitrification, warming and long-term grafting, follicles were able to grow and maintain their function, as illustrated by Ki67, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) immunostaining. Corpora lutea were also observed, evidencing successful ovulation in all the animals. Stromal tissue quality did not appear to be negatively affected by our cryopreservation procedure, as demonstrated by vascularization and proportions of fibrotic areas, which were similar to those found in fresh ungrafted ovarian tissue. Despite our promising findings, before applying this technique in a clinical setting, we need to validate it by achieving pregnancies. In addition to encouraging results obtained with our vitrification procedure for non-human ovarian tissue, this study also showed, for the first time, expression of AMH and GDF-9 in ovarian follicles. This study was supported by grants from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (grant Télévie No. 7.4507.10, grant 3.4.590.08 awarded to Marie-Madeleine Dolmans), Fonds Spéciaux de Recherche, Fondation St Luc, Foundation Against Cancer, and Department of Mechanical Engineering at Louisiana State University (support to Ram Devireddy), and

  19. Time-resolved record of236U and239,240Pu isotopes from a coral growing during the nuclear testing program at Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Chan, W Y; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Fifield, L K

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive series of nuclear tests were carried out by the United States at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, especially between 1952 and 1958. A Porites Lutea coral that was growing in the Enewetak lagoon within a few km of all of the high-yield tests contains a continuous record of isotopes, which are of interest (e.g. 14 C, 236 U, 239,240 Pu) through the testing period. Prior to the present work, 14 C measurements at ∼2-month resolution had shown pronounced peaks in the Δ 14 C data that coincided with the times at which tests were conducted. Here we report measurements of 236 U and 239,240 Pu on the same coral using accelerator mass spectrometry, and again find prominent peaks in the concentrations of these isotopes that closely follow those in 14 C. Consistent with the 14 C data, the magnitudes of these peaks do not, however, correlate well with the explosive yields of the corresponding tests, indicating that smaller tests probably contributed disproportionately to the debris that fell in the lagoon. Additional information about the different tests can also be obtained from the 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios, which are found to vary dramatically over the testing period. In particular, the first thermonuclear test, Ivy-Mike, has characteristic 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu signatures which are diagnostic of the first arrival of nuclear test material in various archives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community.

  1. Soemmerring's work on the nervous system: a view on brain structure and function from the late eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, R

    2005-12-01

    Samuel Thomas Soemmerring (1755-1830) was an encyclopaedic anatomist and one of the most experienced and renowned neuro-anatomists in the late eighteenth century. His description and illustration of the brainstem with its still accepted classification of cranial nerves (1778), the discovery of the acervulus in the epiphysis (1785), his demonstration of the crossing of the optic nerve fibres (1788), and of the macula lutea in the retina of the eye he had discovered in 1791, won him great recognition. Probably, unaware of Francesco Gennari's (1750-1797) and Félix Vicq d'Azyr's (1748-1794) observation, Soemmerring in the final years of the eighteenth century saw the broad white line running through the calcarine cortex of the occipital lobe. Soemmerring's comprehensive textbooks on the nervous system Vom Hirn and Rückenmark, 1788/1792, and Hirn- und Nervenlehre as part of his anatomical handbook Vom Baue des menschlichen Körpers, 1791/2nd edn, 1800, comprise all the knowledge in the field of neuro-anatomy at his time. Although the structure-function relationships mentioned are generally hypothetical, Soemmerring was convinced that mental faculties are executed in certain brain regions. In his treatise Uber das Organ der Seele, 1796, he localized the functions of the soul within the cerebrospinal fluid, which should come into close contact with the demonstrated and presumed nerve endings in the walls of the ventricular cavities. This last attempt of a synthesis of anatomy and metaphysics provoked passionate discussions and was criticised for epistemological reasons. Nevertheless, Soemmerring had moved the brain into the centre of the science of man what led to far-reaching consequences in the complexity of the discourse about man.

  2. Laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination improves pregnancy success in exogenous gonadotropin-treated domestic cats as a model for endangered felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Valéria A; Bateman, Helen L; Schook, Mandi W; Newsom, Jackie; Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Deddens, James A; Swanson, William F

    2013-07-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) in cats traditionally uses equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce follicular development and ovulation, with subsequent bilateral laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. However, long-acting hCG generates undesirable secondary ovulations in cats. Uterine AI also requires relatively high numbers of spermatozoa for fertilization (~8 × 10(6) sperm), and unfortunately, sperm recovery from felids is frequently poor. Using short-acting porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) instead of hCG, and using the oviduct as the site of sperm deposition, could improve fertilization success while requiring fewer spermatozoa. Our objectives were to compare pregnancy and fertilization success between 1) uterine and oviductal inseminations and 2) eCG/hCG and eCG/pLH regimens in domestic cats. Sixteen females received either eCG (100 IU)/hCG (75 IU) or eCG (100 IU)/pLH (1000 IU). All females ovulated and were inseminated in one uterine horn and the contralateral oviduct using fresh semen (1 × 10(6) motile sperm/site) from a different male for each site. Pregnant females (11/16; 69%) were spayed approximately 20 days post-AI, and fetal paternity was genetically determined. The number of corpora lutea (CL) at AI was similar between hormone regimens, but hCG increased the number of CL at 20 days post-AI. Numbers of pregnancies and normal fetuses were similar between regimens. Implantation abnormalities were observed in the hCG group only. Finally, oviductal AI produced more fetuses than uterine AI. In summary, laparoscopic oviductal AI with low sperm numbers in eCG/hCG- or eCG/pLH-treated females resulted in high pregnancy and fertilization percentages in domestic cats. Our subsequent successes with oviductal AI in eCG/pLH-treated nondomestic felids to produce healthy offspring supports cross-species applicability.

  3. Differential ovarian expression of KiSS-1 and GPR-54 during the estrous cycle and photoperiod induced recrudescence in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2009-05-01

    Kisspeptins, coded by the KiSS-1 gene, regulate aspects of the reproductive axis by stimulating GnRH release via the G protein coupled receptor, GPR54. Recent reports show that KiSS/GPR54 may be key mediators in photoperiod-controlled reproduction in seasonal breeders, and that KiSS-1/GPR54 are expressed in the hypothalamus, ovaries, placenta, and pancreas. This study examined the expression of KiSS-1/GPR54 mRNA and protein in ovaries of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Ovaries from cycling hamsters were collected during proestrus (P), estrus (E), diestrus I (DI), and diestrus II (DII). To examine KiSS-1/GPR54 during stimulated recrudescence, additional hamsters were maintained either in long day (LD 16L:8D, control) or short day (SD 8L:16D) for 14 weeks and then transferred to LD for 0-8 weeks. Staining of KiSS-1/GPR54 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in steroidogenic cells of pre-antral and antral follicles, and corpora lutea. Immunostaining peaked in P and E, but decreased in the diestrus stages (P GPR54 immunostaining was low after 14 weeks of SD exposure (post-transfer [PT] week 0), and increased during the early weeks of recrudescence. Expression of KiSS-1/GPR54 mRNA was low with short day exposure, but increased during recrudescence and was higher at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0 and 2 (P GPR54 expression during P and E suggests a potential role in ovulation in Siberian hamsters. Transient increases in KiSS-1/GPR54 expression following LD stimulation are also suggestive of possible involvement in ovulation and/or restoration of ovarian function. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Response of the Syrian awassi ewes to the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Awassi ewes were divided equally into 3 groups. Ewes in the first (T10) and second groups (T15) were injected intramuscularly twice with either 10 mg (T10) or 15 mg (T15) of prosolvin, with an interval of 11 days. Whereas, the third group (C) was used as a control group. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the ewes using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Oestrus behaviour appeared in the ewes in group T10 on average after 83.3 hours, while oestrus appeared in the ewes in group T15 on average after 136.5 hours, after the second injection of prosolvin. In the control group (C), oestrus behaviour appeared on average after 251.2 hours, post ram introduction. The differences between the treated and the control animals in the time of oestrus behaviour was significant (p < 0.05). Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.64, 0.48 and 0.32 nmol/l for T10, T15 and C groups, respectively. The treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea. Progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second prosolvin injection. The concentration dropped from 8.48 n mol/l to 0.52 n mol/l in the sera of group T10, and from 7.95 n mol/l to 0.45 n mol/l for the group T15. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. It could be concluded that it is possible to use the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronization in the local Awassi ewes inside the breeding season at the doses of 10 and 15 mg. (author)

  5. The evaluation of two doses of prostaglandin F2α analogue, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronisation of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty Awassi ewes were divided equally into 3 groups. Ewes in the first (T10) and second groups (T15) were injected intramuscularly twice with either 10 mg (T10) or 15 mg (T15) of prosolvin, with an interval of 11 days. Whereas, the third group (C) was used as a control group. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the ewes using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Oestrus behaviour appeared in the ewes in group T10 on average after 83.3 hours, while oestrus appeared in the ewes in group T15 on average after 136.5 hours, after the second injection of prosolvin. In the control group (C), oestrus behaviour appeared on average after 251.2 hours, post ram introduction. The differences between the treated and the control animals in the time of oestrus behaviour was significant (p < 0.05). Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.64, 0.48 and 0.32 nmol/l for T10, T15 and C groups, respectively. The treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea. Progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second prosolvin injection. The concentration dropped from 8.48 n mol/l to 0.52 n mol/l in the sera of group T10, and from 7.95 n mol/l to 0.45 n mol/l for the group T15. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. It could be concluded that it is possible to use the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronization in the local Awassi ewes inside the breeding season at the doses of 10 and 15 mg. (author)

  6. Application de l'échographie à l'étude de la dynamique folliculaire à l'oestrus induit chez les femelles zébu 'Goudali'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of Ultrasonography to the Investigation of Follicular Dynamic in Synchronized 'Goudali' Zebu Females. A transrectal ultrasonography was used to follow the follicular dynamics in 8 'Goudali' zebu females. Three treatments were used to synchronize estrus: Group 1: Crestar implant associated to PGF2 and PMSG (n= 4; Group 2: Crestar implant associated to PMSG (n= 2 and Group 3: Crestar implant associated to PGF2 (n= 2. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed as follows: day of implant introduction, day of implant removal, and at 4 hour interval between the 28th and the 56th hour after implant removal. The ovaries were examined 7 days after ovulation to determine the number of corpora lutea. The numbers of 2-3 mm diameter follicles observed at the day of implant removal were 5.8 ± 2.2; 3.5 ± 0.7 et 4.5 ± 0.7, respectively for Groups 1, 2 and 3. At the beginning of estrus (30.4 ± 4.9 hours after implant removal, a mean of 4.1 ± 1.3 follicles with 5-6 mm of diameter has been observed for the 3 groups. At the 36th hour after the end of the synchronization treatment, a mean of 1.1 ± 0.4 dominant follicles (> 8 mm was observed. The diameter of pre-ovulatory follicles did not vary among groups. The first ovulations have been observed between 22 to 26 hours after the beginning of estrus.

  7. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppen, Jurgen, E-mail: j.seppen@amc.uva.nl

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  8. Effects of mineral supplements on ovulation and maturation of dog oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of trace mineral supplements near the time of ovulation on the number of ovulated oocytes, in vivo oocyte maturation and pregnancy for dog cloning. Sixteen oocyte donor dogs were used in each control and mineral supplement group, and 136 and 166 corpora lutea were counted from each group. No significant difference was observed between oocyte recovery rates in the control (91.2 ± 2.7%) and mineral (89.9 ± 2.7) groups. Proportions of mature (86.2 ± 7.2 and 88.4 ± 6.8%) and aged (13.8 ± 7.2 and 11.6 ± 6.8%) oocytes were not different in the control and mineral groups, respectively. Oocytes with fair (91.5 ± 3.6 and 93.6 ± 2.1%) and poor (8.5 ± 3.6 and 6.4 ± 2.1%) quality also showed no difference between the control and mineral groups. The concentrations of manganese and ferrous iron were higher and lower on the day of ovulation, respectively, in both groups, but trace element concentrations in peripheral blood were not affected by mineral treatment. Oocytes were used to make cloned embryos; after embryo transfer, four and two pups were delivered from the control and mineral group, respectively, but there was no difference in the delivery rate (4.6 and 2.7%). In conclusion, intravenous mineral supplements administered once close to the LH surge in oocyte donor dogs and recipients had no effect on the number of ovulated oocytes, in vivo oocyte maturation or pregnancy in dog cloning in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of dairy cow embryo yield with low level laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palubinskas, G; Žilaitis, V; Antanaitis, R

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate the effects of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the superovulatory response according to the number of corpora lutea (CL), follicles (F) and the embryo yield. In recent years, while searching for new, more efficient and organic methods to improve superovulatory response and embryo yield with respect to the conventional methods, low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) is a more sensitive and less costly technology that can be used to improve animal reproduction, namely, artificial insemination and the embryo production system. The dairy-cow donors were treated for superovulation with Pluset®, at any time during the oestrus cycle, and the total dose per donor was 700 IU. The first group of the donors (n=25), test group (TG), was irradiated on the sacroiliac area for 180 seconds per day, from the 1st to 11th superovulatory treatment (ST) days in a row, with LLLI in the 870-970-nm wavelength, 65.93 J/cm dose, frequencies in the 20-2000 Hz range and pulse durations commonly in the range of about 1 second. For the second control group (CG) (n=25), the ST was performed without LLLI. After the ST, The mean number of CL in the right side ovaries in the TG was 25.43% (p0.05), respectively. With respect to conventional methods, LLLI can be used to improve the superovulatory response and embryo yield as a supplementary environment and animal-friendly method of treatment.

  10. Prostaglandin F2α-induced luteolysis involves activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and inhibition of AKT signaling in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Nóbrega, Jandui E; Siddappa, Dayananda; Glanzner, Werner G; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Bordignon, Vilceu; Duggavathi, Raj; Gonçalves, Paulo B D

    2017-06-01

    Prostaglandin F2α (PGF) induces the precipitous loss of steroidogenic capabilities and cellular death in the corpus luteum of many species, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are not completely understood. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was activated in granulosa cells during follicle atresia, whereas AKT is immediately down-regulated in the corpus luteum after PGF treatment in cattle; however, their involvement in both functional and morphological luteolysis in monovular species still need to be determined. Blood samples and corpus lutea were collected from cows before (0) and 2, 12, 24, and 48 hr after PGF treatment on Day 10 of the estrous cycle (4-5 cows per time point). Serum progesterone concentrations decreased by threefold (p < 0.05) within 2 hr, confirming functional luteolysis. The mRNA abundance of the pro-apoptotic gene BAX increased 12-48 hr post-PGF treatment (p < 0.05), while morphological luteolysis was observed 24 and 48 hr after PGF treatment, based on the loss of plasma membrane integrity, reduction of cytoplasmic volume, and pyknotic nuclei. Phosphorylated STAT3 increased, peaking at 12 hr, and remained elevated until 48 hr after PGF treatment. SOCS3 transcript abundance also increased (p < 0.05) starting at 2 hr post-PGF treatment. In contrast, AKT phosphorylation decreased by 12 hr after treatment. Thus, activation of STAT3 and inactivation of AKT signaling are involved in structural regression of the corpus luteum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of ovarian blood flow by colour Doppler ultrasound: practical use for reproductive management in the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Motozumi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2009-09-01

    Transrectal real-time ultrasonography (US) has been developed as a research and practical tool in bovine reproduction. Non-invasive US observations have made it possible to provide real-time and serial analyses of ovarian morphological changes and fetal development and have generated new information on reproductive physiology during the bovine oestrous cycle and pregnancy. This has greatly contributed to an understanding of the real-time dynamics of follicular development. US has also allowed for more accurate diagnosis compared with rectal palpation in reproductive management in cattle. Practical applications of US include early diagnosis of pregnancy, identification of twin fetuses, detection of ovarian and uterine pathologies and determination of fetal sex. In recent years, local blood flow has been analysed in individual ovarian follicles and the corpus luteum (CL) in the cow using colour Doppler US. From these observations, it has been found that (1) the blood supply to follicles is closely related to follicular growth, atresia and ovulation, (2) the blood supply to the CL increases in parallel with its growth, and (3) there is an acute increase in blood flow in the mature CL prior to luteal regression. Colour Doppler US may provide an estimate of the physiological status of follicles and corpora lutea. For example, images of blood flow can be used to assess the thickness of the follicular wall and provide a differential diagnosis of follicular and luteal cysts. Assessment of the area of blood flow in the CL using colour Doppler imaging may offer a useful adjunct in estimating CL function, which could be applied to the diagnosis of non-pregnancy and fetal loss. The number of small follicles which have blood flow at the start of gonadotrophin treatment may be a useful index to predict the superovulatory response. With improvements in portability and cost-effectiveness, the evaluation of ovarian blood flow by colour Doppler US is likely to become widely used as

  12. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  13. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) at La Gamba (Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael; Frank, Meike

    2013-01-01

    A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae) during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found. Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression. A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to select food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of young

  14. Notes on the ecology of rolled-leaf hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae at La Gamba (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 adult hispine beetles of the genera Cephaloleia and Chelobasis were found in rolled leaves of plants of 17 species of Zingiberales (families Costaceae, Heliconiaceae, Maranthaceae, Musaceae, and Zingiberaceae during a field study at La Gamba, Golfito region, Costa Rica. Of these beetles, Cephaloleia belti was recorded from 12 potential host plant species, C. distincta from 7, C. dilaticollis from 5, C., Chelobasis bicolor, C. championi, and C. histrionica from 3, Chelobasis perplexa and C. instabilis from 2, whereas C. trivittata from only one. Of the plant species, Heliconia latispatha had 7 beetle species in its leaf rolls, Calathea lutea had 5, H. imbricata and H. rostrata had 4, H. stricta and Musa paradisiaca had 3, H. wagneriana had 2, while on H. vaginalis, H. danielsiana, H. densiflora, H. longiflora, Calathea crotalifera, C. platystachya, Goeppertia lasiophylla, Alpinia purpurata, Costus pulverulentus and Costus barbatus, H. densiflora, H. vaginalis, and H. danielsana only hispines of one species were found.Cephaloleia belti occurred together with beetles of six other hispine species, whereas Cephaloleia trivittata never shared a leaf roll with another hispine species. The remaining beetle species aggregated with one to four other hispines. Adults of C. belti and C. championi were frequently seen, occasionally also with C. dilaticollis, C. histrionica, and Chelobasis perplexa, to co-occur with the carabid Calophaena ligata in the same leaf roll without any sign of interspecific aggression.A comparison of host choices and the phylogeny of the hispines and of their host plants revealed no signs that beetles used species level phylogenetic relationships within the Zingiberales to food plants. Obviously, within this plant order, rolled-leaf hispines choose their plant hosts in a nearly opportunistic manner. Seemingly, they use differences among plants at higher taxonomic levels but within the Zingiberales, the availability of

  15. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  16. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  17. Incidental ovarian {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation on PET: correlation with the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok-Ki; Kang, Keon Wook; Roh, Ju Won; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nature of incidental ovarian {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation on positron emission tomography (PET) and the correlation with the menstrual cycle and menopause. We identified 19 incidental FDG accumulations in the ovary (FAOs). FDG PET images were compared with other anatomical imaging methods [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US)]. Pathological findings, FDG PET scan during the next menstrual cycle and follow-up images (PET, CT and MRI) were reviewed. To establish the relation of FAOs to the menstrual cycle, we reviewed whole-body FDG PET acquired from 207 consecutive women and the pre-examination questionnaires, including data regarding the menstrual cycle. All spherical or discoid FAOs were attributed to normally developing ovarian follicles and corpora lutea on the basis of concurrent MRI, US or the follow-up PET scan. Three of the FAOs were proved pathologically to be either normal ovaries or a haemorrhagic corpus luteum. Fifteen FAOs spontaneously disappeared on the short-term follow-up PET scans. Of 207 women, 61 had active menstrual cycles. FAOs were found in 12 out of 61 premenopausal women (20%), appearing between the 10th and 25th days of the menstrual cycle. No FAOs were found in the women who did not have a menstrual cycle. Physiological ovarian FDG accumulation could be found around the time of ovulation and during the early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal woman. Since FAO is dependent on the menstrual cycle, it can be avoided by scheduling PET just after menstruation. (orig.)

  18. Incidental ovarian 18F-FDG accumulation on PET: correlation with the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok-Ki; Kang, Keon Wook; Roh, Ju Won; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nature of incidental ovarian 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation on positron emission tomography (PET) and the correlation with the menstrual cycle and menopause. We identified 19 incidental FDG accumulations in the ovary (FAOs). FDG PET images were compared with other anatomical imaging methods [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US)]. Pathological findings, FDG PET scan during the next menstrual cycle and follow-up images (PET, CT and MRI) were reviewed. To establish the relation of FAOs to the menstrual cycle, we reviewed whole-body FDG PET acquired from 207 consecutive women and the pre-examination questionnaires, including data regarding the menstrual cycle. All spherical or discoid FAOs were attributed to normally developing ovarian follicles and corpora lutea on the basis of concurrent MRI, US or the follow-up PET scan. Three of the FAOs were proved pathologically to be either normal ovaries or a haemorrhagic corpus luteum. Fifteen FAOs spontaneously disappeared on the short-term follow-up PET scans. Of 207 women, 61 had active menstrual cycles. FAOs were found in 12 out of 61 premenopausal women (20%), appearing between the 10th and 25th days of the menstrual cycle. No FAOs were found in the women who did not have a menstrual cycle. Physiological ovarian FDG accumulation could be found around the time of ovulation and during the early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal woman. Since FAO is dependent on the menstrual cycle, it can be avoided by scheduling PET just after menstruation. (orig.)

  19. Deep-freezing of boar semen in plastic film 'cochettes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-03-01

    The motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from nine boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine in plastic bags, 'cochettes', and in 'maxi-straws', in total doses of 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa/5 ml with glycerol (3%) used as cryoprotectant, were assessed after thawing. A computer-based cell motion analyser was used to evaluate sperm motility, while the integrity of the plasmalemma was assessed with fluorescent supravital dyes (C-FDA/PI). The fertilizing capacity of the semen frozen in the two containers was investigated by inseminating (AI) gilts. Pregnancy was monitored by Doppler-ultrasound, and the numbers of corpora lutea and viable embryos counted at slaughter, between days 30 and 38 after AI. The cochettes sustained the overall procedure of freezing/thawing (FT), with 30 min post-thaw (PT) sperm motility being significantly higher than for straws, 46.9 vs. 39.5%. The only significant difference in motility patterns detected when comparing the packages was a higher sperm velocity (VCL) in cochettes at 30 min PT. However, percentages of FT-spermatozoa with intact membranes, detected with the supravital probes, were higher in maxi-straws than in cochettes, 46.8 vs. 43.0% (P straws and those frozen in cochettes. The results indicate that although the deep-freezing of AI-doses of boar semen in large plastic bags is feasible, problems such as their inconvenient size for storage and inconsistent thawing must be solved before this type of container can be used for the commercial cryopreservation of boar semen.

  20. Fetal Bovine Serum Meningkatkan Maturasi Inti Oosit Kelinci Setelah Dimaturasi Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Kurniani Karja

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the meiotic competence or nuclear maturation of rabbit oocytesmatured in vitro. Oocytes were recovered by mincing the ovaries in modified phosphate buffer saline (m-PBS. Selected cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs with compact cumulus cell mass and a dark, homogenousooplasm were cultured in maturation medium at 38°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air, andthen stained for nuclear maturation. Three experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, COCs werecultured in maturation medium for 18-20, 22-24, and 28-30 h. The proportion of oocytes at metaphase II(MII was similar (P>0.05 at 18-20 (69.2%, 22-24 (66.4%, and 28-30 (71.1 h of culture. In Experiment 2,COCs were cultured in either maturation medium containing 0.04% bovine serum albumine (BSA or 5%fetal bovine serum (FBS for 24 h. The proprotion of oocytes that reached MII were higher (P<0.05 in FBSgroup (79.2% than those of oocytes in BSA group (64%. In Experiment 3, based on the presence or absenceof follicles and corpora lutea, the ovarian pairs were classified into follicular or luteal stages. There was nodifference (P>0.05 among oocytes collected from ovaries in follicular (79.7% and luteal stages (78.7% inthe ability to achieve nuclear maturation. These results indicated that nuclear maturation of rabbitoocytes in vitro was completed at 18-20 h of maturation culture and was not affected by ovary’s reproductivestage. The presence of FBS in the maturation medium enhanced the ability of rabbit oocytes to achievenuclear maturation.

  1. DRUM: A New Framework for Metabolic Modeling under Non-Balanced Growth. Application to the Carbon Metabolism of Unicellular Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroukh, Caroline; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates. PMID:25105494

  2. Age at puberty, total fat and conjugated linoleic acid content of carcass, and circulating metabolic hormones in beef heifers fed a diet high in linoleic acid beginning at four months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M R; Amstalden, M; Morrison, C D; Keisler, D H; Williams, G L

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we hypothesized that diets high in linoleic acid would increase conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) tissue content, reduce adiposity and leptin production, and result in an increase in the age at puberty in heifers. Heifers were weaned and blocked by body weight (heavy, n = 10, and light, n = 10) and allocated randomly within block to receive isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets with either added fat (HF, n = 10) or no added fat (C, n = 10) from 4 mo of age until post-pubertal slaughter. Whole sunflower seed (55% oil; 70% linoleic acid) was used as the fat source in HF diets and provided 5% added fat from the start of the study until heifers weighed 250 +/- 8 kg, at which time added fat was increased to 7% of dry matter until slaughter. Body weights were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected weekly for total cholesterol and hormone analyses. Puberty was confirmed based on serum concentrations of progesterone and ultrasonographic confirmation of corpora lutea. Heifers were slaughtered at 325 +/- 10 d of age, and longissimus muscle between the 9th and 11th rib was collected and analyzed to estimate carcass composition. Subcutaneous and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were collected at slaughter for fatty acid analyses. The HF heavy group tended (P hormone and insulin-like growth factor I increased or remained relatively constant between wk 2 to 10 of feeding, and then declined (P < 0.01) until the onset of puberty. Serum IGF-I was lower (P < 0.01) in heifers receiving the HF diet. Mean serum concentrations of insulin and total cholesterol increased (P < 0.01) with time in both groups, but only total cholesterol was increased by the HF diet (P < 0.05). Results indicate that diets high in linoleic acid fed to growing beef heifers beginning early in life have little or no effect on total carcass fat, circulating leptin, or age at puberty despite measurable increases in CLA accumulation.

  3. Gestating for 22 months: luteal development and pregnancy maintenance in elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Imke; Niemuller, Cheryl; Rich, Peter; Gray, Charlie; Hermes, Robert; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    The corpus luteum, a temporally established endocrine gland, formed on the ovary from remaining cells of the ovulated follicle, plays a key role in maintaining the early mammalian pregnancy by secreting progesterone. Despite being a monovular species, 2–12 corpora lutea (CLs) were found on the elephant ovaries during their long pregnancy lasting on average 640 days. However, the function and the formation of the additional CLs and their meaning remain unexplained. Here, we show from the example of the elephant, the close relationship between the maternally determined luteal phase length, the formation of multiple luteal structures and their progestagen secretion, the timespan of early embryonic development until implantation and maternal recognition. Through three-dimensional and Colour Flow ultrasonography of the ovaries and the uterus, we conclude that pregnant elephants maintain active CL throughout gestation that appear as main source of progestagens. Two LH peaks during the follicular phase ensure the development of a set of 5.4 ± 2.7 CLs. Accessory CLs (acCLs) form prior to ovulation after the first luteinizing hormone (LH) peak, while the ovulatory CL (ovCL) forms after the second LH peak. After five to six weeks (the normal luteal phase lifespan), all existing CLs begin to regress. However, they resume growing as soon as an embryo becomes ultrasonographically apparent on day 49 ± 2. After this time, all pregnancy CLs grow significantly larger than in a non-conceptive luteal phase and are maintained until after parturition. The long luteal phase is congruent with a slow early embryonic development and luteal rescue only starts ‘last minute’, with presumed implantation of the embryo. Our findings demonstrate a highly successful reproductive solution, different from currently described mammalian models. PMID:22719030

  4. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Weronika; Wagner, Charles; Moore, Erin M; Matkowski, Adam; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort ( Hypericum perforatum L.), wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.), garlic ( Allium sativum L.), gentian ( Gentiana lutea L.), lovage ( Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch), and lesser periwinkle ( Vinca minor L.). While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose ( Viburnum opulus L.) and yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L.), Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica ( Angelica archangelica L.) and carline thistle ( Carlina acaulis L.). The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  5. Luteal Coasting and Individualization of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Dose after Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Triggering for Final Oocyte Maturation—A Retrospective Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lawrenz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian stimulation in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol with the use of GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation is the state-of-the-art treatment in patients with an expected or known high response to avoid or at least reduce significantly the risk for development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Due to a shortened LH surge after administration of GnRH agonist in most patients, the luteal phase will be characterized by luteolysis and luteal phase insufficiency. Maintaining a sufficient luteal phase is crucial for achievement of a pregnancy; however, the optimal approach is still under debate. Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG within 72 h rescues the corpora lutea function; however, the so far often used 1,500 IU still bear the risk for development of OHSS. The recently introduced concept of “luteal coasting” individualizes the luteal phase support by monitoring the progesterone concentrations and administering a rescue dosage of hCG when progesterone concentrations drop significantly. This retrospective proof-of-concept study explored the correlation between hCG dosages ranging from 375 up to 1,500 IU and the progesterone levels in the early and mid-luteal phases as well as the likelihood of pregnancy, both early and ongoing. The chance of pregnancy is highest with progesterone level ≥13 ng/ml at 48 h postoocyte retrieval. Among the small sample size of 52 women studied, it appears that appropriate progesterone levels can be achieved with hCG dosages as low as 375 IU. This may well optimize the chance of pregnancy while reducing the risk of OHSS associated with higher doses of hCG supplementation in the luteal phase.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, conductivity and antimicrobial study of a novel thermally stable polyphenol containing azomethine group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Baran, Nuray; Karakışla, Meral; Demir, Hacı Ökkeş; Saçak, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Poly(4-[[(4-methylphenyl)methylene]amino]phenol) (P(4-MMAP)), which is a Schiff base polymer, was synthesized by an oxidative polycondensation reaction of 4-[[(4-methylphenyl)methylene]amino]phenol (4-MMAP) with the oxidants NaOCl, H2O2 and O2 in an aqueous alkaline medium. The polymerizations were carried out at various temperatures and times, and the highest polymer yield could be obtained when using 37% with NaOCl oxidant. The structures of the monomer and polymer were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR 1H NMR and X-ray diffraction techniques. The thermal behaviors of the monomer and polymer were identified by the TG and DTG techniques. The thermal degradation of the polymer which was observed thermally stable up to 1000 °C, was also supported by the Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymer were found to be 16682, 57796 g/mol and 3.4, respectively. The highest electrical conductivity value of P(4-MMAP) doped with iodine vapor at different temperatures and times was measured to be 7.8 × 10-5 Scm-1 after doping for 48 h at 60 °C. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of 4-MMAP and P(4-MMAP) were also assayed against the bacteria Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and the fungi Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively.

  7. Sonomorphology of the reproductive tract in male and pregnant and non-pregnant female Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rotschildi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Imke; Niemuller, Cheryl; Pootoolal, Jason; Rich, Peter; Gray, Charlie; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The application of real-time-B-mode ultrasonography to wild and zoo animal medicine has been shown to improve the understanding of reproductive physiology in many species. Ultrasound technology is especially helpful for monitoring urogenital health, which in turn has advantages for giraffe breeding and welfare in captivity. This study aimed to ultrasonographically describe the genital organs of reproductively healthy male and female giraffes. Through the use of a restrainer, repeated rectal ultrasound examinations were performed over a 2 year period in 2.6 Rothschild's giraffes. Changes in ovarian activity were monitored throughout four different reproductive stages in the females and included immature, mature-cycling, pregnancy, post-partum-period. In the immature giraffes the ovaries showed multiple follicles of which larger ones luteinized to form pseudo-corpora lutea. By comparison, in the mature giraffes the dominant follicle reached an ovulatory diameter of 18.5+/-0.89 mm. After ovulation, a single corpus luteum rapidly formed and reached a maximum diameter of 33.0+/-2.4mm on average. Pregnancy was detected for the first time by the embryonic vesicle, visualized around 28 days post copulation. Follicular development remained ongoing during early pregnancy. In the males, as in other ruminants, the bulbourethral glands and the seminal vesicles were prominent, whereas the prostate gland was indistinct. Knowledge about the reproductive tract morphology and physiology is necessary for diagnosing medical disorders and abnormalities in giraffes. The aim of this study was to help consolidate the current knowledge on basic reproductive parameters for this species.

  8. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL.

  9. Review of the reproductive endocrinology of the pregnant and parturient mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, A J

    2016-07-01

    Analytical advancements, especially methods using gas or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, have allowed more specific and reliable measurement of multiple steroid hormones in the plasma of mares throughout gestation and the periparturient period. Data such as these will form the central focus of this review. The comprehensive analyses possible with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry illuminate the key physiological and developmental transitions that make equine gestation unique. Weeks 6 to 20 encompass endometrial cup formation and equine chorionic gonadotropic secretion that stimulates primary corpora lutea and induces formation of secondary luteal structures. The period is defined by increased progesterone, 17OH-progesterone, and androstenedione secretion, providing substrate feeding the rise in estrone sulfate that can be used as an aid in the diagnosis of pregnancy. The 5α-reduced metabolite of progesterone, dihydroprogesterone (DHP), parallels progesterone secretion during this period at less than half the concentration. After week 12, progesterone declines, but DHP concentrations continue to increase, exceeding progesterone by week 16, thereby defining the luteo-placental shift in pregnane synthesis from ovarian to primarily placental thereafter. The growth of fetal gonads begins around week 14 and is defined by increasing dehydroepiandrosterone, among other androgens, which fuels placental estrogen secretion, functioning as a true fetoplacental unit. Metabolites of DHP (including allopregnanolone) dominate in late gestation, some exceeding DHP by 10-fold near term. However, all major pregnanes decrease from 3 days before foaling, when fetal cortisol is reportedly rising. Though unique, equine pregnancy and parturition share many features in common with those seen in human pregnancy and birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Harry R.; Goh, Ee-Been; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-07

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are highly appealing targets for advanced cellulosic biofuels, as they are already predominant components of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuels. We have studied alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, a close relative of Sarcina lutea (now Kocuria rhizophila), which four decades ago was reported to biosynthesize iso- and anteiso branched, long-chain alkenes. The underlying biochemistry and genetics of alkene biosynthesis were not elucidated in those studies. We show here that heterologous expression of a three-gene cluster from M. luteus (Mlut_13230-13250) in a fatty-acid overproducing E. coli strain resulted in production of long-chain alkenes, predominantly 27:3 and 29:3 (no. carbon atoms: no. C=C bonds). Heterologous expression of Mlut_13230 (oleA) alone produced no long-chain alkenes but unsaturated aliphatic monoketones, predominantly 27:2, and in vitro studies with the purified Mlut_13230 protein and tetradecanoyl-CoA produced the same C27 monoketone. Gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry confirmed the elemental composition of all detected long-chain alkenes and monoketones (putative intermediates of alkene biosynthesis). Negative controls demonstrated that the M. luteus genes were responsible for production of these metabolites. Studies with wild-type M. luteus showed that the transcript copy number of Mlut_13230-13250 and the concentrations of 29:1 alkene isomers (the dominant alkenes produced by this strain) generally corresponded with bacterial population over time. We propose a metabolic pathway for alkene biosynthesis starting with acyl-CoA (or -ACP) thioesters and involving decarboxylative Claisen condensation as a key step, which we believe is catalyzed by OleA. Such activity is consistent with our data and with the homology (including the conserved Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad) of Mlut_13230 (OleA) to FabH (?-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which catalyzes decarboxylative Claisen condensation during

  11. 70-Day Supraphysiologic Dose of the Power-Enhancing Drug Oxymetholone: the Effects on Oogenesis in NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azarniya

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesOxymetholone is an orally-administered active anabolic-androgenic steroid. This drug was synthesized in 1959. It is a 17α-methylated, 5α-saturated compound. It is used for the treatment of a variety of diseases including anemia, growth delay in children, myocardial damage in heart failure and treatment of HIV associated wasting. This is one of the drugs used in high doses by the doping athletes because of its anabolic effects and its influence on muscular mass. In this study, the effect of oxymetholone in supraphysiologic doses was evaluated on oogenesis in NMRI mice.MethodsIn our experiments, 12 mg/kg/day oxymetholone was injected intraperitoneally to 4- and 6-week old mice for 70 days. ResultsThe results demonstrated a significant difference between treatment and control groups after both 35 and 70 days of treatment. This drug led to significant decrease in the number of corpus lutea, decrease in the number of atretic follicles, decrease in the weight and diameter of ovaries, decrease in the diameter of granulosa layer, increase in number of primordial follicles, decrease in number of primary follicles, decrease in number of growing follicles, decrease in the number of graafian follicles, and decrease in the progesterone level. Additionally, disordered formation of granulosa layers and growing of oocytes in antra, anomaly of the ovular medulla and formation of two oocytes in one folliculus were observed in some mice.ConclusionThe results show that oxymetholone decreases the ovarian growth and the rate of ovulation. Keywords: Oxymetholone; Anabolic Steroid; Oogenesis; Androgens

  12. 70-Day Supraphysiologic Dose of the Power-Enhancing Drug Oxymetholone: the Effects on Oogenesis in NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azarniya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and objectives

    Oxymetholone is an orally-administered active anabolic-androgenic steroid. This drug was synthesized in 1959. It is a 17α-methylated, 5α-saturated compound. It is used for the treatment of a variety of diseases including anemia, growth delay in children, myocardial damage in heart failure and treatment of HIV associated wasting. This is one of the drugs used in high doses by the doping athletes because of its anabolic effects and its influence on muscular mass. In this study, the effect of oxymetholone in supraphysiologic doses was evaluated on oogenesis in NMRI mice.

    Methods

    In our experiments, 12 mg/kg/day oxymetholone was injected intraperitoneally to 4- and 6-week old mice for 70 days.

    Results

    The results demonstrated a significant difference between treatment and control groups after both 35 and 70 days of treatment. This drug led to significant decrease in the number of corpus lutea, decrease in the number of atretic follicles, decrease in the weight and diameter of ovaries, decrease in the diameter of granulosa layer, increase in number of primordial follicles, decrease in number of primary follicles, decrease in number of growing follicles, decrease in the number of graafian follicles, and decrease in the progesterone level. Additionally, disordered formation of granulosa layers and growing of oocytes in antra, anomaly of the ovular medulla and formation of two oocytes in one folliculus were observed in some mice.

    Conclusion

    The results show that oxymetholone decreases the ovarian growth and the rate of ovulation.

  13. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of

  14. Multi-decadal Records of Ocean Acidification and Toxic Heavy Metal Pollution in Coral Cores from Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Tolliver, R.; Field, D. B.; Young, C.; Stafford, G.; Day, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring of the physiological/ecological response of marine calcifying organisms to the combination of lower pH and toxic metal pollutants (e.g. Cu and Sn from boat anti-fouling paints) into the oceans requires detailed knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of ocean acidification (OA) and trace metal composition over time. Yet, measurement of metal concentrations and carbonate system parameters in the modern ocean from seawater bottle data is patchy (e.g. CDIAC/WOCE Carbon Data; http://cdiac.ornl.gov) and there remain few long-term surface water pH monitoring stations; the two longest continuous records of ocean pH extend back less than 30 years (Bermuda - BATS, 31°40'N, 64°10'W; Hawaii - HOTs, 22°45'N, 158°00'W). Much attention has therefore been focused on trace metal and ocean carbonate system proxy development to allow reconstruction of seawater metal content and pH in the past. Of particular promise is the boron isotope (δ11B) pH-proxy measured in marine calcifying organisms such as coral that can be cored enabling multi-decadal, annual-resolution, records of trace element incorporation and seawater pH to be generated. Here we present continuous Cu/Ca and Sn/Ca records in addition to δ11B data from three coral cores of Porites lutea. collected from waters proximal to Oahu, Hawaii. The diagenetic integrity of samples is verified using X-ray diffraction to assess the degree of calcite replacement. These cores reach a maximum depth of 80 cm and represent approximately 80 years of coral growth and seawater chemistry.

  15. The long gestation of the small naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber Rüppell, 1842) studied with ultrasound biomicroscopy and 3D-ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Kathleen; Drews, Barbara; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2011-03-07

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing.

  16. The long gestation of the small naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber Ruppell, 1842 studied with ultrasound biomicroscopy and 3D-ultrasonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Roellig

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing.

  17. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  18. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  19. Chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Cristina Lungu; Tuchilus, Cristina; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Oprea, Adrian; Malterud, Karl Egil; Miron, Anca

    2011-09-13

    The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae), native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract), flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract) and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract) than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC₅₀ values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC₅₀ = 1,755 μg/mL). The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well) were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  20. Chemical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Investigations of Pinus cembra L. Bark and Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Miron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical constituents and biological activity of Pinus cembra L. (Pinaceae, native to the Central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are not well known. The aim of the present work was to examine the phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of hydromethanolic extracts of Pinus cembra L. bark and needles. Bark extract had higher concentrations of total phenolics (299.3 vs. 78.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract, flavonoids (125.3 vs. 19.84 mg catechin equivalents/g extract and proanthocyanidins (74.3 vs. 12.7 mg cyanidin equivalents/g extract than needle extract and was more active as a free radical scavenger, reducing agent and antimicrobial agent. The EC50 values in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS and reducing power assays were 71.1, 6.3 and 26 mg/mL for bark extract and 186.1, 24 and 104 mg/mL for needle extract, respectively. In addition, needle extract showed ferrous ions chelating effects (EC50 = 1,755 μg/mL. The antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were assessed by the agar diffusion method. Both extracts (4 mg/well were active against all the microorganisms tested; bark extract showed higher inhibition on all strains. These results indicate that Pinus cembra L. bark and needles are good sources of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  1. Impact of Triclosan on Female Reproduction through Reducing Thyroid Hormones to Suppress Hypothalamic Kisspeptin Neurons in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yuan Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral follicles and corpora lutea within 2 weeks. TCS mice showed decreases in the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and progesterone, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH mRNA with the lack of LH surge and elevation of prolactin (PRL. TCS mice had lower kisspeptin immunoreactivity and kiss1 mRNA in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and arcuate nucleus (ARC. Moreover, the estrogen (E2-enhanced AVPV-kisspeptin expression was reduced in TCS mice. In addition, the serum thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in TCS mice were reduced with increases in levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH. In TCS mice, the treatment with Levothyroxine (L-T4 corrected the increases in PRL, TSH and TRH; the administration of L-T4 or type-2 dopamine receptors agonist quinpirole inhibiting PRL release could rescue the decline of kisspeptin expression in AVPV and ARC; the treatment with L-T4, quinpirole or the GPR45 agonist kisspeptin-10 recovered the levels of serum LH and FSH and progesterone, and GnRH mRNA. Furthermore, TCS mice treated with L-T4 or quinpirole resumed regular estrous cycling, follicular development and ovulation. Together, these results indicate that exposing adult female mice to TCS (≥10 mg/kg reduces thyroid hormones causing hyperprolactinemia that then suppresses hypothalamic kisspeptin expression, leading to deficits in reproductive endocrine and function.

  2. The roles of pregn-5-ene-3β,20α-diol and 20α-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in the control of progesterone synthesis preceding parturition and lactogenesis in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Briley, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    1. The activity of 20α-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in rat ovarian corpora lutea increased at least 50-fold between 2 days before and 2 days after parturition, and then fell gradually during lactation. The activity of 3β-hydroxy Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase decreased by 50% at parturition but remained constant at other times. 2. The 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one/progesterone concentration ratio in the ovary fell tenfold between 1 day before and 1 day after parturition, in contrast with the increase of the ratio for these steroids in plasma. 3. Pregnenolone was metabolized in intact cells or cell-free systems either to pregn-5-ene-3β,20α-diol and then to 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by 20α-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and 3β-hydroxy Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase respectively, or directly to progesterone by the latter enzyme. The relative activities of these pathways appeared to reflect the relative amounts of the two enzymes and the concentrations of their respective coenzymes NADPH and NAD+. 4. From these and other observations it was concluded that the cessation of progesterone secretion, which precedes parturition and lactogenesis at the end of pregnancy, is partly due to the redirected metabolism of pregnenolone away from progesterone and towards 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one as the secreted end product. This is primarily the consequence of the sharp increase in the activity of 20α-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase. This mechanism is super-imposed on the already declining rate of net Δ4-steroid release by the ovary. 5. A relationship of these pathways to subcellular compartments of luteal cells is proposed. PMID:4392955

  3. Cryptosporidium spp. in pet birds: genetic diversity and potential public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Longxian; Jian, Fuchun; Sun, Yanru; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-08-01

    To characterize the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pet birds in Henan, China, 434 fecal samples were acquired from 14 families of birds in pet shops. The overall prevalence of Cryptopsoridium was 8.1% (35/434) by the Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The Cryptosporidium-positive samples were analyzed by DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Three Cryptosporidium species and two genotypes were identified, including C. baileyi (18/35 or 51.4%) in five red-billed leiothrixes (Leiothrix lutea), four white Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora), four common mynas (Acridotheres tristis), two zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a crested Lark (Galerida cristata), a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae), and a black-billed magpie (Pica pica); Cryptosporidium meleagridis (3/35 or 8.6%) in a Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), a Rufous turtle dove (Streptopelia orientalis), and a fan-tailed pigeon (Columba livia); Cryptosporidium galli (5/35 or 14.3%) in four Bohemian waxwings (Bombycilla garrulus) and a silver-eared Mesia (Leiothrix argentauris); Cryptosporidium avian genotype III (3/35 or 8.6%) in two cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and a red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha); and Cryptosporidium avian genotype V (6/35 or 17.1%) in six cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Among the pet birds, 12 species represented new hosts for Cryptosporidum infections. The presence of C. meleagridis raises questions on potential zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis from pet birds to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant establishment on unirrigated green roof modules in a subtropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Bruce D.; Volder, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The application of green roof technology has become more common in the central, northwestern and eastern USA, and is now being employed across the southern USA as well. However, there is little research in the literature that evaluated plant survival on unirrigated green roofs in subtropical climates that experience frequent drought and heat stress. Here, we summarize the results of a study of plant establishment on a modular green roof in south-central Texas. Methodology Fifteen plant species were field tested in 11.4-cm-deep green roof modules on a four-storey building in College Station, Texas, with irrigation limited to the first several weeks of establishment. Climate data, plant growth and species survival were measured over three growing seasons. Principal results Four species survived growing seasons without any losses: Graptopetalum paraguayense, Malephora lutea, Manfreda maculosa and Phemeranthus calycinus. Six species experienced varying levels of mortality: Bulbine frutescens, Delosperma cooperi, Lampranthus spectabilis, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum mexicanum and Nassella tenuissima. Five species had no survivors: Dichondra argentea, Stemodia lanata, Myoporum parvifolium, Sedum moranense and Sedum tetractinum. Conclusions The establishment and survival of several plant species without any mortality suggests that irrigation limited to the first few weeks after planting may be an effective approach on green roofs in spite of the more challenging climatic conditions in the southern USA. Since the climate in south-central Texas had been consistently drier and warmer than normal during the study period, longer-term research on these species is recommended to expand knowledge of establishment requirements for these species under a wider range of conditions, including wetter than normal years.

  5. New Infrared spectroscopic methods for tumor diagnosis and medicinal plants analytics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzei, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work was done to verify the feasibility of infrared spectroscopy as a method for tumor diagnosis and medicinal plants analysis. The method of IR imaging has been successfully used for the diagnosis of prostate-, bladder- and oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as for localization of different ingredients of plant roots. All measurements have been done with a resolution down to 1,2 µm. As a non-invasive method, IR imaging can be used for qualitative analysis of 2-dimensional chemical structures and distribution of these substances in plant roots. It was found that IR imaging can be used for detecting cancer-affected areas in tissue-samples. For more profound results, IR-imaging has to be combined with chemometric evaluation methods like multi- and univariate data analysis. Measurements applying that combination of methods allow the identification of cancer-affected areas of tissue-samples of prostate-, bladder- and oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as an illustration of the local distribution of components like carbon-hydrates, proteins, lipids, amides and nucleic acids in samples from Urtica dioica, Phytolacca americana, Levisticum officinale, Primula veris, Cimicifuga racemosa and Gentiana lutea. All research was done by using state of the art technology for IR-imaging and image processing. It was found that IR-imaging can be used for localizing dissolved substances in roots of medical plants with a high resolution down to 1,2 µm. This work shows that different species of Polygala can be identified using FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Future developments of more sophisticated and powerful detectors will help to establish IR-imaging as an objective technology for diagnostics of cancer as well as a method in the field of research on medical plants and botany in general. (author) [de

  6. Effect of oestrus synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG on luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, M; Morawska-Pucinska, E; Krawczynski, K; Kiewisz, J; Ziecik, A J; Blitek, A

    2014-12-01

    Administration of hormones to synchronize oestrus is a useful tool in animal breeding. However, exogenous ovarian stimulation may be detrimental to reproductive function. This study was aimed to examine whether an oestrus synchronization with PGF2α/eCG/hCG could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 9, 12 and 16 of pregnancy from gilts with natural (n = 16) and synchronized (n = 18) oestrus and analysed for (i) the expre-ssion of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (ii) the concentration of P4 in the luteal tissue and blood; and (iii) the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors (LHR) and oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). Additionally, the effect of LH on P4 secretion from CL slices collected from synchronized and naturally ovulated animals has been studied in vitro. PGF2α /eCG/hCG administration increased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1, 3βHSD, and LHR on day 9 and CYP11A1 and LHR on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group (p gilts with hormonally induced oestrus compared with control animals. Blood serum levels of P4 were lower in synchronized than control gilts (p gilts (p gilts did not impair the expression of luteal P4 synthesis system, although decreased P4 concentration in the blood. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts after induction of estrus with PMSG/hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitek, Agnieszka; Szymanska, Magdalena; Pieczywek, Marta; Morawska-Pucinska, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether an estrus induction with gonadotropins could affect luteal P4 synthesis in early pregnant gilts. Sixteen prepubertal gilts received 750IU of PMSG and 500IU of hCG 72h later. Prepubertal gilts in the control group (n=17) were observed daily for estrus behavior. All gilts were inseminated in their first estrus. Corpora lutea (CLs) were collected on days 10, 12 and 15 of pregnancy and analyzed for (1) the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD); (2) the tissue concentration of P4; and (3) the mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2). Additionally, P4 concentration was analyzed in blood serum of all animals. PMSG/hCG injections to induce estrus decreased mRNA expression of StAR, CYP11A1 and 3βHSD on day 10 and CYP11A1 on day 12 of pregnancy compared with the control group, while CYP11A1 and 3βHSD proteins were down-regulated on day 10 in the hormonally-treated gilts. Concentrations of P4 in luteal tissue and blood serum were also lower in animals after gonadotropin-induced estrus. In contrast, LHR and ESR1 mRNA expression was greater in PMSG/hCG-treated than control gilts on day 15 of gestation. In conclusion, induction of estrus with a PMSG/hCG protocol in prepubertal gilts impaired expression of the luteal P4 synthesis system. Low P4 content may, in turn, induce local mechanisms involving LHR and ESR1 expression to support CL function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient restriction induces failure of reproductive function and molecular changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in postpubertal gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-07-01

    People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function.

  9. Seasonal effects on fertility in gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R J; Evans, G; Klupiec, C

    1993-01-01

    The ancestral wild pig is a short day length seasonal breeder. The domestic pig appears to have retained some of this seasonality as evidenced by a reduction in fertility during the summer-autumn period. The most important aspect of this seasonality is a reduction in the number of mated sows that farrow. Many of these sows conceive and embryos develop normally for 20-25 days before pregnancy is terminated and the sow returns to oestrus (25-35 days after mating). In other species, transduction of photoperiodic information is achieved by release of melatonin during the dark period. In the pig, the pattern of melatonin secretion and the subsequent hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal responses appear to be more complex. A relatively high light intensity is required for pigs to generate a distinct diurnal melatonin rhythm and they appear unable to respond appropriately to abrupt changes in photoperiod. Pigs on restricted feeding and maintained under long photoperiods (but not under short photoperiods) have higher concentrations of melatonin than do similarly maintained pigs fed ad libitum. Continuous release melatonin implants have a deleterious effect on farrowing rate, suggesting that the abnormally high melatonin concentrations observed in sows in summer-autumn play a role in the pathogenesis of seasonal infertility. Ad libitum feeding of sows during the first few weeks of pregnancy may prevent the increase in melatonin concentrations and so remove the seasonal influence on fertility. The pituitary response to different photoperiods is also somewhat confusing. Although there is some evidence of increased sensitivity to the negative feedback of ovarian steroids in the prepubertal gilts and weaned sows during summer-autumn, LH concentrations are increased in early pregnant sows. It is proposed that the failure of sows to maintain pregnancy in summer-autumn results from disruption of maternal recognition of pregnancy causing regression of the corpora lutea, loss of pregnancy

  10. Ovarian response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and porcine pituitary extract in gilts actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, K L

    1987-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous gonadotropins on follicular development in gilts actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Four gilts, which had become acyclic after immunization against GnRH, and four control gilts were given 1,000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), while four additional control gilts were given saline. Control animals were prepuberal crossbred gilts averaging 100 kg body weight. Control gilts given saline had ovaries containing antral follicles (4 to 6 mm in diameter). Control gilts given PMSG exhibited estrus and their ovaries contained corpora hemorrhagica and corpora lutea. PMSG failed to stimulate follicular growth in gilts immunized against GnRH, and ovaries contained regressed corpora albicantia and small antral follicles (less than 1 mm in diameter). Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol-17 beta (E2) were non-detectable in gilts immunized against GnRH and given PMSG. In the second experiment, five gilts actively immunized against GnRH were given increasing doses of PMSG every third day until unilateral ovariectomy on d 50. PMSG failed to stimulate follicular growth, and concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), E2 and LH were not detectable. Six weeks later, gilts were given a booster immunization and then were given 112 micrograms LH and 15 micrograms FSH intravenously every 6 h for 9 d. The remaining ovary was removed on d 10. Although LH and FSH concentrations were elevated, administration of gonadotropins did not stimulate follicular growth or increase E2 concentrations. These results indicate that neither PMSG or exogenous LH and FSH can induce E2 synthesis or sustain follicular development in gilts actively immunized against GnRH.

  11. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2018-04-24

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world\\'s hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum group. Previous studies have shown that considerable genetic diversity exists within the group and that group members found within the PAG are significantly differentiated from those found externally, in the Gulf of Oman and wider waters. However, little is known about this genetic diversity. As an initial step towards understanding whether this diversity could represent niche adapted, selectable populations within the S. thermophilum group that may act as natural sources of stress tolerant associations to Indo-Pacific reefs, we investigate whether the diversity is structured between populations and where the location of the internal-external genetic partition lies. We use regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and chloroplastic psbA gene (non-coding region) from >100 S. thermophilum group-harbouring Porites spp. (P. lobata, P. lutea, and P. harrisoni) sampled across steep temperature and salinity gradients to conduct analyses of variance and create maximum parsimony networks to assess genetic structure and (dis)similarity within and between populations of S. thermophilum found within the PAG and externally in the Gulf of Oman. Our analyses resolve a sharp genetic boundary between Symbiodinium populations in the western Strait of Hormuz and identify significant genetic structure between populations with as little as 20 km between them demonstrating that differentiation between populations is likely due to factors other than limited connectivity. Further, we hypothesize that genotypes identified outside of the PAG in the Gulf of Oman existing in near-oceanic salinities, yet thermally challenging waters, putatively represent candidates for stress-tolerant symbionts that could act as natural seed populations of

  12. Effect of pFSH dose reduction on in vivo embryo production in Dorper ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Loiola Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of pFSH dose on the in vivo embryo production of Dorper ewes in the semi-arid northeast of Brazil, 40 sheep females were distributed into two groups of 20 animals that received intravaginal CIDR for 14 days, and two days before device removal, they received one of the following treatments: in the FSH200 group, the ewes received 200 mg of pFSH; and in the FSH128 group, the ewes received a total of 128 mg in decreasing doses every 12 h. Beginning 12 h after the conclusion of the treatments, estrus detection was performed every four hours using two Dorper rams of proven fertility. The ewes were mated at estrus onset and 24 hours later. Seven days after intravaginal device removal, the superovulatory response was evaluated, and embryo collection was performed using the laparotomy method. The recovered flushings were subjected to embryo searches under a stereomicroscope and classified according to their qualities. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs and LSD tests were used to compare the different parameters. The data expressed as percentages were analysed by chi-square test. The ovulation rate was higher in the FSH200 group, which had 16.3 ± 0.3 corpora lutea (CL, than in the FSH128 group, which had 11.3 ± 0.3 CL (P<0.05. However, higher fertilization rate (83.6% vs. 62.4% and higher transferable (86.0% vs. 71.6% and freezable (67.9% vs. 40.8% embryo rates were observed in the FSH 128 group compared with the group that received 200 mg. Furthermore, no significant differences in the remaining parameters were observed between the experimental groups (P>0.05, demonstrating that pFSH dose reduction promoted a greater production of freezable and transferable embryos in Dorper ewes subjected to MOET.

  13. DRUM: a new framework for metabolic modeling under non-balanced growth. Application to the carbon metabolism of unicellular microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Baroukh

    Full Text Available Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates.

  14. Human ovaries contain immunoreactive oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Dawood, F S; Dawood, M Y

    1983-12-01

    Ovarian tissues (n = 26) obtained at surgery were assayed for oxytocin (OT) concentrations in different parts of the ovary by a specific and sensitive RIA after homogenization and extraction with 0.4 M acetic acid. Chromatography of the extract on a Sephadex G-25 column revealed a single peak identical to synthetic OT, as measured by RIA. Corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle had 10.8-53.0 ng immunoreactive OT/g tissue (n = 7), while those of early pregnancy had a concentration of 106.0 ng/g (n = 1). Ovarian stromal tissue had either undetectable or lower concentrations of OT (0-21.0 ng/g; n = 5) than the corpus luteum from the same ovary. While a luteoma of term pregnancy (n = 1), a benign cystadenoma (n = 2), and an endometriotic cyst (n = 1) had no detectable immunoreactive OT, the concentrations of immunoreactive OT were 20.0 ng/g in a thecoma, 1.4, 20.0, and 60.0 ng/g in preovulatory follicles (n = 3), and 41.0 and 37.0 ng/g in polycystic ovaries (n = 2). In one patient with premature ovarian failure, the ovaries had 9.0 ng/g and undetectable immunoreactive OT. These findings indicate the presence of immunoreactive OT in human ovaries, with significant concentrations in the corpus luteum and preovulatory follicles. It is probable that these tissues produce OTs or an OT-like material which may function as an ovarian luteolytic agent.

  15. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, N. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, F. [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, J.J. [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, J. [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin-Mateo, M. [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, M. Garcia, E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es [Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina (I.B.B.), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F{sub 0}) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F{sub 1}) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  16. Utilizing patch and site level greenhouse-gas concentration measurements in tandem with the prognostic model, ecosys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, T. H.; Rey Sanchez, C.; Bohrer, G.; Riley, W. J.; Angle, J.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Stefanik, K. C.; Wrighton, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    Estimates of wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets currently have large uncertainties. While wetlands are the largest source of natural methane (CH4) emissions worldwide, they are also important carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks. Determining the GHG budget of a wetland is challenging, particularly because wetlands have intrinsically temporally and spatially heterogeneous land cover patterns and complex dynamics of CH4 production and emissions. These issues pose challenges to both measuring and modeling GHG budgets from wetlands. To improve wetland GHG flux predictability, we utilized the ecosys model to predict CH4 fluxes from a natural temperate estuarine wetland in northern Ohio. Multiple patches of terrain (that included Typha spp. and Nelumbo lutea) were represented as separate grid cells in the model. Cells were initialized with measured values but were allowed to dynamically evolve in response to meteorological, hydrological, and thermodynamic conditions. Trace gas surface emissions were predicted as the end result of microbial activity, physical transport, and plant processes. Corresponding to each model gridcell, measurements of dissolved gas concentrations were conducted with pore-water dialysis samplers (peepers). The peeper measurements were taken via a series of tubes, providing an undisturbed observation of the pore water concentrations of in situ dissolved gases along a vertical gradient. Non-steady state chambers and a flux tower provided both patch level and integrated site-level fluxes of CO2 and CH4. New Typha chambers were also developed to enclose entire plants and segregate the plant fluxes from soil/water fluxes. We expect ecosys to predict the seasonal and diurnal fluxes of CH4 from within each land cover type and to resolve where CH4 is generated within the soil column and its transmission mechanisms. We demonstrate the need for detailed information at both the patch and site level when using models to predict whole wetland ecosystem-scale GHG

  17. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  18. Cellular localization of luteinizing hormone receptor immunoreactivity in the ovaries of immature, gonadotropin-primed and normal cycling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovský, A; Chen, T T; Wimalasena, J; Caudle, M R

    1993-06-01

    In this study we used two monoclonal antibodies against purified LH receptor (LHR) to localize and quantify LHR in ovarian compartments during follicular development, using gonads from immature, gonadotropin-primed, and normal cycling rats. In early preantral follicles, LHR immunoreactivity (LHRI) was identified in vascular endothelium and subsequently appeared in vascular pericytes. In healthy small antral (200-550-microns) follicles, LHRI continued to be present in thecal pericytes, but not in cells of the theca interna. However, in small antral follicles undergoing atresia, a dramatic decrease in thecal vessel LHRI with a concomitant increase in LHRI in hypertrophied theca was observed. In healthy antral follicles, LHRI of thecal cells was not observed until the cells reached medium (550-microns) size. High LHRI was occasionally observed in macrophage-like cells adjacent to the oocyte of large preantral follicles and among granulosa layers of medium-sized antral follicles. In the membrana granulosa, LHRI first appeared in cumulus cells of medium-sized antral follicles and subsequently spread to the entire granulosa cell population of large (750 microns) antral follicles. Treatment of immature rats with eCG markedly enhanced LHRI in theca and granulosa cells of all antral follicles, while eCG/hCG-treated (pseudopregnant) rats showed lack of LHRI in follicles and interstitial glands, but not in corpora lutea (CL). Within degenerating CL in the cycling ovary, compared to fresh and mature CL, a significant decrease occurred in intracellular LHRI. Our observations indicate that 1) vascular pericytes may play a role in follicular development; 2) LHR expression in granulosa may require an interaction of macrophages, oocytes, and cumulus cells; and 3) thecal hypertrophy accompanied by enhanced LHR expression occurs on follicles undergoing atresia.

  19. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is required for normal gonadotropin responsiveness in the mouse ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Kimberly R.; Tomic, Dragana; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Babus, Janice K.; Roby, Katherine F.; Terranova, Paul F.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of a variety of environmental chemicals. Although little is known about the physiological role of the AHR, studies suggest that it plays an important role in regulating ovulation because Ahr deficient (AhRKO) mice have a reduced number of ovulations compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The reasons for the reduced ability of AhRKO mice to ovulate are unknown. Normal ovulation, however, requires estrous cyclicity, appropriate luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, and LH and FSH responsiveness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ahr deletion regulates ovulation by altering cyclicity, FSH and LH levels, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) and luteinizing hormone receptor (Lhcgr) levels and/or gonadotropin responsiveness. The data indicate that AhRKO and WT mice have similar levels of FSH and LH, but AhRKO mice have reduced Fshr and Lhcgr mRNA levels compared to WT mice. Furthermore, AhRKO ovaries contain fewer corpora lutea compared to WT ovaries after 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment. Lastly, both AhRKO and WT mice ovulate a similar number of eggs in response to 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but AhRKO mice ovulate fewer eggs than WT mice in response to 2.5 IU and 1.25 IU hCG. Collectively, these data indicate that AhRKO follicles have a reduced capacity to ovulate compared to WT follicles and that this is due to reduced responsiveness to gonadotropins. Thus, in addition to mediating toxicity of environmental chemicals, the Ahr is required for normal ovulation

  20. The Effects of Chlorpromazine on Reproductive System and Function in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorpromazine (CPZ, an antipsychotic drug, is associated with increased risk of sexual dysfunction through increasing prolactin levels. The current study evaluates the effect of CPZ-induced hyperprolactinemia on ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and alteration of ovarian source hormones. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, animals were divided into four groups, control and CPZ (n=8 per group. In the treated groups, CPZ was administered by gavage at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg per day for 28 days. On day 29 the animals were killed after which histopathological and histomorphometric analyses of the ovaries were performed. We evaluated the levels of prolactin serum, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol (E2 and progesterone. Results: The ovaries of the test groups showed numerous atretic follicles of various sizes. CPZ caused a significant difference between the test groups and the control group (P<0.05 on the amount of atresia and the size of the normal corpora lutea (CL. The increased dysfunction of the ovaries from the different groups depended on the amount of CPZ administered. The serum concentrations of prolactin and progesterone significantly increased (P<0.05, while the serum concentrations of estradiol, LH and FSH notably decreased (P<0.05, depending on the CPZ dose. CPZ-induced animals had unsuccessful mating and decreased pregnancy rate. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that CPZ-induced disturbances not only depend on prolactin level but the increased prolactin level is largely dose-dependent.

  1. Regulation of prolactin secretion during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, J L; Lee, Y; Yang, S; Arbogast, L

    2001-01-01

    Prolactin plays major roles in maintaining the corpora lutea of pregnancy and in the synthesis of milk during lactation. The hypothalamic mechanisms involved in these functions have been investigated. Mating leads to a surge of prolactin and programs daily surges during early pregnancy. The expression of Fos-immunoreactivity shows that mating activates several hypothalamic nuclei, particularly the arcuate nucleus and medial preoptic area. In the arcuate nucleus, mating is associated with Fos expression in beta-endorphin neurons, and infusion of naloxone blocks both mating-induced and diurnal prolactin surges. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopamine neurons appear not to participate in surge generation. However, after day 10 of gestation the secretion of placental lactogens suppresses prolactin secretion via activation of dopamine neurons without involvement of beta-endorphin neurons. Intracerebroventricular implantation of placental lactogen-secreting cells will block pregnancy prolactin surges, increase Fos expression in dopamine neurons, and increase tyrosine hydroxylase activity. During lactation the mechanisms regulating dopamine and beta-endorphin neurons are further modified. In early lactation a prolactin-induced increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity leads to negative feedback, but this effect is lost by mid-lactation. Overriding this negative feedback is the inhibitory effect that suckling has on dopaminergic activity. This may involve beta-endorphin-mediated inhibition of dopamine neurons, as naloxone causes a marked increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity and suppression of circulating prolactin. However, removal of tonic dopamine inhibition is not sufficient to account for the high levels of prolactin attained during lactation, and additional releasing factors are probably involved. In situ hybrization histochemistry for the most recent candidate, prolactin-releasing peptide, suggests that this may involve brain stem neurons that co

  2. Sulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia in mature female rats: evidence for alterations in the reproductive system, pituitary and ovarian hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour, Sara; Zare, Samad; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab Ali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Razi, Mazdak

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conven- tional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD)-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment), control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil), low dose SPD (20 mg/kg) and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg). All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP) administered for a period of 28 days. After 28 days, we dissected the rats' ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL). Serum levels of prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05) elevation in SPD-administered animals' uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05) increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05) decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

  3. A Novel Letrozole Model Recapitulates Both the Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Female Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Alexander S.; Thackray, Varykina G.; Ryan, Genevieve E.; Tolson, Kristen P.; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A.; Semaan, Sheila J.; Poling, Matthew C.; Iwata, Nahoko; Breen, Kellie M.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Webster, Nicholas J.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathophysiology is poorly understood, due partly to lack of PCOS animal models fully recapitulating this complex disorder. Recently, a PCOS rat model using letrozole (LET), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, mimicked multiple PCOS phenotypes, including metabolic features absent in other models. Given the advantages of using genetic and transgenic mouse models, we investigated whether LET produces a similar PCOS phenotype in mice. Pubertal female C57BL/6N mice were treated for 5 wk with LET, which resulted in increased serum testosterone and normal diestrus levels of estradiol, similar to the hyperandrogenemia and follicular phase estrogen levels of PCOS women. As in PCOS, ovaries from LET mice were larger, polycystic, and lacked corpora lutea versus controls. Most LET females were acyclic, and all were infertile. LET females displayed elevated serum LH levels and higher Lhb mRNA in the pituitary. In contrast, serum FSH and Fshb were significantly reduced in LET females, demonstrating differential effects on gonadotropins, as in PCOS. Within the ovary, LET females had higher Cyp17, Cyp19, and Fsh receptor mRNA expression. In the hypothalamus, LET females had higher kisspeptin receptor mRNA expression but lower progesterone receptor mRNA levels. LET females also gained more weight than controls, had increased abdominal adiposity and adipocyte size, elevated adipose inflammatory mRNA levels, and impaired glucose tolerance, mirroring the metabolic phenotype in PCOS women. This is the first report of a LET paradigm in mice that recapitulates both reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and will be useful to genetically probe the PCOS condition. PMID:26203175

  4. Specific PGF-2 alpha binding by the corpus luteum of the pregnant and non-pregnant mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M W; Strauss, S; Simonelli, M; Zavy, M T; Sharp, D C

    1979-01-01

    The binding of prostaglandin (PG) F-2 alpha to corpora lutea (CL) from pregnant and non-pregnant Pony mares was examined. Studies of the rates of association and dissociation indicated that [3H]PGF was bound specifically and reversibly to a luteal cell membrane preparation (MP) that was isolated by high speed (100,000 g) ultracentrifugation. Various PGs and PG metabolites displaced [3H]PGF from the receptors in the following decreasing order: PGF-2 alpha greater than 13, 14-dihydro-PGF-2 alpha = 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF-2 alpha greater than PGD-2 greater than PGF-1 alpha = PGE-2 greater than PGE-2 beta greater than PGE-1. These data implicate the 9 alpha-OH and 5,6 cis double bond as major contributors to PGF receptor recognition. The membrane preparation appeared to contain at least two receptor populations, a high affinity, low capacity and a low affinity, high capacity receptor. The binding of PGF (pg/mg MP protein +/- s.e.m. (n)) to CL of the non-pregnant mare increased from 4.09 +/- 11.6 (4), on Day 4 after ovulation, to reach maximal levels by Day 12, 15.01 +/- 2.5 (4), and declined thereafter. In pregnancy the binding of PGF continued to increase until Day 18, reaching 27.47 +/- 1.7 (3), before it declined on Day 20. The reduction in binding by Day 16 in the non-pregnant mare may reflect the process of luteolysis, while high PGF binding capacity of CL between Days 16 and 18 of pregnancy indicated that luteal maintenance during pregnancy is not associated with a reduction of PGF binding capabilities.

  5. The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine Leth-Moller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The luteal phase of all stimulated in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI cycles is disrupted, which makes luteal phase support (LPS mandatory. The cause of the disruption is thought to be the multifollicular development achieved during ovarian stimulation which results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids secreted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal phase defect. With the introduction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol, it became feasible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of GnRH agonist (GnRHa as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. GnRHa triggering presents several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa triggering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation with a standard LPS in the form of progesterone and estradiol. Following these disappointing results, several studies now report a luteal phase rescue after modifications of the LPS, resulting in a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. We herein review luteal phase differences between the natural cycle, hCG trigger and GnRHa trigger and present the most recent data on handling the luteal phase after GnRHa triggering.

  6. Benthic reef primary production in response to large amplitude internal waves at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand)

    KAUST Repository

    Jantzen, Carin

    2013-11-29

    Coral reefs are facing rapidly changing environments, but implications for reef ecosystem functioning and important services, such as productivity, are difficult to predict. Comparative investigations on coral reefs that are naturally exposed to differing environmental settings can provide essential information in this context. One prevalent phenomenon regularly introducing alterations in water chemistry into coral reefs are internal waves. This study therefore investigates the effect of large amplitude internal waves (LAIW) on primary productivity in coral reefs at the Similan Islands (Andaman Sea, Thailand). The LAIW-exposed west sides of the islands are subjected to sudden drops in water temperature accompanied by enhanced inorganic nutrient concentrations compared to the sheltered east. At the central island, Ko Miang, east and west reefs are only few hundred meters apart, but feature pronounced differences. On the west lower live coral cover (-38%) coincides with higher turf algae cover (+64%) and growth (+54%) compared to the east side. Turf algae and the reef sand-associated microphytobenthos displayed similar chlorophyll a contents on both island sides, but under LAIW exposure, turf algae exhibited higher net photosynthesis (+23%), whereas the microphytobenthos displayed reduced net and gross photosynthesis (-19% and -26%, respectively) accompanied by lower respiration (-42%). In contrast, the predominant coral Porites lutea showed higher chlorophyll a tissues contents (+42%) on the LAIW-exposed west in response to lower light availability and higher inorganic nutrient concentrations, but net photosynthesis was comparable for both sides. Turf algae were the major primary producers on the west side, whereas microphytobenthos dominated on the east. The overall primary production rate (comprising all main benthic primary producers) was similar on both island sides, which indicates high primary production variability under different environmental conditions.

  7. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, C.

    2014-01-29

    Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral-associated bacteria. We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease (WPD) signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state. Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases. 2013 The Authors Molecular Ecology John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mostafapour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment, control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil, low dose SPD (20 mg/kg and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg. All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP administered for a period of 28 days. Results: After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05 elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05 increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05 decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

  9. Floral structure and pollen morphology are important characters in taxonomy of the genus Viola (Violaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Słomka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available the pistil with stigma, stamen appendages (nectaries and pollen heteromorphism are important diagnostic features in the genus ViolaL. The style characters were crucial in the very early classifications of this genus (Clausen 1927. We analyzed in details, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the microstructural characters of generative organs (style and stigma, stamens with nectaries and pollen in representatives of three sections (Viola L., Melanium Ging., DischidiumGing. occurring in Poland to get insights into the relatedness among far-related (different sections and closely related (sub-sections within section species. There is a great difference in stigma micromorphology between sections. In the section Violaflowers have style beaked at the apex, glabrous or covered by papillae and/or hairs, depending of subsection. Monotypic section Dischidiumwith one species V. biflora L. characterizes 2-lobed stigma. Cup-shaped stigma with the hole on the top and a lip below, covered with papillae and hairs on its outer surface occurs in pansies of the section Melanium. Pollen is highly heteromorphic (different pollen morphs, from three up to six apertures within one flower or even within one pollen sac in the Melaniumsection and weakly heteromorphic mainly with three apertures in diploids of Viola and Dischidiumsections. This character is independent of the polyploidy in the Melaniumbut not in Violasection (Dajoz 1999. The flower micromorphological characters are also useful in reconstruction of closely related species origin. Based on stigma and nectaries features, two zinc violets are more similar to the alpineV. lutea, than to V. tricolor, indicated also as the ancestor (Kuta et al.2012.

  10. Direct generation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles dispersion under supercritical conditions for photocatalytic active thermoplastic surfaces for microbiological inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zydziak, Nicolas; Zanin, Maria-Helena Ambrosio; Trick, Iris; Hübner, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Thermoplastic poly(propylene) (PP) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces were coated with silica based films via the sol–gel process, containing titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) as photocatalyst. TiO 2 was previously synthesized via sol–gel and treated under supercritical conditions in water dispersions. The characterization of the TiO 2 dispersions was performed via disc centrifuge to determine the particle size and via Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to characterize the crystallinity of TiO 2 . The synthesized TiO 2 dispersions and commercially available TiO 2 particles were incorporated in silica based films which were synthesized under acidic or basic conditions, leading to dense or porous films respectively. The morphology of the films was characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The incorporation of synthesized TiO 2 in the coating led to photocatalytically more active thermoplastic surfaces than films formulated with commercially available TiO 2 as determined via dye discoloration test. A microbiological test performed with Sarcina lutea confirmed this result and showed an inactivation factor of 6 (99.9999%) after 24 h UV irradiation, for synthesized TiO 2 incorporated in acidic formulated silica layer on ABS surfaces. - Highlights: • We report about photocatalytic layers formulated on thermoplastic surfaces. • We synthesized silica layer and TiO 2 via sol–gel and supercritical treatment. • Amorphous, crystalline and commercial dispersions were generated and characterized. • The morphology of dense and porous photocatalytic layers is observed via SEM. • Discoloration and microbiological tests correlate activity and surface morphology

  11. Neonatal thymulin gene therapy prevents ovarian dysgenesis and attenuates reproductive derangements in nude female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Paula C; Barbeito, Claudio G; Zuccolilli, Gustavo O; Cónsole, Gloria M; Flamini, Alicia M; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2012-08-01

    Congenitally athymic (nude) female mice show severe ovarian dysgenesis after puberty, which seems to be consequential to a number of neuroendocrine derangements described in these mutants. Thus, considerable evidence suggests that thymulin, a thymic peptide, may be involved in thymus-pituitary communication. In order to clarify the relevance of thymulin for the maturation of the female reproductive system, we assessed at hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, and uterine level the preventive action of neonatal thymulin gene therapy (NTGT) on the changes that typically occur after puberty in congenitally athymic female mice. We injected (im) an adenoviral vector harboring a synthetic DNA sequence encoding a biologically active analog of thymulin, methionine-serum thymic factor, in newborn nude mice (which are thymulin deficient) and killed the animals at 70-71 d of age. NTGT in the athymic mice restored the serum thymulin levels. Morphometric analysis revealed that athymic nudes have reduced numbers of brain GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotropic cells as compared with heterozygous controls. NTGT prevented these changes and also rescued the premature ovarian failure phenotype typically observed in athymic nude mice (marked reduction in the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea, increase in atretic follicles). Serum estrogen, but not progesterone, levels were low in athymic nudes, a reduction that was partially prevented by NTGT. Little to no morphological changes were observed in the endometrium of female nudes. The delay in the age of vaginal opening that occurs in athymic nudes was significantly prevented by NTGT. Our results suggest that thymulin plays a relevant physiologic role in the thymus-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  12. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances embryonic development and survival in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xilong; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Burghardt, Robert C; Frank, James W; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Shinzato, Izuru; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-02-01

    Embryonic loss is a major problem in mammals, but there are few effective ways to prevent it. Using a porcine model, we determined effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation between days 14 and 25 of gestation on embryonic growth and survival. Gilts were checked daily for estrus with boars in the morning and bred at onset of the second estrus and 12 h later (the time of breeding = day 0 of gestation). Between days 14 and 25 of gestation, 15 gilts/treatment were housed individually and fed twice daily 1 kg of a corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, or 0.8 % L-arginine. All diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of L-alanine. On day 25 of gestation, gilts were hysterectomized to obtain conceptuses. Compared with controls, dietary supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8 % L-arginine increased (P ≤ 0.05) arginine concentrations in maternal plasma, total volume of amniotic fluid; total amounts of arginine in allantoic and amniotic fluids; total amounts of fructose and most amino acids in amniotic fluid; placental growth; and the number of viable fetuses per litter by 2. The numbers of total fetuses, fetal weight, corpora lutea, volume of allantoic fluid, maternal circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen, or total amounts of hormones in allantoic fluid did not differ among the three treatment groups. Reproductive performance of gilts did not differ between the 0.4 and 0.8 % L-arginine groups. Thus, dietary supplementation with 0.4 or 0.8 % L-arginine between days 14 and 25 of gestation enhances embryonic/fetal survival in swine.

  13. Is aspartate 52 essential for catalysis by chicken egg white lysozyme? The role of natural substrate-assisted hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Ichiro; Kirsch, J.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-02-13

    The chicken and goose egg white lysozymes (ChEWL and GoEWL) are homologues, but differ in substrate specificity. ChEWL catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds of bacterial peptidoglycans and chitin-derived substrates, while GoEWL is specific for bacterial peptidoglycans. The active-site aspartate 52 residue of ChEWL, which is postulated to stabilize the oxocarbenium ion intermediate, has no counterpart in GoEWL. The substrate specificity of the D52A ChEWL mutant was compared with those of wild-type ChEWL and GoEWL. D52A ChEWL retains approximately 4% of the wild-type catalytic activity in reactions with three different bacterial cell suspensions. Asp52 therefore is not essential to the catalytic mechanism, accounting for only a 2 kcal/mol decrease in AG. The function of Asp52 in D52A ChEWL- and GoEWL-catalyzed cleavage of (carboxymethyl)chitin may be partially fulfilled by an appropriately positioned carboxyl group on the substrate (substrate-assisted catalysis). D52A ChEWL and GoEWL, unlike wild-type ChEWL, exhibit biphasic kinetics in the clearing of Micrococcus luteus cell suspensions, suggesting preferences for subsets of the linkages in the M. luteus peptidoglycan. These subsets do not exist in the peptidoglycans of Escherichia coli or Sarcina lutea, since neither D52A ChEWL nor GoEWL exhibits initial bursts in reactions with suspensions of these bacteria. We propose that substrate-assisted catalysis occurs in reactions of D52A ChEWL and GoEWL with M. luteus peptidoglycans, with the glycine carboxyl group of uncross-linked peptides attached to N-acetylmuramic acid partially substituting the function of the missing Asp52. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camats, N.; Garcia, F.; Parrilla, J.J.; Calaf, J.; Martin-Mateo, M.; Caldes, M. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F 0 ) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F 1 ) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and allometric analysis of spectinomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dinev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study were compared microbiological and HPLC methods for determination of spectinomycin pharmacokinetics in goats. The goats were subject to intravenous administration of spectinomycin at 20 mg/kg body weight. For the microbiological assay was used test microorganism Sarcina lutea ATCC 9341. Limit of quantification in the microbiological assay was 6.25 μg/mL and in the HPLC method was 0.1 μg/mL. Spectinomycin concentrations following microbiological assay were initially higher than HPLC-determined and gradually the differences decreased. During HPLC analysis spectinomycin was found until 12 h and during microbiological assay until 4 h. As a result in HPLC analysis the values of Vd(area (0.527 L/kg , t1/2β (1.74 h and ClB (3.512 mL/kg/min were considerably higher in comparison with microbiological method (Vd(area - 0.147 L/kg , t1/2β - 0.8 h and ClB - 2.174 mL/kg/min. The data from method validation also showed the advantage of HPLC method. Because of that can be concluded that HPLC is more sensitive and accurate method for spectinomycin determination. Regarding the allometric equation for elimination half-life (t1/2 = 1.19.W0.02 the values are showing lack of correlation to body weight. Volume of distribution allometric equation (Vd(area = 0.37.W0.96 and total body clearance allometric equation (ClB = 1.92.W1.09 have high level of correlation to body weight (<0.001 and therefore can be used.

  16. Anovulation in non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats (Cryptomys damarensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteno, A J; Bennett, N C

    2000-05-01

    Within colonies of Damaraland mole-rats (Cryptomys damarensis), anovulation in non-reproductive females is thought to play an important role in maintaining reproductive skew. Pituitary sensitivity and ovarian structure were examined in three groups of females that differed with respect to their social environment and breeding status to determine whether anovulation is due to inhibitory social cues or is merely the result of a lack of copulatory stimulation. The contribution of gonadal steroid negative feedback to neuroendocrine differences in the reproductive systems of the respective groups was also investigated. LH secretion after a 0.5 micrograms GnRH challenge in females that had been removed from the presence of the breeding individuals for at least 6 months (removed non-reproductive females) was significantly higher than in non-reproductive females in the colony, but significantly lower than in reproductive females. In both removed non-reproductive females and reproductive females, corpora lutea were observed in ovaries of seven of eight females, indicating that ovulation occurs spontaneously in subordinate females on removal from the breeding pair. Circulating progesterone concentrations in removed non-reproductive females were significantly higher than in non-reproductive females, indicating that circulating progesterone is not responsible for infertility in non-reproductive females. Indeed, after hystero-ovariectomy, reproductive females continued to show significantly greater GnRH-stimulated LH secretion than non-reproductive females. Thus, differential inhibition of gonadotrophin secretion in breeding and non-breeding females occurs independently of gonadal steroids. It is concluded that female Damaraland mole-rats are spontaneous ovulators and that anovulation results from inhibitory social cues within the colony, not a lack of copulatory stimulation. Since non-reproductive females are infertile, inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis has

  17. The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzić, Sulejman S

    2007-09-01

    This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and

  18. Fischer's Plants in folk beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Klepacki, Piotr; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2017-03-23

    Historical ethnobotanical studies are useful starting points for further diachronic analysis. The aim of this contribution is to present archival data from the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland, which were collected by Adam Fischer, a Polish ethnographer from Lviv, in the 1930s. These data were originally gathered for publication in the first part of the Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs, dedicated to plant uses in traditional Slavonic culture. It was intended to be a joint international enterprise, but was never actually fulfilled. In this article we used information from historical Lithuania (the Great Duchy of Lithuania), nowadays a border region between Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. We applied cultural importance indices such as Use Value, Relative Importance value and Sørensen similarity coefficient, in order to compare our data with a western Ukraine data set from the same research framework. In total, 153 plant taxa were registered as used in peasant culture in the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland in the 1930s. The species which achieved the highest Use Values were: Calendula officinalis, Cyanus segetum, Helichrysum arenarium, Betula sp., Prunella vulgaris, and Nuphar lutea or Lilium sp. The most salient use categories were medicinal, followed by food and home garden plants. The overall similarity to plants recorded in western Ukraine within the same project of Fischer's is quite low (46%), which may be explained by the partly different flora found in the regions, and a cultural discontinuity, revealed by the difference in species with the highest UV. Moreover, the field collaborators were different in the two regions and may have paid attention to different cultural spheres of use. The presented ethnobotanical data are a valuable contribution to the ethnobotany of Eastern Europe as a whole. In particular, the presented list of plants may be a rich source for future studies on the ethnobotany of the Polish diaspora in Lithuania, and

  19. The aphrodisiac herb Carpolobia: A biopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwidu, Lucky Lebgosi; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Any agent with the ability to provoke sexual desire in an individual is referred to as an aphrodisiac. Aphrodisiac plants are used in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. One such plant popular in West and Central Africa among the Pygmies of Cameroon, Ipassa of Garbon, and the Yoruba, Ibo, Efik and Ijaw peoples of Nigeria is Carpolobia. It is an accepted and commonly utilized herbal booster of libido. It is used to cure male infertility and to boosts libido thereby augmenting male sexual functions or it is used to induce penile erection, and enhance male virility. The chewing stick prepared from the stem and root of either Carpolobia alba (CA) or Carpolobia lutea (CL) is patronized because it boosts male sexual performance. The genus Carpolobia has over 14 species. The leaf essential oil contains a variety of terpenoids, while polyphenols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from the root and leaf extracts respectively. Other ethnomedicinal uses include curing of stomach ailments, rheumatism, fever, pains, insanity, dermal infection, venereal diseases; to promote child birth; and as a taeniafuge and vermifuge. In spite of its popularity, no scientific data reviewing the biopharmacological and phytochemical activities of Carpolobia exist to our knowledge. The aim of this work is to collate all available published scientific reports in the literature on Carpolobia in a review paper. In this review, an overview of the morphology, taxonomy, ethnomedicinal claims, geographical distribution, and structurally elucidated compounds that are secondary metabolites isolated and characterized from Carpolobia species is established. The pharmacological assays, phytochemical screenings, and toxicological reports are also reviewed.

  20. Effet de Panicum maximum sur la productivité des femelles primipares durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum on Productivity of Primiparous Females during Reproduction Cycle in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum. To assess the effect of the latter during pregnancy and lactation (RC of these animals, primiparous dams were fed ad libitum, Panicum maximum alone during the RC (MOD1 or associated with pellets for rabbits during lactation (MOD2, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the last part of the pregnancy period and the lactation (MOD3, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the entire RC (MOD4. The number of corpora lutea per female was 1.3 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.0 respectively for MOD1 and MOD4. No pre-embryonic mortality was recorded. The mean weight of the young guinea pigs of MOD1 (54.7 ± 10. g was only 55% of that of MOD4 (98.6 ± 13.6 g. At weaning, the average weight gain of young guinea pigs of MOD1 (40.5 ± 22.2 g represented a third of those obtained with other diets that did not significantly differ. At the end of RC, the weight gain of dams was 17 ± 13.3% for MOD1 compared to 50% for MOD2, MOD3 and MOD4. Feeding Panicum maximum alone induces chronic malnutrition which in turn is responsible of the low ovulation rate and reduced growth in guinea pig breeding.

  1. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  2. Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Food Functional Properties of the Half-Fin Anchovy Hydrolysates-Glucose Conjugates Formed via Maillard Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ru; Yang, Peiyu; Wei, Rongbian; Ruan, Guanqiang

    2016-06-20

    The antioxidative, antibacterial, and food functional properties of the half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp)-glucose conjugates formed by Maillard reaction (MR) were investigated, respectively. Results of sugar and amino acid contents loss rates, browning index, and molecular weight distribution indicated that the initial pH of HAHp played an important role in the process of MR between HAHp and glucose. HAHp-glucose Maillard reaction products (HAHp-G MRPs) demonstrated enhanced antioxidative activities of reducing power and scavenging DPPH radicals compared to control groups. HAHp-G MRPs produced from the condition of pH 9.6 displayed the strongest reducing power. The excellent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals was found for HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs which was produced at pH 5.6. Additionally, HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs showed variable antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Sarcina lutea, with the MIC values ranging from 8.3 to 16.7 μg/mL. Result of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on E. coli suggested that HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs exhibited antibacterial activity by destroying the cell integrity through membrane permeabilization. Moreover, HAHp(5.6)-G MRPs had excellent foaming ability and stability at alkaline conditions of pH 8.0, and showed emulsion properties at acidic pH 4.0. These results suggested that specific HAHp-G MRPs should be promising functional ingredients used in foods.

  3. Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Food Functional Properties of the Half-Fin Anchovy Hydrolysates-Glucose Conjugates Formed via Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative, antibacterial, and food functional properties of the half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp-glucose conjugates formed by Maillard reaction (MR were investigated, respectively. Results of sugar and amino acid contents loss rates, browning index, and molecular weight distribution indicated that the initial pH of HAHp played an important role in the process of MR between HAHp and glucose. HAHp-glucose Maillard reaction products (HAHp-G MRPs demonstrated enhanced antioxidative activities of reducing power and scavenging DPPH radicals compared to control groups. HAHp-G MRPs produced from the condition of pH 9.6 displayed the strongest reducing power. The excellent scavenging activity on DPPH radicals was found for HAHp(5.6-G MRPs which was produced at pH 5.6. Additionally, HAHp(5.6-G MRPs showed variable antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Sarcina lutea, with the MIC values ranging from 8.3 to 16.7 μg/mL. Result of scanning electron microscopy (SEM on E. coli suggested that HAHp(5.6-G MRPs exhibited antibacterial activity by destroying the cell integrity through membrane permeabilization. Moreover, HAHp(5.6-G MRPs had excellent foaming ability and stability at alkaline conditions of pH 8.0, and showed emulsion properties at acidic pH 4.0. These results suggested that specific HAHp-G MRPs should be promising functional ingredients used in foods.

  4. Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, J.F.; Abalos, M.C.; Acuña, F.A.; Virgili, R.; Requena, F.; Cancino, A.K.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID) containing the same dose (0.5 g) of progesterone (P4) on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama) treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group) to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0) with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i) DIB 0.5® and ii) Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9) and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (± SD) number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p < 0.05) by the type of ID (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.2 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.6 ± 3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively). In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas. (Author)

  5. Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Aller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID containing the same dose (0.5 g of progesterone (P4 on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0 with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i DIB 0.5® and ii Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9 and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (± SD number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p < 0.05 by the type of ID (5.3 ± 2.6 vs 4.2 ± 2.2 and 3.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.6 ± 3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively. In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas.

  6. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Kozlowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., garlic (Allium sativum L., gentian (Gentiana lutea L., lovage (Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, and lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor L.. While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose (Viburnum opulus L. and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica (Angelica archangelica L. and carline thistle (Carlina acaulis L.. The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  7. Comparison of two methods of synchronization of estrus in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Eveline Dos Santos; Polegato, Bruna Furlan; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to establish a protocol for synchronization of estrus in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Two groups of hinds (n=3) were submitted to two different protocols: Treatment 1 received an intravaginal progesterone (CIDR) device for 8 days, followed by 265microg injection of cloprostenol at the time of removal; and Treatment 2 received two injections of 265microg of cloprostenol 11 days apart. After 30 days, each group of three hinds received the other treatment. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by reproductive behavior, fecal progestin and estrogen concentration and the observation of CL by laparoscopy 6 days after the end of estrus. All the hinds (100%) had estrous behavior upon the completion of treatment, but a significant difference occurred between the time of onset, 70.5+/-5.0h for Treatment 1 and 52.3+/-5.6h for Treatment 2. The mean estrus duration time (34.7+/-4.50 and 37.0+/-8.11h), ovulation rates (5/6 and 4/6), mean CL size (4.85+/-0.74 and 3.21+/-0.19mm) and mean fecal progestin concentration at 6 days after the end of estrus (865.53+/-76.59 and 1073.35+/-106.82ng/g feces) were not significantly different between treatments. There was no difference in fecal estrogen concentrations throughout the treatment and the greatest values of the estrogen:progestin ratio coincided with estrous behavior. Although fertility was not evaluated directly, both treatments were effective in synchronizing estrus in the species M. gouazoubira, with the formation of functional corpora lutea.

  8. Ecogeomorphic Feedbacks that Grow Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Larsen, L.; Wagner, W.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal river deltas are complex and dynamic ecosystems where vegetation plays an essential role in influencing (as well as being influenced by) physical processes, creating a strong potential for ecogeomorphic feedbacks. However, understanding of the relative strenghts of feedback between vegetation species and topography along different portions of the marsh elevation/zonation gradient is poorly developed, particularly for freshwater, deltaic marshes. In part, this knowledge gap is due to difficulties associated with adequate sampling within heterogeneous vegetation communities to delineate bi-directional feedback applicable at the delta scale.. Emerging technology (high resolution remote sensing and high resolution LiDAR) and data analysis techniques like transfer entropy have made it possible to overcome these difficulties. Here, results of the transfer entropy analysis were consistent with widespread understanding of marsh zonation, yet produced additional insight into which vegetation communities specifically had a dominant impact on topographic change. Ecogeomorphic feedback that has a substantial short-term impact on evolving topography was resolvable only within native vegetation communities (Nelumbo lutea and Polygonum spp.) that occur over low to moderate elevations within the Wax Lake Delta tidal prism. In contrast, nonnative vegetation communities (Colocasia esculenta and Eichhonia crasspies) are not as functional at accreting sediment as native communities. The transfer entropy analysis suggests that different vegetation communities play functionally different roles in landscape evolution that should be differentiated in a model. Within such a model, it would be most critical to resolve detailed flow characteristics at low to low-middle island elevations, where submerged aquatic vegetation and Nelumbo are abundant, as these communities exert the strongest influence on topographic change. Furthermore, within elevation zones, it is likely important to

  9. Species-specific responses of corals to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year period (1995-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17-20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover.

  10. Expression and functional implications of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in canine reproductive tissues during normal pregnancy and parturition and at antiprogestin induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel; Meyer, Andrea; Hoffmann, Bernd; Aslan, Selim; Boos, Alois

    2011-03-15

    PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor of the PPAR family of transcription factors closely related to the steroid hormone receptors serving multiple roles in regulating reproductive function. Endogenous factors from the arachidonic acid metabolites group serve as ligands for PPARs. PPARγ modifies the steroidogenic capacity of reproductive tissues and has been defined as a key mediator of biological actions of progesterone receptor in granulosa cells; it modulates biochemical and morphological placental trophoblast differentiation during implantation and placentation. However, no such information is available for the dog. Hence, the expression and possible functions of PPARγ were assessed in corpora lutea (CL) and utero/placental (Ut/Pl) compartment collected from bitches (n = 3 to 5) on days 8 to 12 (pre-implantation), 18 to 25 (post-implantation), 35 to 40 (mid-gestation) of pregnancy and at prepartal luteolysis. Additionally, 10 mid-pregnant bitches were treated with the antiprogestin Aglepristone [10mg/Kg bw (2x/24h)]; ovariohysterectomy was 24h and 72 h after the 2nd treatment. Of the two PPARγ isoforms, PPARγ1 was the only isoform clearly detectable in all canine CL and utero/placental samples. The luteal PPARγ was upregulated throughout pregnancy, a prepartal downregulation was observed. Placental expression of PPARγ was elevated after implantation and at mid-gestation, followed by a prepartal downregulation. All changes were more pronounced at the protein-level suggesting that the PPARγ expression may be regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Within the CL PPARγ was localized to the luteal cells. Placental expression was targeted solely to the fetal trophoblast cells; a regulatory role of PPARγ in canine placental development possibly through influencing the invasion of fetal trophoblast cells is suggested. Treatment with Aglepristone led to downregulation of PPARγ in either compartment, implying the functional interrelationship with

  11. Hormonal behavior correlates with follicular recruitment at mid-gestation in the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Rodentia, Caviomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunhoffer, Nicolas Alejandro; Jensen, Federico; Leopardo, Noelia; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Abuelafia, Analía Meilerman; Espinosa, María Beatriz; Charif, Santiago Elías; Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2017-09-01

    In mammals, hormonal regulation during gestation is crucial for embryo implantation and pregnancy success. This regulation is controlled through the level of progesterone (P4) that blocks the activity of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. Previous studies in the pregnant South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, have shown that the HHG axis activates around mid-gestation, promoting pre-ovulatory follicle formation. However, the characterization of the hormonal dynamics throughout gestation and its ovarian correlation has not been studied in depth. We studied the ovarian dynamics of L. maximus and its correlation with the hormonal profile during gestation, analyzing serum levels of P4, 17β-estradiol (E2), 4Δ-androstenedione (A4), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as the ovarian distribution and expression of their receptors. Additionally, we have analyzed the folliculogenesis and accessory corpora lutea (ACL) formation. P4 showed two concentration peaks reaching its highest level at mid-gestation decreasing at 91-100days post-coitum. P4 decrease is followed by an increase of circulating levels of A4, E2, FSH and LH and with an elevated number of antral/pre-ovulatory follicles which express PGR, ESR1, ESR2, AR, LHR and FSHR. In addition, ACL with oocyte retention and cytoplasmic lipid droplets in luteal cells were detected at this time point. These results show that in L. maximus the decrease of P4 level from mid-gestation enables follicular recruitment until pre-ovulatory stage and the development of functional ACL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms for the establishment of pregnancy in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziecik, A J; Waclawik, A; Kaczmarek, M M; Blitek, A; Jalali, B Moza; Andronowska, A

    2011-09-01

    Establishment of pregnancy in pigs requires continuous function of corpora lutea and endometrial preparation for embryo implantation. Progesterone regulates expression of many proteins necessary for endometrial remodelling and embryo-maternal communications. Attaining the uterine receptivity involves progesterone priming and loss of progesterone receptors in the uterine epithelium before days 10-12 after oestrus. Spermatozoa and oocytes in oviduct alter secretion of specific proteins that exert beneficial effect on gametes and embryos. Moreover, an appropriate leucocyte activation and maintenance of delicate cytokine balance within the oviduct and uterus are important for early pregnancy. This early local immune response is rather mediated by seminal plasma components. These components also influence prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in the oviduct that is important for gamete and embryo transport. Pregnancy establishment requires the biphasic pattern of oestrogen secretion by conceptuses on days 11-12 and 15-30. Conceptus affects lipid signalling system consisting of prostaglandins and lysophosphatic acid. PG synthesis is changed by conceptus signals in favour of luteoprotective PGE(2) . Additionally, existence of PGE(2) positive feedback loop in the endometrium contributes to increased PGE(2) /PGF(2α) ratio during the peri-implantation period. PGE(2) through endometrial PGE(2) receptor (PTGER2) elevates the expression of enzymes involved in PGE(2) synthesis. Higher PGE(2) secretion in uterine lumen coincides with the elevated expression of HOXA10 transcription factor critical for implantation. A stable adhesion between conceptus and endometrium requires reduction in mucin-1 on the apical surface of epithelium and integrin activation by extracellular matrix proteins. Furthermore, growth factors, cytokines and its receptors are involved in embryo-maternal interactions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Granulosa cell and oocyte mitochondrial abnormalities in a mouse model of fragile X primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conca Dioguardi, Carola; Uslu, Bahar; Haynes, Monique; Kurus, Meltem; Gul, Mehmet; Miao, De-Qiang; De Santis, Lucia; Ferrari, Maurizio; Bellone, Stefania; Santin, Alessandro; Giulivi, Cecilia; Hoffman, Gloria; Usdin, Karen; Johnson, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that the mitochondria of granulosa cells (GC) and/or oocytes might be abnormal in a mouse model of fragile X premutation (FXPM). Mice heterozygous and homozygous for the FXPM have increased death (atresia) of large ovarian follicles, fewer corpora lutea with a gene dosage effect manifesting in decreased litter size(s). Furthermore, granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes of FXPM mice have decreased mitochondrial content, structurally abnormal mitochondria, and reduced expression of critical mitochondrial genes. Because this mouse allele produces the mutant Fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) transcript and reduced levels of wild-type (WT) Fmr1 protein (FMRP), but does not produce a Repeat Associated Non-ATG Translation (RAN)-translation product, our data lend support to the idea that Fmr1 mRNA with large numbers of CGG-repeats is intrinsically deleterious in the ovary. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been detected in somatic cells of human and mouse FX PM carriers and mitochondria are essential for oogenesis and ovarian follicle development, FX-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) is seen in women with FXPM alleles. These alleles have 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5' UTR of an X-linked gene known as FMR1. The molecular basis of the pathology seen in this disorder is unclear but is thought to involve either some deleterious consequence of overexpression of RNA with long CGG-repeat tracts or of the generation of a repeat-associated non-AUG translation (RAN translation) product that is toxic. Analysis of ovarian function in a knock-in FXPM mouse model carrying 130 CGG repeats was performed as follows on WT, PM/+, and PM/PM genotypes. Histomorphometric assessment of follicle and corpora lutea numbers in ovaries from 8-month-old mice was executed, along with litter size analysis. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was quantified in oocytes and GC using quantitative PCR, and cumulus granulosa mitochondrial content was measured by flow cytometric analysis

  14. Composição corporal e puberdade de leitoas alimentadas com níveis alto e baixo de proteína na dieta Body composition and puberty of gilts fed low and high protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar alterarações na composição corporal, diferentes níveis protéicos (12 e 18% PB foram utilizados na dieta de leitoas de reposição, dos 100 aos 221 dias de idade. Durante esse período foram avaliados o peso corporal, espessura de toucinho (ET, manifestação de estro, características do trato reprodutivo e o balanço nitrogenado. Para a determinação do balanço nitrogenado, as leitoas foram submetidas a dois ensaios de digestibilidade (aos 136 e aos 201 dias de idade. Em ambos os ensaios, as leitoas alimentadas com 18% PB apresentaram maior ingestão, retenção e excreção de nitrogênio e maiores níveis de uréia plasmática e urinária (P0,05. Houve redução de 48% na excreção de nitrogênio com a dieta menos protéica. Leitoas alimentadas com 12% PB apresentaram maior ganho de ET (7,4 mm em comparação às alimentadas com 18% PB (4,5 mm, dos 100 aos 207 dias de idade (PWith the aim of altering body composition, diets with different protein levels (12 and 18 CP were offered to breeding gilts from 100 to 221 days of age. During this period, body weight, backfat thickness, oestrus manifestation, characteristics of reproductive tract and nitrogen balance were evaluated. Nitrogen balance was measured during two metabolism trials (at 136 and at 201 days of age. In both trials, gilts fed 18% CP showed higher nitrogen intake, retention and excretion and higher plasmatic and urinary urea levels (P.05. The low-protein diet reduced by 48% the excretion of nitrogen. Gilts fed 12% CP showed a greater backfat change (7.4 mm than those fed 18% CP (4.5 mm, between 100 and 207 days of age (P<.02. Body weight, uterine weight, uterine horns length and number of corpora lutea were not influenced by the level of dietary protein. The rate of oestrus detection, up to 25 days after male exposure, was similar to females receiving 12% (71% and 18% CP (75%. The protein level affected body composition without altering body

  15. The characterization of obese polycystic ovary syndrome rat model suitable for exercise intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyan Wu

    Full Text Available To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rat model suitable for exercise intervention.Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24, PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6, and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6. Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6, sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6, exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and insulin (FINS, estrogen (E2, progesterone (P, and testosterone (T in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0.Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1, 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2, FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO.By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention.

  16. Effect of post-mating GnRH analogue (buserelin) treatment on PGF2alpha release in ewes and ewe lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T H; Beck, N F G; Mann, G E; Khalid, M

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of buserelin or saline treatment on ovarian function (Experiment 1), plasma PGFM concentrations and oxytocin stimulated prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) release (Experiment 2) in ewe lambs and ewes. Welsh Halfbred ewes (n=26) and ewe lambs (n=24) were mated to vasectomised rams at synchronised oestrus and on Day 12 post-mating each animal was injected intramuscularly either normal saline or 4 microg buserelin. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone and oestradiol concentrations were determined in samples collected by jugular venepuncture 1h before and at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment (n=7 per treatment group). Progesterone concentrations increased (Pewes than in ewe lambs but oestradiol levels were similar for both age groups. Ovulation rate, determined by laparoscopy on Day 14, was similar for both age groups (ewes 1.1; ewe lambs 1.0). Buserelin treatment induced accessory corpora lutea in ewes (4/7; 57%) but not in ewe lambs (0/7; 0%). In the Experiment 2, plasma PGFM concentrations were determined in samples collected at 20-min intervals for 6h on Day 14 and at 20-min intervals for 1h before and at 10-min intervals for 1h and then at 20-min intervals for a further 3h period after an intravenous injection of oxytocin (1IU/kg body weight) on Day 15 post-oestrus. In this experiment there were five ewe lambs and six ewes per treatment group. There was no effect of buserelin treatment or age on basal PGFM concentrations on either Day 14 or 15. Although peak PGFM concentrations tended to be lower in buserelin-treated animals, the difference was not significant (P>0.05). However, peak duration following oxytocin challenge on Day 15 post-mating was shorter (Pewes compared with control ewe lambs. In conclusion, buserelin treatment given on Day 12 post-oestrus enhances luteal function more in ewes than ewe lambs and after a transitory increase, reduces oestradiol concentrations in both ewes and

  17. Early embryo loss, morphology, and effect of previous immunization against androstenedione in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Anne R; Demmers, Kristina J; Smaill, Bronwyn; Reader, Karen L; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-09-15

    In a naturally mated cycle, ova and viable embryo number as well as embryo size were assessed on Day 4, 10, 14, 18, and 30 of gestation in Romney ewes (n = 38-44 per gestational group). For Days 4-18 of gestation, embryos were recovered by flushing the reproductive tract after slaughtering of the ewe. Ovulation rate was determined by counting the number of corpora lutea present on both ovaries. For the Day 30 group, number of ovulations was measured by laparoscopic examination of the ovaries at Day 9-12 of the cycle, and number of embryos present was determined by ultrasound examination at approximately Day 30 of pregnancy. Most of embryo loss occurred before Day 14 of gestation with 6% loss before Day 4, and 12% loss between Day 4 and 14 of gestation. A similar proportion of viable embryos per number of ova ovulated were recovered on Day 14 and 18 (82%) and Day 30 (81%) of gestation. Fertilization failure was estimated at 1%. Conceptus and embryo size was most variable on Day 14, representing a period of rapid growth (conceptus length ± standard deviation); Day 4 (169 ± 8 μm), Day 10 (379 ± 93 μm), Day 14 (23 ± 32 mm), Day 18 (embryo length ± standard deviation; 5.0 ± 0.7 mm). Vaccination with commercially available fertility vaccines targeting androstenedione (Androvax and Ovastim) in previous seasons resulted in reduced conceptus size compared with controls. However, no difference in the proportion of viable embryos was observed between treatments, signifying maternal tolerance for considerable variation at this stage of development. Furthermore, the finding that most of loss occurs within the first 14 days of gestation highlights the importance of both oocyte quality and the uterine environment for the embryo to successfully overcome the challenges leading up to and including pregnancy recognition in the ewe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of three superovulation protocols with or without GnRH treatment at the time of artificial insemination on ovarian response and embryo quality in Thai native heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Pitchayapipatkul, Jakkhaphan; Chuawongboon, Phirawit; Rakwongrit, Dumrongrak; Sakhong, Denpong; Boonkum, Wuttigrai; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2017-03-01

    To optimize the superovulation protocol in Thai native cattle, the present research was designed to (1) compare three different protocols designed to induce superstimulation and (2) study the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration at insemination time (to induce ovulation) on ovarian follicular activities in terms of the number of large follicles, corpora lutea (CLs) and unovulated follicles, and the number and quality of ova/embryos recovered in Thai native heifers. Initially, the estrous cycles of animals (n = 36) at unknown stages were synchronized by two prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) injections at an interval of 12 days. Follicular development of heifers was randomly superstimulated with one of three different treatment protocols: treatment A-a total of 100 mg of pituitary-derived FSH (pFSH; Folltropin®-V) administered in eight decreasing doses; treatment B-a single dose of 100 mg pFSH dissolved in 30% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone; or treatment C-ablation of all follicles ≥5 mm with a single dose of pFSH. All heifers received PGF 2α 48 h after the initiation of FSH treatment to induce luteolysis from the previous cycle, and they were twice inseminated at 12 and 24 h after the onset of estrus. Heifers in each treatment were assigned to be injected or not with GnRH at the time of first insemination with frozen/thawed semen to induce ovulation. About 7 days after artificial insemination (AI), ova/embryos were collected and classified. The numbers of large follicles at the onset of estrus were not statistically significantly different; meanwhile, the maximum diameters of follicles at the time of first insemination in treatment C were smaller compared with the other treatment groups (p insemination time resulted in a greater number of CLs and fewer unovulated follicles at the time of ova/embryo collection (p = 0.001), which subsequently resulted in a higher number of total ova/embryos recovered (p = 0.030). Among

  19. Hypoluteoidism in a dog associated with recurrent mammary fibroadenoma stimulated by progestin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedda, Maria Teresa; Bogliolo, Luisa; Antuofermo, Elisabetta; Falchi, Laura; Ariu, Federica; Burrai, Giovanni Pietro; Pau, Salvatore

    2017-09-06

    Hypoluteoidism in the bitch is characterized by insufficient production and secretion of progesterone by the corpora lutea. It is a rare pathologic condition and during pregnancy, it leads to embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. Supplementary therapy with progestins is indicated during pregnancy to obtain delivery of vital puppies but unwarranted side effects of such treatment are poorly documented. A 4-year-old, nulliparous, female Istrian Shorthaired Hound dog had been mated repeatedly in six heats with different dogs of proven fertility but signs of pregnancy did not develop. Estrous cycles, mating and pregnancies were monitored as hypoluteoidism or genital disease was suspected. During the first monitored estrus, the bitch was mated and on day 18 [day 0, day of estimated peak of luteinizing hormone (LH)], ultrasound examination showed three amniotic vesicles that were however found to be resorbed between day 20 and 23. Progesterone concentrations, measured by ELISA, were >8 ng/mL until day 12 and 1-2.5 ng/mL on days 20, 23 and 26. Primary hypoluteoidism was therefore suspected. In the second monitored estrus, the bitch was mated and during pregnancy, progesterone concentrations were >8 ng/mL until day 17 and 1-2.5 ng/mL on day 19. On days 20 and 22, two out of three embryonic vesicles had been resorbed. The bitch was treated with progesterone in oil from day 19 to day 58. Increase in the size of 2nd left thoracic mammary gland (T2-L) was observed and on day 46, ultrasound evaluation and biopsy were performed revealing a low-cellularity fibroadenoma. Parturition started spontaneously at day 65 but due to dystocia caused by fetal macrosomia, a Caesarean section was performed. During the next (third) monitored estrus, the bitch was bred again and during pregnancy, early decrease in progesterone concentration confirmed the diagnosis of primary hypoluteoidism. The bitch was treated with synthetic progestin (altrenogest) from day 8 to day 57. Five amniotic

  20. Study of the embryofeto-toxicity of Crown-of-Thorns (Euphorbia milii latex, a natural molluscicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza C.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude latex of Crown-of-Thorns (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii is a potent plant molluscicide and a promising alternative to the synthetic molluscicides used in schistosomiasis control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the embryofeto-toxic potential of E. milii latex. The study is part of a comprehensive safety evaluation of this plant molluscicide. Lyophilized latex (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in corn oil was given by gavage to Wistar rats (N = 100 from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy and cesarean sections were performed on day 21 of pregnancy. The numbers of implantation sites, living and dead fetuses, resorptions and corpora lutea were recorded. Fetuses were weighed, examined for external malformations, and fixed for visceral examination, or cleared and stained with Alizarin red S for skeleton evaluation. A reduction of body weight minus uterine weight at term indicated that E. milii latex was maternally toxic over the dose range tested. No latex-induced embryolethality was noted at the lowest dose (125 mg/kg but the resorption rate was markedly increased at 250 mg/kg (62.5% and 500 mg/kg (93.4%. A higher frequency of fetuses showing signs of delayed ossification (control: 17.4%; 125 mg/kg: 27.4% and 250 mg/kg: 62.8%; P<0.05 vs control indicated that fetal growth was retarded at doses ³ 125 mg latex/kg body weight. No increase in the proportion of fetuses with skeletal anomalies was observed at the lowest dose but the incidence of minor skeletal malformations was higher at 250 mg/kg body weight (control: 13.7%; 125 mg/kg: 14.8%; 250 mg/kg: 45.7%; P<0.05 vs control. Since a higher frequency of minor malformations was noted only at very high doses of latex which are embryolethal and maternally toxic, it is reasonable to conclude that this plant molluscicide poses no teratogenic hazard or, at least, that this possibility is of a considerably low order of magnitude

  1. Do high progesterone concentrations decrease pregnancy rates in embryo recipients synchronized with PGF2alpha and eCG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcelo F Gouveia; Melo, Danilas S; Carvalho, Luciano M; Fuck, Egon J; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro Moraes

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on the number of induced accessory corpora lutea (CL), plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rate in cross-bred heifers after transfer of frozen-thawed (1.5M ethylene glycol) embryos. All recipients received 500 microg PGF2alpha (dl-cloprostenol, i.m.) at random stages of the estrous cycle (Day 0) and were observed for estrus for 7 days. On Day 14, heifers detected in estrus between 2 and 7 days after PGF2alpha treatment were randomly allocated to four groups ( n=83 per group) and given 0 (control), 200, 400, or 600 IU of eCG. Two days later (Day 16), these recipients were given PGF2alpha and observed for estrus. Six to eight days after detection of estrus, plasma samples were collected to determine progesterone concentration and ultrasonography was performed to observe ovarian structures. Heifers with multiple CL or a single CL >15 mm in diameter received an embryo by direct transfer. Embryos of excellent and good quality were thawed and transferred to the recipients by the same veterinarian. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by transrectal palpation 21 and 83 days after embryo transfer (ET), respectively. Plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of transfer (Day 7 of the estrous cycle) were 3.9+/-0.7, 4.2+/-0.4,6.0+/-0.4 and 7.8+/-0.6 ng/ml for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (Control versus treated groups P=0.009; 200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0001; and 400 versus 600 P=0.012 ). Conception rates 83 days after ET were 41.9, 50.0, 25.0, and 20.9% for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0036 ). In conclusion, an increase in progesterone concentration, induced by eCG treatment, did not improve pregnancy rates in ET recipients. Conversely, there was a decline in conception rates in the animals with the highest plasma progesterone concentrations.

  2. Regulation of ovarian steroid biosynthesis by estrogen during proestrus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, P K; Meyer, K; Brodie, A M

    1991-09-01

    Studies were performed to test the hypothesis that the rapid decline in estradiol (E2) levels on proestrus before ovulation was due to a reduction in androgen substrate for aromatase, and that this decline in androgen was regulated by an estrogen receptor-mediated mechanism. Aromatase activity, concentrations of E2, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), and progesterone (P4) in follicular, corpora lutea, and ovarian homogenates as well as peripheral E2, A, P4, and LH were measured in cycling rats from 1400-2000 h on proestrus. These parameters were also recorded after the expected E2 surge in animals treated at 1900 h on diestrous day 2 with the antiestrogen keoxifene (20 mg/kg), with or without an ovulatory dose of PMSG at 1600 h on proestrus. In a second experiment, P-450-17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase (P-450(17 alpha] activity was measured in a group of control rats at 1500, 1700, and 1900 h. Aromatase activity remained unchanged, even though serum and ovarian E2 levels were reduced from peak values at 1500 h to basal values at 1800 h (P less than 0.01). Peripheral A as well as ovarian androgens (specifically follicular but not luteal) A and T were also reduced over this time period (P less than 0.01). Although total ovarian P4 remained unchanged, follicular levels rose from 1400-2000 h (P less than 0.01). These reductions in androgens and E2 levels coincided with a marked reduction in follicular P-450(17 alpha) activity. Treatment with keoxifene with or without PMSG prevented the fall in peripheral E2 and A and the increase in peripheral P4 seen in controls. Ovarian and follicular E2, A, and to a lesser extent T were also remained at values similar to those during the E2 surge. Follicular P4 was reduced by both treatments. Neither treatment had any effect on aromatase. These results indicate that the fall in peripheral and ovarian E2 levels before ovulation was due to a decline in aromatizable androgen, through an inhibition of follicular P-450(17 alpha

  3. Environmental controls on growth of the massive coral Porites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough; Barnes

    2000-03-15

    Annual density banding provided growth characteristics for 245 similar-sized, massive colonies of Porites from similar locations on 29 reefs from across the length and breadth of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Values obtained were density, extension rate, and calcification rate. Tissue thickness, the depth to which skeletons were occupied by tissue at the time of collection, was also measured. Extension rate, calcification rate, and tissue thickness were significantly greater at the top of colonies than at the sides. Extension rate and calcification rate decreased from north to south along the GBR (latitudinal range of approximately 9 degrees ) and were significantly and directly related to annual average sea surface temperature (SST; range approximately 25-27 degrees C). For each 1 degrees C rise in SST, average annual calcification increased by 0.39 g cm(-2) year(-1) and average annual extension increased by 3.1 mm year(-1) (c.f. average values of 1.63 g cm(-2) year(-1) and 12.9 mm year(-1), respectively). Density was inversely correlated with extension rate and increased with distance offshore. Data for massive Porites colonies from the GBR were extended though 20 degrees of latitude and an average annual SST range of 23-29 degrees C using published data for the Hawaiian Archipelago (Grigg, R.W., 1981. Coral reef development at high latitudes in Hawaii. Proc. 4th Int. Coral Reef Symp., Manila, Vol. 1, pp. 687-693; Grigg, R.W., 1997. Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain - revisited. Coral Reefs 16, S33-S38) and Phuket, Thailand (Scoffin. T.P., Tudhope. A.W., Brown. B.E., Chansang. H., Cheeney. R.F., 1992. Patterns and possible environmental controls of skeletogenesis of Porites lutea, South Thailand. Coral Reefs 11, 1-11). The response of calcification rate to temperature remained linear. Variation in annual average SST accounted for 84% of the variance. For each 1 degrees C rise in SST, average annual calcification increased by

  4. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans. is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten. with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd. with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1 were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  5. Prenatal development toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-Sup Hong,1,2 Myeong-Kyu Park,1 Min-Seok Kim,1 Jeong-Hyeon Lim,1 Gil-Jong Park,1 Eun-Ho Maeng,1 Jae-Ho Shin,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Jayoung Jeong,5 Jin-A Park,2 Jong-Choon Kim,6 Ho-Chul Shin2 1Health Care Research Laboratory, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo, South Korea; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, South Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea; 6College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea Abstract: This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles ([ZnOSM20(+ NPs] zinc oxide nanoparticles, positively charged, 20 nm on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(+ NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to a cesarean section on gestational day 20, and all of the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs; reduced food consumption after administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day NPs; and decreased liver weight and increased adrenal glands weight after administration of 400 mg/kg/day NPs. However, no treatment-related difference in: number of corpora lutea; number of implantation sites; implantation rate (%; resorption; dead fetuses; litter size; fetal deaths and placental weights; and sex ratio were observed between the groups. On the other hand, significant decreases between treatment groups and controls were seen for fetal weights after

  6. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on dams and embryo–fetal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-Sup Hong,1,2 Myeong-Kyu Park,1 Min-Seok Kim,1 Jeong-Hyeon Lim,1 Gil-Jong Park,1 Eun-Ho Maeng,1 Jae-Ho Shin,3 Yu-Ri Kim,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Jong-Kwon Lee,5 Jin-A Park,2 Jong-Choon Kim,6 Ho-Chul Shin2 1Health Care Research Laboratory, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gimpo, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungcheongbuk-do, 6College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea Abstract: This study investigated the potential adverse effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnOSM20[-] NPs; negatively charged, 20 nm on pregnant dams and embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure over the period of gestational days 5–19 with Sprague Dawley rats. ZnOSM20(- NPs were administered to pregnant rats by gavage at 0 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day, 200 mg/kg/day, and 400 mg/kg/day. All dams were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 20, and all the fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Toxicity in the dams manifested as significantly decreased body weight at 400 mg/kg/day and decreased liver weight, and increased adrenal glands weight at 200 mg/kg/day and 400 mg/kg/day. However, no treatment-related difference in the number of corpora lutea, the number of implantation sites, the implantation rate (%, resorption, dead fetuses, litter size, fetal deaths, fetal and placental weights, and sex ratio were observed between the groups. Morphological examinations of the fetuses demonstrated no significant difference in the incidences of abnormalities between the groups. No significant difference was found in the Zn content of fetal tissue between the control and high-dose groups. These results showed

  7. Effect of numbers of sperm and timing of a single, post-cervical insemination on the fertility of weaned sows treated with OvuGel®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V; Esparza-Harris, K C; Johnston, M E; Webel, S K

    2017-04-01

    Variability in estrus and ovulation requires multiple inseminations during estrus to ensure one AI occurs close to ovulation. Induction of ovulation after weaning improves synchrony of ovulation and allows for fixed time AI. However, the interaction between number of sperm in the AI dose and the timing of insemination has not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sperm numbers used in a single post-cervical insemination (PCAI) and the timing of insemination following induced ovulation in weaned sows. The experiment was performed using sows (n = 641) allotted by parity (1-6) and lactation length (19.5 d) to receive a single PCAI using 1.5 or 2.5 billion motile sperm at either 22, 26, or 30 h following administration of a GnRH agonist, triptorelin acetate (OvuGel ® ) at 96 h post-weaning. Sows received boar contact once daily 3-6 d following weaning. A sub-population of the sows (n = 499) were assessed for follicle size and ovulation utilizing ultrasound at 8 h intervals. There was no interaction of number of sperm and timing of insemination for any response measure (P > 0.10). Wean to estrus interval (4.8 d), duration of estrus (1.9 d), and expression of estrus (88.0%), were not different among treatments (P > 0.10). Of sows scanned by ultrasound at the time of OvuGel ® , 88.2% had large follicles, 10.9% had small, medium or cystic sized follicles, and 0.9% had corpora lutea. The proportion of sows that ovulated averaged 94%, and differed by time of AI (P ≤ 0.05) but not by number of sperm. Pregnancy rate and farrowing rate tended to be affected by dose (P ≤ 0.10), while time of insemination affected pregnancy rate and tended to influence farrowing rate (P ≤ 0.10). Farrowing rate was greater (P insemination at 22 and 26 h compared to 30 h after OvuGel ® (P ≤ 0.10). Farrowing rate was also affected by parity, estrus expression, ovulation and ovarian abnormalities (P insemination with

  8. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Luques Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h, diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h, proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7. Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy.

  9. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Gugger, Paul F; Wang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  10. A role for the endocannabinoid system in premature luteal regression and progesterone withdrawal in lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy loss model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schander, Julieta Aylen; Correa, Fernando; Bariani, María Victoria; Blanco, Julieta; Cymeryng, Cora; Jensen, Federico; Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Franchi, Ana María

    2016-11-01

    What is the role of the endocannabinoid system (eCS) in the alterations of the endocrine system in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced miscarriage? In 7-days pregnant wild type, but not cannabinoid receptor type 1 knockout (CB1-KO) mice, LPS increased COX-2 expression and prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) production in the uterus leading to lower expression of prolactin receptor in the ovary and a marked regression of corpora lutea (CL), suggesting that the eCS mediates the deleterious effects of LPS on reproductive events. Appropriate systemic progesterone levels are critical for a successful pregnancy outcome. Precocious loss of luteal progesterone (P4) secretion leads to miscarriage in rodents. We have previously shown that LPS administration to pregnant mice induces embryonic resorption accompanied by a dramatic decrease in systemic progesterone levels in a murine model of inflammatory miscarriage, with the eCS mediating these LPS-induced deleterious effects. CD1 wild-type (WT) and CB1-KO mice were randomly allocated to Vehicle (saline; i.p.) or LPS (0.5 μg/g body weight; i.p.) treated groups: (WT-Vehicle; WT-LPS; CB1-KO-Vehicle and CB1-KO-LPS). A single injection was given on day 7 of pregnancy and tissues (blood, ovary, uterus) were collected 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later. P4 and PGF2α plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) content in uterus was assayed. COX-2 and prolactin receptor (PrlR) mRNA levels in the ovary were assayed by RT-PCR. Tissue morphology of the CL was assessed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Treatment of 7-day pregnant WT mice with LPS induced a P4 withdrawal (p endocannabinoid system in the physiopathology of reproduction as well as the role of this endogenous system as a mediator of LPS deleterious effects on reproductive tissues. None. Dr Ana María Franchi was funded by Agencia Nacional para la Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2010/0813 and

  11. The estrogen-injected female mouse: new insight into the etiology of PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeh Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female mice and rats injected with estrogen perinatally become anovulatory and develop follicular cysts. The current consensus is that this adverse response to estrogen involves the hypothalamus and occurs because of an estrogen-induced alteration in the GnRH delivery system. Whether or not this is true has yet to be firmly established. The present study examined an alternate possibility in which anovulation and cyst development occurs through an estrogen-induced disruption in the immune system, achieved through the intermediation of the thymus gland. Methods, Results and Conclusion A putative role for the thymus in estrogen-induced anovulation and follicular cyst formation (a model of PCOS was examined in female mice by removing the gland prior to estrogen injection. Whereas all intact, female mice injected with 20 ug estrogen at 5–7 days of age had ovaries with follicular cysts, no cysts were observed in animals in which thymectomy at 3 days of age preceded estrogen injection. In fact, after restoring immune function by thymocyte replacement, the majority of thymectomized, estrogen-injected mice had ovaries with corpora lutea. Thus, when estrogen is unable to act on the thymus, ovulation occurs and follicular cysts do not develop. This implicates the thymus in the cysts' genesis and discounts the role of the hypothalamus. Subsequent research established that the disease is transferable by lymphocyte infusion. Transfer took place between 100-day-old estrogen-injected and 15-day-old naïve mice only when recipients were thymectomized at 3 days of age. Thus, a prerequisite for cyst formation is the absence of regulatory T cells. Their absence in donor mice was judged to be the result of an estrogen-induced increase in the thymus' vascular permeability, causing de facto circumvention of the final stages of regulatory T cell development. The human thymus has a similar vulnerability to steroid action during the fetal stage. We

  12. Absence of mutagenic effect of Mikania glomerata hydroalcoholic extract on adult wistar rats in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an assessment of the dominant lethality of Mikania glomerata in male Wistar rats. Adult male received 1 mL of M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose level of 3.3 g/kg body weight for 52 days and were mated with untreated females for seven weeks (group 1 or one week prior to the beginning of treatment and on the week following the end of treatment (group 2. The parameters analyzed were: number of implanted embryos, resorptions and corpora lutea; mating, gestation, preimplantation loss, implantation and resorption indexes (group 1; number of offspring and weaning animals (group 2. The administration of M. glomerata did not show any impairment of fertility and no significant difference in the parameters analyzed, suggesting an absence of mutagenic effect on Wistar rats.Mikania glomerata é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular, cujas folhas possuem flavonóides e cumarina. Essas substâncias, segundo a literatura, interferem na fertilidade de cães e ratas, respectivamente. O presente trabalho faz um estudo do teste do letal dominante com M. glomerata em ratos Wistar. Animals adultos foram tratados com 1 mL de extrato hidroalcoólico de M. glomerata na dose de 3.3 g/kg de peso corporal durante 52 dias. Os animais foram acasalados com fêmeas não tratadas por sete semanas (grupo 1 ou uma semana antes do início do tratamento e na semana seguinte ao término do mesmo (grupo 2. As variáveis analisadas foram: números de embriões implantados, reabsorções e corpos lúteos, índices de acasalamento, gestação, perda pré-implantação, implantação e reabsorção (grupo 1; número de filhotes nascidos e de animais desmamados (grupo 2. A administração de M. glomerata não interferiu com a fertilidade dos animais e não foram observadas alterações significativas das variáveis analisadas, o que sugere a ausência de efeito mutagênico em ratos Wistar por parte dessa planta.

  13. ENSO variability in the western tropical Pacific during the 20th and 14th centuries: preliminary results from a ~700 year coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, M. K.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C.; Maupin, C. R.; Wu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability prior to anthropogenic influence is crucial to understanding natural climate variability and to informing predictions of future climate change. Coral-based climate records from ENSO-sensitive regions provide unique high-resolution archives of past ENSO variability. However, the massive coral most commonly used in climate studies, Porites spp., rarely provide climate record lengths in excess of 200 years. This presents a challenge because recent work suggests that proxy records of ENSO variability need to exceed 500 years in length in order to capture the full range of natural variability of the ENSO system. Here we present preliminary oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from a slower growing, ~700 year long Diploastrea heliopora coral from Lambumbu Bay, Vanuatu (LBV; 16.19°S, 167.39°E), located at the southern edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Coral-based climate records from this region have been shown to be reliable recorders of ENSO-related variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The LBV coral was drilled live in 2010 and the bottom of the coral has a U-Th date of 1228 ± 10 CE. Our initial focus is to characterize and compare the geochemical variability recorded in the oldest (14th century) and youngest (20th century) sections of the coral. We observe a δ18O anomaly during the 14th century similar in magnitude to the δ18O anomaly associated with the 1997-1998 ENSO warm-phase event. We also observe that coral δ18O values in the 14th century are enriched by ~ 0.9‰, relative to modern coral δ18O values, which likely reflects salinity differences. Finally, 20th century coral δ18O variability agrees well with a previously published δ18O record from a Porites lutea coral (Sabine Bank, Vanuatu, ~130 km away) providing us with confidence in using Diploastrea heliopora corals for multicentury, continuous coral-based paleoclimate reconstructions.

  14. Effect of inorganic or organic selenium supplementation on reproductive performance and tissue trace mineral concentrations in gravid first-parity gilts, fetuses, and nursing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y L; Lindemann, M D; Pierce, J L; Unrine, J M; Cromwell, G L

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate 2 supplemental forms of Se on reproductive performance and tissue trace mineral concentration in fetus and first-parity gilts during pregnancy and their progeny. Crossbred gilts (n=100) were selected at 183±2.7 d and 137±10 kg BW and fed a common diet. After 1 mo, 8 gilts were sacrificed to establish baseline liver Se concentration and the remaining 92 gilts allotted to receive Se (0.3 mg/kg diet) as inorganic Se (Na2SeO3) or a Se supplement that contains organoselenium compounds (Sel-Plex; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY). At 267±5.7 d (171±11 kg), gilts were estrus-synchronized and bred. Gilts were then slaughtered at defined time points throughout gestation (d 0, 43, 58, 73, 91, 101, or 108 of gestation; n=6 to 12 gilts/time point). A week before the expected farrowing day, 10 pregnant gilts (5 from each treatment) were moved to farrowing crates and monitored. Two pigs from each litter were randomly selected and euthanized at d 0 (within 2 h after birth; nursing deprived), 7, 14, and 21 from each litter. During the gestation phase, maternal liver, and fetal body and liver were collected for determination of trace mineral concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Total number of fetus, crown-rump length, and corpora lutea of gilts were recorded as well. During the lactation phase, pigs (without liver and gastrointestinal tract) and associated liver were analyzed for Se concentration. The results demonstrated that the source of Se generally did not affect the maternal reproductive traits and fetal characteristics. Also, the source of Se supplemented to the maternal diet did not, in general, affect Cu, Fe, Mn, or Zn concentrations in the tissues evaluated other than the observation of a greater maternal liver Mn content (Pgilts fed Sel-Plex and a greater amount of Fe accumulated in the entire litter (Pgilts fed Sel-Plex. However, with regard to Se concentrations, Se in fetal body, fetal liver

  15. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary: Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Anelie Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin’s solution and sectioned into 7μm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea