WorldWideScience

Sample records for researchers develop modified

  1. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, A; Sutter, G

    2017-01-01

    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology.

  2. Recent Developments in Film and Gas Research in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Meng, Xiangyong; Bhandari, Bhesh; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-01

    Due to the rise of consumer's awareness of fresh foods to health, in the past few years, the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut produces has increased sturdily. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) possesses a potential to become one of the most appropriate technologies for packaging fresh and fresh-cut produces. The MAP has advantages of extending the shelf-life, preserving or stabilizing the desired properties of fresh produces, and convenience in handing and distribution. The success of MAP-fresh foods depends on many factors including types of fresh foods, storage temperature and humidity, gas composition, and the characteristics of package materials. This paper reviews the recent developments highlighting the most critical factors of film and gas on the quality of MAP fresh foods. Although the innovations and development of food packaging technology will continue to promote the development of novel MAP, concentrated research and endeavors from scientists and engineers are still important to the development of MAP that focuses on consumers' requirements, enhancing product quality, environmental friendly design, and cost-effective application.

  3. 改性硅树脂的研究进展%Research Development of Modified Silicone Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元博; 安秋凤

    2015-01-01

    The types and properties of the modified silicone resin were reviewed. Preparations of alkyd resin, polyester resin, epoxy resin, phenolic resin, acrylic ester, polyurethane and boric acid, and their ap-plications in various fields were introduced. The prospects for the future research of modified silicone resin were introduced.%综述了改性硅树脂的种类和性能,介绍了醇酸树脂、聚酯树脂、环氧树脂、酚醛树脂、丙烯酸酯树脂、聚氨酯以及硼酸改性硅树脂的制备方法及其在不同领域的应用,并对改性硅树脂的未来研究方向进行了展望。

  4. Philosophical Research on Genetically Modified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study mainly analyzes the essential features of transgenic technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of transgenic technology, so as to promote the better development of genetically modified food. With the technical improvement, genetically modified food is no longer strange, which has been applied in the production of our life. Compared with the traditional biological breeding, transgenic food has changed significantly in nature. Trying to meet the basic needs of human beings to achieve the common development of mankind, so as to achieve consensus between the scientific field and consumer is the purpose of exploring the philosophical problems of genetically modified food.

  5. Philosophical Research on Genetically Modified Food

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of transgenic technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of transgenic technology, so as to promote the better development of genetically modified food. With the technical improvement, genetically modified food is no longer strange, which has been applied in the production of our life. Compared with the traditional biological breeding, transgenic food has changed significantly in nature. Trying to meet th...

  6. Genetically modified animals and pharmacological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic J

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews the use of genetically modified animals and the increasingly detailed knowledge of the genomes of the domestic species. The different approaches to genetic modification are outlined as are the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques in different species. Genetically modified mice have been fundamental in understanding gene function and in generating affordable models of human disease although these are not without their drawbacks. Transgenic farm animals have been developed for nutritionally enhanced food, disease resistance and xenografting. Transgenic rabbits, goats, sheep and cows have been developed as living bioreactors producing potentially high value biopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as "pharming". Domestic animals are also important as a target as well as for testing genetic-based therapies for both inherited and acquired disease. This latter field may be the most important of all, in the future development of novel therapies.

  7. Developments in the Nursing Research

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Technological and social changes as well as changes in health and demographic developments have modified considerably the role of nursing and made nursing research more and more essential. Nursing research aims at developing knowledge that guides and supports the whole field of nursing practice in order to improve the quality of nursing care and thereby improves the status of the profession. Like nursing itself, nursing research began with Florence Nightingale in her hospital reforms first in...

  8. Research development of yogurts with added native and modified starch%淀粉及变性淀粉在酸乳中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐忠; 王卓; 赵丹; 车春波; 杨萍; 吴艳华

    2011-01-01

    主要介绍国内外各种淀粉和变性淀粉在酸乳中的应用研究进展,以及未来的发展趋势和在酸乳生产中存在的问题。%The research development of yogurts with added native and modified starch was mainly summarized. The trend and presented problem of yogurt were also referred in the yogurt production.

  9. 国内PVA薄膜材料改性研究进展%Domestic Research Development of Modified PVA in Thin Film Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉彬; 刘全校; 许文才; 李金丽

    2011-01-01

    聚乙烯醇(PVA)是一种性能优异、用途广泛的薄膜材料,在水溶性及可降解性等方面具有独特优点。文章对PVA的优点、特性作了简要介绍。PVA分子链上含有大量羟基,亲水性较高,在湿度较大的情况下,其阻隔性会急剧下降;PVA熔融温度和分解温度十分相近,给热塑加工带来了困难;PVA是一种可完全降解的高分子聚合物,但其薄膜生物降解周期较长;PVA用作制备亲水膜的材料,但PVA膜纯水渗透量高,其在湿态的稳定性和力学性能不佳。因此,需要对PVA进行不同的改性才能使其达到优良的性能。从PVA的耐水性和水溶性改性、热塑性加工的改性、生物降解性的改性和PVA膜渗透和稳定性改性等4方面对PVA薄膜用材料改性研究方面的进展进行了综述。%Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a thin film material with excellent properties and wide applications. Because of the unique advantages of PVA in water solubility, degradability as well as other aspects, it becomes the one of hot spots of current researches. PVA molecular chains contain a large number of hydroxyl groups and have high hydrophilic properties. In the case of high humidity, barrier property of PVA reduces sharply; the melting temperature of PVA is very similar to de- composition temperature, it makes the thermoplastic processing difficuh; PVA is a fully degradable polymers, but it has long biodegradable cycle; PVA is used to prepare hydrophilic membrane materials, but it has high level of waterpermeability, leading to the properties in the wet, so PVA poor stability and mechanical need to be modified in different aspects to achieve excellent performance. In this paper the ad- vantages and characteristics of PVA are described, some modified methods and applications in water resistance and water solubility, biodegradability, thermoplastic processing, membrane permeability and stability are reviewed.

  10. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  11. Research of Modified LMS Adaptive Noise Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming-sheng; LI Yan-peng

    2003-01-01

    Noise cancellation is very important in the field of signal processing. In this paper, the designation of a modified LMS Adaptive Noise Cancellation is demonstrated in detail; the model is simulated. We have compared the performance of the new model with the old model. The result of the experiments shows that this designation improves the noise cancellation′s performance greatly.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF THE MODIFIED WHITE METAL MATERIAL WITH THE PURPOSE OF ITS USE AT REPAIR OF HEAVY-LOADED BEARINGS OF SLIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Alifanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that wear resistance of new modified babbit material (MBM is by an order of magnitude higher than that of the Б83 State Standard 1320-74 standard babbit material. Therefore, the latter can be recommended for restoration of sliding bearings that are used in gascompressor units.

  13. Research Progress and Development Tendency of Modified PA%改性聚酰胺的研究进展与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐铭韩; 张洪振; 孙术科; 邱桂学

    2011-01-01

    论述了聚酰胺(PA)增韧、增强改性的研究进展,对PA/橡胶弹性体、PA/热塑性弹性体、PA/刚性有机高分子、PA/刚性无机粒子的增韧体系,不同类型PA合金,以及纤维增强、无机物填充等几类填充增强体系进行了详细介绍.结果认为,PA的发展趋势将以高性能、高强度、高韧性为主流,合金化是实现PA高性能的重要途径.%Advances in the toughening and reinforcement of PA were reviewed. Several toughening systems were discussed including PA/polyolefin-elastomer, PA/thermoplastic elastomer, PA/rigid organic polymer, PA/rigid inorganic particles, and some different types of PA alloys, as well as several reinforcement systems such as PA reinforced by glassfiber, inorganic fillers, and etc. The results show that the excellent properties of high strength and high toughness of PA may achieve remarkable development tendency and the research on PA alloys is an important way to improve the excellent properties.

  14. Ecoregional research for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Quiroz, R.; Staal, S.; Herrero, M.; Immerzeel, W.; Roetter, R.P.; Bosch, van den H.; Sterk, G.; Rabbinge, R.; Chater, S.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the subject of ecoregional research for development. The character of international agricultural research has changed profoundly in the last decades of the twentieth century. This can be illustrated by developments within the Consultative Group on International Agricultural

  15. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  16. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  17. 2008 Research Portfolio: Research & Development Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the breadth of the research being conducted in 2008 by the Research and Development Division at Educational Testing Service (ETS). The research described falls into three large categories: (1) Research supported by the ETS research allocation; (2) Research funded by testing programs at ETS; and (3) Research funded by…

  18. Research Funding: the Case for a Modified Lottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferric C. Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The time-honored mechanism of allocating funds based on ranking of proposals by scientific peer review is no longer effective, because review panels cannot accurately stratify proposals to identify the most meritorious ones. Bias has a major influence on funding decisions, and the impact of reviewer bias is magnified by low funding paylines. Despite more than a decade of funding crisis, there has been no fundamental reform in the mechanism for funding research. This essay explores the idea of awarding research funds on the basis of a modified lottery in which peer review is used to identify the most meritorious proposals, from which funded applications are selected by lottery. We suggest that a modified lottery for research fund allocation would have many advantages over the current system, including reducing bias and improving grantee diversity with regard to seniority, race, and gender.

  19. Hydropower research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  20. Hydropower research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  1. Development of Solar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Originally based on a workshop on “Development of Solar Research”, held in Freiburg/Breisgau, this book contains articles on megalithic structures, the Nebra sky-disk, ancient sun cults, the observation of sunspots, the photography of the sun during eclipses, eclipse maps and expeditions, solar telescopes, solar physics during the Nazi era, archives of solar observations, scientific ballooning for solar research, site-testing on the Canary Islands, as well as on international cooperation.

  2. Photonics Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Elizabeth [UNLV Research Foundation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2010-01-15

    During the period August 2005 through October 2009, the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF), a non-profit affiliate of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), in collaboration with UNLV's Colleges of Science and Engineering; Boston University (BU); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Sunlight Direct, LLC, has managed and conducted a diverse and comprehensive research and development program focused on light-emitting diode (LED) technologies that provide significantly improved characteristics for lighting and display applications. This final technical report provides detailed information on the nature of the tasks, the results of the research, and the deliverables. It is estimated that about five percent of the energy used in the nation is for lighting homes, buildings and streets, accounting for some 25 percent of the average home's electric bill. However, the figure is significantly higher for the commercial sector. About 60 percent of the electricity for businesses is for lighting. Thus replacement of current lighting with solid-state lighting technology has the potential to significantly reduce this nation's energy consumption by some estimates, possibly as high as 20%. The primary objective of this multi-year R&D project has been to develop and advance lighting technologies to improve national energy conversion efficiencies; reduce heat load; and significantly lower the cost of conventional lighting technologies. The UNLVRF and its partners have specifically focused these talents on (1) improving LED technologies; (2) optimizing hybrid solar lighting, a technology which potentially offers the benefits of blending natural with artificial lighting systems, thus improving energy efficiency; and (3) building a comprehensive academic infrastructure within UNLV which concentrates on photonics R&D. Task researchers have reported impressive progress in (1) the development of quantum dot laser emitting diodes (QDLEDs) which will ultimately improve

  3. Ecotribology research developments

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents resent research advances in the area of eco-triobology. In the last years, eco-tribology or environmentally friendly tribology has gained increasing importance in sustainable engineering. Environmentally acceptable tribological practices save resources by optimizing product usage and reducing energy. This book covers current developments in all areas covered by the term eco-tribology, including biomimetics surfaces, control of friction and wear, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques as well as tribological aspects of green applications, such wind-power turbines or solar panels.

  4. Eltron Research & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard; Faull, John

    2014-03-01

    This topical report covers technical work conducted under contract DE-FC26-05NT42469 between FY06 Q1 through FY14 Q2. The project evolved through several budget periods, budget revisions and continuation applications. This report covers work performed under the “base” program. In 2010 ARRA funding was added to the project. A separate report covering the ARRA portion of the project was submitted to DOE. The original project was focused on research and development for scale-up of hydrogen separation membrane for a FutureGen type power plant. The work included membrane testing and evaluation of metal alloy flat plates vs. tubes and metal membranes vs. cermet membranes. In addition, economic analysis and process modeling was performed. The original project team included CoorsTek, NORAM, and Praxair. In FY10Q2 a continuation application was filed for conducting a scale-up test at Eastman Chemical. In this part of the project a Subscale Engineering Prototype (SEP) membrane skid was designed, fabricated, and operated on a gasified coal slip-stream on Eastman’s site in Kingsport, TN. Following operation, the project was reorganized and a second continuation application with a new statement of work was initiated in FY12Q1. Finally, based on DOE’s decision not to proceed with a Process Development Unit (PDU) field test, a third continuation application and statement of work was initiated in FY13Q1 to close out the project.

  5. Development Research in/on Educational Development

    OpenAIRE

    Plomp, T

    2000-01-01

    In the practice of education, much design and development activities are taking place: curriculum development, instructional design, multimedia design, textbook development, etc. However, there is not much knowledge about how to design and develop, neither about criteria for the outcomes of design and development activities. Development research is a problem oriented, interdisciplinary research approach aimed at reducing uncertainty of design decisions, generating concrete recommendations for...

  6. RESEARCH OF THE STRESS STATE OF A MODIFIED IN-SITU CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rudenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article focuses on investigation of the stress state of a modified in-situ concrete of natural hardening. Methodology. To achieve the aim, the research of the microstructure of the modified cement matrix of concrete, as well as the mechanism of structure formation of modified concrete with natural hardening was conducted; the methods for reliable evaluation of concrete strength were defined. Findings. The development of internal stresses affects the properties of concretedifferently. With an increase in temperature-shrinkage deformations in time and, thus, with increasing structural stresses in the cement sheath around the grains of the filler two opposite processes may develop: zone of plastic flow or cracking. Originality. It was established that the structural features complex of the modified concrete when the load transfer leads to the formation of extensive zones of prefracture which is able to absorb a significant amount of elastic strain energy that provides the design deformation properties of the concrete for special purposes. Ideas about the definition of the criteria of cracking modified concrete, hardening under natural conditions had further development. Practical value. The resulting equations allow to solve the problem about the minimum level of structural stress in monolithic concrete in a saturated large placeholder, as well as to assess the influence of structural stresses on the properties of concrete. In normal concrete with a relatively thin cement sheath at temperature-shrinkage deformations, high tangential and low radial tension occur. In vivo, this stress is higher as a result of higher values of Δε(τ, which is not observed in the modified concrete. In the modified concretes only tangential stresses are the greatest danger to structures. The change of shrinkage stress with time is straightforward. The total temperature-shrinkage deformations have a sawtooth graph. For modified concrete the amplitude is 48

  7. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    of the literature revealed lack of or poor consideration of effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. We present a method that has been developed over the course of several years parallel to intervention studies in healthcare. Material and methods: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3...... intervention(s) or other causes (“the effect modifiers”) and their impact on the work environment. Following the workshop, events are entered into a database and reassessed by triangulation based on scientific evidence, researcher knowledge, reading the transcribed audio recorded workshop and other local...... sources. Conclusion: The EMA method seems to offer a feasible procedure to obtain significant knowledge on potential effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. However, further development and validation is suggested....

  8. Radionuclide Operational Research & Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) held in New...message sent via a socket connection). Version 1.0 of the RASA Authentication Software has been tested on the two RASA stations at Hanford (USX01...No. 1 (1999) 109-122, (ARSA). Harris, et al. (1999), Proceedings of 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring the

  9. Funding Research Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomical software is used by each and every member of our scientific community. Purpose-build software is becoming ever more critical as we enter the regime of large datasets and simulations of increasing complexity. However, financial investments in building, maintaining and renovating the software infrastructure have been uneven. In this talk I will summarize past and current funding sources for astronomical software development, discuss other models of funding and introduce a new initiative for supporting community software at STScI. The purpose of this talk is to prompt discussion about how we allocate resources to this vital infrastructure.

  10. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  11. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  12. A modified research approach teaching style in a high school chemistry classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Krystal D. Berry

    The purpose of this study was to develop a teaching style that used a modified research approach in a high school chemistry classroom. This modified research approach involved constructivist teaching practices, particularly the learning cycle. It emphasized the development of student science process skills, the mastery of science content, and a better understanding of attitudes about science in the classroom. It also promotes active learning in the classroom. The study also looks at the effectiveness of implementation of this teaching style. The methodology of the study involved designing modules which centered around nine basic chemistry concepts. These modules were guided by a research problem or question. Initially the teacher generated the research question but by the end of the study, students were generating their own research questions. Data were collected by student journals, concept webs, content tests, laboratory reports, teacher journal, laboratory practical exams, and a student attitude toward science survey. The results revealed that student science process skills that contributed directly to the problem solving nature of the research were increased. Student attitudes about science in the classroom were changed for the positive, indicated both in the student journals and the student attitude survey. Content mastery was achieved as measured statistically by test scores at the beginning of the class and the end of the class. Implementation was successful and students who enrolled in a second year chemistry class to the same instructor were better able to deal with independent work. It can be concluded from the results of the study that the students benefitted from the modified research teaching style and successful implementation was mirrored by student response to the teaching style. It was also concluded that the teacher in the study has a great deal of influence over student acceptance of something different and new.

  13. Development of A Modified Quasi-periodic Undulator for HLS

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yufeng; chen, Wan; Jia, Qika; Sun, Shuchen; Li, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A modified quasi periodic undulator (QPU) is developed and to be installed at Hefei Light Source (HLS).Magnet dimensions optimization is applied. High harmonics contamination is eliminated from the fundamental emission effectively according to the field tests. The depression ratio of 3rd harmonic is increased by an order of magnitude than the current device with other harmonics well reduced simultaneously. The significance of the modification measure is verified practically. The design, measurement and commissioning of the device is described.

  14. Reframing research on faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Irby, David M

    2011-04-01

    Research on faculty development has focused primarily on individual participants and has produced relatively little generalizable knowledge that can guide faculty development programs. In this article, the authors examine how current research on faculty development in medical education can be enriched by research in related fields such as teacher education, quality improvement, continuing medical education, and workplace learning. As a result of this analysis, the authors revise the old model for conceptualizing faculty development (preferably called professional development). This expanded model calls for research on educational process and outcomes focused on two communities of practice: the community created among participants in faculty development programs and the communities of teaching practice in the workplace (classroom or clinic) where teaching actually occurs. For the faculty development community, the key components are the participants, program, content, facilitator, and context in which the program occurs and in which the faculty teach. For the workplace community, associated components include relationships and networks of association in that environment, the organization and culture of the setting, the teaching tasks and activities, and the mentoring available to the members of that academic and/or clinical community of teaching practice. This expanded model of faculty development generates a new set of research questions, which are described along with six recommendations for enhancing research, including establishment of a national center for research in health professions education.

  15. Development of the Asphalt Modifier%沥青改性剂发展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾绍兴; 马骏; 安会勇

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of asphalt and asphalt modifier were introduced. The asphalt modifier is usually divided into polymer type and non-polymer type. The research progress in various asphalt modifiers in recent years was introduced, and the modifying effect of various asphalt modifiers under different processes and conditions was researched. Finally, developing tendency of the asphalt modifier was put forward.%介绍了沥青及沥青改性剂的概念,通过把沥青改性剂分成聚合物沥青改性剂和非聚合物沥青改性剂两类进行讨论。讨论近些年来一些高校和研究人员对各种沥青改性剂研究的概况,研究在不同工艺和环境条件下,选用不同种类的沥青改性剂对沥青进行改性,并讨论了不同改性剂对沥青的改性效果。最后,还提出了沥青改性剂的发展方向。

  16. Development and evaluation of targeting ligands surface modified paclitaxel nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeong Sun; Yoon, Doo-Soo; Sohn, Jun Youn; Park, Jeong-Sook; Choi, Jin-Seok

    2017-03-01

    To overcome the toxicity of excipient or blank nanoparticles for drug delivery nano-system, the surface modified paclitaxel nanocrystals (PTX-NC) have been developed. PTX-NCs were prepared by nano-precipitation method. The surface of PTX-NCs were modified by grafting with apo-transferrin (Tf) or hyaluronic acid (HA). The physical properties of PTX-NCs were evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), zeta-sizer, zeta-potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. In vitro drug release study was performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with or without 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80 for 24h. Cellular uptake was studied at time intervals of 0.5, 1, and 2h in MCF-7 cells, and cell growth inhibition study was performed for 24h using MCF-7 cells (cancer cells), and HaCaT cells (normal cells). Three different types of PTX-NCs with a mean size of 236.0±100.6nm (PTX-NC), 302.0±152.0nm (Tf-PTX-NC) and 339±180.6nm (HA-PTX-NC) were successfully prepared. The drug release profiles showed 29.1%/6.9% (PTX (pure)), 40.7%/23.9% (PTX-NC), 50.5%/25.1% (Tf-PTX-NC) and 46.8/24.8% (HA-PTX-NC) in PBS with/without 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80 for 24h, respectively. As per the results, the drug release of PTX-NCs showed the faster release as compared to that of PTX (pure). Surface modified PTX-NCs exhibited higher values for cell permeability than unmodified PTX-NC in the cellular uptake study. Surface modified PTX-NCs inhibited the cell growth approximately to 60% in MCF-7 cells, however effect of surface modified PTX-NCs on normal cell line was lower than the PTX-NC and PTX (pure). In conclusion, biological macromolecules (Tf or HA) surface modified PTX-NC enhanced the cellular uptake and the cell growth inhibition.

  17. Applying axiomatic design methodology in developing modified libertation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Margarita Vallejo Díaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some conceptual elements regarding the axiomatic design method were applied to a specific case-study regarding developing modified liberation compressed product (CLM-UN, for use in the agricultural sector as pH regulating agent in solil. The study was orientated towards defining functional requeriments, design parameters and process variables for manufacturing the product. Independence and information were evaluated, supporting axiomatic design as an alternative for integral product and process design (as a rational and systemic exercise, facilitating producing products having the quality which future users expect from them.

  18. 木质素改性水煤浆添加剂研究现状及发展趋势%Research status and development trend of modified lignin additives for coal water mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾梅; 戴爱军; 赵蒙; 杜彦学; 葛启明

    2014-01-01

    To improve the stability and dispersion of lignin additive,the separation,purification,distribution and chemical modification methods were used to modify lignin.Discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the methods,mainly analyzed four chemical modification methods which were oxidation,sulfonation,condensation,graft copolymerization. Finally,the trends of development of lignin modified coal water mixture additives were prospected. The results show that separation-purification technology,compound technology which have no effects on the surface adsorption of coal,can not change the structure and surface properties of lignin.The above two methods also lack mar-ket competitiveness because of high cost.The chemical modification method by introducing favorable functional groups or removing unfavor-able functional groups in the lignin molecules,changes the molecular structure,improves disperstiveness,and modified product prepares coal water mixture with excellent performance.The reaction characteristics of lignin should be adjusted based on the coal properties.A series of additives can be compounded by controlling the reaction process.So the usable range of lignin can be expanded.%为提高木质素添加剂的稳定性和分散性,采用分离提纯、复配和化学改性对木质素进行改性。论述了3种改性方法的应用现状和优缺点,重点分析了氧化、磺化、缩聚、接枝共聚4种化学改性法。最后对木质素改性水煤浆添加剂的发展趋势进行展望。结果表明:分离提纯和复配改性无法改变木质素的结构和表面性能,对其在煤粒表面的吸附作用没有影响,且价格较高,缺乏市场竞争力。化学改性通过在木质素分子中引入有利官能团或去掉不利官能团,能从根本上改变分子结构,改善木质素分散性能,制备出性能优良的水煤浆。今后应根据煤种特性差异,深层研究木质素反应特征,采用化学改性技术对木

  19. Internationalization of Research and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines historical and recent trends in the internationalization of research and development (R&D) in multinational corporations (MNCs). It discusses the motives and driving forces that lead firms to perform R&D in foreign locations and the managerial and policy issues associated......, in some cases, applied and basic research. Managerial systems, procedures, and practices for coordination and control of internationally decentralized R&D are identified, along with mechanisms promoting knowledge management, problem solving, and innovation....

  20. Application of silicalite-modified electrode for the development of sucrose biosensor with improved characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyeshkova, Viktoriya M.; Dudchenko, Oleksandr Y.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Lagarde, Florence; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2015-03-01

    The application of silicalite for improvement of working characteristics of conductometric enzyme biosensors for determination of sucrose was studied in this research. Biosensors based on different types of silicalite-modified electrodes were studied and compared according to their analytical characteristics. Polyethylenimine/glutaraldehyde/silicalite-modified biosensors showed higher sensitivity compared with others type of biosensors. Moreover, the polyethylenimine/glutaraldehyde/silicalite sucrose biosensors were characterized by high selectivity and signal reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) = 2.78% for glucose measurements and RSD = 3.2% for sucrose measurements). Proposed biosensors were used for determination of sucrose in different samples of beverages. The obtained results had good correlation with results obtained by HPLC. Thus, polyethylenimine/glutaraldehyde/silicalite-modified biosensors have shown perspective characteristics for the development of effective conductometric enzyme biosensors.

  1. Modified cementless total coxofemoral prosthesis: development, implantation and clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to modify canine coxofemoral prostheses and the clinical evaluation of the implantation. Fifteen canine hips and femora of cadavers were used in order to study the surface points of modification in prostheses and develop a perforation guide. Femoral stems and acetabular components were perforated and coated with biphasic calcium phosphate layer. Twelve young adult male mongrel dogs were implanted with coxofemoral prostheses. Six were operated upon and implanted with cemented canine modular hip prostheses, establishing the control group. The remaining six were implanted with a novel design of cementless porous tricalcic phosphate-hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses. Clinical and orthopedic performance, complications, and thigh muscular hypotrophy were assessed up to the 120th post-operatory day. After 120 days, animals with cementless prostheses had similar clinical and orthopedic performance compared to the cemented group despite the increased pain thigh hypotrophy. Animals that underwent cementless hip prosthesis evidenced more pain, compared to animals with cemented hip prosthesis that required longer recuperation time. No luxations, two fractures and two isquiatic neurapraxies were identified in the course of the study. Using both the cemented and the bioactive coated cementless model were suitable to dogs, showing clinical satisfactory results. Osseointegration and biological fixation were observed in the animals with the modified cementless hip prosthesis.

  2. Research and development program, fiscal year 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1966 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Level Studies; Environmental Radiation Studies; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; Chemical Toxicity; Cancer Research; and Selected Beneficial Applications. The overall objectives of the Laboratory within these areas of the Biology and Medicine program may be summarized as follows: (1) investigation of the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and systems of biological significance; (2) investigation of the dynamic aspects of physiological and biochemical processes in man, animals and plants and how these processes are modified by radiation and related pathological states; (3) the assessment and study of the immediate and long term consequences of the operation or detonation of nuclear devices on the fauna, and flora in man's environment and on man; (4) the development of methods of minimizing or preventing the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation; (5) research in, and development of, beneficial uses of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in medicine and biology; (6) research in the development of new and more efficient radiation detection devices; (7) research, including field studies, as mutually agreed upon by the Commission and the University, in connection with the conduct of weapon tests and biomedical and civil effects experiments at such tests conducted at continental and overseas test sites; and (8) the conduct of training and educational activities in the biological and medical aspects of radiation and related fields.

  3. Status of market, regulation and research of genetically modified crops in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel A; León, Gabriel

    2016-12-25

    Agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops are effective tools to substantially increase productivity, quality, and environmental sustainability in agricultural farming. Furthermore, they may contribute to improving the nutritional content of crops, addressing needs related to public health. Chile has become one of the most important global players for GM seed production for counter-season markets and research purposes. It has a comprehensive regulatory framework to carry out this activity, while at the same time there are numerous regulations from different agencies addressing several aspects related to GM crops. Despite imports of GM food/feed or ingredients for the food industry being allowed without restrictions, Chilean farmers are not using GM seeds for farming purposes because of a lack of clear guidelines. Chile is in a rather contradictory situation about GM crops. The country has invested considerable resources to fund research and development on GM crops, but the lack of clarity in the current regulatory situation precludes the use of such research to develop new products for Chilean farmers. Meanwhile, a larger scientific capacity regarding GM crop research continues to build up in the country. The present study maps and analyses the current regulatory environment for research and production of GM crops in Chile, providing an updated overview of the current status of GM seeds production, research and regulatory issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NGNP Research and Development Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Petti

    2010-08-01

    At the inception of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, experts from the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, gas reactor vendors, and universities collaborated to establish technology research and development (R&D) roadmaps. These roadmaps outlined the testing and computational development activities needed to qualify the materials and validate the modeling and simulation tools to be used in the design and safe operation of the NGNP, a helium-cooled, high temperature gas reactor (HTGR).

  5. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effects may thus be due to other factors in addition to the investigated intervention – i.e. due to effect modifiers. Such effect modifiers need to be identified and assessed in terms of potential impact o...

  6. Research Facility Development at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Dongsheng; Miao Yougui; Zhang Hongsong

    2005-01-01

    @@ This article gives an introductory account on the development of research facilities at the CAS over the past six years since the initiation of the Knowledge Innovation Program in 1998 and during the period of the national 10th Five-year Plan in particular. In addition, it expounds the key points for the future work at the CAS in this regard.

  7. Suborbital Research and Development Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the new strategies for problem solving in the life sciences in the suborbital realm. Topics covered are: an overview of the space life sciences, the strategic initiatives that the Space Life Sciences organization engaged in, and the new business model that these initiatives were developed. Several opportunities for research are also reviewed.

  8. Development of graphene oxide materials with controllably modified optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Anton; Galande, Charudatta; Mohite, Aditya; Ajayan, Pulickel; Weisman, R. Bruce

    2015-03-01

    One of the major current goals in graphene research is modifying its optical and electronic properties through controllable generation of band gaps. To achieve this, we have studied the changes in optical properties of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in water suspension upon the exposure to ozone. Ozonation for the periods of 5 to 35 minutes has caused a dramatic bleaching of its absorption and the concurrent appearance of strong visible fluorescence in previously nonemissive samples. These observed spectral changes suggest a functionalization-induced band gap opening. The sample fluorescence induced by ozonation was found to be highly pH-dependent: sharp and structured emission features resembling the spectra of molecular fluorophores were present at basic pH values, but this emission reversibly broadened and red-shifted in acidic conditions. These findings are consistent with excited state protonation of the emitting species in acidic media. Oxygen-containing addends resulting from the ozonation were detected by XPS and FTIR spectroscopy and related to optical transitions in localized graphene oxide fluorophores by computational modeling. Further research will be directed toward producing graphene-based optoelectronic devices with tailored and controllable optical properties.

  9. Development of Trusted Computing Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huanguo; LUO Jie; JIN Gang; ZHU Zhiqiang; YU Fajiang; YAN Fei

    2006-01-01

    Trusted computing is the new trend of information security today. This paper surveys the theory and technology of trusted computing. The development history of trusted computing, and the development of trusted computing in China are introduced in this paper,and then it analyzes some problems of trusted computing at present which are delay in theory research, some key technologies to be developed and lack of trusted software system. Some fields are worthy to be explored on are pointed out including key technology, basic theory and application in trusted computing.

  10. Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilter, Benoît; Constable, Anne

    2002-02-28

    The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context, regulatory control may develop in several directions. One response to the public concern is to strengthen the data requirements for the risk assessment process. Several avenues have been proposed. They include the application of technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics to assess unintended changes, and the development of predictive methods to evaluate allergenicity. Obligations for post-launch surveillance have appeared in regulations. Criteria are required to define when and why such approaches are necessary. Significant challenges including feasibility and validation of the methods, and safety relevance of the data generated will have to be addressed before any general application of these new approaches. Effective monitoring requires the ability to identify the presence of GM products and trace their origin. Traceability and labeling are therefore important developments in the GM food regulatory arena. Both require the development of reliable analytical detection tools.

  11. Fundamental Research and Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this report, I discuss the sociological role of fundamental research in Developing Countries (DC) and how to realize this program. In the second part, I give a brief and elementary introduction to the field of high-energy physics (HEP), accessible to a large audience not necessary physicists. The aim of this report is to make politicians and financial backers aware on the long-term usefulness of fundamental research in DC and on the possible globalisation of HEP and, in general, of science.

  12. Doctoral research on cadastral development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagdas, Volkan; Stubkjær, Erik

    2009-01-01

    . The article focuses on the methodological aspect of doctoral research by analyzing ten doctoral dissertations. Our analysis is based on a taxonomy of methodological elements and aims at identifying commonalities and differences among the dissertations in the use of concepts and methods. Having completed......The multitude of rights in land and the recording of these rights are addressed by a number of studies, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Rights in land are recorded and managed through either cadastral systems or land administration systems depending on the legal system...... of cadastral development. This research is multi-disciplinary and draws on elements of theories and methodologies from the natural, the social, the behavioral, and the formal sciences. During the last decade or so, doctoral dissertations have come to constitute a substantial part of this research effort...

  13. Internationalization of Research and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines historical and recent trends in the internationalization of research and development (R&D) in multinational corporations (MNCs). It discusses the motives and driving forces that lead firms to perform R&D in foreign locations and the managerial and policy issues associated...... with geographically dispersed and organizationally decentralized R&D. A simple typology of foreign R&D units is presented, emphasizing that the opportunities and challenges vary with the nature of their tasks, which range from technical support and local adaptation of products and processes to product development and......, in some cases, applied and basic research. Managerial systems, procedures, and practices for coordination and control of internationally decentralized R&D are identified, along with mechanisms promoting knowledge management, problem solving, and innovation....

  14. Research and development serving society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    In the F. R. of Germany we can look back to a successful development of r and d in industry, science and private as well as public research institutions. After it had become necessary to fill the 'technological gap', and to bridge over the distance towards other industrial countries more and more technologies and problem fields were developed apart from nuclear engineering and space research like electronics, communication engineering, transport and traffic, non-nuclear energy generation, environment research, health research, bioengineering and the humanization of work. The success and the activities of the past are considerable but so are the challenges of the future. In view of the undiminished worldwide population growth we shall have to reckon with an increased demand for energy and raw materials. That is why it is more important than ever to handle all resources of the world more economically, and with more care. The promotion of technologies which can diminish on dependence on raw materials and energy, reduce the ecological burdens and improve the living and working conditions shall remain the main objective of the BMFT. This brochure policy and the promotion tasks which are performed by the Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie.

  15. [Pharmaceutical technology: development and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traisnel, M

    1994-06-01

    Production of pharmaceutics cannot be compared to the manufacture of consumer goods: pharmaceutical manufacturing is the study and bulk manufacture of the ingredients from which medicines are made, and is concerned with the mixing, preparing, packing, of the ingredients into a dosage form for the patient, in according to the good manufacturing practices (GMP). Development and manufacture are not discrete activities but links in a single chain of activity. Research and development, pharmaceutical training, regulatory requirements: these concepts are present with three ways: bioavailability, targeting and compliance.

  16. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Vanhoutte (Els); C.G. Faber (Carin); S.I. van Nes (Sonja); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); D.R. Cornblath (David); A.J. Kooj (Anneke); E.A. Cats (Elisabeth); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); N.C. Notermans (Nicolette); W.L. van der Pol (Ludo); M.C.E. Hermans; N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); K.C. Gorson (Kenneth); M. Eurelings (Marijke); L. Engelsman (Lyda); H. Boot (Hendrik); R.J. Meijer (Ron); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); C. Tennant (Christopher); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the

  17. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, E.K.; Faber, C.G.; van Nes, S.I.; Jacobs, B.C.; van Doorn, P.A.; van Koningsveld, R.; Cornblath, D.R.; van der Kooi, A.J.; Cats, E.A.; van den Berg, L.H.; Notermans, N.C.; van der Pol, W.L.; Hermans, M.C.E.; van der Beek, N.A.M.E.; Gorson, K.C.; Eurelings, M.; Engelsman, J.; Boot, H.; Meijer, R.J.; Lauria, G.; Tennant, A.; Merkies, I.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal widt

  18. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, E.K.; Faber, C.G.; van Nes, S.I.; Jacobs, B.C.; van Doorn, P.A.; van Koningsveld, R.; Cornblath, D.R.; van der Kooi, A.J.; Cats, E.A.; van den Berg, L.H.; Notermans, N.C.; van der Pol, W.L.; Hermans, M.C.E.; van der Beek, N.A.M.E.; Gorson, K.C.; Eurelings, M.; Engelsman, J.; Boot, H.; Meijer, R.J.; Lauria, G.; Tennant, A.; Merkies, I.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal widt

  19. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Vanhoutte (Els); C.G. Faber (Carin); S.I. van Nes (Sonja); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); D.R. Cornblath (David); A.J. Kooj (Anneke); E.A. Cats (Elisabeth); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); N.C. Notermans (Nicolette); W.L. van der Pol (Ludo); M.C.E. Hermans; N.A.M.E. van der Beek (Nadine); K.C. Gorson (Kenneth); M. Eurelings (Marijke); L. Engelsman (Lyda); H. Boot (Hendrik); R.J. Meijer (Ron); G. Lauria (Giuseppe); C. Tennant (Christopher); I.S.J. Merkies (Ingemar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the

  20. Center Independent Research & Developments: JPL IRAD Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative projects are sought in the areas of basic research, fundamental research, applied research, development and systems and other concept formulation studies....

  1. Development of the Learning Health System Researcher Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Chesley, Francis D; Tregear, Michelle L; Mistry, Kamila B

    2017-08-04

    To develop core competencies for learning health system (LHS) researchers to guide the development of training programs. Data were obtained from literature review, expert interviews, a modified Delphi process, and consensus development meetings. The competencies were developed from August to December 2016 using qualitative methods. The literature review formed the basis for the initial draft of a competency domain framework. Key informant semi-structured interviews, a modified Delphi survey, and three expert panel (n = 19 members) consensus development meetings produced the final set of competencies. The iterative development process yielded seven competency domains: (1) systems science; (2) research questions and standards of scientific evidence; (3) research methods; (4) informatics; (5) ethics of research and implementation in health systems; (6) improvement and implementation science; and (7) engagement, leadership, and research management. A total of 33 core competencies were prioritized across these seven domains. The real-world milieu of LHS research, the embeddedness of the researcher within the health system, and engagement of stakeholders are distinguishing characteristics of this emerging field. The LHS researcher core competencies can be used to guide the development of learning objectives, evaluation methods, and curricula for training programs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Ubiquitin-related modifiers of Arabidopsis thaliana influence root development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian John

    Full Text Available Ubiquitins are small peptides that allow for posttranslational modification of proteins. Ubiquitin-related modifier (URM proteins belong to the class of ubiquitin-like proteins. A primary function of URM proteins has been shown to be the sulfur transfer reaction leading to thiolation of tRNAs, a process that is important for accurate and effective protein translation. Recent analyses revealed that the Arabidopsis genome codes for two URM proteins, URM11 and URM12, which both are active in the tRNA thiolation process. Here, we show that URM11 and URM12 have overlapping expression patterns and are required for tRNA thiolation. The characterization of urm11 and urm12 mutants reveals that the lack of tRNA thiolation induces changes in general root architecture by influencing the rate of lateral root formation. In addition, they synergistically influence root hair cell growth. During the sulfur transfer reaction, URM proteins of different organisms interact with a thiouridylase, a protein-protein interaction that also takes place in Arabidopsis, since URM11 and URM12 interact with the Arabidopsis thiouridylase ROL5. Hence, the sulfur transfer reaction is conserved between distantly related species such as yeast, humans, and plants, and in Arabidopsis has an impact on root development.

  3. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  4. Laboratory directed research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  5. Research and Development. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report discusses the research and development activities in which NVE has been involved in 2000. These activities fall into three categories: watercourse research, hydrological research and energy related research. The HYDRA research programme, which studied flooding and human intervention, is discussed in particular. The report includes a list of research and development reports that were published in 2000.

  6. Accounting for effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However......, in the investigated context this module seems not to have any direct impact on the generation of proposals with ergonomic consideration. Contextual factors of importance seem to be e.g. allocation of sufficient resources and if work environment issues are generally accepted as part of the VSM methodology...

  7. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. I: Conceptual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated a risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived GM foods. The results of this research are presented in three papers. This paper describes the conceptual development of the proposed RBCS that focuses on two categories of adverse health effects: (1) toxic and antinutritional effects, and (2) allergenic effects. The factors that may affect the level of potential health risks of GM foods are identified. For each factor identified, criteria for differentiating health risk potential are developed. The extent to which a GM food satisfies applicable criteria for each factor is rated separately. A concern level for each category of health effects is then determined by aggregating the ratings for the factors using predetermined aggregation rules. An overview of the proposed scheme is presented, as well as the application of the scheme to a hypothetical GM food.

  8. The Research on Improvement of Low Temperature Stability for Diatomite Modified Asphalt Mixture with PE Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Qiusheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the lake of low temperature stability for diatomaceous which used as asphalt modifier.Stat the research with the diatomite produced at Jilin Changbai, using the way of low temperature bending test to evaluate the PE and diatomite composite modified asphalt mixture’s low temperature crack resistance performance. The results showed that after the diatomite and PE composite modified asphalt mixture has the best advantage of anti-cracking performance under low-temperature environment,which is better than PE modified asphalt mixture and the matrix asphalt mixture. As a result,asphalt mixture being composite modified by diatomite and PE could significantly improve asphalt mixture’s low temperature stable performance.

  9. Carbon sequestration research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  10. Modifying Choroidal Neovascularization Development with a Nutritional Supplement in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Adriana Ivanescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of nutritional supplements (modified Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS-II formulation containing vitamins, minerals, lutein, resveratrol, and omega-3 fatty acids on choroidal neovascularization (CNV. Supplements were administered alone and combined with intravitreal anti-VEGF in an early-CNV (diode laser-induced murine model. Sixty mice were evenly divided into group V (oral vehicle, intravitreal saline, group S (oral supplement, intravitreal saline, group V + aVEGF (oral vehicle, intravitreal anti-VEGF, and group S + aVEGF (oral supplement, intravitreal anti-VEGF. Vehicle and nutritional supplements were administered daily for 38 days beginning 10 days before laser. Intravitreal injections were administered 48 h after laser. Fluorescein angiography (FA and flat-mount CD31 staining evaluated leakage and CNV lesion area. Expression of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, and NLRP3 were evaluated with RT-PCR, zymography, and western-blot. Leakage, CNV size, VEGF gene and protein expression were lower in groups V + aVEGF, S + aVEGF, and S than in V (all p < 0.05. Additionally, MMP-9 gene expression differed between groups S + aVEGF and V (p < 0.05 and MMP-9 activity was lower in S + aVEGF than in V and S (both p < 0.01. Levels of MMP-2 and NLRP3 were not significantly different between groups. Nutritional supplements either alone or combined with anti-VEGF may mitigate CNV development and inhibit retinal disease involving VEGF overexpression and CNV.

  11. Incorporating Student Input in Developing Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Andrew T.; Beddow, Peter A.; Kurz, Alexander; Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2010-01-01

    In developing alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS), several states have modified existing test items with the aim of enhancing accessibility and reducing difficulty for students with disabilities. Using Grade 8 multiple-choice test items in unmodified and modified forms, two studies examined student…

  12. Incorporating Student Input in Developing Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Andrew T.; Beddow, Peter A.; Kurz, Alexander; Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2010-01-01

    In developing alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS), several states have modified existing test items with the aim of enhancing accessibility and reducing difficulty for students with disabilities. Using Grade 8 multiple-choice test items in unmodified and modified forms, two studies examined student…

  13. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  14. Modified quadrupole mass analyzer RGA-100 for beam plasma research in forevacuum pressure range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yuyushkov@gmail.com [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The industrial quadrupole RGA-100 residual gas analyzer was modified for the research of electron beam-generated plasma at forevacuum pressure range. The standard ionizer of the RGA-100 was replaced by three electrode extracting unit. We made the optimization of operation parameters in order to provide the maximum values of measured currents of any ion species. The modified analyzer was successfully tested with beam plasma of argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbons.

  15. Developing a research skill set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-06-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills.

  16. Development and investigation of two stage modified Solvay cycle cryorefrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domkundwar, B. M.; Narayankhedkar, K. G.

    A cryorefrigerator based on the modified Solvay cycle has been investigateded focusing on its operating and geometric parameters. These parameters include orifice diameter, surge pressure, and surge volume. Data obtained reveal an optimum orifice diameter and an optimum surge pressure exist. Variation in the surge volume has a marginal effect on the performance.

  17. Research progress of modified waterborne polyurethanes%水性聚氨酯的改性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦华; 吴晓青; 郑静; 郑主宜; 田龙

    2013-01-01

    The characters,the recent overseas and domestic research and development of waterborne polyurethanes (WPU) were introduced.The several modification methods of waterborne polyurethanes,such as with silicones,acrylates,epoxy resins and polycarbonates were summarized in this paper.The applications of modified WPU in various fields were described.Viewed from current research situation,the environment friendly WPU will be the development trend in the future.Finally,the future prospect on modified waterborne polyurethanes was given.%介绍了水性聚氨酯(WPU)的特点、国内外研究现状.综述了WPU的几种改性方法:有机硅改性,丙烯酸酯改性,环氧树脂(EP)改性,聚碳酸酯(PCD)改性等,以及改性WPU的性能及应用.最后,对WPU的发展前景作了展望.

  18. Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.P Rengga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas storage is a technology developed with an adsorptive storage method, in which gases are stored as adsorbed components on the certain adsorbent. Formaldehyde is one of the major indoor gaseous pollutants. Depending on its concentration, formaldehyde may cause minor disorder symptoms to a serious injury. Some of the successful applications of technology for the removal of formaldehyde have been reported. However, this paper presents an overview of several studies on the elimination of formaldehyde that has been done by adsorption method because of its simplicity. The adsorption method does not require high energy and the adsorbent used can be obtained from inexpensive materials. Most researchers used activated carbon as an adsorbent for removal of formaldehyde because of its high adsorption capacity. Activated carbons can be produced from many materials such as coals, woods, or agricultural waste. Some of them were prepared by specific activation methods to improve the surface area. Some researchers also used modified activated carbon by adding specific additive to improve its performance in attracting formaldehyde molecules. Proposed modification methods on activation and additive impregnated carbon are thus discussed in this paper for future development and improvement of formaldehyde adsorption on activated carbon. Specifically, a waste agricultural product is chosen for activated carbon raw material because it is renewable and gives an added value to the materials. The study indicates that the performance of the adsorption of formaldehyde might be improved by using modified activated carbon. Bamboo seems to be the most appropriate raw materials to produce activated carbon combined with applying chemical activation method and addition of metal oxidative catalysts such as Cu or Ag in nano size particles. Bamboo activated carbon can be developed in addition to the capture of formaldehyde as well as the storage of adsorptive hydrogen gas that

  19. Research and Development in the Anthropogenic Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.; Luthe, T.; Hohenwallne, D.

    2009-04-01

    Much of todays cryosphere research is oriented towards the polar regions and is strongly supported by large associations and funding. On the other hand, funding and institutional support is still limited for mountains. In Europe, mountain research is mainly funded through Alpine Space Interregs, FP7, ESF and COST. However, there is growing global change pressure on mountain regions, particularly in the more fragile, higher altitudes such as between 1000 - 3200 m in the Alps. Although these zones are comparable to the Arctic in terms of climatic and physiographic conditions, they are not in terms of human pressures and atmospheric pollution released from surrounding agglomerations. A re-orientation of research into more applied projects that tackle present day problems is necessary. Not only is climate change rapidly changing the face of mountains, socio-economic multipliers are also acting fast. New problems such as conflicts over natural resources are evolving at a rapid rate, requiring research funding and projects to respond at according rates if timely and efficient solutions are to be proposed. Other problems include contamination of high altitude lakes and ecosystems through atmospheric precipitation of persistent organic pollutants and concentration of radio-active substances. The rapid melt of glacier ice is also releasing pollutants that have been captured for many decades. Many of the present day problems develop due to a miscomprehension of the cryosphere. Short-term economical reasoning outweighs the long-term ecological impacts that could be very counter-productive at the long term. Both the glaciological, snow, permafrost, geomorphological, ecological, hydrological and atmospheric conditions are increasingly heavily modified by human impacts. The effects include the alteration of the ice cover (by artificial covering of glaciers), production of artificial snow cover, snow and ground compaction, erosion, landsliding, change in vegetation cover and

  20. Historical development of origins research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller's seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller's viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  1. Research on the Hydrophilic Modified of LDPE for the New Biological Suspended Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Weijia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the main pollution sources of the city, which pollute soil, deteriorate the water quality and increase the water shortages and urban load. LDPE is low cost and widely used as the basic material of wastewater treatment, but LDPE’s hydrophilic is not good enough to meet the need of suspended filler in wastewater treatment. In this paper the hydrophilic modified of LDPE for the new biological suspended filler was studied and the preparation and processing technique based on LDPE was researched. The hydrophilic and mechanic performance of the hydrophilic modified materials was tested. Results shown that the new type of hydrophilic modified materials has good hydrophilic and meets the demand of urban sewage treatment. The research on the new suspended filler materials has great meaning in solving the problem of urban sewage and recycling.

  2. Institutional research and development, FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Lawler, G.M.; Crawford, R.B.; Kirvel, R.D.; Peck, T.M.; Prono, J.K.; Strack, B.S. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    The Institutional Research and Development program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fosters exploratory work to advance science and technology, disciplinary research to develop innovative solutions to problems in various scientific fields, and long-term interdisciplinary research in support of defense and energy missions. This annual report describes research funded under this program for FY87. (DWL)

  3. Development of Peptide Nanotube-Modified Biosensors for Gas-Phase Organophosphate Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Chemistry, vol. 78: 835-843, 2006. 23. Marrs, T. C., Organophosphate Poisoning , Pharmaceutical Therapy, vol. 58: 51- 66, 1993. 24. Mlsna, T. E...DEVELOPMENT OF PEPTIDE NANOTUBE-MODIFIED BIOSENSORS FOR GAS-PHASE ORGANOPHOSPHATE DETECTION...States. AFIT-ENV-13-M-35 DEVELOPMENT OF PEPTIDE NANOTUBE-MODIFIED BIOSENSORS FOR GAS-PHASE ORGANOPHOSPHATE DETECTION THESIS Presented

  4. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-27

    the spectrum auction proceeds in FY2015 to help industry and public safety organizations conduct research and develop new standards, technologies...Detection Office (DNDO) DNDO is the DHS organization responsible for nuclear detection research, development , testing, evaluation, acquisition, and...Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2017 John F. Sargent Jr., Coordinator Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Robert Esworthy

  5. Parent-child mediated learning interactions as determinants of cognitive modifiability: recent research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, D

    1999-05-01

    The main objectives of this article are to describe the effects of mediated learning experience (MLE) strategies in mother-child interactions on the child's cognitive modifiability, the effects of distal factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, mother's intelligence, child's personality) on MLE interactions, and the effects of situational variables on MLE processes. Methodological aspects of measurement of MLE interactions and of cognitive modifiability, using a dynamic assessment approach, are discussed. Studies with infants showed that the quality of mother-infant MLE interactions predict later cognitive functioning and that MLE patterns and children's cognitive performance change as a result of intervention programs. Studies with preschool and school-aged children showed that MLE interactions predict cognitive modifiability and that distal factors predict MLE interactions but not the child's cognitive modifiability. The child's cognitive modifiability was predicted by MLE interactions in a structured but not in a free-play situation. Mediation for transcendence (e.g., teaching rules and generalizations) appeared to be the strongest predictor of children's cognitive modifiability. Discussion of future research includes the consideration of a holistic transactional approach, which refers to MLE processes, personality, and motivational-affective factors, the cultural context of mediation, perception of the whole family as a mediational unit, and the "mediational normative scripts."

  6. DEVELOPING SOFTWARE FOR CORPUS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mason

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable software is available. Apart from software itself, data formats are also of great importance for text processing. But again, many practitioners are not very aware of the options available to them, and thus idiosyncratic text formats often make sharing of resources difficult if not impossible. This article discusses some issues relating to both data and processing which should aid researchers to become more aware of the choices available to them when it comes to using computers in linguistic research. It also describes an easy way towards automating some common text processing tasks that can easily be acquired without knowledge of actual computer programming.

  7. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  8. Using Modified Fagan Inspections to Control Rapid System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesel, M. A.; Welz, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing new approaches to software and system development to shorten life cycle time and reduce total life-cycle cost, while maintaining product quality. One such approach has been taken by the Just-In-Time (JIT) Materiel Acquisition System Development Project.

  9. New research on development of solid lipid nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To review the latest research development of the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) according to the recent relevant literatures. Each preparations of the SLN have advantages and disadvantages. Among the total preparations of the SLN, the high pressure homogenization (HPH) and the microemulsion technique are to praise highly. The drug incorporation and release profiles could be modified as adjustment of production parameters. The SLN is an excellent drug delivery system and has broad prospects in the pharmaceutical field.

  10. Factors Considered by Elementary Teachers When Developing and Modifying Mathematical Tasks to Support Children's Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Michael Duane

    The idea that problems and tasks play a pivotal role in a mathematics lesson has a long standing in mathematics education research. Recent calls for teaching reform appeal for training teachers to better understand how students learn mathematics and to employ students' mathematical thinking as the basis for pedagogy (CCSSM, 2010; NCTM, 2000; NRC 1999). The teaching practices of (a) developing a task for a mathematics lesson and, (b) modifying the task for students while enacting the lesson fit within the scope of supporting students' mathematical thinking. Surprisingly, an extensive search of the literature did not yield any research aimed to identify and refine the constituent parts of the aforementioned teaching practices in the manner called for by Grossman and xiii colleagues (2009). Consequently, my research addresses the two questions: (a) what factors do exemplary elementary teachers consider when developing a task for a mathematics lesson? (b) what factors do they consider when they modify a task for a student when enacting a lesson? I conducted a multiple case study involving three elementary teachers, each with extensive training in the area of Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI), as well as several years experience teaching mathematics following the principles of CGI (Carpenter et al., 1999). I recorded video of three mathematics lessons with each participant and after each lesson I conducted a semi-structured stimulated recall interview. A subsequent follow-up clinical interview was conducted soon thereafter to further explore the teacher's thoughts (Ginsberg, 1997). In addition, my methodology included interjecting myself at select times during a lesson to ask the teacher to explain her reasoning. Qualitative analysis led to a framework that identified four categories of influencing factors and seven categories of supporting objectives for the development of a task. Subsets of these factors and objectives emerged as particularly relevant when the

  11. Research and Development from the bottom up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Wolfram, P.

    2014-01-01

    and ecological context or the growing interest of developed market firms in approaches from emerging markets. Hence, the presented framework supports further research in new paradigms for research and development (R&D) in developed market firms (DMFs), particularly in relation to emerging markets. This framework...... enables scholars to compare concepts from developed and emerging markets, to address studies specifically by using consistent terms, and to advance research into the concepts according their characterization....

  12. 2010-11 Research Portfolio: Research & Development Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the breadth of the research that the ETS (Educational Testing Service) Research & Development division is conducting in 2010. This portfolio will be updated in early 2011 to reflect changes to existing projects and new projects that were added after this document was completed. The research described in this portfolio falls…

  13. The Development of the Effective Way of Chromium-containing Wastewater Treatment by Means of Modified Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Adryshev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to develop an efficient method for purification of the chromium containing wastewater by the means of the modified natural sorbents with improved sorption and mechanical properties. The structural and sorption properties of the above-mentioned sorbents have been investigated. The proposed nanomaterial in the form of the paste-like modified sorbent based on the bentonite clay of Tagansk deposit of East Kazakhstan and basalt fibers allows to reduce the chromium content to maximum permissible concentration (MPC. It gives the opportunity to discharge and recycle the purified water in the production.

  14. Research Skills Development in Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, Tiziana Priede; Navarro, Cristina Lopez-Cozar

    2014-01-01

    This case study presents the development of a research project in a third-year undergraduate course, Family Business Administration. The research project aimed at promoting research skills in students. The authors formed working groups of no more than six students, and each group had to select an original research topic after conducting a…

  15. Teacher Professional Development Approach:Action Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang

    2013-01-01

    Theory and practice, researchers and practitioners are usually isolated in traditional education research, so much so that the research results can not solve the problems that teachers encounter in their teaching practice. As a new mode, action research provides a bridge linking theory and teaching practice as well as a way to promote teacher development.

  16. Biosensing International Research and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Jerome; Mrksich, Milan

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this book is to disseminate information on the worldwide status and trends in biosensing R&D to government decisionmakers and the research community. The contributors critically analyze and compare biosensing research in the United States with that being pursued in Japan, Europe and other major industrialized countries. Biosensing includes systems that incorporate a variety of means, including electrical, electronic, and photonic devices; biological materials (e.g., tissue, enzymes, nucleic acids, etc.); and chemical analysis to produce detectable signals for the monitoring or identification of biological phenomena. In a broader sense, the study of biosensing includes any approach to detection of biological elements and the associated software or computer identification technologies (e.g., imaging) that identify biological characteristics. Biosensing is finding a growing number of applications in a wide variety of areas, including biomedicine, food production and processing, and detection of b...

  17. Developing a Research Skill Set

    OpenAIRE

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describ...

  18. [DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH OF BIOLOGICAL DRESSING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Hao, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinpeng; Luo, Bo; Liu, Peng

    2015-02-01

    To review the research progress of modern biological dressings. The related literature at home and abroad was reviewed, analyzed, and summarized in the progress of biological dressing situation and various types of biological dressing research. Compared with the traditional dressing, the biological dressing can greatly promote wound healing. Biological dressings are mainly divided into the natural materials, artificial synthetic materials, and drug loaded dressings. The natural material dressings are mainly the alginate dressing, this kind of dressing can promote wound healing, which has been confirmed by a large number of studies. The artificial synthetic materials include film dressings, liquid, water colloids, gels, and foam, each has its own advantages and disadvantages, which can be chosen according to need. The drug dressing can play the role of drug loading, and further promote the wound healing; using microcapsule technology to construct the dressing and choosing Chinese medicine as drugs is the research direction of load. The experiment and clinical application of biological dressing are many types, clinical application prospect is wide, but each has its own advantages and disadvantages, further study is needed to improve its efficacy.

  19. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF ISOXSUPRINE HYDROCHLORIDE MODIFIED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of critical formulation parameters affecting release of isoxsuprine hydrochloride from matrix tablets using combination of polyethylene oxide (PEO and dicalcium phosphate (DCP. The powder blend consisting of drug and excipients was analyzed for angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. To assess the compressional behavior of the drug-excipient blend, the tablets were analyzed for friability and crushing strength. The in vitro drug release study was carried out in distilled water. The powder blend exhibited satisfactorily flow as measured by angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The formulation ingredients showed satisfactory tableting properties (friability <1%, crushing strength ≥ 4 kgf. The drug release was modified on addition of PEO and DCP. Addition of 5 to 25% DCP in the formulation of matrix tablets caused apparent difference in the drug dissolution in distilled water. However, the difference was insignificant as analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and similarity factor ( f2. The drug release from the tablets was best explained by Weibull model. Unified Weibull model was evolved to predict drug release from the formulated batches. The findings of this investigation can be extended to industry to cut down the cost of formulation and to by-pass the existing patents employing hydrophilic matrixing agents, at least for selective drugs.

  20. Research and Development Information System (RDIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Research and Development Information System (RDIS) is the Veterans Affairs Central Office budgetary and project data repository for managing the VA Research and...

  1. Development of Space Environment Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jiancun; XUE Bingsen; HUANG Jianguo; SHI Liqin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the recent research progress on space environment in China. The space environment here includes space environment models, forecast methodology and space environment effects on spacecrafts. Finally the development trends of China's space environment research are discussed.

  2. Recent developments in photorespiration research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwe, Hermann

    2010-04-01

    Photorespiration is the light-dependent release of CO(2) initiated by Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) during oxygenic photosynthesis. It occurs during the biochemical reactions of the photorespiratory C(2) cycle, which is an ancillary metabolic process that allows photosynthesis to occur in oxygen-containing environments. Recent research has identified the genes for many plant photorespiratory enzymes, allowing precise functional analyses by reverse genetics. Similar studies with cyanobacteria disclosed the evolutionary origin of photorespiratory metabolism in these ancestors of plastids.

  3. [Study on recent status of development of genetically modified animals developed not for food purposes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.

  4. Modified developer increases line resolution in photosensitive resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Standard developer solution is mixed with dipropyl carbonate. This reduces swelling in the photosensitive resist and permits application of relatively thick films with minimal pinhole formation and increased line resolution.

  5. Faculty development in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Joseph; Hamstra, Stanley J; Martin, Daniel R; Searle, Nancy; Love, Jeffrey; Castaneda, Jill; Aziz-Bose, Rahela; Smith, Michael; Griswold-Therodorson, Sharon; Leuck, JoAnna

    2012-12-01

    This 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout session was devoted to the task of identifying the history and current state of faculty development in education research in emergency medicine (EM). The participants set a future agenda for successful faculty development in education research. A number of education research and content experts collaborated during the session. This article summarizes existing academic and medical literature, expert opinions, and audience consensus to report our agreement and findings related to the promotion of faculty development.

  6. Energy storage research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, US consumers experienced the highest sustained gasoline prices in recent history, in real terms, including those seen in the early 1980s1. Partially as a result of the $3/gallon gasoline prices, sales of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) increased almost 60% in 20072, and several automakers announced plans to develop plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)3. However, total sales of HEVs remained in the 2-3 percent range of all vehicle sales. An important step for continued HEV market penetration, as well as electrifying the nation's personal transportation, is the development of cost effective, long lasting, and abuse tolerant Li-ion batteries.

  7. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  8. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  9. Effect modifiers in intervention research at hospitals in three Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Jørgen; Edwards, Kasper; Jarebrant, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    3-6 participants representing all occupational groups in the investigated organization. The group is asked to write down significant changes at the workplace during the investigated period. The method also includes a semi-qualitative assessment of the potential Work Environment (WE) impact of each...... paper aims to present assessment of potential effect modifiers in intervention studies at hospital wards in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. Material and methods: The effect modifiers were assessed by a newly developed method (the EMA method; Edwards & Winkel 2016). It is a type of group interview including...... Mapping) (6 wards) or the ErgoVSM method (Jarebrant et al, 2010) where additional focus is on ergonomic issues (7 wards). Results: In total 120 interventions were implemented. However, 322 significant modifiers were assessed to have occurred during the intervention period. Of these, 120 were assessed...

  10. The perspective of European researchers of national occupational safety and health institutes for contributing to a European research agenda: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Diana; Rondinone, Bruna M; Mirabile, Marco; Buresti, Giuliana; Ellwood, Peter; Hery, Michel; Paszkiewicz, Peter; Valenti, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-06-23

    This study, developed within the frame of the Partnership for European Research on Occupational Safety and Health joint research activities and based on the frame designed by the 2013 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) study, is the first example of using the points of view of European occupational safety and health (OSH) researchers.The objective is to identify priorities for OSH research that may contribute to the achievement of present and future sustainable growth objectives set by the European strategies. The study was carried out using a modified Delphi method with a two-round survey. Each round involved a panel of about 110 researchers representing the network member institutes was selected according to specific criteria, including the ownership of research expertise in at least one of the four macroareas identified by the reference report developed by EU-OSHA in 2013. The study identified some innovative research topics (for example, 'Emerging technological devices' and 'OSH consequences of markets integration') and research priorities (ie, crowdsourcing, e-work, zero-hours contracts) that are not reflected in previous studies of this nature.The absence of any reference to violence and harassment at work among the researchers' proposals is a major difference from previous similar studies, while topics related to gender issues and electromagnetic fields show a lower importance. The innovative design of a research priorities identification process, which takes advantage of a large, representative and qualified panel of European researchers allowed the definition of a number of research priorities able to support the inclusion of innovative OSH research issues in the scope of the next European research agenda. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Information Systems Development as a Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hasan

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the stance that some cases of information systems development can be considered knowledge creating activities, and, in those cases, information systems development can be a legitimate research method. In these cases not only is knowledge created about the development process itself but also a deeper understanding emerges about the organisational problem that the system is designed to solve. The paper begins with a brief overview of research in the design sciences and a comparison of research methods that are concerned with the design, and use, of information systems. This is followed by an assessment of the way systems development as a research method deals with the scientific research processes of data collection, analysis, synthesis and display. A case study, where the systems development research method was use, is described to illustrate the method and give the reader a better understanding of the approach.

  12. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  13. Development Status and Prospect of Modified Asphalt%改性沥青的开发现状与发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫菊先

    2012-01-01

    The development course and research status of modified asphalt were introduced. The development prospect of modified asphalt was analyzed in aspects of development of new type modifier and improvement of general standard of asphalt mixture.%介绍了改性沥青的发展历程,阐述了改性沥青的研究现状,从发展新型的改性剂、提高沥青混合料的整体水平等方面,对改性沥青的发展前景进行了分析。

  14. Research and Evaluation in Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Paul G.; Carmichael, Donald L.

    Research and evaluation are crucial elements of the curriculum development process. Educational research properly includes "basic- nonevaluative" and "applied-evaluative research." Each species should be judged relative to its purpose and the degree to which systematic investigation occurs through the application of the…

  15. IPMC microgripper research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumia, R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, MSC01-1150, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Shahinpoor, M [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469 (United States)], E-mail: lumia@unm.edu, E-mail: mohsen.shahinpoor@umit.maine.edu

    2008-08-15

    Described are the state of the art on designing and developing a microgripper using ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), an electroactive material, as an actuator to grasp and manipulate micro-sized flexible and rigid objects and yet also serve as a sensor for position feedback control. IPMCs, as a material, are compliant and can work in both wet and dry environments. This makes it ideally suited for both industrial operations, e.g., building microsystems from MEMS components, as well as for a variety of bio-micromanipulation tasks, e.g., bacterium and cell handling. We derive a theoretical force model for the microgripper. The model estimates that an IPMC finger of dimensions 5mm x lmm x 0.2mm exerts a force of 85 {mu}N when grasping a solder ball of 15mg. We experimentally measure the load carrying capacity of the IPMC microgripper. Furthermore, we show empirically that the relationship between load carry capability and the length of microgripper fingers is linear. Experiments with three different microgripper finger shapes show that load carrying performance is related to the area of the finger rather than the shape. This implies that manufacturing ease favours microgrippers with tapered fingers. Finally, we show how flexible objects (hydrogel crystals in this case) are grasped with this IPMC microgripper.

  16. Development of modified method for text recognition in standardized picture

    OpenAIRE

    Касьян, Константин Николаевич; Братчиков, Владимир Владимирович; Шкарупило, Вадим Викторович

    2015-01-01

    Text recognition in images is a very urgent problem in modern search engines. There are many different methods and techniques for text recognition. The paper is a method for text recognition in a standardized image. Standardized image means an image that has the same font, character size, certain writing order, such as the serial number or license plate of the car.In the paper, we developed an improved method for text recognition in the image. The method consists in a preliminary search of th...

  17. Future of federal research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper very briefly describes factors affecting federal funding for research and development. Historical, political, and economic aspects of funding are outlined. Projections of future funding is provided in general terms. The potential of the national laboratories for continued research and development contributions is described.

  18. European Youth Research: Development, Debates, Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    This chapter presents the development of European youth research as a distinctive field of study. It draws attention to the sociopolitical context in which the field has emerged, outlines the key dimensions of the field's agenda, reports on significant facets of theory and research development to date, and briefly considers the field's…

  19. Developing and executing an effective research plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert J; Cobaugh, Daniel J

    2008-11-01

    Practical approaches to successful implementation of practice-based research are examined. In order to successfully complete a research project, its scope must be clearly defined. The research question and the specific aims or objectives should guide the study. For practice-based research, the clinical setting is the most likely source to find important research questions. The research idea should be realistic and relevant to the interests of the investigators and the organization and its patients. Once the lead investigator has developed a research idea, a comprehensive literature review should be performed. The aims of the project should be new, relevant, concise, and feasible. The researchers must budget adequate time to carefully consider, develop, and seek input on the research question and objectives using the principles of project management. Identifying a group of individuals that can work together to ensure successful completion of the proposed research should be one of the first steps in developing the research plan. Dividing work tasks can alleviate workload for individual members of the research team. The development of a timeline to help guide the execution of the research project plan is critical. Steps that can be especially time-consuming include obtaining financial support, garnering support from key stakeholders, and getting institutional review board consent. One of the primary goals of conducting research is to share the knowledge that has been gained through presentations at national and international conferences and publications in peer-reviewed biomedical journals. Practice-based research presents numerous challenges, especially for new investigators. Integration of the principles of project management into research planning can lead to more efficient study execution and higher-quality results.

  20. Research methods for formal consensus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daphne; Warren-Forward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews three research methods for developing consensus. Consensus statements and guidelines are increasingly used to clarify and standardise practice, and inform health policy, when relevant and rigorous evidence is lacking. Clinicians need to evaluate the quality of practice guidelines to determine whether to incorporate them into clinical practice or reject them. Formal methods of developing consensus provide a scientific method that uses expert panel members to evaluate current evidence and expert opinions to produce consensus statements for clinical problems. Online search for relevant literature was conducted in Medline and CINAHL. A literature review of consensus, consensus development and research methods papers published in English in peer-reviewed journals. The three methods of developing consensus discussed are the Delphi technique, nominal group technique and the consensus development conference. The techniques and their respective advantages are described, and examples from the literature are provided. The three methods are compared and a flowchart to assist researchers selecting an appropriate method is included. Online resources with information on the development and evaluation of clinical guidelines are reviewed. This paper will help researchers to select an appropriate research method for developing consensus statements and guidelines. When developing consensus guidelines for clinical practice, researchers should use a formal research method to ensure rigour and credibility.

  1. Researchers use Modified CRISPR Systems to Modulate Gene Expression on a Genomic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Target Discovery and Development Network (CTD2) researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, developed a CRISPR system that can regulate both gene repression and activation with fewer off-target effects.

  2. Professional development workshops for physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.; Kustusch, Mary Bridget

    2017-01-01

    Physics education research holds the promise of satisfying expectations of both scholarship, which is increasing at teaching-centric institutions, and teaching effectiveness, a concern at all institutions. Additionally, junior physics education researchers seek more diverse training in research methods and theories. Emerging education researchers need support as they develop their research programs and expand their theoretical and methodological expertise, and they benefit from the guidance of knowledgable peers and near-peers. Our two-part professional development model combines intensive in-person workshops with long-term remote activities. During a two-week in-person workshop, emerging and established education researchers work closely together to develop research questions, learn appropriate analytic techniques, and collect a corpus of data appropriate to their research questions. Afterwards, they meet biweekly in a distributed, mentored research group to share analyses and develop their ideas into publishable papers. In this talk, we discuss this model for professional development and show results from one three-year implementation in the IMPRESS program at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Partially funded by the PERTG of the AAPT.

  3. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    Purpose: Intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects on risk factor, health and/or performance. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled laboratory environment. Effects may thus....... Methodology: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3-6 employees representing the occupational groups in the investigated organization. With reference to the investigated period they are asked to recall important changes/events in and around the organization; 1) in general, 2) in work...... validation is needed. Implications: Using the EMA-method seems to facilitate proper inference regarding the impact of a workplace intervention. Originality: The EMA-method is a novel and systematic approach to estimate potential effect modifiers....

  4. Application of acid-modified Imperata cylindrica powder for latent fingerprint development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Wei Zeng; Khoo, Bee Ee; Aziz, Zalina Binti Abdul; Low, Ling Wei; Teng, Tjoon Tow; bin Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2015-09-01

    A novel powdering material that utilizes acid-modified Imperata cylindrica (IC) powder for the development of fingermarks was studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the suitability, adherence quality and sensitivity of the acid-modified IC powder. Fingermarks of different constituents (eccrine, sebaceous and natural fingermarks) on different types of surfaces were used. Acid-modified IC powder was also used to develop fingermarks of different ages as well as aged fingermarks recovered from the water. From the visual inspection, acid-modified IC powder was able to interact with different fingermark constituents and produced distinct ridge details on the examined surfaces. It was also able to develop aged fingermarks and fingermarks that were submerged in water. A statistical comparison was made against the Sirchie® Hi-Fi black powder in terms of the powders' sensitivity and quality of the developed natural fingermarks. The image quality was analyzed using MITRE's Image Quality of Fingerprint (IQF) software. From the experiments, acid-modified IC powder has the potential as a fingermark development powder, although natural fingermarks developed by Sirchie® black powder showed better quality and sensitivity based on the results of the statistical comparison.

  5. Research and Development in the Muslim Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah Babu Sahib

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Despite clear-cut exhortation from the Qur’ān and Sunnah, Muslims are not showing much interest in R&D. Many Muslims are finding comfort in simply importing foreign goods and solutions to enrich their lives. Data analyses show that the Muslim world is far behind other countries in terms of research and development. There exists some misunderstanding in the Muslim mind on the meaning and role of research and development. There is a need for sustained research in all aspects of the society for it to develop as envisaged by Islam.

  6. Software Development as Music Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses how software development can be used as a method for music education research. It explains how software development can externalize ideas, stimulate action and reflection, and provide evidence to support the educative value of new software-based experiences. Parallels between the interactive software development process and…

  7. Prediction of low birth weight using modified Indian council of medical research antenatal scoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Chandra; Naik, Vijaya; Mallapur, Maheshwar

    2013-12-01

    To study the prediction of low birth weight (LBW) using modified Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) antenatal scoring method. The present longitudinal study was carried out amongst 1138 pregnant women residing in area covered by Kinaye primary health centre (PHC) in rural Karnataka, India. Modified ICMR risk scoring revealed that 597 (52.5%) women had a risk score 6-10 (mild risk), 142 (12.5%) women had risk score 11-15 (moderate risk) and 29 (2.5%) had risk score ≥16 (severe risk), whereas, remaining 370 (32.5%) had a score of 0-5 considered as "no risk group". The incidence of LBW had direct relationship with the risk score. The sensitivity was high (80.6%), whereas, specificity was slightly low (70.4%), positive predictive value was low (43.8%) and negative predictive value high (92.7%) for LBW when the risk score cut-off point was >7. The modified ICMR antenatal scoring method can be used at all levels of health care and is an ideal instrument for prediction of LBW at the community level. It can be easily applied by even a health worker, not time consuming and at the same time does not lose its predictability.

  8. Research and Development Costs in Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development expenses are crucial business performance factors for all enterprises, including trading companies. The size and structure of these expenses depend largely on the nature of a company’s activities. Due to such importance and specificity, the research focus of this article is on R&D expenses in trading companies with particular emphasis on retail companies. Their share in the sales revenue of trading companies is increasingly important and determined by many factors, such as innovation, size, location, product categories, and others. Due to varying intensity of influence of these and other factors, research and development expenses in commercial companies differ among countries, trade types (wholesale, retail, wholesale and retail, retail formats (store types and product categories. Understanding the factors of these differences is important for efficient management of research and development costs in trade, particularly retail companies. They are the focus of research in this work.

  9. Researchers Develop Potential Oral Treatment for Hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162798.html Researchers Develop Potential Oral Treatment for Hemophilia Currently, genetic bleeding disorder is treated with injections ... THURSDAY, Dec. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with hemophilia have to endure painful injections every few days ...

  10. Entrepreneurial skill development: Participatory action research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BlignautAS

    Entrepreneurial skill development: Participatory action research approach in a rural community. Entrepreneurial ..... business skills and a practical baking section with the aim to equip the ..... velopment Strategy: Leadership Pack. Pretoria. Gov-.

  11. Journal of Research in National Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Research in National Development aims to encourage ... the Nigerian workforce system: announcing the arrival of crude oil in the nation's economy ... The freedom of information act and the practice of journalism in Nigeria: an ...

  12. Participatory Research for a Radical Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Derek C.

    1994-01-01

    Critically examines community development assumptions through historical analysis and mapping of political discourse. Using the methods of Foucault, Said, and Gramsci, demonstrates how participatory research, concerned with releasing people's knowledge through transformation, can expose and resist dominant discourses. (SK)

  13. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  14. Developing Research Skills across the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Simon; Coates, Lee; Fraser, Ann; Pierce, Pam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes consortial efforts within the Great Lakes Colleges Association to share expertise and programming to build research skills throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Strategies to scaffold research skill development are provided from Allegheny College, Kalamazoo College, and The College of Wooster.

  15. Developing Research Skills across the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Simon; Coates, Lee; Fraser, Ann; Pierce, Pam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes consortial efforts within the Great Lakes Colleges Association to share expertise and programming to build research skills throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Strategies to scaffold research skill development are provided from Allegheny College, Kalamazoo College, and The College of Wooster.

  16. The Effects of Modified Games on the Development of Gross Motor Skill in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Indah; Ratnaningsih, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor skills on children must be optimized much earlier since it plays important role not only on their interaction process but also in supporting other multiple developments. One of the means in developing child's motor skill is by providing innovative games i.e. modified games including game format, game timing, and game sequence. The…

  17. 78 FR 28630 - Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, Formerly Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pfizer Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development... Therapeutic Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, Comparative Medicine Department... Research, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Division, formerly known as Warner Lambert Company...

  18. Development and verification of the modified dynamic two-fluid model GOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengyi; Li, Yuxing; Meng, Lan; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, many versions of software have been developed to calculate the flow parameters of multiphase flow. However, the existing software is not perfect. To improve the accuracy, a new version of software GOPS has been developed by Daqing Oilfield Construction Design and Research Institute, and China University of Petroleum. GOPS modifies the general extended two-fluid model, and considers the gas bubble phase in liquid and liquid droplet phase in gas. There are four continuity equations, two momentum equations, one mixture energy-conservation equation and one pressure-conservation equation in the controlling equations of GOPS. These controlling equations are combined with flow pattern transition model and closure relationships for every flow pattern. By this way, GOPS can simulate the dynamic variation of multiphase flow. To verify GOPS, relevant experiment has been made in Surface Engineering Pilot Test Center, CNPC. The experimental pressure gradients are compared with the results from GOPS, and the accuracy of GOPS is high.

  19. A modified systematic review of research evidence about education for pre-registration nurses in palliative care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bassah, Nahyeni; Seymour, Jane; Cox, Karen

    2014-01-01

    ... of palliative care curricula in resource-poor countries. A modified systematic review of research on palliative care educational interventions, conducted with pre-registration student nurses was undertaken...

  20. Development of agricultural biotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess the safety of genetically modified crops in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Amir; Malboobi, Mohammad A; Esmailzadeh, Nasrin S

    2007-01-01

    Rapid progress in the application of biotechnological methodologies and development of genetically modified crops in Iran necessitated intensive efforts to establish proper organizations and prepare required rules and regulations at the national level to ensure safe application of biotechnology in all pertinent aspects. Practically, preparation of a national biotechnology strategic plan in the country coincided with development of a national biosafety framework that was the basis for the drafted biosafety law. Although biosafety measures were observed by researchers voluntarily, the establishment of national biosafety organizations since the year 2000 built a great capacity to deal with biosafety issues in the present and future time, particularly with respect to food and agricultural biotechnology.

  1. Research and Development in the Muslim Society

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmatullah Babu Sahib

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Despite clear-cut exhortation from the Qur’ān and Sunnah, Muslims are not showing much interest in R&D. Many Muslims are finding comfort in simply importing foreign goods and solutions to enrich their lives. Data analyses show that the Muslim world is far behind other countries in terms of research and development. There exists some misunderstanding in the Muslim mind on the meaning and role of research and development. There is a need for sustained research in all aspects of the so...

  2. Development of research discourses: a conceptual map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn; Cahill, Jane

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss: (1) how methodologies are constructed and perpetuated in the context of research paradigms; (2) what exactly constitutes a paradigm; (3) how the proposed conceptual map of discourse development provides a new and original method for understanding knowledge production. In nursing research, methodologies are constructed by several external and internal contextually driven influences. Our focus is on how two methodological paradigms - evidence-based practice and mixed methods - continue to impact and be impacted by patterns of knowledge production. Discussion paper. This discussion is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory using examples from the two paradigms to illustrate how discourses are developed, perpetuated and deconstructed and how these have specific impacts on qualitative nursing research. The conceptual map should be used to cultivate an awareness in practitioners, researchers and policy makers of how discourses surrounding research evidence and research practices are generated. This level of awareness will facilitate critical reflection on how certain practices assume dominance, potentially leading to hegemony in nursing research, practice and scholarship. This research offers a critical examination of the meaning of paradigms and a meta-perspective on the production and practice of methodologies using a conceptual map of discourse development as a heuristic device. We anticipate that these examples will encourage debate and discussion on how methodologies and paradigms are perpetuated in academia and the impact this has on nursing knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Business model in research-development activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The partners and allies of business practice in the processes of modernization of the economy are scientific-research institutions, such as scientific institutes, research-development units and universities. A market on which companies can look for the solutions they need and scientific-research institutions can look for inspiration, partners and capital is being formed. The market provides conditions for operation, development and implementation of developed solutions. Taking into consideration the complexity of market, technical, legal, financial, or intellectual property protection issues, research-development units are more and more frequently unable to function efficiently without a clear and unequivocal definition of goals, methods and conditions of activity. Their market offer has to take into consideration not just scientific-research, or methodological aspects. Taking into consideration continuously growing demands of the clients and pressure of the competition, scientific-research institutions have to pay attention also to market, information, personnel, or financial aspects typical of strictly commercial ventures. What may support a comprehensive preparation and implementation of scientific-research activities under market conditions are tools successfully used in trade and economy, such as business models. These issues are the basis of deliberations contained in this work.

  4. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  5. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  6. Operational research(ers) in development: Growing a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa by critically evaluating a Masters program in Operational Research in Development ... specifically with the training of OR practitioners who possess the skills needed ... perspective rather than providing a complete review of the field. .... plemented, either because some sector of participants who are key to success will.

  7. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  8. Children's Vocational Development: A Research Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Hartung, Paul J.; Vondracek, Fred W.

    2008-01-01

    Vocational development research and interventions have focused primarily on adolescents and young adults. The lack of attention to career development antecedents in children has led to a serious neglect of this period of life when the foundation is laid for career choices and outcomes in later life. A harmful by-product is the frequent preclusion…

  9. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  10. Second Language Writing Development: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    In 1998, Wolfe-Quintero, Inagaki & Kim published a monograph describing measures used in assessing writing development. Despite more recent research on linguistic development (e.g., Bulté & Housen 2012; Verspoor, Schmid & Xu 2012; Connor-Linton & Polio 2014), the volume is still a valuable resource and good starting point for…

  11. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  12. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  13. Resource recovery: research development and demonstration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramelli, A B

    1979-10-01

    Implementation of resource recovery is being retarded by technological uncertainties and institutional impediments. Development and commercialization of new competitive technologies are not proceeding rapidly because a structured development program for the industry is lacking. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized these problems, and as part of its overall program in energy recovery from urban waste, it is developing a near- and longer-term research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to accelerate commercialization of promising resource recovery technologies. The MITRE Corporation was contracted to develop a near-term RD and D Plan for resource recovery which identifies actions which should be taken over the next three years to accelerate commercialization of existing and developing technologies. The research needs presented in this Plan exist in the industry today. The resolution, however, is not necessarily the sole responsibility of DOE, but rather calls for a combination of public and private sector efforts. An individual research program is presented for each resource recovery technology. A program consists of a combination of bench-, pilot-, demonstration-, and full-scale process and equipment evaluations as well as qualitative and quantitative studies. Each research program is tailored to alleviate the problems of a technology such that their resolution will accelerate the rate at which the technology advances toward commercial readiness and realizes commercial implementation. All the research needs identified are actions which should be taken in the next three years to advance the field of resource recovery.

  14. Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Boog

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

  15. 75 FR 18034 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Research and Development Contract Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Regulation Supplement; Research and Development Contract Type Determination (DFARS Case 2006-D053) AGENCY... a major defense acquisition program (MDAP) to select the contract type for a development program... requires DoD to modify regulations regarding the determination of contract type for development programs...

  16. Determining the Walker exponent and developing a modified Smith-Watson-Topper parameter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Zhiqiang; Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Gao, Huiying; Zuo, Fang Jun [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2016-03-15

    Mean stress effects significantly influence the fatigue life of components. In general, tensile mean stresses are known to reduce the fatigue life of components, whereas compressive mean stresses are known to increase it. To date, various methods that account for mean stress effects have been studied. In this research, considering the high accuracy of mean stress correction and the difficulty in obtaining the material parameter of the Walker method, a practical method is proposed to describe the material parameter of this method. The test data of various materials are then used to verify the proposed practical method. Furthermore, by applying the Walker material parameter and the Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) parameter, a modified strain-life model is developed to consider sensitivity to mean stress of materials. In addition, three sets of experimental fatigue data from super alloy GH4133, aluminum alloy 7075-T651, and carbon steel are used to estimate the accuracy of the proposed model. A comparison is also made between the SWT parameter method and the proposed strainlife model. The proposed strain-life model provides more accurate life prediction results than the SWT parameter method.

  17. Federal Support for Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    credit lowers the tax bill of firms that increase their spending for research and development. In general, the credit is designed to apply to...Martin Buxton , Steve Hanney, and Teri Jones, “Estimating the Economic Value to Societies of the Impact of Health Research: A Critical Review...2007). a. Examples of other types of support include that provided for veterans under the GI Bill and tuition paid by the Department of Defense for

  18. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  19. Collaborative Engineering for Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jose M.; Keys, L. Ken; Chen, Injazz J.

    2004-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) organizations are being required to be relevant, to be more application-oriented, and to be partners in the strategic management of the business while meeting the same challenges as the rest of the organization, namely: (1) reduced time to market; (2) reduced cost; (3) improved quality; (4) increased reliability; and (5) increased focus on customer needs. Recent advances in computer technology and the Internet have created a new paradigm of collaborative engineering or collaborative product development (CPD), from which new types of relationships among researchers and their partners have emerged. Research into the applicability and benefits of CPD in a low/no production, R&D, and/or government environment is limited. In addition, the supply chain management (SCM) aspects of these relationships have not been studied. This paper presents research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) investigating the applicability of CPD and SCM in an R&D organization. The study concentrates on the management and implementation of space research activities at GRC. Results indicate that although the organization is engaged in collaborative relationships that incorporate aspects of SCM, a number of areas, such as development of trust and information sharing merit special attention.

  20. Home economics in development through action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...

  1. Research and development for ethylbenzene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Mingwei; Sun, Hongmin; Shen, Zhenhao; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Weimin [SINOPEC Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (China); Huan, Mingyao

    2013-11-01

    Ethylbenzene (EB) is important raw material for the production of styrene. Now, EB is mainly produced by the alkylation of benzene with ethylene catalyzed by zeolite in vapour phase or liquid phase. Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology (SRIPT) began to research the catalysts for the production of ethylbenezene in 1993. With near 20 years work, three series of catalysts for the alkylation of benzene with pure ethylene, dilute ethylene and ethanol are in commerical in China. This paper mainly introduced the research and development of SRIPT for the EB production. (orig.)

  2. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  3. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  4. The development of a modified composition of ceramic mass for the production of bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Yakutova, V. A.; Antyufeev, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The need to improve the technical level of production of construction materials, their product range, to improve product quality and reduce its cost requires the expansion of the raw material base, the use of resource and energy saving technology and design solutions. To implement all these it is necessary to conduct a more detailed study of the properties of ceramic materials and to investigate the behavior-modifying components of their formulations. This paper presents the development of the composition of ceramic mass for the production of bricks, a modified silicon-waste production of ferrosilicon.

  5. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MODIFIED RELEASE TABLET OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM USING ETHYL CELLULOSE AND TRAGACANTH

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Krunal M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a modified release tablet of montelukast sodium. Montelukast sodium is Leukotriene antagonist which is rapidly absorbed after the oral administration. The drug was mixed with Ethyl Cellulose and Tragacanth as a dry binder and ethanol was used as solvent to perform the granulation in FBD by the bottom spray method. The granules obtain were mixed with the other ingredients and were compressed using 10 station tablet rotary press. The dissolution was c...

  6. Research and development in health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals working in the field of health promotion and education experience certain value conflicts: their professional and personal values, the values of their clients or of the health services clash with pedagogic values such as participation, involvement, learning and competence...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...... the significance that is founded in theory and relevant to the practice of working with values within various cultures and selected settings: schools, local communities, educational institutions and political organisations. The research moreover aims to diversify a number of more general concepts and connections...

  7. Research and development in health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals working in the field of health promotion and education experience certain value conflicts: their professional and personal values, the values of their clients or of the health services clash with pedagogic values such as participation, involvement, learning and competence...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...... the significance that is founded in theory and relevant to the practice of working with values within various cultures and selected settings: schools, local communities, educational institutions and political organisations. The research moreover aims to diversify a number of more general concepts and connections...

  8. KSC Education Technology Research and Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Michael R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Educational technology is facilitating new approaches to teaching and learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Cognitive research is beginning to inform educators about how students learn providing a basis for design of more effective learning environments incorporating technology. At the same time, access to computers, the Internet and other technology tools are becoming common features in K-20 classrooms. Encouraged by these developments, STEM educators are transforming traditional STEM education into active learning environments that hold the promise of enhancing learning. This document illustrates the use of technology in STEM education today, identifies possible areas of development, links this development to the NASA Strategic Plan, and makes recommendations for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Education Office for consideration in the research, development, and design of new educational technologies and applications.

  9. Future Perspectives of Pharmaceutical Research and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shein-Chung Chow; Fuyu Song

    2015-01-01

    As more and more innovative drug products (e.g., chemical drug and biological drug products) are going off patent protection, the development of generics/biosimilars products have become the center of attention of many pharmaceutical companies. In addition, as new drug research and development has reached the bottle-neck, the pharmaceutical industry begin to focus on the search for new or alternative medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine that can treat critical and/or life-threatenin...

  10. Research and Development of Advanced Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The program “Advanced Gas Turbine” successfully completed in FY 1987, having been started in FY 1978 as a part of the “Moonlight Project”, the National research and development program for energy conservation promoted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The purpose of this program was to establish the technologies for the combined cycle power generation system, which has an overall thermal efficiency of 55% (LHV), by developing...

  11. Development and characterization of ferrihydrite-modified diatomite as a phosphorus adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhui; Peng, Jian

    2008-12-01

    A novel phosphorus adsorbent, ferrihydrite-modified diatomite was developed and characterized in this study. The ferrihydrite-modified diatomite was made through surface modification treatments including NaOH treatment and ferrihydrite deposition on raw diatomite. In the NaOH treatment, surface SiO(2) of diatomite was partially dissolved in the NaOH solution. The dissolved Si contributed to form the stable 2-line ferrihydrite which deposited into the macropores and mesopores of diatomite. Blocking macropores and larger mesopores of diatomite with 0.24g Fe/g of 2-line ferrihydrite resulted in a specific surface area of 211.1m(2)/g for the ferrihydrite-modified diatomite, which is 8.5-fold increase than the raw diatomite (24.77m(2)/g). The surface modification also increased the point of zero charge (pH(PZC)) values to 10 for the ferrihydrite-modified diatomite from 5.8 for the raw diatomite. Because of the increased surface area and surface charge, the maximum adsorption capacity of ferrihydrite-modified diatomite at pH 4 and pH 8.5 was increased from 10.2mgP/g and 1.7mgP/g of raw diatomite to 37.3mgP/g and 13.6mgP/g, respectively.

  12. Towards Sustainable Research Capacity Development and Research Ownership for Academic Institutes in Developing Countries: The Malawian Research Support Centre Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo, Exnevia; Kalilani, Linda; Mwapasa, Victor; Trigu, Chifundo; Phiri, Kamija; Schmidt, Joann; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2011-01-01

    In lesser-developed African countries, the lack of institutionalised support for research, combined with limited career opportunities and poor remuneration, have contributed to weak research infrastructure and capacity, and a continuing brain drain to developed countries. Malawi's Research Support Centre (RSC) model is novel in that it provides a…

  13. Development of Software Engineering: A Research Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Mei; Dong-Gang Cao; Fu-Qing Yang

    2006-01-01

    In the past 40 years, software engineering has emerged as an important sub-field of computer science and has made significant contribution to the software industry. Now it is gradually becoming a new independent discipline. This paper presents a survey of software engineering development from a research perspective. Firstly, the history of software engineering is reviewed with focus on the driving forces of software technology, the software engineering framework and the milestones of software engineering development. Secondly, after reviewing the past academic efforts, the current research activities are surveyed and new challenges brought by Internet are analyzed. Software engineering researches and activities in China are also reviewed. The work in Peking University is described as a representative.

  14. Tradeoffs in Design Research: Development Oriented Triangulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, Koen van; Craenmehr, Sabine; Holwerda, Robert; Menijn, Mark; Zwart, Jan-Pieter; Bakker, René

    2013-01-01

    The Development Oriented Triangulation (DOT) framework in this paper can spark and focus the debate about mixed-method approaches in HCI. The framework can be used to classify HCI methods, create mixed-method designs, and to align research activities in multidisciplinary projects. The framework is g

  15. Tradeoffs in Design Research: Development Oriented Triangulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan-Pieter Zwart; René Bakker; Robert Holwerda; Mark Menijn; Koen van Turnhout; Sabine Craenmehr

    2013-01-01

    The Development Oriented Triangulation (DOT) framework in this paper can spark and focus the debate about mixed-method approaches in HCI. The framework can be used to classify HCI methods, create mixed-method designs, and to align research activities in multidisciplinary projects. The framework is

  16. Research and Development Needs of Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Morgan V., Ed.

    Intended to provide information on applied research and development (R&D) priorities in vocational education and on the type of R&D required for each need, this report is divided into (1) an introduction to the problem and procedures, (2) a content analysis of selected documents, and (3) background papers for selected need areas. Chapter 1…

  17. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  18. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  19. Are Project Developers Knights and Researchers Queens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Anya Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    How do project developers at universities view their customers – the researchers, and how do they see themselves as a profession? Does this view influence their motivation and what challenges does it impose? Taking elements of theory from Public Service Motivation (PSM) and linking it with a smal...... for leadership and organisational structures....

  20. Concept development for HLW disposal research tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queon, S. K.; Kim, K. S.; Park, J. H.; Jeo, W. J.; Han, P. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In order to dispose high-level radioactive waste in a geological formation, it is necessary to assess the safety of a disposal concept by excavating a research tunnel in the same geological formation as the host rock mass. The design concept of a research tunnel depends on the actual disposal concept, repository geometry, experiments to be carried at the tunnel, and geological conditions. In this study, analysis of the characteristics of the disposal research tunnel, which is planned to be constructed at KAERI site, calculation of the influence of basting impact on neighbor facilities, and computer simuation for mechanical stability analysis using a three-dimensional code, FLAC3D, had been carried out to develop the design concept of the research tunnel.

  1. Competence Development among mentors: An Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Linda

    2014-01-01

    this framework. The analytical approach was qualitative content analysis. Results were not entirely as expected; they showed that when the tools were used as in the research design, mentors felt they benefitted and evidence indicated their competence would improve. Surprisingly, most mentors did not perform......Artiklen er blevet dobbelt blind reviewet og jeg er i gang med at rette den til. This article presents results about student nurse mentors' competence development in relation to exploiting learning opportunities in everyday life activities in hospital wards. They are from the Danish action research...... about them. The research used the concept of 'pseudo-everyday life activities' in which hitherto undiscovered learning opportunities in everyday situations can be exploited, alongside Lauvås and Handal's 'Mentoring loop'. The research sought to establish how mentors’ competence could be improved using...

  2. 1999 LDRD Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rita Spencer; Kyle Wheeler

    2000-06-01

    This is the FY 1999 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  3. Advanced heat pump research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliasha, M. A.

    The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts and develop a technology base for improving the energy efficiency and load characteristics of energy conversion equipment used in residential and commercial buildings. The research being pursued to achieve these objectives falls under three general areas: thermally activated heat pumps (TAHP), refrigeration systems, and building equipment systems. The TAHP work is concentrated on three technologies: (1) absorption heat pumps; (2) Stirling engine-driven heat pumps; and (3) internal combustion (IC) engine-driven heat pumps. Major project areas in refrigeration systems research include electric heat pumps, ground-coupled heat pumps, and refigerant mixtures. In the building equipment systems areas, project areas include advanced distribution systems, advanced insulation for appliances, and commercial building equipment.

  4. IT roadmap requirements for research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, Leslie J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kinkead, Susan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, members representing the programmatic community of the Laboratory presented a request to the Information Architecture Steering Committee (IASC) to form a committee within the Information Architecture Program (IAP) to review and consider the needs of researchers. In response, a Research and Development Subteam under the Infrastructure Team was created. Members included volunteer representatives of groups performing research and development throughout the Laboratory. This paper represents the product of this review. The R&D computing environment has languished while Los Alamos has been very compliance driven for the past few years under a set of directives that have eliminated our ability to innovate and to push the envelope of R&D computing. The appeal for outside collaborations is rapidly becoming tarnished, as colleagues from outside the NNSA environment view our restrictions as increasingly oppressive. We are losing the ability to conduct cutting-edge research and losing money to competitors who are able to quickly react and pursue program dollars while we are still creating compliant but less than useful computing solutions. Research programs depend on collaboration, employees, foreign nationals, and frequent travel, including travel to foreign countries. Solutions need to facilitate these activities and be based on the risk that the activities actually pose to the infrastructure and data at LANL. Furthermore, when problems are solved, it is essential that the solutions are evaluated for cost/benefit to the programs, that programmatic impact is well identified, and that solutions have sufficient long term resource for collaborations.

  5. Institutional research and development, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratory's Institutional Research and Development (IR and D) Program was established in 1984 to foster exploratory work to advance science and technology, disciplinary research to develop innovative solutions to support our national defense and energy missions. In FY 1988, the IR and D Program was funded by a 2% assessment on the Laboratory's operating budget. Our policy is to use these funds for researching innovative ideas in LLNL's areas of expertise and for developing new areas of expertise that we perceive to be in the national interest. The technical and scientific accomplishments of each project and of each institute funded this year are presented in this report. The projects were selected because they are expected to advance research in important areas that are too basic or too time consuming to be funded by the developmental programs or because they are somewhat risky projects that have the promise of high payoff. We are continually reappraising the IR and D Program. In particular, we seek new candidates for the Director's Initiatives, and we constantly reassess the work in progress. Each year, we make adjustments to further the Laboratory's policy of using the IR and D Program to fund innovative ideas with high potential for enhancing programmatic activities of national importance.

  6. Exploratory research and development FY90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.; Clements, W.; Donohue, M.L.; Francke, A.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Shaw, G. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    In general, the Exploratory Research and Development (ER D) Program supports research projects considered too basic or long-range to be funded by other Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. This Program is managed for the Laboratory Director by a special assistant who chairs the LLNL's IR D Review Committee. Membership in the Review Committee comprises senior LLNL scientists, engineers, and managers whose areas of expertise span the range of scientific disciplines pursued at the Laboratory. The research supported by the Program falls into three categories: Exploratory Research in the Disciplines, Director's Initiatives, and Laboratory-Wide Competition. The first two, Exploratory Research and Director's Initiatives, promote pioneering work in the various scientific disciplines and programmatic areas. Laboratory departments and divisions propose and manage projects in the Exploratory Research category. The Laboratory Director, with the advice of the Review Committee, selects several larger projects to fund as Director's Initiative. These projects, which are proposed and managed by the responsible associate director, are intended to enhance the scope of existing programs or establish new technical directions and programs for the Laboratory. All FY90 projects are described in detail in this report. Other publications on ER D projects are included in the Publications List at the back of this report.

  7. Developing a Model for Continuous Professional Development by Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Susan; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the work of two teacher educators with an in-service science teacher. This case study forms one cycle of a larger action research study that will eventually lead to a model of how the third-space concept for teacher professional development can be realized in natural school settings. The case study took place in…

  8. The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hanga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hangar at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The elongated 247-foot span lightweight aircraft, resting on its ground maneuvering dolly, stretched almost the full length of the 300-foot long hangar while on display during a visit of NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and other NASA officials on Jan. 31, 2002. The unique solar-electric flying wing reached an altitude of 96,863 feet during an almost 17-hour flight near Hawaii on Aug. 13, 2001, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a non-rocket powered aircraft. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV) which can serve as 'atmospheric satellites,' performing Earth science missions or functioning as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere.

  9. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.

    1991-12-01

    Today, new ideas and opportunities, fostering the advancement of technology, are occurring at an ever-increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of these new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and which develops new fundable'' R D projects and programs. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, with the overall mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals, and presentations at meetings and forums.

  10. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  11. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: RESEARCH IN AN INTERCULTURAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Ebel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various well argued definitions about what sustainable development means, there is a lack ofinformation about its meaning in the particular context of anintercultural university. Generally, sustainability is a goal which could never be obtained completely; sustainability is an ideal while sustainable development means all concrete humans attempts to obtain such goal. There is a direct link between human needs and sustainable development. Therefore, the popular concept of describing sustainable development as an absolutely valid objective for everybody is an illusion. It is based on the failed idea that humanity counts with universal needs. However, this is only correct for the most basic human needs. Except of these basic requirements, there is huge amplitude of very diverse human needs, especially in socio-economic and socio-cultural belongings. The more populated the community to be evaluated is, the more difficult becomes to determine common interests and therefore the more representative evaluation becomes. In other words, sustainable development must be seen as a subjective process – always depending on the persons defining their own needs. This is a factor which definitely complicates measuring; on the other hand it forces researches to take position: they have to declare which subjects have the privilege to determine such needs. In the case of the intercultural universities, the selection of the determinants of sustainable development requires a profound knowledge of the rural communities which usually - in an occidental point of view - do not show huge social-economic variety, but well count with a diverse spectrum of nuances within their habitants, especially valid for political and socio-cultural aspects. This is why it is necessary to establish well developed links between researchers and the population of these small rural communities – a process which requires an ambient of reliance resulting from deep

  12. Home economics in development through action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...... and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways....

  13. 淀粉改性研究及其在钻井液中的应用%Research of modified starch and its application in drilling fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔勇; 杨枝; 王治法; 杨小华

    2016-01-01

    简单介绍了淀粉的种类、分子结构、改性方法和改性工艺,重点介绍醚化淀粉、酯化淀粉和交联淀粉等改性淀粉产品及其在钻井液中的研究应用情况。最后提出了改性淀粉产品在钻井液处理剂领域中的发展建议。%Starch types,molecular structure,modification method,and modification process were briefly in-troduced .The research and application of modified starch in drilling fluid was focused on ,such as etheri-fied starch,esterified starch,crosslinked starch ,and other modified starch products .Furthermore,the de-velopment suggestions of modified starch in drilling fluid were proposed .

  14. [The adoption of Jardé law modifies the legal framework of clinical research in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillols-Perroy, Anne-Catherine; Tillet, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The Jardé law is adopted further to the Public Health Act No. 2004-806 which transposed into French law the Directive 2001/20/EC on clinical trials of medicinal products, made effective by the implementing Decree 2006-477 of April 26, 2006. The main novelty introduced by the Jardé law is to unify all "research organized and practiced on human beings for the development of biological or medical knowledge" and to facilitate its effective conduct, without however excluding from the scope of the law routine care and non-interventional research. The favorable opinion of the French Ethical Research Committee (comité de protection des personnes or "CCP") will now be required before launching any research on human beings, after validation of the risk/benefit ratio of said research. Applicable requirements and procedures - including information and consent - are adapted to each category of clinical research. New provisions are adopted to address special situations, previously forgotten. Finally, if Ethics committees were up until now freely chosen, they will, in two years' time, be randomly assigned. Thus, the Jardé law amends substantially the legal framework of clinical research in France. The question is whether these new national provisions will be compatible with those from the next revision of the so called "clinical trials" directive 2001/20/EC. In any case, the Jarde law will only come into force when all required implementing measures have been adopted.

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2001-02-27

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development for FY2000.

  16. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  17. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  18. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... of maturity models. Specifically, it explores maturity models literature in IS and standard guidelines, if any to develop maturity models, challenges identified and solutions proposed. Our systematic literature review of IS publications revealed over hundred and fifty articles on maturity models. Extant...

  19. Oil heat technology research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweller, E.R. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); McDonald, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this United States Department of Energy (DOE)/Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) program is to develop a technology base for advancing the state-of-the-art related to oilfired combustion equipment. The major thrust is through technology based research that will seek new knowledge leading to improved designs and equipment optimization. The Combustion Equipment space Conditioning Technology program currently deals exclusively with residential and small commercial building oil heat technology.

  20. Defense Nanotechnology Research and Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-17

    that can be dyed to match specific patterns and woven into uniforms. • An electrospun fiberized adhesive has been developed for fabric laminates...150 by 30 crossbars ). • High moment, magnetic nano-tags have been fabricated that allow DNA fingerprinting without DNA amplification (i.e., the... learned , and DoD guidance is critical to assure both the optimum direction of ongoing research efforts and the optimum leveraging of this knowledge to

  1. Development of a high-value care culture survey: a modified Delphi process and psychometric evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, R.(Panjab University, Chandigarh, India); Moriates, C; Harrison, JD; Valencia, V; Ong, M; Clarke, R.; Steers, N; Hays, RD; Braddock, CH; De Wachter, R

    2016-01-01

    Organisational culture affects physician behaviours. Patient safety culture surveys have previously been used to drive care improvements, but no comparable survey of high-value care culture currently exists. We aimed to develop a High-Value Care Culture Survey (HVCCS) for use by healthcare leaders and training programmes to target future improvements in value-based care.We conducted a two-phase national modified Delphi process among 28 physicians and nurse experts with diverse backgrounds. We...

  2. Development of a modified sum-peak method for activity determination of some gamma emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Yoshimune, E-mail: ogata@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daiko-minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Miyahara, Hiroshi [Gifu University of Medical Science, 795-1, Nagamine, Ichihiraga, Seki, Gifu 501-3892 (Japan); Ishigure, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daiko-minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Ishihara, Masashi [Nagoya City University, Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nishio, Masaaki [Nagoya University, Daiko-minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daiko-minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    A novel sum-peak method was developed to measure samples containing multiple radionuclides. The conventional sum-peak method is one of the absolute radioactivity measurement methods for radionuclides emitting more than one photon in coincidence. The method requires the knowledge of the total count rate as well as the peak count rates and the sum peak count rate. If there are other radionuclides in a sample, it is fraught with difficulty to estimate the total count rate of the nuclide of interest. To solve the problem, a novel calculation method solely using the peak count rates and the sum peak count rate was developed by modifying the conventional sum-peak method. The new method was theoretically verified and experimentally investigated using {sup 60}Co and {sup 22}Na, and was successfully confirmed. It was proved that the modified sum-peak method is effective to measure samples with multiple radionuclides and is quite simple and practical. - Highlights: • A modified sum-peak method for simple and practical absolute radioactivity measurement was developed to determine the activity of nuclides emitting more than one photon in coincidence. • The method solely requires the peak count rates and the sum peak count rate without the knowledge of total count rate. • Activity of samples containing multiple radionuclides can be determined by the method.

  3. Developing research competence to support evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lora E; Schlenk, Elizabeth A; Sereika, Susan M; Cohen, Susan M; Happ, Mary Beth; Dorman, Janice S

    2005-01-01

    This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy programs, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing. Expected research competencies were identified for each level or academic year within each program. Based on these competencies, recommendations on how to modify the curriculum into one that would support students' acquisition and development of the skills necessary to be successful in matriculating through an EBP curriculum were developed. Evaluation mechanisms for the achievement of these competencies vary across the academic programs and will include performance on capstone projects, comprehensive examinations, and program milestones for doctoral students. The establishment of evidence-based competencies provided a foundation for the development of new teaching approaches and the curricular revisions across the three academic programs. Thus, the University of Pittsburgh model of educating for EBP is based on a sequential layering of research competencies throughout the curriculum.

  4. Operational forecasting based on a modified Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, J; Glascoe, L; Obrecht, J

    2010-03-18

    Accurate short-term forecasts of wind resources are required for efficient wind farm operation and ultimately for the integration of large amounts of wind-generated power into electrical grids. Siemens Energy Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Colorado at Boulder, are collaborating on the design of an operational forecasting system for large wind farms. The basis of the system is the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; large-eddy simulations and data assimilation approaches are used to refine and tailor the forecasting system. Representation of the atmospheric boundary layer is modified, based on high-resolution large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary. These large-eddy simulations incorporate wake effects from upwind turbines on downwind turbines as well as represent complex atmospheric variability due to complex terrain and surface features as well as atmospheric stability. Real-time hub-height wind speed and other meteorological data streams from existing wind farms are incorporated into the modeling system to enable uncertainty quantification through probabilistic forecasts. A companion investigation has identified optimal boundary-layer physics options for low-level forecasts in complex terrain, toward employing decadal WRF simulations to anticipate large-scale changes in wind resource availability due to global climate change.

  5. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MODIFIED RELEASE TABLET OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM USING ETHYL CELLULOSE AND TRAGACANTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Krunal M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to prepare a modified release tablet of montelukast sodium. Montelukast sodium is Leukotriene antagonist which is rapidly absorbed after the oral administration. The drug was mixed with Ethyl Cellulose and Tragacanth as a dry binder and ethanol was used as solvent to perform the granulation in FBD by the bottom spray method. The granules obtain were mixed with the other ingredients and were compressed using 10 station tablet rotary press. The dissolution was carried out using USP paddle apparatus.

  6. Research and Development Joint Development at CEEE - PUCRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, Sergio L. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Fagundes, Jose F. de O. [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, Guilherme A.D.; Cecin, Carlos M.

    1994-12-31

    The aim of this work is to present all events realized in Research and Development (R and D) by Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica (CEEE) and Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) in the Electrical Power Systems area. In a brief report it is indicated a chronology of existing cooperation between CEEE and PUCRS, being introduced also the main events of that activity. Finally are showed the main activities performed in the Electrical Power Systems area. (author) 3 refs..

  7. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  8. Hardware Development Process for Human Research Facility Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Liz

    2000-01-01

    The simple goal of the Human Research Facility (HRF) is to conduct human research experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) astronauts during long-duration missions. This is accomplished by providing integration and operation of the necessary hardware and software capabilities. A typical hardware development flow consists of five stages: functional inputs and requirements definition, market research, design life cycle through hardware delivery, crew training, and mission support. The purpose of this presentation is to guide the audience through the early hardware development process: requirement definition through selecting a development path. Specific HRF equipment is used to illustrate the hardware development paths. The source of hardware requirements is the science community and HRF program. The HRF Science Working Group, consisting of SCientists from various medical disciplines, defined a basic set of equipment with functional requirements. This established the performance requirements of the hardware. HRF program requirements focus on making the hardware safe and operational in a space environment. This includes structural, thermal, human factors, and material requirements. Science and HRF program requirements are defined in a hardware requirements document which includes verification methods. Once the hardware is fabricated, requirements are verified by inspection, test, analysis, or demonstration. All data is compiled and reviewed to certify the hardware for flight. Obviously, the basis for all hardware development activities is requirement definition. Full and complete requirement definition is ideal prior to initiating the hardware development. However, this is generally not the case, but the hardware team typically has functional inputs as a guide. The first step is for engineers to conduct market research based on the functional inputs provided by scientists. CommerCially available products are evaluated against the science requirements as

  9. Research and Development Annual Report, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Issued as a companion to Johnson Space Center's Research and Technology Annual Report, which reports JSC accomplishments under NASA Research and Technology Operating Plan (RTOP) funding, this report describes 42 additional JSC projects that are funded through sources other than the RTOP. Emerging technologies in four major disciplines are summarized: space systems technology, medical and life sciences, mission operations, and computer systems. Although these projects focus on support of human spacecraft design, development, and safety, most have wide civil and commercial applications in areas such as advanced materials, superconductors, advanced semiconductors, digital imaging, high density data storage, high performance computers, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, sensors, biotechnology, medical devices and diagnosis, and human factors engineering.

  10. Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Julia, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti

  11. Development and validation of modified disease activity scores in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Joshua F; Conaghan, Philip G; Smolen, Josef S

    2014-01-01

    -CDAI) were generated for each subject in the validation cohort. The M-DAS28, M-SDAI, and M-CDAI scores were compared to conventional scores of disease activity with regard to associations with MRI measures of synovitis and radiographic progression, assessed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlations, linear......OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate composite disease activity scores, based on widely available clinical measures, that would demonstrate improved correlation with detection of synovitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic progression, in comparison with conventional measures.......15 × SJC28 + 0.22 × EvGA + 1 and M-SDAI = CRP + SJC28 + EvGA. Both modified and conventional disease activity scores correlated significantly with MRI measures of synovitis. Modified scores showed superior correlation with synovitis, as compared to conventional scores, at all time points (P

  12. Development and study the performance of PBA cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic biosensor for urea detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botewad, S. N.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India-444602 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The fabrication and study of a cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic urea biosensor based on evanescent wave absorbance has been presented. The sensor was prepared using cladding modification technique by removing a small portion of cladding of an optical fiber and modifying with an active cladding of porous polyaniline-boric acid (PBA) matrix to immobilize enzyme-urease through cross-linking via glutaraldehyde. The nature of as-synthesized and deposited PBA film on fiber optic sensing element was studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The performance of the developed sensor was studied for different urea concentrations in solutions prepared in phosphate buffer.

  13. Development and study the performance of PBA cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic biosensor for urea detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botewad, S. N.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The fabrication and study of a cladding modified fiber optic intrinsic urea biosensor based on evanescent wave absorbance has been presented. The sensor was prepared using cladding modification technique by removing a small portion of cladding of an optical fiber and modifying with an active cladding of porous polyaniline-boric acid (PBA) matrix to immobilize enzyme-urease through cross-linking via glutaraldehyde. The nature of as-synthesized and deposited PBA film on fiber optic sensing element was studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The performance of the developed sensor was studied for different urea concentrations in solutions prepared in phosphate buffer.

  14. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Anderson, S.E.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W.; Kirvel, R.D.; McElroy, L.A. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) funds projects that nurture and enrich the core competencies of the Laboratory. The scientific and technical output from the FY 1992 RD Program has been significant. Highlights include (1) Creating the first laser guide star to be coupled with adaptive optics, thus permitting ground-based telescopes to obtain the same resolution as smaller space-based instruments but with more light-gathering power. (2) Significantly improving the limit on the mass of the electron antineutrino so that neutrinos now become a useful tool in diagnosing supernovas and we disproved the existence of a 17-keV neutrino. (3) Developing a new class of organic aerogels that have robust mechanical properties and that have significantly lower thermal conductivity than inorganic aerogels. (4) Developing a new heavy-ion accelerator concept, which may enable us to design heavy-ion experimental systems and use a heavy-ion driver for inertial fusion. (5) Designing and demonstrating a high-power, diode-pumped, solid-state laser concept that will allow us to pursue a variety of research projects, including laser material processing. (6) Demonstrating that high-performance semiconductor arrays can be fabricated more efficiently, which will make this technology available to a broad range of applications such as inertial confinement fusion for civilian power. (7) Developing a new type of fiber channel switch and new fiber channel standards for use in local- and wide-area networks, which will allow scientists and engineers to transfer data at gigabit rates. (8) Developing the nation`s only numerical model for high-technology air filtration systems. Filter designs that use this model will provide safer and cleaner environments in work areas where contamination with particulate hazardous materials is possible.

  16. JUSTINA: A platform for autonomous land vehicle research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhala, Matti

    A platform for autonomous land vehicle research and development was developed. The platform makes it possible to conduct tests in natural surroundings. The platform is based on a small car, which was modified and equipped for computer control. The car is equipped with a controller area network, which makes it possible to use parallel processing. The computer system and the modifications made are described. Programs for basic image processing were written and they are tested in a simple line following application. The programs allow different image processing tasks to be done on a desktop computer using either a recorded video signal or digitized images from natural scenes. Special attention was paid to the camera calibration procedure. A simple vehicle model was created for hardware in the loop testing of image processing and vehicle control algorithms. The model uses artificially produced road images. The vehicle is equipped with a differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation system, which was tested on an open field application. This platform is modular and can be easily adapted for different research purposes in autonomous land vehicle development.

  17. When Research Meets Development: Antecedents and Implications of Transfer Speed

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jingshu; Leten, Bart; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Lopez-Vega, Henry

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the organization of new product development in large, R&D-intensive firms. In these firms, research and development activities are often separated. Research is conducted in dedicated research projects at specialized research labs. Once research results are achieved by research projects, they are transferred to business units for further development and commercialization. We investigate the speed whereby research projects transfer their first research results to busin...

  18. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  19. Research Progress in Modified Fast Growing Poplar Wood%速生杨木改性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅; 杨亮庆

    2012-01-01

    The research progress in modified poplar wood optimization in recent years is stated and the optimal treatment of the insufficiency existing in fast growing poplar wood quality makes it approach or surpass the wood made of natural forests, which is of great importance for the full utilization of fast growing poplar wood resources, alleviation of the tension situation of wood supply and promotion of the sound development of forestry economy. Currently, the modification of poplar wood mainly concentrates on two aspects, i.e. dependence on material filling treatment and non-filling treatment, mainly including impregnation of organic matters, modified treatment of inorganic matters, compact treatment, high-temperature heat treatment and combined treatment with a number of methods.%论述了近年来杨木改性优化的研究进展。对速生杨木材进行优化处理可使其在性能上接近或超过天然林木材,这对充分利用速生杨木资源、缓解木材供应紧张局面、促进林业经济良性发展等具有重要意义。目前对杨木改性研究主要集中在依靠物质填充处理和非填充处理两方面,主要包括浸注有机物、无机物的改性处理,压密化处理,高温热处理以及多种方法联合改性处理等。

  20. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelov, Eva; Chan, David; Lawrence, Ben; Pavlakis, Nick; Kennecke, Hagen F; Jackson, Christopher; Law, Calvin; Singh, Simron

    2017-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS) was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander), of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field.

  1. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  2. Development of modified pulsincap drug delivery system of metronidazole for drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Sindhu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified Pulsincap dosage form of metronidazole was developed to target drug release in the colon. Bodies of hard gelatin capsules were treated with formaldehyde keeping the caps as such. Metronidazole pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization method were incorporated into these specialized capsule shells and plugged with polymers guar gum, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 10K, carboxymethylcellulose sodium and sodium alginate separately at concentrations 20 mg, 30 mg and 40 mg. The filled capsules were completely coated with 5% cellulose acetate phthalate to prevent variable gastric emptying. All the formulations were assayed to determine drug content and the ability of the modified Pulsincap to provide colon-specific drug delivery was assessed by in vitro drug release studies in buffer pH 1.2 for 2 h, pH 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid for 3 h and pH 6.8 (stimulated colonic fluid for 7 h. The results indicated that significant drug release occurred only after 5 h from the start of experiment. Thus, metronidazole could be successfully colon targeted by the use of the modified Pulsincap, thereby reducing systemic side effects.

  3. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2001-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  4. 7 CFR 981.41 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 981.41 Section 981.41... Regulating Handling Research § 981.41 Research and development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising...

  5. Nurses' experiences of participation in a research and development programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Pryds; Bäck-Pettersson, Siv; Kýlén, Sven

    2013-01-01

    To describe clinical nurses' experience of participating in a Research and Development (R&D) programme and its influence on their research interest and ability to conduct and apply nursing research......To describe clinical nurses' experience of participating in a Research and Development (R&D) programme and its influence on their research interest and ability to conduct and apply nursing research...

  6. Operational Research(ers) in development: Growing a new generation of operational researchers

    OpenAIRE

    I Durbach; Scott, L; J Nyirenda; S Silal

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the theme of training operational research (OR) practitioners in South Africa by critically evaluating a Masters program in Operational Research in Development (ORD), launched in 2005 at the University of Cape Town. This program was specifically focused on applying OR to the problems of the developing world in general and Africa in particular. We describe the program and review the practical work undertaken by students participating in the program. Topics range widely acro...

  7. Risk in vaccine research and development quantified.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther S Pronker

    Full Text Available To date, vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy to combat infectious diseases. Recently, a productivity gap affects the pharmaceutical industry. The productivity gap describes the situation whereby the invested resources within an industry do not match the expected product turn-over. While risk profiles (combining research and development timelines and transition rates have been published for new chemical entities (NCE, little is documented on vaccine development. The objective is to calculate risk profiles for vaccines targeting human infectious diseases. A database was actively compiled to include all vaccine projects in development from 1998 to 2009 in the pre-clinical development phase, clinical trials phase I, II and III up to Market Registration. The average vaccine, taken from the preclinical phase, requires a development timeline of 10.71 years and has a market entry probability of 6%. Stratification by disease area reveals pandemic influenza vaccine targets as lucrative. Furthermore, vaccines targeting acute infectious diseases and prophylactic vaccines have shown to have a lower risk profile when compared to vaccines targeting chronic infections and therapeutic applications. In conclusion; these statistics apply to vaccines targeting human infectious diseases. Vaccines targeting cancer, allergy and autoimmune diseases require further analysis. Additionally, this paper does not address orphan vaccines targeting unmet medical needs, whether projects are in-licensed or self-originated and firm size and experience. Therefore, it remains to be investigated how these - and other - variables influence the vaccine risk profile. Although we find huge differences between the risk profiles for vaccine and NCE; vaccines outperform NCE when it comes to development timelines.

  8. Faculty Development for Fostering Clinical Reasoning Skills in Early Medical Students Using a Modified Bayesian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Tracie Marcella; Hafler, Janet; Galerneau, France

    2016-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is a necessary skill for medical students to acquire in the course of their education, and there is evidence that they can start this process at the undergraduate level. However, physician educators who are experts in their given fields may have difficulty conveying their complex thought processes to students. Providing faculty development that equips educators with tools to teach clinical reasoning may support skill development in early medical students. We provided faculty development on a modified Bayesian method of teaching clinical reasoning to clinician educators who facilitated small-group, case-based workshops with 2nd-year medical students. We interviewed them before and after the module regarding their perceptions on teaching clinical reasoning. We solicited feedback from the students about the effectiveness of the method in developing their clinical reasoning skills. We carried out this project during an institutional curriculum rebuild where clinical reasoning was a defined goal. At the time of the intervention, there was also increased involvement of the Teaching and Learning Center in elevating the status of teaching and learning. There was high overall satisfaction with the faculty development program. Both the faculty and the students described the modified Bayesian approach as effective in fostering the development of clinical reasoning skills. Through this work, we learned how to form a beneficial partnership between a clinician educator and Teaching and Learning Center to promote faculty development on a clinical reasoning teaching method for early medical students. We uncovered challenges faced by both faculty and early learners in this study. We observed that our faculty chose to utilize the method of teaching clinical reasoning in a variety of manners in the classroom. Despite obstacles and differing approaches utilized, we believe that this model can be emulated at other institutions to foster the development of clinical

  9. The development of Ti6Al4V based anti bacterial dental implant modified with TiO2 nanotube arrays doped silver metal (Ag)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Bachtiar, B. M.; Wulan, P. P. D. K.; Setiadi, Sari, D. P.

    2017-05-01

    The development of Ti6Al4V based anti bacterial dental implant, modified with dopanted silver metal (Ag) TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNTAs), is studied in this research. The condition inside the mouth is less foton energy, the dental implant material need to be modified with silver metal (Ag) dopanted TiNTAs. Modified TiNTAs used silver metal dopanted with Photo Assisted Deposition (PAD) method can be used as an electron trapper and produced hydroxyl radical, therefore it has antibacterial properties. The verification of antibacterial properties developed with biofilm static test using Streptococcus mutans bacteria model within 3 and 16 hours incubation, was characterized with XRD and SEM-EDX. Properties test result that resisting the biofilm growth effectively is TiNTAs/Ag/0,15, with 97,62 % disinfection bacteria sampel.

  10. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the...

  11. Research skills development in higher education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Priede Bergamini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This case study presents the development of a research project in a third-year undergraduate course, Family Business Administration. The research project aimed at promoting research skills in students. The authors formed working groups of no more than six students, and each group had to select an original research topic after conducting a literature review. Students were guided by the teachers and provided with initial reading materials, as well as an activity rubric specifying the minimum requirements of a scientific paper. The activity evaluation consisted of two parts, a written article (group assessment and an oral presentation (individual assessment. After the activity concluded, students were asked to answer an online satisfaction survey. Results showed students viewed the activity as positive and appreciated the chance to develop several competencies, including research skills. The authors conclude several objectives were achieved, including: familiarize students with scientific research; make sure students are cable of finding information through primary sources; have students apply the knowledge acquired during the course; promote responsibility in students; cultivate in students the capacity to summarize ideas and expose them in a reasoned way; have students learn from the experiences and knowledge of others; and develop in students the capacity to synthesize all that information. -------------------------- El desarrollo de la capacidad investigadora en estudiantes de educación superior Resumen  Este estudio de caso presenta el desarrollo de un proyecto de investigación en la asignatura “Administración de la Empresa Familiar” de tercer curso. El proyecto de investigación tenía como propósito fomentar de forma específica la capacidad investigadora de los alumnos. Se formaron grupos de trabajo de no más de seis estudiantes, y cada grupo tenía que seleccionar un tema de investigación original tras realizar una búsqueda de

  12. Aerodynamics support of research instrument development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. Scott

    1990-01-01

    A new velocimetry system is currently being developed at NASA LaRC. The device, known as a Doppler global velocimeter (DGV), can record three velocity components within a plane simultaneously and in near real time. To make measurements the DGV, like many other velocimetry systems, relies on the scattering of light from numerous small particles in a flow field. The particles or seeds are illuminated by a sheet of laser light and viewed by two CCD cameras. The scattered light from the particles will have a frequency which is a function of the source laser light frequency, the viewing angle, and most importantly the seed velocities. By determining the scattered light intensity the velocity can be measured at all points within the light sheet simultaneously. Upon completion of DGV component construction and initial check out a series of tests in the Basic Aerodynamic Research (wind) Tunnel (BART) are scheduled to verify instrument operation and accuracy. If the results are satisfactory, application of the DGV to flight measurements on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are planned. The DGV verification test in the BART facility will utilize a 75 degree swept delta wing model. A major task undertaken this summer included evaluation of previous results for this model. A specific series of tests matching exactly the previous tests and exploring new DGV capabilities were developed and suggested. Another task undertaken was to study DGV system installation possibilities in the F-18 HARV aircraft. In addition, a simple seeding system modification was developed and utilized to make Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the BART facility.

  13. 48 CFR 731.773 - Independent research and development costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Organizations 731.773 Independent research and development costs. Pending establishment of Government-wide... independent research and development costs. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent research and...

  14. Developing Action Research for Developing Teachers in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vula

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the perception of student teachers on their role as researchers and the impact of action research in their professional development. The study involves the master level student teachers of the Faculty of Education at the University of Prishtina in Kosovo. Qualitative data collected through reflective writing, open-ended questionnaires and research reports developed by student teachers were analyzed through the inductive method. The study suggests that teacher research has a major impact not only on the improvement of teaching practices and increasing student achievement, but also on increasing the collaboration among peers and fostering a new culture where teachers assume their responsibilities to apply action research in their own classrooms as a tool for classroom transformation. Teacher education and school context are crucial in this matter and the need arises to avoid viewing the development of teacher research as an isolated activity.Keywords: Action research, professional development, student teacher, environmentÖzBu araştırma, öğrenci öğretmenlerin araştırmacı rollerini algılamalarını ve profesyonel gelişimlerinde eylem araştırmaların etkisini incelemektedir. Araştırma, Priştine Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi’nde yüksek lisans düzeyinde olan öğrenci öğretmenleri kapsamaktadır. Öğrenciler tarafından yapılan yansıtıcı yazılar, açık uçlu soru formları ve araştırma raporlarından toplanan nitel veriler tümevarım yöntemi aracılığıyla incelenmiştir. Araştırma, öğretmen araştırmalarının, sadece öğretim uygulamalarının geliştirilmesine ve öğrenci başarısının yükseltilmesine değil, aynı zamanda yaşıtlar arası işbirliğini arttırma ve öğretmenlerin sınıfı dönüştürme aracı olarak kendi sınıflarında eylem araştırmasını uygulama sorumluluğunu yeni bir kültür olarak teşvik etmeye önemli bir etkisinin olduğunu ortaya koymaktad

  15. 48 CFR 31.205-48 - Research and development costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research and development... Organizations 31.205-48 Research and development costs. Research and development, as used in this subsection... grant for research and development effort, the excess is unallowable under any other Government contract. ...

  16. 7 CFR 959.48 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 959.48 Section 959.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 959.48 Research and development. The committee, with the... research, and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing,...

  17. 7 CFR 947.47 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 947.47 Section 947.47... Research and Development § 947.47 Research and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed...

  18. Research Development of MOX Fuel Element Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Qi-fa; YANG; Ting-gui; SHANG; Gai-bin; YIN; Bang-yue; ZHOU; Guo-liang; LI; Qiang; JIANG; Bao-jun

    2015-01-01

    The project of"MOX Fuel Element Research"led by China Institute of Atomic Energy,404Company Ltd.and CNPE Zhengzhou Branch are members of the project research team.The research task of 2015had been accomplished successfully,and the research productions of this year build up a basis for the future research,also

  19. Effect modifiers in intervention research at hospitals in three Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Jørgen; Edwards, Kasper; Jarebrant, Caroline; Birgisdóttir, Birna Dröfn; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrún; Harlin, Ulrika; Ulin, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:The impact of ergonomic interventions may be offset by other changes at the work place, primarily rationalizations. These have previously been shown to imply a dominant negative effect on health and risk factors, thus causing effect modification (Westgaard & Winkel 2011). The present paper aims to present assessment of potential effect modifiers in intervention studies at hospital wards in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden.Material and methods:The effect modifiers were assessed by ...

  20. The Staphy lococcal Exfoliative Toxin Development of a Modified Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSOUD KEYHANI

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce a toxin which cause epidermal exfoliation within 18 hours after direct subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection into newborn mice. The extracellular product responsible for exfoliation is termed exfoliative toxin (ET. In the present studies a modified assay system has been developed for detection of exfoliativeactivity in toxin negative strains as determined by standa rd method of Melish and Glasgow. If extracellular supernatant material from naturally occuring ET negative st rains was concentrated 20 fold and inoculated into newborn mice, exfoliative toxin act ivity could be detected,

  1. Study on Technology Development Status of Genetically Modified Soybean Based on Patent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Runlian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified soybean is a product of the emerging bio-technology in the 1980s and is widely concerned all over the world. This study analyzed GM soybean related patent documents in China, the United States and Europe, aiming to find out the R and D status and trends as well as technical distribution pattern of GM soybean in the world. It analyzed the patent general tendency, regional distribution and key technologies, clarified major countries who master such technologies, relevant companies, technologies, etc. Finally, the author put forward solutions for the strategic development of GM soybean patents.

  2. Recent developments of atmospheric research in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, G. P.; Danylevsky, V. O.; Grytsai, A. V.; Evtushevsky, O. M.; Kravchenko, V. O., Bovchaliuk, A. P.; Bovchaliuk, V. P.; Sosonkin, M. G.; Goloub, Ph.; Savitska, L. Y.; Udodov, E. V.; Voytenko, V. P.

    2012-11-01

    In recent years the Joint Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics and Aerosols of Ukraine has been carrying out atmospheric research in cooperation with international program of climate change studies. Our current research is aimed at studying aerosol and ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, because these constituents have a substantial influence on climate. In Ukraine, atmospheric aerosol remote sensing in the PHOTONS/AERONET network has been carried out since 2006 in Sevastopol and 2008 in Kyiv. For this research, sunphotometers CIMEL CE318 have been used. A mobile AERONET station has been developed, which consists of CE318N and portable Microtops II sunphotometers, as well as two self-designed experimental portable sunphotometer models and an ozonometer for aerosol and ozone study. The team's findings on aerosol spectral optical thickness, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosol particles (single-scattering albedo, distribution of particles by sizes, Ångström exponent), are discussed in the paper. In 2010, upon the establishment of the new regional atmospheric research station Nr.498 Kyiv-Goloseyev, the team commenced with measurements of the total column density and vertical distribution of ozone, using the Dobson D040 spectrophotometer, in the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch Program of WMO. The station has also been equipped with a Vaisala automatic weather station, a surface ozone 49i analyzer, and an experimental complex for monitoring secondary space rays. The aerosol and ozone measurements have been continuously submitted to data centres of AERONET (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and WMO (www.woudc.org/data/). For aerosol and ozone research, the data from satellite sources (POLDER, MODIS, OMI, and SCIAMACHY) have also been analysed. The work on a proposal to design, build, and launch the space radiometer/polarimeter for global monitoring of atmospheric aerosols has commenced recently. This instrument should have the capability of

  3. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: - Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see

  4. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment

  5. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  6. Translational research in Huntington’s disease: opening up for disease modifying treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Research on the molecular mechanisms involved in Huntington’s disease, a monogenic disorder with a complex phenotype including motor, behaviour, and cognitive impairments, is advancing at a rapid path. Knowledge on several of the multimodal pathways has now lead to the establishment of rational strategies to prepare trials of several compounds in affected people. Furthermore, improved understanding of the phenotype and on ways of assessing it, as well as the process of developing biomarkers, allows setting the frame for such studies. In this brief review, the present status of some of these aspects is examined. PMID:23347646

  7. [The trend of developing new disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Tomita, Naoki; Ishiki, Aiko; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2016-03-01

    Development of symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer s disease by cholinesterase inhibitors like donepezil was successful. However, it is a disappointment that development of disease-modifying drugs such as anti-amyloid drug based on amyloid-cascade theory has been interrupted or unsuccessful. Therefore, we have to be more cautious regarding inclusion criteria for clinical trials of new drugs. We agree that potentially curative drugs should be started before symptoms begin as a preemptive therapy or prevention trial. The concept of personalized medicine also is important when ApoE4-related amyloid reducing therapy is considered. Unfortunately, Japanese-ADNI has suffered a setback since 2014. However, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare gave a final remark that there was nothing wrong in the data managing process in the J-ADNI data center. We should pay more attention to worldwide challenges of speeding up new drug development.

  8. Scientific and Regulatory Considerations in Solid Oral Modified Release Drug Product Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Sander, Sanna; Duan, John; Rosencrance, Susan; Miksinski, Sarah Pope; Yu, Lawrence; Seo, Paul; Rege, Bhagwant

    2016-11-01

    This review presents scientific and regulatory considerations for the development of solid oral modified release (MR) drug products. It includes a rationale for patient-focused development based on Quality-by-Design (QbD) principles. Product and process understanding of MR products includes identification and risk-based evaluation of critical material attributes (CMAs), critical process parameters (CPPs), and their impact on critical quality attributes (CQAs) that affect the clinical performance. The use of various biopharmaceutics tools that link the CQAs to a predictable and reproducible clinical performance for patient benefit is emphasized. Product and process understanding lead to a more comprehensive control strategy that can maintain product quality through the shelf life and the lifecycle of the drug product. The overall goal is to develop MR products that consistently meet the clinical objectives while mitigating the risks to patients by reducing the probability and increasing the detectability of CQA failures.

  9. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities.

  10. [Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA)--development as recombinant vaccine and prospects for use in veterinary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Asisa; Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information. In consequence, MVA is replication-deficient in cells of mammalian origin and fails to produce many of the virulence factors encoded by conventional vaccinia virus. Because of its safety for the general environment MVA can be handled under conditions of biosafety level one. Non-replicating MVA can enter any target cell and activate its molecular life cycle to express all classes of viral and recombinant genes. Therefore, recombinant MVA have been established as an extremely safe and efficient vector system for vaccine development in medical research. By now, various recombinant MVA vaccines have been found safe and immunogenic when used for phase I/II clinical testing in humans, and suitable for industrial scale production following good practice of manufacturing. Thus, there is an obvious usefulness of recombinant MVA vaccines for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches also in veterinary medicine. Results from first studies in companion and farm animals are highly promising.

  11. Research and development program, fiscal year 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1970 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Level Studies; Environmental Radiation Studies; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; Cancer Research; and Selected Beneficial Applications. The overall objectives of the Laboratory within these areas of the Biology and Medicine Program may be summarized as follows: (1) investigation of the effects of ionizing radiation on systems of biological significance and on living organisms; (2) assessment and study of the immediate and long term consequences of the environmental radioactivity on flora, fauna, and man; (3) development of beneficial uses of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances in medicine and biology; and (4) the conduct of training and educational activities in fields related to the biological and medical aspects of radiation.

  12. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  13. [Development of metallomics research on environmental toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2015-01-01

    Metallomics is newly coined terms and defined as a comprehensive analysis of the entirety of metal and metalloid species within a cell or tissue type. Then, metallome is defined as the entire category of metalloproteins and any other metal-containing biomolecules. Metallomics and research on metallome require analytical techniques that can provide information on the identification and quantification of metal/metalloid-containing biomolecules. This concept has been called speciation, and the acquisition of data according to the concept is performed using hyphenated techniques involving both separation and detection methods. In this review, the author intends to present several applications of complementary use of HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for identification of unknown selenium-containing metabolites, and also to present a newly developed technique, capillary LC-ICP-MS to be used for the analysis of metal-binding proteins.

  14. Protein Crystallography in Vaccine Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malito, Enrico; Carfi, Andrea; Bottomley, Matthew J

    2015-06-09

    The use of protein X-ray crystallography for structure-based design of small-molecule drugs is well-documented and includes several notable success stories. However, it is less well-known that structural biology has emerged as a major tool for the design of novel vaccine antigens. Here, we review the important contributions that protein crystallography has made so far to vaccine research and development. We discuss several examples of the crystallographic characterization of vaccine antigen structures, alone or in complexes with ligands or receptors. We cover the critical role of high-resolution epitope mapping by reviewing structures of complexes between antigens and their cognate neutralizing, or protective, antibody fragments. Most importantly, we provide recent examples where structural insights obtained via protein crystallography have been used to design novel optimized vaccine antigens. This review aims to illustrate the value of protein crystallography in the emerging discipline of structural vaccinology and its impact on the rational design of vaccines.

  15. Research and development of Cordyceps in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Peng Chiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps is treasured entomopathogenic fungi that have been used as antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, and pro-sexual agent. Cordyceps, also called DongChongXiaCao in Chinese, Yartsa Gunbu (Tibetan, means winter worm-summer grass. Natural Cordyceps sinensis with parasitic hosts is difficult to be collected and the recent findings on its potential pharmacological functions, resulted in skyrocketing prices. Therefore, finding a mass-production method or an alternative for C. sinensis products is a top-priority task. In this review, we describe current status of Cordyceps research and its recent developments in Taiwan. The content and pharmacological activities of four major industrial species of Cordyceps (C. sinensis, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps cicadae and Cordyceps sobolifera used in Taiwan, were reviewed. Moreover, we highlighted the effect of using different methods of fermentation and production on the morphology and chemical content of Cordyceps sp. Finally, we summarized the bottle-necks and challenges facing Cordyceps research as well as we proposed future road map for Cordyceps industry in Taiwan.

  16. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  17. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  18. Development of atom transfer radical polymer-modified gold nanoparticle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Hou, Shike; Li, Qingsheng; Fan, Haojun; Fan, Rong; Xu, Zhongwei; Zhala, Gahu; Mai, Xia; Chen, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xuyi; Liu, Yingfu

    2014-10-21

    In this work, a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a low limit of detection and high sensitivity was developed using atom transfer radical polymer (ATRP)-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Clear signal amplification was achieved by introducing an abundance of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to the AuNPs, because of the ATRP modification. This result suggested that the new ELISA was able to detect antigens in complex mixtures, and the limit of detection (LOD) was lower than that of conventional ELISA by a factor of 81. The new ELISA strategy greatly decreased the LOD during analysis and exhibited excellent reproducibility, stability, and feasibility. Therefore, it is a promising technique with many potential applications in biochemistry and medical science research.

  19. Developing a new method for modifying over-allocated multi-mode resource constraint schedules in the presence of preemptive resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Delgoshaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of resource over-allocating is a big concern for project engineers in the process of scheduling project activities. Resource over-allocating is frequently seen after initial scheduling of a project in practice and causes significant amount of efforts to modify the initial schedules. In this research, a new method is developed for modifying over-allocated schedules in a multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problems (MRCPSPs with positive cash flows (MRCPSP-PCF. The aim is to maximize profit of the MRCPSPs or logically minimizing costs. The proposed method can be used as a macro in Microsoft Office Project® Software to modify resource over-allocated days after scheduling a project. This research considers progress payment method and preemptive resources. The proposed approach maximizes profit by scheduling activities through the resource calendar respecting to the available level of preemptive resources and activity numbers. To examine the performance of the proposed method a number of experiments derived from the literature are solved. The results are then compared with the circumstances where resource constraints are relaxed. The outcomes show that in all studied cases, the proposed algorithm can provide modified schedules with no over-allocated days. Afterward the method is applied to modify a manufacturing project in practice.

  20. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogeka, G.J.; Romano, A.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report briefly discusses the following research: Advances in Geoexploration; Transvenous Coronary Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays; Borehole Measurements of Global Warming; Molecular Ecology: Development of Field Methods for Microbial Growth Rate and Activity Measurements; A New Malaria Enzyme - A Potential Source for a New Diagnostic Test for Malaria and a Target for a New Antimalarial Drug; Basic Studies on Thoron and Thoron Precursors; Cloning of the cDNA for a Human Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase that is Activated Specifically by Double-Stranded DNA; Development of an Ultra-Fast Laser System for Accelerator Applications; Cluster Impact Fusion; Effect of a Bacterial Spore Protein on Mutagenesis; Structure and Function of Adenovirus Penton Base Protein; High Resolution Fast X-Ray Detector; Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Longitudinal Bunch Shape Monitor; High Grain Harmonic Generation Experiment; BNL Maglev Studies; Structural Investigations of Pt-Based Catalysts; Studies on the Cellular Toxicity of Cocaine and Cocaethylene; Human Melanocyte Transformation; Exploratory Applications of X-Ray Microscopy; Determination of the Higher Ordered Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Uranium Neutron Capture Therapy; Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Nanoscale Structures; Nuclear Techiques for Study of Biological Channels; RF Sources for Accelerator Physics; Induction and Repair of Double-Strand Breaks in the DNA of Human Lymphocytes; and An EBIS Source of High Charge State Ions up to Uranium.

  1. Organising Quality Function in Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function may be summarised as quality generation, quality control, and qualityassurance. The quality generation and quality control, because of their fuactional nature, arecomparatively easy to organise, however, the challenge is to organise quality assurance in theorganisation. It is the challenge because quality assurance should seamlessly merge with theR&D process. In future, the organisations, whether real or virtual, are going to bepredominantly, research and development (R&D oriented rather than pure manufacturing orservice providers. However, the nature and intensity of the R&D may differ. It could be fromsimple improvement to innovation, to exploitation of inventions.Organising quality function in R&D means organising its various dimensions against thestipulated criteria such as the realisation of the quality system; realisation of quality duringproduct development, including system engineering; staffing of quality generation, quality control,and quality assurance; balancing of the quality function; harnessing of project quality, functionalquality, staff quality and line quality; application of the RHR principle; exploitation of the toolsof organising, democratic organisation; and so on. The basic purpose of organising the qualityfunction is to inculcate the sense of pride in quality among the scientists so that they feelpassionate about it. It is the passion and love for quality that generates, sustains, and maintainsquality.

  2. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the...

  3. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public for...

  4. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  5. The Application Research about Modified Genetic Algorithm in the Flywheel Charging-Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the flywheel charging-control system, there exists the flywheel motor’s nonlinearity, variable elements etc, which leads to the problem of parameter tuning of PID controller of its charging-control system’s revolving speed loop. In this study, I will introduce an optimizing way based on modified genetic algorithm for the flywheel charging-control system PID controller, which by means of simulation and performance index quantization to observe its optimizing performance and convergence characteristic, so that we can check the feasibility and effectiveness in the flywheel charging-control system. It turns out that tuning PID controller parameters based on modified genetic algorithm has a better rapidity and stability, which proves the feasibility of the modified genetic algorithm.

  6. Developments in cooperative learning: review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn M. Gillies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning, where students work in small groups to accomplish shared goals, is widely recognized as a teaching strategy that promotes learning and socialization among students from kindergarten through college and across different subject domains. It has been used successfully to promote reading and writing achievements, understanding and conceptual development in science classes, problem-solving in mathematics, and higher-order thinking and learning to name just a few. It has been shown to enhance students' willingness to work cooperatively and productively with others with diverse learning and adjustment needs and to enhance intergroup relations with those from culturally and ethnically different backgrounds. It has also been used as a teaching strategy to assist students to manage conflict and to help students identified as bullies learn appropriate interpersonal skills. In fact, it has been argued that cooperative learning experiences are crucial to preventing and alleviating many of the social problems related to children, adolescents, and young adults. There is no doubt that the benefits attributed to cooperative learning are widespread and numerous and it is the apparent success of this approach to learning that has led to it being acclaimed as one of the greatest educational innovations of recent times. The purpose of this paper is not only to review developments in research on cooperative learning but also to examine the factors that mediate and moderate its success. In particular, the review focuses on the types of student and teacher interactions generated and the key role talk plays in developing student thinking and learning, albeit through the expression of contrasting opinions or constructed shared meaning. The intention is to provide additional insights on how teachers can effectively utilize this pedagogical approach to teaching and learning in their classrooms.

  7. A Modified Electrostatic Adsorption Apparatus for Latent Fingerprint Development on Unfired Cartridge Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyang; Zhang, Ziyuan; Zheng, Xiaochun; Bond, John W

    2016-12-13

    Visualization of latent fingerprints on metallic surfaces by the method of applying electrostatic charging and adsorption is considered as a promising chemical-free method, which has the merit of nondestruction, and is considered to be effective for some difficult situations such as aged fingerprint deposits or those exposed to environmental extremes. In fact, a portable electrostatic generator can be easily accessible in a local forensic technology laboratory, which is already widely used in the visualization of footwear impressions. In this study, a modified version of this electrostatic apparatus is proposed for latent fingerprint development and has shown great potential in visualizing fingerprints on metallic surfaces such as cartridge cases. Results indicate that this experimental arrangement can successfully develop aged latent fingerprints on metal surfaces, and we demonstrate its effectiveness compared with existing conventional fingerprint recovery methods.

  8. Safety assessment of foods from genetically modified crops in countries with developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Population growth particularly in countries with developing economies will result in a need to increase food production by 70% by the year 2050. Biotechnology has been utilized to produce genetically modified (GM) crops for insect and weed control with benefits including increased crop yield and will also be used in emerging countries. A multicomponent safety assessment paradigm has been applied to individual GM crops to determine whether they as safe as foods from non-GM crops. This paper reviews methods to assess the safety of foods from GM crops for safe consumption from the first generation of GM crops. The methods can readily be applied to new products developed within country and this paper will emphasize the concept of data portability; that safety data produced in one geographic location is suitable for safety assessment regardless of where it is utilized.

  9. Developing an effective quantitative research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Katreena Collette

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Infusion Nurses Society began work to identify research priorities for infusion nursing. Nurses need to understand the research process and become proficient in collaboration to promote research in their specialty. One of the most important components of conducting research is the written research proposal. A poorly written proposal may result in denial of funding, rejected publications, and prolonged discussion and revision at the institutional or ethics review board. This article provides an overview of the elements needed in a research proposal, identifies institutional review board requirements, and highlights important criteria for recruitment and consent of subjects.

  10. 药用高分子材料亲水性修饰的研究进展%Research Progress in Hydrophilic Modified of Pharmaceutic Polymer Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 尹华月; 鲁传华

    2013-01-01

    高分子材料在药物制剂和制药工艺上具有广泛的应用价值.新型制剂的研发与药用高分子材料的性能密切相关,特别是高分子胶束等两亲性高分子材料的使用尤为广泛,也是高分子材料当今研究的热点.本文着重对常见药用高分子材料亲水性修饰的亲水片段进行了概括总结.根据亲水片段的大小,分为小分子修饰、水溶性聚合物修饰以及水溶性高分子修饰三个部分,对药用高分子材料亲水修饰的修饰剂和修饰产物的性质特点、修饰方法以及其中的优势和不足尽可能的进行了综述,并对此进行了讨论和展望,以期能够给同行们提供参考并共讨论.%Polymer materials has a wide range of application value in pharmaceutic preparation pharmaceutical processes. The research and development of new pharmaceutical manufacturing is intimately related to the property of pharmaceutic polymer materials .especially amphiphilic high molecular materials are widely used in the research and development of new pharmaceutical manufacturing and they are also the research hotspots > such as polymeric micelles. The common hydrophilic segments of amphiphilic pharmaceutic polymer materials are summarized in this paper, on the basis of size of hydrophilic segments, hydrophilic modification of pharmaceutic polymer materials is divided three classes-water-soluble micromolecules modified, water-soluble polymers modified and water-soluble high molecular materials modified, in order to give references to colleagues and discuss, the characteristics of the modifier and modified products and modification methods from the hydrophilic modification of pharmaceutic polymer materials and the advantages and disadvantages of modifier are reviewed as comprehensive as possible in this paper, at the same time, it is discussed and prospected.

  11. Development of survivin and tumor research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yu-bin; LIU Guang-da; YU Lei; LI Hai-jiao; YANG Hai-fan; PANG Lin-lin

    2008-01-01

    Survivin was firstly separated in hybridization of Effector Cell Protease Receptor-1(EPR-1) cDNA in human genome by Yale University's Ambrosini in 1997, which is member of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPS). Unlike other IAP protein, found during embryonic and fetal development, survivin wascompletely down-regulated and undetectable in normal adult tissues, and became prominentlyre expressed in all of the most common cancers. It through includes the cysteine/histidine rod-shaped viral IAP repetition sequence baculoviral IAP repeats(BIRs) the structure territory directly or intervenes Caspases the function to display indirectly its anti-perishes weakly the function, simultaneously it also is in the cell division process the chromosome traveler protein (chromosome passenger protein). There are three approaches by which survivin inhibits the processing of apoptosis: (1)inhibits processing of down stream effector caspase-3, caspase-7and caspase-9 in cell receiving apoptotic stimuls; (2)with the Smac/DIABLO function, sends the XIAP activeness to increase, XIAP through directly affects and restrains its function with caspases, achieved restrains function which perishes weakly; (3) through restrains p53 the function to block perishes weakly the process. Survivin expressed specificity and its function multiplicity. Survivin only expresses in tumor tissues and cannot be found in normal terminally differentiated tissues. This kind of expression is been extremely low the cell cycle strict regulation in the G1 time expression, the S time is G1 time 6 times, the G2/M time advances to 40 times, demonstrated its expression has the G2/M time dependence specificity. It has bi-function of inhibiting apoptosis and involving in cell cycle control. Survivin has found in most of tumor ceils in recently researches. Survivin expresses generally in all tumor cell line in the American State-run Cancer Research institute anti-tumor medicine screening procedure 60 different tumor

  12. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one-half hour at the...

  13. Outlook on Research in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasel, Cornelia; Bormann, Inka; Schutte, Kerstin; Trempler, Kati; Fischbach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). It shows a lack of correspondence between ESD research and recent debates in educational research. Research on ESD has established as a field of research with insufficient relations to other fields in educational research. Based on the overview…

  14. Developing a framework for critiquing health research

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Kay; Henshaw, Lynne; Taylor, Gina

    2005-01-01

    A new framework for critiquing health-related research is presented in this article. More commonly used existing frameworks tend to have been formulated within the quantitative research paradigm. While frameworks for critiquing qualitative research exist, they are often complex and more suited to the needs of students engaged in advanced levels of study. The framework presented in this article addresses both quantitative and qualitative research within one list of questions. It is argued that...

  15. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    34 : problem areas such as self-care (Dodd & Dibble, lishing a multisite team to conduct research with a ’r 1993), communication ( Northouse & Wortman, 1990...Guidelines for collaborative research. Applied Nurs- Northouse , L.L., & Wortman, C.B. (1990). Models of helping and cop- ing Research, 2, 150-183. ing in

  16. 改性膨润土吸附去除酚类的研究进展%Research Advance of Phenol Adsorption of Modified Bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运波

    2012-01-01

    The research situation of adsorption of phenol on modified bentonite in China was introduced simply. The influencing factors of adsorption including pH, temperature, time, solution concentration, coexistence substance and modification were discussed.Potential prospects and development trend of adsorption of phenol on modified bentonite were also provided.%介绍了目前国内采用改性膨润土吸附处理废水中酚类的研究状况,探讨了pH、温度、吸附时间、溶液初始浓度、共存物质和改性等因素对改性膨润土吸附酚类的影响.展望了改性膨润土吸附酚类的发展趋势和应用前景.

  17. The history of HDR research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.

    1998-12-31

    An energy source rivaling the sun exists in the form of the heat emanating from the interior of the earth. Although limited quantities of this geothermal energy are produced today by bringing natural hot fluids to the surface, most of the earth`s heat is trapped in hot dry rock (HDR). The application of hydraulic fracturing technology to tap this vast HDR resource was pioneered by Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in 1970. Since that time, engineered geothermal reservoirs have been constructed and operated at numerous locations around the world. Major work at the US HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, and at the British HDR site in Cornwall, UK, has been completed, but advanced HDR field work continues at two sites on the island of Honshu in Japan and at Soultz in northeastern France. In addition, plans are currently being completed for the construction of an HDR system on the continent of Australia. Over the past three decades the worldwide research and development effort has taken HDR from its early conceptual stage to its present state as a demonstrated technology that is on the verge of becoming commercially feasible. Extended flow tests in the United States, Japan, and Europe have proven that sustained operation of HDR reservoirs is possible. In support of these field tests, an international body of scientists and engineers have pursued a variety of innovative approaches for assessing HDR resources, constructing and characterizing engineered geothermal reservoirs, and operating HDR systems. Taken together, these developments form a strong base upon which to build the practical HDR systems that will provide clean energy for the world in the 21st century.

  18. 7 CFR 948.35 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 948.35 Section 948.35... Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 948.35 Research and development. The committee... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  19. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    quality, most of it is discharged to surface drainages or to soil (for irrigation). CBNG water quality generally declines when moving from the Cheyenne River drainage northwestward to the Belle Fourche, Little Powder, and Powder River drainages and in the central and western part of the PRB, most CBNG water goes to evaporation-infiltration ponds or is discharged directly to surface drainages. Concerns center on the salinity of the water, usually measured as total dissolved solids (TDS), or electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Other management options currently in use include injection, managed irrigation (with additives to mitigate the effects of high salinity), atomization, and treatment by reverse osmosis or ion exchange. A key water quality issue is the cumulative effect of numerous CBNG water discharges on the overall water quality of basin streams. This leads to one of the most contentious issues in CBNG development in Wyoming's PRB: Montana's concern about the potential downstream effects of water quality degradation on rivers flowing north into Montana. Many of the benefits and costs associated with CBNG development have been debated, but dealing with CBNG water quantity and quality arguably has been the most difficult of all the issues. Given the importance of these issues for continued development of CBNG resources in Wyoming and elsewhere, the DOE-NETL funded project presented here focuses on CBNG co-produced water management. The research was organized around nine separate, but interrelated, technical project tasks and one administrative task (Task 1). The nine technical project tasks were pursued by separate research teams at the University of Wyoming, but all nine tasks were coordinated to the extent possible in order to maximize information gained about CBNG co-produced waters. In addition to project management in Task 1, the key research tasks included: (2) estimating groundwater recharge rates in the PRB; (3

  20. Medical student-developed obesity education program uses modified team-based learning to motivate adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Sarah; Jackman, Carina; Sisto, Paola Palma

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is reaching epidemic proportions and requires intervention. To educate high school (HS) students on the effects of obesity and implement small healthy changes. Train medical students to educate and motivate adolescents and utilize a modified team-based learning format. A medical student-created HS-based module was developed to educate adolescents on obesity's effects on health. Over 2 years, 25 medical students from each semester were trained and presented to 1590 freshmen and sophomores at suburban HSs in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The program included an interactive power point and a 30-day challenge to make small measurable changes in their current health behaviors. A modified team-based learning format was included to engage students and increase classroom interaction. Medical students reported the program improved their ability to communicate with adolescents and enhanced their training as future physicians. Teachers felt students had sustained retention of knowledge at the end of 30 days and the majority of students fulfilled their self-imposed challenge. A student-run HS obesity education module using a portion of team-based learning was successfully implemented into HS health science curriculums, exposed medical students to community advocacy while educating and motivating adolescents to improve health behaviors.

  1. Development of Drug Loaded Nanoparticles Binding to Hydroxyapatite Based on a Bisphosphonate Modified Nonionic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at development of drug loaded nanoparticles which could bind to hydroxyapatite (HA to construct drug or growth factor releasing bone graft substitutes. To this end, the terminal hydroxyl group of a nonionic surfactant Brij 78 (polyoxyethylene (20 stearyl ether was first modified with pamidronate (Pa. Using Pa-Brij 78 as both a surfactant and an affinity ligand to HA, three different Pa surface functionalized nanoparticles were prepared, named as solid lipid nanoparticles (Pa-SNPs, nanoemulsions (Pa-NEMs, and PLGA nanoparticles (Pa-PNPs. A model drug curcumin was successfully encapsulated in the three nanoparticles. The sizes of Pa-NEM and Pa-PNP were around 150 nm and the size of Pa-SNP was around 90 nm with polydispersity indexes (PDIs less than 0.20. Drug encapsulation efficiencies of the three nanoparticles were all greater than 85%. Furthermore, the order of binding affinity of the nanoparticles to HA was Pa-PNP>Pa-NEM=Pa-SNP. After lyophilization, the sizes of the three nanoparticles were increased about 0.5–2.0-fold but their binding affinities to HA were almost the same as the fresh prepared nanoparticles. In conclusion, a Pa-modified Brij 78 was synthesized and used for fabrication of a series of drug loaded nanoparticles to construct drug-eluting HA-based bone graft substitutes.

  2. Conservatism Research: Historical Development and Future Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudipta Basu

    2009-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction and Summary Over the last decade,there has been much empirical research on Chinese accounting conservatism.This research started with Ball,Robin and Wu(2000)that was one o the first papers to apply modern research methods to Chinese data.In this paper,survey the early research on conservatism to provide the background and context for discussion of my dissertation paper,Basu(1997).I describe some lessons I have learn from the unexpected success of my dissertation,review recent Chinese research on

  3. Mitochondrial haplogroups modify the risk of developing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Danish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Hagen

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes coding for proteins involved in sarcomere function. The disease is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Evolutionarily developed variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, defining mtDNA haplogroups and haplogroup clusters, is associated with functional differences in mitochondrial function and susceptibility to various diseases, including ischemic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups, in particular H, J and K, might modify disease susceptibility to HCM. Mitochondrial DNA, isolated from blood, was sequenced and haplogroups identified in 91 probands with HCM. The association with HCM was ascertained using two Danish control populations. Haplogroup H was more prevalent in HCM patients, 60% versus 46% (p = 0.006 and 41% (p = 0.003, in the two control populations. Haplogroup J was less prevalent, 3% vs. 12.4% (p = 0.017 and 9.1%, (p = 0.06. Likewise, the UK haplogroup cluster was less prevalent in HCM, 11% vs. 22.1% (p = 0.02 and 22.8% (p = 0.04. These results indicate that haplogroup H constitutes a susceptibility factor and that haplogroup J and haplogroup cluster UK are protective factors in the development of HCM. Thus, constitutive differences in mitochondrial function may influence the occurrence and clinical presentation of HCM. This could explain some of the phenotypic variability in HCM. The fact that haplogroup H and J are also modifying factors in ischemic cardiomyopathy suggests that mtDNA haplotypes may be of significance in determining whether a physiological hypertrophy develops into myopathy. mtDNA haplotypes may have the potential of becoming significant biomarkers in cardiomyopathy.

  4. Assessing the efficacy of a modified assertive community-based treatment programme in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botha Ulla A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recently published randomized controlled trials conducted in developed countries have reported no advantage for assertive interventions over standard care models. One possible explanation could be that so-called "standard care" has become more comprehensive in recent years, incorporating some of the salient aspects of assertive models in its modus operandi. Our study represents the first randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of a modified assertive treatment service on readmission rates and other measures of outcome in a developing country. Methods High frequency service users were randomized into an intervention (n = 34 and a control (n = 26 group. The control group received standard community care and the active group an assertive intervention based on a modified version of the international model of assertive community treatment. Study visits were conducted at baseline and 12 months with demographic and illness information collected at visit 1 and readmission rates documented at study end. Symptomatology and functioning were measured at both visits using the PANSS, CDSS, ESRS, WHO-QOL and SOFAS. Results At 12 month follow-up subjects receiving the assertive intervention had significantly lower total PANSS (p = 0.02 as well as positive (p Conclusions Our results indicate that assertive interventions in a developing setting where standard community mental services are often under resourced can produce significant outcomes. Furthermore, these interventions need not be as expensive and comprehensive as international, first-world models in order to reduce inpatient days, improve psychopathology and overall levels of functioning in patients with severe mental illness.

  5. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    quality, most of it is discharged to surface drainages or to soil (for irrigation). CBNG water quality generally declines when moving from the Cheyenne River drainage northwestward to the Belle Fourche, Little Powder, and Powder River drainages and in the central and western part of the PRB, most CBNG water goes to evaporation-infiltration ponds or is discharged directly to surface drainages. Concerns center on the salinity of the water, usually measured as total dissolved solids (TDS), or electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Other management options currently in use include injection, managed irrigation (with additives to mitigate the effects of high salinity), atomization, and treatment by reverse osmosis or ion exchange. A key water quality issue is the cumulative effect of numerous CBNG water discharges on the overall water quality of basin streams. This leads to one of the most contentious issues in CBNG development in Wyoming's PRB: Montana's concern about the potential downstream effects of water quality degradation on rivers flowing north into Montana. Many of the benefits and costs associated with CBNG development have been debated, but dealing with CBNG water quantity and quality arguably has been the most difficult of all the issues. Given the importance of these issues for continued development of CBNG resources in Wyoming and elsewhere, the DOE-NETL funded project presented here focuses on CBNG co-produced water management. The research was organized around nine separate, but interrelated, technical project tasks and one administrative task (Task 1). The nine technical project tasks were pursued by separate research teams at the University of Wyoming, but all nine tasks were coordinated to the extent possible in order to maximize information gained about CBNG co-produced waters. In addition to project management in Task 1, the key research tasks included: (2) estimating groundwater recharge rates in the PRB; (3

  6. Research and Infrastructure Development Center for Nanomaterials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    engineered in metallic magnetostrictive Fe(1-x)Gax/piezoelectric PMN-PT heterostructures; • Engineer an unusually large thermoelectric figure of merit “ZT...Department of Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics Introduction This research was focused both on the analytical and numerical study of...Single Electron Transistors Introduction The current hazardous sensors are too bulky, complex, and costly. Technological improvement in

  7. Three essays on research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Paroma

    The impact of institutional changes and market structure on research and development (R&D) and technical progress is controversial. My dissertation investigates the determinants of R&D in the context of institutional change. The first two papers address the impact of deregulation in the US electric utility industry on R&D. The third paper investigates the linkage between patenting and different funding sources and patent office attributes. The first paper, "Deregulation, Restructuring and Changing R&D Paradigms in the US Electric Utility Industry", investigates the linkage between market structures and the conduct of R&D in the US electric utility industry. The primary finding of this paper is that institutional and competition factors interact in a way that suggest that the occurrence of full deregulation, coupled with effective retail competition in the market may mitigate the problem of declining R&D expenditures in the face of deregulation. The second paper, "Powering a Green Progress: Environmental Research in the Absence of Regulatory Oversight" analyzes the impact of changing market structure on environmental R&D expenditures by IOUs in the electric utility industry. Conventional wisdom holds that increased competition would lead firms to cut back on R&D funds directed towards social goals, such as the environment. But these arguments fail to take account the threat of future environmental regulations and its influence on disciplining firms. Theory and empirical results from this paper suggest that under certain conditions, even with high monitoring costs, an environmental regulatory agency's threat of stricter future regulations will successfully stem the decrease in environmental R&D expenditures. My third paper, "Birth of a Patent: the Role of Parents, Nursemaids and Constraints", presents an integrated theoretical and empirical approach that models the effects of different sources of R&D funding and patent office attributes on the patenting process. The

  8. Development of criteria for evaluating clinical response in thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Raymond S; Tsirbas, Angelo; Gordon, Mark;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify components of a provisional clinical response index for thyroid eye disease using a modified Delphi technique. METHODS: The International Thyroid Eye Disease Society conducted a structured, 3-round Delphi exercise establishing consensus for a core set of measures for clinical...... exercise, we developed provisional core measures for assessing disease activity and severity in clinical trials of therapies for thyroid eye disease. These measures will be iteratively refined for use in multicenter clinical trials.......% of participants) rated 153 criteria in Delphi 3 (67 criteria were excluded because of redundancy). Criteria with a mean greater than 6 (1 = least appropriate to 9 = most appropriate) were further evaluated by the nominal group technique and provisional core measures were chosen. CONCLUSIONS: Using a Delphi...

  9. Alteration of enod40 expression modifies medicago truncatula root nodule development induced by sinorhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, C; Sousa, C; Crespi, M; Kondorosi, A

    1999-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms involved in the control of root nodule organogenesis in the plant host are poorly understood. One of the nodulin genes associated with the earliest phases of this developmental program is enod40. We show here that transgenic Medicago truncatula plants overexpressing enod40 exhibit accelerated nodulation induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti. This resulted from increased initiation of primordia, which was accompanied by a proliferation response of the region close to the root tip and enhanced root length. The root cortex of the enod40-transformed plants showed increased sensitivity to nodulation signals. T(1) and T(2) descendants of two transgenic lines with reduced amounts of enod40 transcripts (probably from cosuppression) formed only a few and modified nodulelike structures. Our results suggest that induction of enod40 is a limiting step in primordium formation, and its function is required for appropriate nodule development. PMID:10521525

  10. A Newly Improved Modified Method Development and Validation of Bromofenac Sodium Sesquihydrate in Bulk Drug Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Yelamanchi V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a simple, efficient, specific, precise and accurate newly improved modified Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient dosage form. Validation of analytical method is the confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled as per ICH, USP, BP or any other suitable regulatory guidelines. The Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Gradient method was developed by utilizing Waters Symmetry C8, 150x4.6mm, 3.5µm on Waters 2487 series Liquid Chromatograph. The retention time of bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate was found to be 5.973minutes. Considering all the results of validation parameters simplicity of the method and the cost effectiveness of the overall procedure, it is possible to conclude that the developed method can be suitable for the regular quality control determination of bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate in bulk as well as pharmaceutical dosage form.The developed Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient method was validated with respect to System Suitability , linearity, , precision ,Range, Ruggedness, Test Solution and Mobile phase stability ,Robustness..

  11. 丙烯酸酯改性水性聚氨酯复合乳液的研究进展%Research progress of acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane composite emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施建刚; 田呈呈; 杨少艳; 赵振河

    2014-01-01

    综介绍了丙烯酸酯改性水性聚氨酯的几种改性制备方法及其优缺点,其中包括:物理共混改性,交联共混改性,接枝共聚改性,核-壳结构乳液聚合改性,互穿网络法改性等。综述了国内外的研究现状及今后研究发展方向。%The preparation methods and their relative merits of the acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethanes were given, including the physical blending,blend crosslinking,graft copolymerization,core-shell emulsion polymerization modifying and interpenetration network modifying.The domestic and foreign research status was summarized and the further development direction was pointed out for the research of acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane emulsions.

  12. Research on Evaluation Method Based on Modified Buckley Decision Making and Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng-pu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel evaluation method, which can be applied in the field of risk assessment, project management, cause analysis, and so forth. Two core technologies are used in the method, namely, modified Buckley Decision Making and Bayesian Network. Based on the modified Buckley Decision Making, the fuzzy probabilities of element factors are calibrated. By the forward and backward calculation of Bayesian Network, the structure importance, probability importance, and criticality importance of each factor are calculated and discussed. A numerical example of risk evaluation for dangerous goods transport process is given to verify the method. The results indicate that the method can efficiently identify the weakest element factor. In addition, the method can improve the reliability and objectivity for evaluation.

  13. Research on the chemical mechanism in the polyacrylate latex modified cement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Min [The Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science and Technology, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wang, Rumin, E-mail: wangmin19@mail.nwpu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science and Technology, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Zheng, Shuirong [The Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science and Technology, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University–East China University of Science and Technology Combined Research Institute of New High Speed Railway Materials (China); Farhan, Shameel; Yao, Hao; Jiang, Hao [The Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science and Technology, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the chemical mechanism in the polyacrylate latex modified cement system was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and compact pH meter. All results have shown that the chemical reactions in the polyacrylate modified system can be divided into three stages. The hydration reactions of cement can produce large amounts of Ca(OH){sub 2} (calcium hydroxide) and lead the whole system to be alkali-rich and exothermic at the first stage. Subsequently, this environment can do great contributions to the hydrolysis of ester groups in the polyacrylate chains, resulting in the formation of carboxyl groups at the second stage. At the third stage, the final crosslinked network structure of the product was obtained by the reaction between the carboxyl groups in the polyacrylate latex chains and Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  14. 7 CFR 925.45 - Production research and market research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Research and Market Development § 925.45 Production research and market research and development. The committee, with the approval of the... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and market research and...

  15. Development of key indicators of hospital resilience: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Hospital resilience is an emerging concept, which can be defined as 'a hospital's ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining its critical health care functions, and then recover to its original state or adapt to a new one'. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive framework of key indicators of hospital resilience. A panel of 33 Chinese experts was invited to participate in a three-round, modified Delphi study to develop a set of potential measures previously derived from a literature review. In the first round, these potential measures were modified to cover the comprehensive domains of hospital resilience. The importance of proposed measures was scored by experts on a five-point Likert scale. Subsequently, the experts reconsidered their voting in light of the previous aggregated results. Agreement on measures was defined as at least 70% of the responders agreeing or strongly agreeing to the inclusion of a measure. A large proportion of preliminary measures (89.5%) were identified as having good potential for assessing hospital resilience. These measures were categorized into eight domains, 17 subdomains, and 43 indicators. The highest rated indicators (mean score) were: equipment for on-site rescue (4.7), plan initiation (4.6), equipment for referral of patients with complex care needs (4.5), the plan execution (4.4), medication management strategies (4.4), emergency medical treatment conditions (4.4), disaster committee (4.4), stock types and quantities for essential medications (4.4), surge capacity of emergency beds (4.4), and mass-casualty triage protocols (4.4). This framework identifies a comprehensive set of indicators of hospital resilience. It can be used for hospital assessment, as well as informing priority practices to address future disasters better. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Report on Implementing the Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In December 2011 the NSTC released Trustworthy Cyberspace: Strategic Plan for the Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Program, outlining a vision for the...

  17. The Federal Big Data Research and Development Strategic Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — Summary: This Plan is an important milestone in the Administrations Big Data Research and Development (R&D) Initiative

  18. 2016 Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Strategic Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As part of the Presidents Cybersecurity National Action Plan (CNAP), the Administration released the 2016 Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Strategic...

  19. 48 CFR 970.35 - Research and development contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research and development... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Major System Acquisition 970.35 Research and development contracting. ...

  20. FDA Scientists Develop Mouse Model for Zika Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162111.html FDA Scientists Develop Mouse Model for Zika Research Researchers hope strain of mice will help speed development of vaccines, treatments To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  1. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research... objectives of the contract. Since the purpose of the cosponsored research and development, the legitimate... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cosponsored research and...

  2. The Challenges of Developing Research Resources for Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges of developing research resources for leading Vietnamese universities. The first part of the paper presents the background to the study, including literature review on the challenges to research resources development, and describes the research questions and research methods. The next part provides empirical…

  3. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 932.45 Production research and marketing research and development projects. (a) The following activities... necessary to effectively regulate such activity. (b) In recommending marketing research and development...

  4. 基于能值改进生态足迹的长株潭城市群可持续发展研究%RESEARCH ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CHANG-ZHU-TAN CITY CLUSTER USING A MODIFIED EMERGY-BASED ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚芳芳; 蒋涤非

    2012-01-01

    为衡量和评价区域发展的可持续状况,针对传统生态足迹模型的不足,利用从系统论出发并具有基于流量算法优点的能值分析理论,建立基于能值改进的生态足迹模型,该模型增加了水消费、污染等生态足迹,用输入输出能值对生态足迹进行调整,同时生态承载力扩展为自然生态承载力、基于净初级生产力的生态承载力、生态服务价值承载力和人类劳务生态承载力等,并综合评价系统可持续发展度,充分考虑了城市生态系统的开放性,物质、能量、信息的流通性,以及人类作用的主观能动性等,较为全面地反映城市生态经济复合系统的结构、功能和发展的持续性。采用该模型计算了长株潭城市群2000~2008年人均生态足迹和生态承载力的演变,结果显示生态足迹不断增加,生态承载力波动发展,略有下降,而生态赤字增加明显,可持续发展评价指数高于0.5且趋近于1,城市群可持续性发展状况堪忧,采取必要的措施刻不容缓。%For measuring and evaluating regional sustainable development conditions,in view of some shortags of traditional ecological footprint model,using emergy analysis theory from the system on the advantages of a flow algorithm,a modified emergy-based ecological footprint model was established.It increased ecology footprint of the consumption of water,the pollution and so on,adjusted ecology footprint with the input and output emergy.At the same time,ecological carrying capacity was expanded as the natural ecological carrying capacity,the ecological carrying capacity based on net primary productivity,the value of ecosystem services carrying capacity and human services ecological carrying capacity.And sustainable development degree was comprehensively evaluated.It was fully accounted of the openness of urban ecosystems,the flow of matter,energy and information,as well as the role of human initiative,etc,and more fully

  5. E-Government Service Research Development: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahmudul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Electronic service in the domain of e-Government has been gaining research attention over past two decades. This paper reports on a literature review of the published e-Government service research and provides an analysis of the research development in terms of research themes, regional context, research perspective, data analysis method, and research approach. The results of this analysis can serve the e-Government research communities as a means of understanding the e-Government service res...

  6. 40 CFR 270.65 - Research, development, and demonstration permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research, development, and... Special Forms of Permits § 270.65 Research, development, and demonstration permits. (a) The Administrator may issue a research, development, and demonstration permit for any hazardous waste treatment facility...

  7. 40 CFR 258.4 - Research, development, and demonstration permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research, development, and...) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS General § 258.4 Research, development, and... State may issue a research, development, and demonstration permit for a new MSWLF unit, existing MSWLF...

  8. 17 CFR 256.188 - Research, development, or demonstration expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research, development, or... COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 4. Deferred Debits § 256.188 Research, development, or... of all expenditures for research, development or demonstration undertaken by or sponsored through the...

  9. 40 CFR 720.36 - Exemption for research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for research and development... chemical substance is manufactured or imported only in small quantities solely for research and development... associated with research and development activities, of any risk to health, identified under paragraph (b) of...

  10. 77 FR 42298 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy... Appointment as a Member of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In... soliciting nominations for candidates to fill vacancies on the Biomass Research and Development...

  11. 48 CFR 216.104-70 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research and development... Contract Types § 216.104-70 Research and development. Follow the procedures at PGI 216.104-70 for selecting the appropriate research and development contract type....

  12. 76 FR 44648 - Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ..., DC on July 14, 2011. Paul Fontaine, Director (A), Research & Technology Development. BILLING CODE... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee Pursuant to... given of a meeting of the FAA Research, Engineering and Development (R,E&D) Advisory Committee....

  13. 76 FR 12404 - Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ..., DC, on February 24, 2011. Paul Fontaine, Director (A), Research & Technology Development. BILLING... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee Pursuant to... given of a meeting of the FAA Research, Engineering and Development (R,E&D) Advisory Committee....

  14. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market development and promotion. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for...

  15. 7 CFR 906.37 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 906.37 Section 906.37... LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 906.37 Research and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for...

  16. 7 CFR 924.45 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 924.45 Section 924.45... and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of production research, and marketing research and development projects designed to...

  17. 7 CFR 929.45 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 929.45 Section 929.45... development. (a) The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research, and market development projects, including...

  18. 7 CFR 984.46 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 984.46 Section 984.46... Regulating Handling Administrative Body § 984.46 Research and development. The Board, with the approval of... research and development projects, and marketing promotion, including paid advertising, designed to...

  19. 7 CFR 993.37 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 993.37 Section 993.37... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Prune Marketing Committee § 993.37 Research and development. The... research and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution,...

  20. 7 CFR 958.47 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 958.47 Section 958.47... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 958.47 Research and development. (a) The committee with the approval of the Secretary, may...

  1. An action research approach to curriculum development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Riding

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ‘teacher- researcher’ movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

  2. Development of an albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay to detect ischemia modified albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Ji-Eun; Lee, Eunyoung; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Sim, Jeongeun; Suh, Minah; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) induces many changes in the body, including pH decrease and electrolyte imbalance. No obvious symptoms of MI appear until irreversible cellular injuries occur. Since early treatment is critical for recovery from ischemia, the development of reliable diagnostic tool is demanded to detect the early ischemic status. Ischemia modified albumin (IMA), formed by cleavage of the last two amino acids of the human serum albumin (HSA) N-terminus, has been considered so far as the most trustworthy and accurate marker for the investigation of ischemia. IMA levels are elevated in plasma within a few minutes of ischemic onset, and may last for up to 6 h. In the present study, we developed a novel assay for the examination of IMA levels to ameliorate the known albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test established previously. We observed a stronger copper ion bound to the HSA N-terminal peptide than cobalt ion by HPLC and ESI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses. The copper ion was employed with lucifer yellow (LY), a copper-specific reagent to develop a new albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay. The parameters capable of affecting the assay results were optimized, and the finally-optimized ACuB assay was validated. The result of the IMA level measurement in normal versus stroke rat serum suggests that the ACuB assay is likely to be a reliable and sensitive method for the detection of ischemic states.

  3. Exploratory Research and Development Fund, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Exploratory R D Fund FY 1990 report is compiled from annual reports submitted by principal investigators following the close of the fiscal year. This report describes the projects supported and summarizes their accomplishments. It constitutes a part of an Exploratory R D Fund (ERF) planning and documentation process that includes an annual planning cycle, projection selection, implementation, and review. The research areas covered in this report are: Accelerator and fusion research; applied science; cell and molecular biology; chemical biodynamics; chemical sciences; earth sciences; engineering; information and computing sciences; materials sciences; nuclear science; physics and research medicine and radiation biophysics.

  4. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries.

  5. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-22

    Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee. d. Separate account in the Interior/Environment appropriations for NIEHS research activities related to...critical research priorities of the Administration that include livestock production, food safety, crop protection, and human nutrition . Included in the...Crop Production 200.6 191.0 Food Safety 104.5 105.8 Livestock Protection 82.4 68.8 Crop Protection 196.0 188.7 Human Nutrition 85.3 79.5

  6. Market-oriented research and competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2002-01-01

    At MAPP, we are convinced that market orientation is a good thing. We know that it contributes to better company performance, in the food sector and elsewhere. We also believe in market orientation in our work. Among other things, this implies that our research has to be topical and relevant...... in the eyes of potential users. This report shows examples of research where we believe this to be the case....

  7. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    centers in the field of subsurface geochemistry and geophysics. A new activity in computational chemical sciences would receive $14 million. Funding...other purposes.” 61 The NSF is a primary source of federal support for U.S. university research, especially in mathematics and computer science . It...Gonzalez; and CRS Report R44170, The National Science Foundation: FY2016 Budget Request and Funding History , by Heather B. Gonzalez. Federal Research and

  8. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    trends in R&D. These include the Office of International Science and Engineering ( OISE ) and the newly created Integrated NSF Support Promoting...activities59 and (2) decreasing distinctions between historically disparate academic fields.60 OISE seeks to support international collaborations and...research by individuals or teams of researchers. The Administration proposes $58 million for OISE in FY2012, an increase of $10.2 million (21.3%) over the

  9. Research progress of waterborne polyurethane modified by organic silicon%有机硅改性水性聚氨酯研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 侯彩英; 马国章; 凌丽霞

    2013-01-01

    介绍了有机硅改性水性聚氨酯(WPU)的特点,综述了近年来有机硅封端、嵌段共聚及其与丙烯酸酯复合改性制备有机硅改性WPU的研究进展;最后对有机硅改性WPU的研究方向进行了展望.%The characteristics of waterborne polyurethane(WPU) modified by organic silicon were introduced.The research progresses of preparing WPU modified by organic silicon (including modified by organic siliconterminated,modified by organic silicon with block copolymer,and modified by organic silicon and acrylate) were summarized in recent years.Finally,the research directions of WPU modified by organic silicon were expected.

  10. Operational Research(ers in development: Growing a new generation of operational researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Durbach

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the theme of training operational research (OR practitioners in South Africa by critically evaluating a Masters program in Operational Research in Development (ORD, launched in 2005 at the University of Cape Town. This program was specifically focused on applying OR to the problems of the developing world in general and Africa in particular. We describe the program and review the practical work undertaken by students participating in the program. Topics range widely across domains including health (antimalarial drug resistance; poverty (food banking; governance (NGO management structures and monitoring of local government performance and sustainable livelihoods (spaza shop operations. We use the review to highlight strengths and weaknesses of the program, as well as challenges faced in the OR education in South Africa at a postgraduate level.

  11. Research on the denitration mechanism of fly ash catalysts modified by low-temperature plasma technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jie Nie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There are three different fly ashes mixed with bentonite respectively as raw material to preparation of denitration catalyst. Then the catalyst combined with the low temperature plasma for denitration. The different mixing ratio, drying temperature and drying time of catalyst preparation were studied. The denitration mechanism of fly ash catalyst modified with different gases (O2, N2, Ar, and hydrocarbon gas by low-temperature plasma technology was studied. The compositions of fly ash were detected by element analysis, ICP analysis, Boehm analysis, and Infrared spectral analysis which affected the denitration performance of fly ash catalyst. And we discussed the effect of denitration performance with different types of fly ash and plasma power. The results shown that: fly ash mixed with bentonite for 2:1, drying temperature is 100°C and drying time is 30 min are the optimal preparation conditions; The denitration performance is best of the catalyst which produced by circulating fluidized bed when the plasma power is 30 W. And Oxygen can be used as the modification gas for preparing the fly-ash catalyst. There are more basic functional groups on the surface of fly ash catalyst modified with oxygen atmosphere and the N=O plays a main role.

  12. Novel bioactive materials developed by simulated body fluid evaluation: Surface-modified Ti metal and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-10-15

    Until the discovery of the bone-bonding activity of Bioglass by Hench et al. in the early 1970s, it had not been demonstrated that a synthetic material could bond to living bone without eliciting a foreign body reaction. Since then, various kinds of materials based on calcium phosphate, such as sintered hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate have also been shown to bond to living bone. Until the discovery of the bone-bonding activity of Ti metal formed with a sodium titanate surface layer by the present authors in 1996, it had not been shown that a metallic material could bond to living bone. Since then, various kinds of surface-modified Ti metal and its alloys have been found to bond to living bone. Until the discovery of the osteoinduction of porous hydroxyapatite by Yamasaki in 1990, it was unknown whether a synthetic material could induce bone formation even in muscle tissue. Since then, various kinds of porous calcium phosphate ceramics have been shown to induce osteoinduction. Until the discovery of osteoinduction induced by a porous Ti metal formed with a titanium oxide surface layer by Fujibayashi et al. in 2004, it had been unclear whether porous metals would be able to induce osteoinduction. These novel bioactive materials have been developed by systematic research into the apatite formation that occurs on surface-modified Ti metal and its related materials in an acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) having ion concentrations almost equal to those of human blood plasma. Some of the novel bioactive materials based on Ti metal are already in clinical use or clinical trials, such as artificial hip joints and spinal fusion devices. In the present paper, we review how these novel bioactive materials based on Ti metal have been developed based on an evaluation of apatite formation in SBF. Without the SBF evaluation, these novel bioactive materials would most likely never have been developed. On the basis of systematic study of apatite formation on a material

  13. Development and application of a modified wireless tracer for disaster prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Su, Chih Chiang

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon-induced flooding causes water overflow in a river channel, which results in general and bridge scour and soil erosion, thus leading to bridge failure, debris flow and landslide collapse. Therefore, dynamic measurement technology should be developed to assess scour in channels and landslide as a disaster-prevention measure against bridge failure and debris flow. This paper presents a wireless tracer that enables monitoring general scour in river channels and soil erosion in hillsides. The wireless tracer comprises a wireless high-power radio modem, various electronic components, and a self-designed printed circuit board that are all combined with a 9-V battery pack and an auto switch. The entire device is sealed in a jar by silicon. After it was modified, the wireless tracer underwent the following tests for practical applications: power continuation and durability, water penetration, and signal transmission during floating. A regression correlation between the wireless tracer's transmission signal and distance was also established. This device can be embedded at any location where scouring is monitored, and, in contrast to its counterparts that detect scour depth by identifying and analyzing received signals, it enables real-time observation of the scouring process. In summary, the wireless tracer developed in this study provides a dynamic technology for real-time monitoring of scouring (or erosion) and forecasting of landslide hazards. Keywords: wireless tracer; scour; real-time monitoring; landslide hazard.

  14. Elements in the Development of a Production Process for Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Sandig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of several viral vaccines depends on chicken embryo fibroblasts or embryonated chicken eggs. To replace this logistically demanding substrate, we created continuous anatine suspension cell lines (CR and CR.pIX, developed chemically-defined media, and established production processes for different vaccine viruses. One of the processes investigated in greater detail was developed for modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. MVA is highly attenuated for human recipients and an efficient vector for reactogenic expression of foreign genes. Because direct cell-to-cell spread is one important mechanism for vaccinia virus replication, cultivation of MVA in bioreactors is facilitated if cell aggregates are induced after infection. This dependency may be the mechanism behind our observation that a novel viral genotype (MVA-CR accumulates with serial passage in suspension cultures. Sequencing of a major part of the genomic DNA of the new strain revealed point mutations in three genes. We hypothesize that these changes confer an advantage because they may allow a greater fraction of MVA-CR viruses to escape the host cells for infection of distant targets. Production and purification of MVA-based vaccines may be simplified by this combination of designed avian cell line, chemically defined media and the novel virus strain.

  15. Diffractive optics development using a modified stack-and-draw technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniewski, Jacek; Kasztelanic, Rafal; Nowosielski, Jedrzej M; Filipkowski, Adam; Piechal, Bernard; Waddie, Andrew J; Pysz, Dariusz; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Stepien, Ryszard; Taghizadeh, Mohammad R; Buczynski, Ryszard

    2016-06-20

    We present a novel method for the development of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Unlike standard surface relief DOEs, the phase shift is introduced through a refractive index variation achieved by using different types of glass. For the fabrication of DOEs we use a modified stack-and-draw technique, originally developed for the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers, resulting in a completely flat element that is easy to integrate with other optical components. A proof-of-concept demonstration of the method is presented-a two-dimensional binary optical phase grating in the form of a square chessboard with a pixel size of 5 μm. Two types of glass are used: low refractive index silicate glass NC21 and high refractive index lead-silicate glass F2. The measured diffraction characteristics of the fabricated component are presented and it is shown numerically and experimentally that such a DOE can be used as a fiber interconnector that couples light from a small-core fiber into the several cores of a multicore fiber.

  16. Green chemistry measures for process research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constable, D.J.C.; Curzons, A.D.; Freitas dos Santos, L.M. (and others)

    2001-07-01

    A set of metrics has been developed which enables a simple assessment to be made of batch processes in terms of waste, energy usage, and chemistry efficiency. It is intended to raise awareness of green chemistry by providing a tool to assist chemists in monitoring progress in the reduction of environmental impact as they design new routes and modify processes. (author)

  17. Agroecosystem research with big data and a modified scientific method using machine learning concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term studies of agro-ecosystems at the continental scale are providing an extraordinary understanding of regional environmental dynamics. The new Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network (established in 2013) has designed an explicit research program with multiple USDA experimental wat...

  18. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-17

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors. Therefore, the overriding motivation behind the FFC R&D program described in this plan is to foster closer integration between fuel design and fabrication to reduce programmatic risk. These motivating factors are all interrelated, and progress addressing one will aid understanding of the others. The FFC R&D needs fall into two principal categories, 1) baseline process optimization, to refine the existing fabrication technologies, and 2) manufacturing process alternatives, to evaluate new fabrication technologies that could provide improvements in quality, repeatability, material utilization, or cost. The FFC R&D Plan examines efforts currently under way in regard to coupon, foil, plate, and fuel element manufacturing, and provides recommendations for a number of R&D topics that are of high priority but not currently funded (i.e., knowledge gaps). The plan ties all FFC R&D efforts into a unified vision that supports the overall Convert Program schedule in general, and the fabrication schedule leading up to the MP-1 and FSP-1 irradiation experiments specifically. The fabrication technology decision gates and down-selection logic and schedules are tied to the schedule for fabricating the MP-1 fuel plates, which will provide the necessary data to make a final fuel fabrication process down-selection. Because of the short turnaround between MP-1 and the follow-on FSP-1 and MP-2 experiments, the suite of specimen types that will be available for MP-1 will be the same as those available for FSP-1 and MP-2. Therefore, the only opportunity to explore parameter space and alternative processing

  19. Development of Cy5.5-Labeled Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Amanda

    Therapeutic proteins are often highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation, thus restricting their in vivo stability. To overcome this limitation, delivery systems designed to promote uptake and reduce degradation kinetics have undergone a rapid shift from macro-scale systems to nanomaterial based carriers. Many of these nanomaterials, however, elicit immune responses and may have cytotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo. The naturally derived polysaccharide chitosan has emerged as a promising biodegradable material and has been utilized for many biomedical applications; nevertheless, its function is often constrained by poor solubility. Glycol chitosan, a derivative of chitosan, can be hydrophobically modified to impart amphiphilic properties that enable the self-assembly into nanoparticles in aqueous media at neutral pH. This nanoparticle system has shown initial success as a therapeutic agent in several model cell culture systems, but little is known about its stability against enzymatic degradation. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate the resistance of hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan against enzyme-catalyzed degradation using an in vivo simulated system containing lysozyme. To synthesize the nanoparticles, hydrophobic cholanic acid was first covalently conjugated to glycol chitosan using of N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Conjugates were purified by dialysis, lyophilized, and ultra-sonicated to form nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the binding of 5beta-cholanic acid to the glycol chitosan. Particle size and stability over time were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of the nanoparticles was approximately 200 nm, which remained stable at 4°C for up to 10 days. Additionally, a near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye

  20. The role of marketing in pharmaceutical research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, John E

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing, which is primarily targeted at physicians, has been criticised because it may distort physician prescribing and thus potentially raise costs and/or worsen health. An alternative view, presented in this paper, is that successful marketing of pharmaceuticals can improve consumer welfare by increasing incentives for research and development (R&D) investment and by providing guidance to R&D to make it more consistent with consumer preferences. There are a number of arguments that support this view, despite impediments to pharmaceutical marketing such as the prohibited dissemination of off-label information in the US, difficulties in estimating potential pharmaceutical demand, and the long time lag between demand assessment and the introduction of new drugs. For example, physicians are often slow to modify their prescribing practices, even when new evidence-based practice guidelines are issued by prestigious organisations. Pharmaceutical promotion is likely to be particularly valuable because information plays a key role, is highly technical, and can change rapidly. Even consumer advertising can potentially improve health, for example, by improving patient compliance with drug therapy. In addition to disseminating information about the benefits of new therapies, an essential (and perhaps unique) role for pharmaceutical promotion is to encourage physicians and payers to pay closer attention to consumer needs (i.e. willingness to pay) for new medical technology. Moreover, successful marketing of pharmaceuticals increases the returns from R&D, thus increasing incentives to explore consumer demand and to contribute to basic research on the role of drug therapy. Consumer benefits from this process may be very large.

  1. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  2. Research progress on the resource development of Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianan Zhang; Hongyu Guan; Wei Gao; Changli Liu; Rong Luo; Jia Li; Xiujuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.It contains two kinds of effective ingredients:fat-soluble diterpene quinones and water-soluble phenolic com-pounds.It shows significant effects including anti-bacterial,anti-inflammatory,anti-thrombotic,hepato-protective,and antiox-idant properties and protection against myocardial ischemia.However,extraction ofactive components from S.miltiorrhiza di-rectly is challenging due to low purity.Furthermore,the limited material resources of S.miltiorrhiza affect its utility in clinical medicine and the sustainable exploitation of natural drugs.In order to overcome this challenge,chemistry,molecular biology and other scientific technologies are being explored to improve the yield and quality of S.miltiorrhiza,with considerable pro-gress made to date.Firstly,a variety of tanshinone and salvianolic acid compounds have been synthesized successfully from S. miltiorrhiza,while compounds such as tanshinone IIA have been structure-modified to improve solubility and bioavailability. Secondly,biological technologies such as induction of polyploidy,cell-suspension culture,and the induction of hairy-roots have been developed.Hairy root of S.miltiorrhiza,which is most widely used at present,can be manufactured on a large scale and harvested using a spherical gas-lifted bioreactor.Additionally,due to good genetic and chemical stability of the hairy root,it can be used as a research model for further development of S.miltiorrhiza.Thirdly,a variety ofbiotic and abiotic elici-tors have been exploited for the study of effective components of S.miltiorrhiza,which have different effects on the plant.Ap-propriate combinations of these elicitors could further improve the yield of active components of S.miltiorrhiza.Finally,with the development of molecular biology,secondary metabolite engineering has become a new hotspot of medicinal plant re-search.S.miltiorrhiza is

  3. Nearshore Placement Webinar: Nearshore Placement Research & Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Huntington Beach (SANDAG) Shark River Inlet (NAN) Assateague Island, MD (NAB) Positive Recreational Feature Small Dispersive Placements Innovative...Coordination Act  Endangered Species Act  Coastal Zone Management Act – Sec. 307(c)  Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act

  4. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  5. Engineering research, development and technology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R T

    1999-02-01

    Nineteen ninety-eight has been a transition year for Engineering, as we have moved from our traditional focus on thrust areas to a more focused approach with research centers. These five new centers of excellence collectively comprise Engineering's Science and Technology program. This publication summarizes our formative year under this new structure. Let me start by talking about the differences between a thrust area and a research center. The thrust area is more informal, combining an important technology with programmatic priorities. In contrast, a research center is directly linked to an Engineering core technology. It is the purer model, for it is more enduring yet has the scope to be able to adapt quickly to evolving programmatic priorities. To put it another way, the mission of a thrust area was often to grow the programs in conjunction with a technology, whereas the task of a research center is to vigorously grow our core technologies. By cultivating each core technology, we in turn enable long-term growth of new programs.

  6. Research and development program, fiscal year 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-04-01

    The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for Fiscal Year 1974 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Effects of Radiation of Living Organisms; Molecular and Cellular Radiobiology; Land and Fresh Water Environmental Sciences; Radiological and Health Physics and Instrumentation; and Nuclear Medical Research. (ACR)

  7. Tracking Engineering Education Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Williams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, bibliometric analysis of publications has been receiving growing attention in engineering education research as an approach that can bring a number of benefits. In this paper two such forms, taxonomical analysis and citation analysis, are applied to papers from the first 2011 number of IEEE Transactions on Education (21 papers and from the two 2011 numbers of the ASEE-published Advances in Engineering Education (22 papers. In the former approach, seven taxonomical dimensions are used to characterize the papers and in the second the references cited in the 43 papers were studied so as to analyze how the researchers were informed by previous studies.The results suggest that the silo effect identified by Wankat for disciplinary engineering education journals in 2009 was still apparent in the IEEE Transactions on Education in 2011. The Advances in Engineering Education papers show a wide range of cited references, including reference disciplines outside of engineering education, and this suggests that research published there is likely to be informed by a broad range of previous studies which may be interpreted as a sign of a growing maturity of engineering education as a research discipline.

  8. Research on the Performance of New Reactive Asphalt Modifier%新型反应性沥青改性剂技术性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓娟

    2015-01-01

    RET 是美国杜邦公司研发的一种新型沥青化学改性剂,通过与沥青中的分子和官能团发生化学反应,从而达到改善沥青使用性能的效果。通过分析研究不同种类改性沥青的 Superpave 性能试验结果及老化前后的低温 PG 分级温度及质量损失,表明 RET 改性剂能够明显改善沥青的高温稳定性和低温抗裂性。%RET(Reactive Elastomeric Terpolymer) is a kind of chemical modifier that was developed by Dupont, it can react with asphalt molecules and functional groups to improve the functional performance of the asphalt. In this paper, Superpave performance test results, low temperature PG grading temperature and mass loss before and after aging of different types of modified asphalt were analyzed and researched. The results show that RET modifier can significantly improve asphalt high temperature stability and low temperature crack resistance.

  9. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-04

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.

  10. 汽车用SMIA改性ABS研究%Research on SMIA Modified ABS for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛日新; 李晓银; 任美红; 李晶; 王琦

    2012-01-01

    以氮苯基马来酰亚胺( NPMI)为耐热组分,合成了耐热改性树脂SMIA(NPMI、苯乙烯、丙烯腈三元共聚物)并将其应用于丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯塑料(ABS).研究结果表明,NPMI可大幅度提高ABS的热变形温度,但NPMI在SMIA树脂中的质量分数超过30%时,SMIA树脂与ABS胶粉的相容性降低会导致耐热ABS的冲击强度降低,使用抗冲改性剂可在一定程度上改善ABS的冲击强度.SMIA还可使耐热ABS的流动性能得以提高,而且加入SMIA越多,这种作用越明显.%Series of heat-resistant SMIA resins were synthesized by using NPMI as functional components. Then SMIA terpolymers were applied to ABS. The results showed that NPMI could greatly improve the heat distortion temperature of ABS. When the mass fraction of NPMI was more than 30% in SMIA resin, the compatibility between SMIA resin and ABS rubber became poor, which led to lower impact strength of the heat-resistant ABS. To some extent, impact modifier could improve the impact strength of the heat resistant ABS. The liquidity of the heat-resistant ABS could also be increased by modifying with SMIA resin, and the more SMIA resin added, the more obvious the effect was.

  11. Innovative farmers and regulatory gatekeepers: Genetically modified crops regulation and adoption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinebo, Woldeyesus; Maredia, Karim

    2016-01-02

    The regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops is a topical issue in agriculture and environment over the past 2 decades. The objective of this paper is to recount regulatory and adoption practices in some developing countries that have successfully adopted GM crops so that aspiring countries may draw useful lessons and best practices for their biosafatey regulatory regimes. The first 11 mega-GM crops growing countries each with an area of more than one million hectares in 2014 were examined. Only five out of the 11 countries had smooth and orderly adoption of these crops as per the regulatory requirement of each country. In the remaining 6 countries (all developing countries), GM crops were either introduced across borders without official authorization, released prior to regulatory approval or unapproved seeds were sold along with the approved ones in violation to the existing regulations. Rapid expansion of transgenic crops over the past 2 decades in the developing world was a result of an intense desire by farmers to adopt these crops irrespective of regulatory roadblocks. Lack of workable biosafety regulatory system and political will to support GM crops encouraged unauthorized access to GM crop varieties. In certain cases, unregulated access in turn appeared to result in the adoption of substandard or spurious technology which undermined performance and productivity. An optimal interaction among the national agricultural innovation systems, biosafety regulatory bodies, biotech companies and high level policy makers is vital in making a workable regulated progress in the adoption of GM crops. Factoring forgone opportunities to farmers to benefit from GM crops arising from overregulation into biosafety risk analysis and decision making is suggested. Building functional biosafety regulatory systems that balances the needs of farmers to access and utilize the GM technology with the regulatory imperatives to ensure adequate safety to the environment and human

  12. Development of a Modified Kernel Regression Model for a Robust Signal Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The demand for robust and resilient performance has led to the use of online-monitoring techniques to monitor the process parameters and signal validation. On-line monitoring and signal validation techniques are the two important terminologies in process and equipment monitoring. These techniques are automated methods of monitoring instrument performance while the plant is operating. To implementing these techniques, several empirical models are used. One of these models is nonparametric regression model, otherwise known as kernel regression (KR). Unlike parametric models, KR is an algorithmic estimation procedure which assumes no significant parameters, and it needs no training process after its development when new observations are prepared; which is good for a system characteristic of changing due to ageing phenomenon. Although KR is used and performed excellently when applied to steady state or normal operating data, it has limitation in time-varying data that has several repetition of the same signal, especially if those signals are used to infer the other signals. The convectional KR has limitation in correctly estimating the dependent variable when time-varying data with repeated values are used to estimate the dependent variable especially in signal validation and monitoring. Therefore, we presented here in this work a modified KR that can resolve this issue which can also be feasible in time domain. Data are first transformed prior to the Euclidian distance evaluation considering their slopes/changes with respect to time. The performance of the developed model is evaluated and compared with that of conventional KR using both the lab experimental data and the real time data from CNS provided by KAERI. The result shows that the proposed developed model, having demonstrated high performance accuracy than that of conventional KR, is capable of resolving the identified limitation with convectional KR. We also discovered that there is still need to further

  13. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2001 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancements in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  14. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Ehart, Bridget, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2003 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  15. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pamela Trotman, Ed.; Tucker, Thelma, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of the four 2002 issues of a newsletter disseminating information on the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) and providing a forum for important news, research, and information concerning advancement in child growth and development research. Each issue of the newsletter includes announcements and notices of…

  16. Multidimensional filter banks and wavelets research developments and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Multidimensional Filter Banks and Wavelets: Reserach Developments and Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area. Multidimensional Filter Banks and Wavelets: Research Developments and Applications serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  17. 7 CFR 923.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 923.45 Section 923... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research § 923.45 Marketing... the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed to assist, improve,...

  18. 7 CFR 922.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 922.45 Section 922... GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research § 922.45 Marketing... the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed to assist, improve,...

  19. 10 CFR 1021.212 - Research, development, demonstration, and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, development, demonstration, and testing. 1021... ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking § 1021.212 Research, development, demonstration, and testing. (a) This section applies to the adoption and application of programs that involve research...

  20. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.009 Subcontracting research and development effort. Since the selection of R&D contractors is substantially based on... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting research...

  1. 48 CFR 927.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cosponsored research and development activities. Because of the Department of Energy's statutory duties to disseminate data first produced under its contracts for research, development, and demonstration, the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cosponsored research and...

  2. 77 FR 20377 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... Open Webinar. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open webinar of the Biomass Research and Development..., members of the public are welcome to observe the business of the Biomass Research and...

  3. Educational Research and Development: How to Influence School Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested are basic ways in which a system of educational research and development may meet the demand for successful R&D, from the formulation of research questions to the utilization of results. Stressed are local ownership of school-based R&D, the development of applied research efforts, and the utilization of outcomes. (RAO)

  4. Federal Plan for Advanced Networking Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In the four decades since Federal research first enabled computers to send and receive data over networks, U.S. government research and development R and D in...

  5. Critical Issues in Research Design in Action Research in an SME Development Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…

  6. Critical Issues in Research Design in Action Research in an SME Development Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…

  7. New developments in photon and materials research

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the most recent updates in the field of photon and optical materials research. It is devoted to various interdisciplinary subjects such as fundamental photon physics, bio and medical photon physics, ultrafast non-linear optics, quasiparticle excitation and spectroscopy, coherent mid-infrared (IR) light sources, functional optoelectronic materials and optical fibres, and quantum nano-structured devices for various important technological applications. It contains 19 authoritative peer-reviewed chapters regarding experimental and theoretical research in these fields, contributed by young scientists and engineers (assistant or associate professor level) along with well-established experts. The response of materials to electromagnetic fields, namely light-matter interaction, has been of special concern in fundamental optical sciences. The ability to fabricate and/or engineer new materials and structures is giving rise to revolutionary changes in the field, which also includes soft condensed mat...

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Research & Development Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, Nicole [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances that drive economic growth require both public and private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories play a crucial role by conducting the type of research, testing and evaluation that is beyond the scope of regulators, academia or industry. Examples of such work from the past year can be found in these pages. Idaho National Laboratory’s engineering and applied science expertise helps deploy new technologies for nuclear energy, national security and new energy resources. Unique infrastructure, nuclear material inventory and vast expertise converge at INL, the nation’s nuclear energy laboratory. Productive partnerships with academia, industry and government agencies deliver high-impact outcomes. This edition of INL’s Impacts magazine highlights national and regional leadership efforts, growing capabilities, notable collaborations, and technology innovations. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the critical resources and transformative research at one of the nation’s premier applied science laboratories.

  9. Research Trends of Modified PAE Wet-strengthening Agent in Papermaking%造纸湿强剂PAE的改性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何裔鑫; 薛国新; 陈金龙; 姚晓红

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarized the wet-strengthening mechanisms of modified polyamidoamine epichlorohydrin(PAE) resins and their preparation methods.By carful analysis on the research situations on these resins,and it can be concluded that the research trend should be on developing more environment-friendly PAE resins with high solid contents.%该文探讨了造纸湿强剂聚酰胺环氧氯丙烷(PAE)树脂的作用机理以及改性的方法,重点分析了PAE的改性研究进展;并认为作为造纸湿强剂,环境友好型的高固含量改性PAE是今后的发展趋势。

  10. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-22

    deep in the greater Xingan mountains in northeast Inner Mongolia now has 11 television relay stations, bringing programs to 80 percent of the Oroqen...in cooperation with the Xian Radio Technical Research Institute. [ Li Yuqiao] [Text] [OW060257 Beijing XINHUA Domestic Service in Chinese 0012 GMT 3...and living images in 2-way communication be- tween subscribers. The Ministry of Transport and Communications believes the challenge now lies in

  11. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  12. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-10

    space shuttle to flight status, then retiring it by 2010; completing the space station, but discontinuing its use by the United States by 2017 ; returning...program to support promising postdoctoral scientists. The five-year awards will have a two-year mentored phase and a three-year independent phase. NIH...million), Graduate Research Fellowships ($88 million), and the Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education ($46.8 million). Added support is given to

  13. (Geosciences research and development). [Annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report represents the final report of the University of Utah Research Institute under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC07-85ID12489. It consists of the abstracts and references of all technical reports generated by UURI under this contract. This report lists the abstracts in DOE report number sequence. The author index of this report will be useful in locating specific references. These reports are all related to earth science and geothermal energy.

  14. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-19

    storage, concentrating solar power, a demonstration of commercial-scale biofuels production under the Defense Production Act,56 and grid integration for...President’s request, funding for R&D has been highly concentrated in a few departments. Under President Obama’s request, seven federal agencies... microbial contamination.29 In FY2012, four agencies—NSF, NIH, NASA, and USDA—issued a joint solicitation to provide research funding for next

  15. Center Independent Research & Developments: JSC IRAD Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JSC provides and applies its preeminent capabilities in science and technology to develop, operate, and integrate human exploration missions.  The center...

  16. RUSSIAN STUDENTS’ INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    SHAROVATOVA S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article is aimed at analysing Russian teachers’ experience in developing students’ intrinsic motivation. The author’s own reflections and findings based on motivation theory and practice are also given.

  17. Developing Research Capabilities in Energy Biosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Donald D.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists founded the Life Sciences Research Foundation (LSRF) in 1983 as a non-profit pass through foundation that awards post doctoral fellowships in all areas of the life sciences. LSRF scientists review hundreds of applications each year from PhDs seeking support. For example this year, our 26th, we received 800 applications and our peer review committee will choose about 50 finalists who are eligible for these awards. We have no endowment so we solicit sponsors each year. The fellowships are sponsored by research oriented companies, foundations, philanthropists, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and other organizations who believe in the value of awarding fellowships to the best and the brightest young scientists. Our web site has a complete listing of all details about LSRF (http://www.lsrf.org/). In the late 1980s the Division of Bioscience in the Office of Basic Energy Science, a granting agency of the Department of Energy, joined this partnership. Bioscience's mandate was to support non-medical microbiology and plant sciences. LSRF received a series of 5 year grants from DOE to award fellowships to our top applicants in these fields of research. We began to support DOE-Energy Bioscience post doctoral fellows in 1989. From 1989 through 2004 when DOE funding ended our partnership awarded 41 DOE-Energy Bioscience Fellows of the Life Sciences Research Foundation. Each of these was a three year fellowship. DOE-Energy Biosciences was well matched with LSRF. Our extensive peer review screened applicants in all areas of the life sciences. Most LSRF sponsors are interested in supporting fellows who work on diseases. At the time that we began our partnership with DOE we had no sponsors willing to support plant biology and non medical microbiology. For 15 years DOE played a major role in the training of the very best young scientists in these important fields of research simply through its support of LSRF post doctoral fellows. Young scientists interested in

  18. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  19. Development and evaluation of modified release wax matrix tablet dosage form for tramadol hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Ramesh Mahaparale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop modified release dosage forms of tramadol hydrochloride using wax matrix system by melt granulation method. The effect of various waxes, concentration of waxes, effect of excipients on the release profile of drug from wax matrix system was studied. Release retardant effect was observed in the order of hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO > compritol >precirol. This may be due to more lipophilicity imparted by HVO than any other waxy substances. It was also observed that as ratio of drug: Wax was increased, it sustained release of drug for more time. This may be due to proper embedment/entrapment of drug in sufficient wax matrix system. In case of excipients, release retardant effect was found in order of dicalcium phosphate (DCP > microcrystalline cellulose (MCC > lactose. DCP is insoluble which helps in release retardation of drug. MCC is hydrophilic swellable polymer which showed release of drug by swelling. Lactose is soluble excipient which get dissolved and formed channels for entry of dissolution medium and release of drug occurred by erosion mechanism. Wax matrix tablets were found to be stable.

  20. Performance analysis of a modified moving shadow elimination method developed for indoor scene activity tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Bhargav Kumar; Fiaz, Muhammad Kamran; Kypraios, Ioannis; Birch, Philip; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2008-10-01

    Moving shadow detection is an important step in automated robust surveillance systems in which a dynamic object is to be segmented and tracked. Rejection of the shadow region significantly reduces the erroneous tracking of non-target objects within the scene. A method to eliminate such shadows in indoor video sequences has been developed by the authors. The objective has been met through the use of a pixel-wise shadow search process that utilizes a computational model in the RGB colour space to demarcate the moving shadow regions from the background scene and the foreground objects. However, it has been observed that the robustness and efficiency of the method can be significantly enhanced through the deployment of a binary-mask based shadow search process. This, in turn, calls for the use of a prior foreground object segmentation technique. The authors have also automated a standard foreground object segmentation technique through the deployment of some popular statistical outlier-detection based strategies. The paper analyses the performance i.e. the effectiveness as a shadow detector, discrimination potential, and the processing time of the modified moving shadow elimination method on the basis of some standard evaluation metrics.

  1. Development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer as potentiometry sensor of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Widayanti, Nesti; Kadmi, Yassine; Elmsellem, Hicham; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    The development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the potentiometric analysis of uric acid was carried out in this study. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum composition of the electrode constituent material, the optimum pH of the uric acid solution, and the performance of the electrode, which was measured by its response time, measurement range, Nernst factor, detection limits, selectivity coefficient, precision, accuracy, and life time. MIP was made from methyl methacrylate as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and uric acid as the template. Electrodes that give optimum performance were produced from carbon, MIP, and paraffin with a ratio of 40:25:35 (% w/w). The obtained results show that the measurement of uric acid solution gives optimum results at pH 5, Nernst factor of 30.19 mV/decade, and a measurement range of 10-6-10-3 M. The minimum detection limit of this method was 3.03.10-6 M, and the precision and accuracy toward uric acid with concentration of 10-6-10-3 M ranged between 1.36-2.03% and 63.9-166%. The selectivity coefficient value was less than 1, which indicated that the electrode was selective against uric acid and not interfered with by urea. This electrode has a response time of less than 2 min; its life time is 8 weeks with 104 usage times.

  2. A look at product development with genetically modified crops: examples from maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Rita H

    2013-09-04

    Plant breeding for crop genetic improvement involves the cycle of creating genetic diversity and exploiting that diversity to derive an improved cultivar with outstanding performance for specific traits of interest. Genetic modification through transformation essentially expands the genepool to facilitate access to genes otherwise not available through crossing. Transgenic events are defined by the DNA sequence that has been incorporated into the target genome and the specific point(s) of insertion. In the development of a new transgenic trait, typically many events are generated and evaluated with the aim of identifying one exhibiting consistent trait expression at or above specified thresholds, stable inheritance, and the absence of any negative effects. With transgenic traits for maize, once commercial candidates have been identified, these events are introgressed into elite lines, often through the use of molecular markers that can accelerate the breeding process and aid in producing a quality conversion. Converted elite lines are yield-tested to ensure performance equivalency with their unconverted counterparts. Finally, before commercial sale of seed, quality control monitoring is conducted to ensure event identity and purity and the absence of any unintended events. This monitoring complements other quality control measures to confirm seed viability and line/hybrid purity and uniformity in seed treatments, all in an effort to ensure customer satisfaction and to comply with governmental regulations. Thus, genetically modified (GM) cultivars are subject to significant testing and auditing prior to seed sale and distribution to farmers, more testing and auditing than with non-GM cultivars.

  3. 7 CFR 956.50 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establishment of production research, marketing research and development, and marketing promotion projects... marketing promotion activity engaged in by the committee, including paid advertising, shall be subject to the following terms and conditions: (1) No marketing promotion, including paid advertising,...

  4. 78 FR 46331 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... for candidates to fill vacancies on the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee...: http://biomassboard.gov/committee/committee.html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Biomass Research...

  5. Identification of research activities for the dairy sector development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    phase, which is the research support of the development process, could then be implemented with all the ... The research activities on milk production improvement in the South .... lean on statistical methods as cluster analysis or hierarchical.

  6. Developing a performance measurement system for public research centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masella, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at developing a performance measurement system (PMS for research and development (R&D activities carried out by public research centres. Public research institutions are characterized by multiple stakeholders with different needs, and the management of R&D activities requires balancing the multiple goals of different stakeholders. This characteristic is a key issue in the process of construction of the PMS. Empirical evidence is provided by an Italian public research centre, where the researchers carried out a project aimed to develop a PMS following action research principles. This project gave the possibility to researchers to interact with different stakeholders and integrate their different information needs in a comprehensive set of key performance indicators (KPIs. As a result, multidimensional framework for measuring R&D performance in a public research centre is proposed and a set of Key Performance Indicators is developed, suggesting implications for academics and practitioners.

  7. Engineering research, development and technology FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R T

    2000-02-01

    The growth of computer power and connectivity, together with advances in wireless sensing and communication technologies, is transforming the field of complex distributed systems. The ability to deploy large numbers of sensors with a rapid, broadband communication system will enable high-fidelity, near real-time monitoring of complex systems. These technological developments will provide unprecedented insight into the actual performance of engineered and natural environment systems, enable the evolution of many new types of engineered systems for monitoring and detection, and enhance our ability to perform improved and validated large-scale simulations of complex systems. One of the challenges facing engineering is to develop methodologies to exploit the emerging information technologies. Particularly important will be the ability to assimilate measured data into the simulation process in a way which is much more sophisticated than current, primarily ad hoc procedures. The reports contained in this section on the Center for Complex Distributed Systems describe activities related to the integrated engineering of large complex systems. The first three papers describe recent developments for each link of the integrated engineering process for large structural systems. These include (1) the development of model-based signal processing algorithms which will formalize the process of coupling measurements and simulation and provide a rigorous methodology for validation and update of computational models; (2) collaborative efforts with faculty at the University of California at Berkeley on the development of massive simulation models for the earth and large bridge structures; and (3) the development of wireless data acquisition systems which provide a practical means of monitoring large systems like the National Ignition Facility (NIF) optical support structures. These successful developments are coming to a confluence in the next year with applications to NIF structural

  8. Modern mechanical engineering research, development and education

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers modern subjects of mechanical engineering such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, sustainability as well as all aspects related with mechanical engineering education. The chapters help enhance the understanding of both the fundamentals of mechanical engineering and its application to the solution of problems in modern industry. This book is suitable for students, both in final undergraduate mechanical engineering courses or at the graduate level. It also serves as a useful reference for academics, mechanical engineering researchers, mechanical, materials and manufacturing engineers, professionals in related with mechanical engineering.

  9. Research and Development of Energetic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RZSP 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB CA 93524-7680 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...sensitivity 5 no go @ 70 kg*cm Friction 5 no go @ 117 newtons Melting point 107 C * Decomposition onset >200 C Heat of formation 0 kcal/mol (est.) 20...DNT - Note association of anions & near perpendicular arrangement of cation rings to anion rings 21 * CHEETAH 4.0 product library exp6.2 Ingredients

  10. Research on Networked Rapid Product Development Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Today the cycle time of the product develop is requ ir ed to be shortened. At the same time the requirement of the customers becomes mo re and more diverse and complex. The capability of the develop unit is limited b ecause of the existence of heterogeneous systems and distributed environments. I n this paper, we bring forward a new approach to solve the problem in product de velopment process. We also settle part key technologies in it. A great deal of information from all kinds of sources in the distribu...

  11. Researches and developments of biomimetics in tribology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhendong; TONG Jin; REN Luquan

    2006-01-01

    Animals and plants have developed optimal geometric structures, smart topological materials and multi-functional surface textures with excellent tribological characteristics through the evolution of thousand millions of years and become models for tribological design. This paper puts forward the definition and fundament of biomimetic tribology, investigates the status of self-cleaning of liquid-solid interface, adhesion between animals' feet and solid surface, wear characteristics of biological surfaces and biomimetic design, as well as the friction and bionic design on liquid-solid interface. The further developments of the tribological biomimetics are discussed.

  12. Tertiary Educational Institutions for Teaching, Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo, Sikiru A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the quality of teaching and research in developing human resources to facilitate the development of tertiary education in the nation. It discusses the challenges and the roles of research in higher education. The author argues that the combination of content and pedagogical knowledge could help to develop human resources for…

  13. Research-Based Learning: Teaching Development through Fieldschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of bringing research-based learning to undergraduate development studies and anthropology students has led to convening a fieldschool in Indonesia. The fieldschool has been vital in introducing students to fieldwork methodology and in developing a deeper understanding of the relation of research data to development theory. In…

  14. Issues in the development of open access to research data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Bridgette; Finn, Rachel L.; Linde, Peter; Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Riley, Susan; Smallwood, Rod; Taylor, Mark J.; Tsoukala, Victoria; Wadhwa, Kush; Wyatt, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores key issues in the development of open access to research data. The use of digital means for developing, storing and manipulating data is creating a focus on ‘data-driven science’. One aspect of this focus is the development of ‘open access’ to research data. Open access to resear

  15. Solar heating and cooling. Research and development: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    The Conservation and Solar Applications Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Program is described. The evolution of the R and D program is described and the present program is outlined. A series of project descriptions summarizes the research and development presently supported for further development of collectors, thermal energy storage and heat exchangers, heat pumps, solar cooling, controls, and systems. (MHR)

  16. Issues in the development of open access to research data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, Bridgette; Finn, Rachel L.; Linde, Peter; Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Riley, Susan; Smallwood, Rod; Taylor, Mark J.; Tsoukala, Victoria; Wadhwa, Kush; Wyatt, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores key issues in the development of open access to research data. The use of digital means for developing, storing and manipulating data is creating a focus on ‘data-driven science’. One aspect of this focus is the development of ‘open access’ to research data. Open access to resear

  17. Research on the Preparation and Performance of Binary Modified Maltodextrin Water-Reducing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using maltodextrin (MD of different dextrose equivalent (DE values, 1,3-propanesultone, and maleic anhydride as raw materials, a novel binary modified maltodextrin (BMMD was synthesized and further applied as a water-reducing agent. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV. The rheological behavior of the sample solution and strengths for concrete were also determined and the adsorption was tested by TOC. The influence of the process parameters to degree of substitution (DS and the dosage on the fluidity of cement paste were investigated. The results show that the optimal conditions of sulfonation were the MD of DE 15, m (sulfonated agent/m (MD of 1.4, the catalyst amount of 1% by mass MD, and the reaction time of 12 h; the optimal conditions of esterification were m (esterified agent/m (SMD of 0.6, the reaction temperature of 90°C, and the reaction time of 4 h. The optimal dosages of sulfonated maltodextrin (SMD and BMMD were 0.475% and 0.45%, respectively. In this dosage, the main dispersion capacity of BMMD attributes to two kinds of anchoring groups (SO3-  &  COO- and the appropriate molecular weight of MD.

  18. A modified TALEN-based strategy for rapidly and efficiently generating knockout mice for kidney development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhong; Lv, Xiaoyan; Tan, Ruizhi; Liu, Tianming; Chen, Tielin; Li, Mi; Liu, Yuhang; Nie, Fang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Puhui; Chen, Mianzhi; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    The transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) strategy has been widely used to delete and mutate genes in vitro. This strategy has begun to be used for in vivo systemic gene manipulation, but not in an organ-specific manner. In this study, we developed a modified, highly efficient TALEN strategy using a dual-fluorescence reporter. We used this modified strategy and, within 5 weeks, we successfully generated kidney proximal tubule-specific gene Ttc36 homozygous knockout mice. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed on the 6-week-old founders (F0) to identify the knockout genotype prior to the birth of the offspring. This strategy was found to have little effect on reproduction in the knockout mice and inheritability of the knockout genotypes. The modified TALEN knockout strategy in combination with unilateral nephrectomy can be readily used for studies of gene function in kidney development and diseases.

  19. A modified TALEN-based strategy for rapidly and efficiently generating knockout mice for kidney development studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhong Liu

    Full Text Available The transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs strategy has been widely used to delete and mutate genes in vitro. This strategy has begun to be used for in vivo systemic gene manipulation, but not in an organ-specific manner. In this study, we developed a modified, highly efficient TALEN strategy using a dual-fluorescence reporter. We used this modified strategy and, within 5 weeks, we successfully generated kidney proximal tubule-specific gene Ttc36 homozygous knockout mice. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed on the 6-week-old founders (F0 to identify the knockout genotype prior to the birth of the offspring. This strategy was found to have little effect on reproduction in the knockout mice and inheritability of the knockout genotypes. The modified TALEN knockout strategy in combination with unilateral nephrectomy can be readily used for studies of gene function in kidney development and diseases.

  20. Common Guidelines for Education Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Education Sciences, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, a Joint Committee of representatives from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) began work to establish cross-agency guidelines for improving the quality, coherence, and pace of knowledge development in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. Although the…

  1. Education for Sustainable Development: Research overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, A.E.J.; Kieft, G.

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper outlines some of the main characteristics of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), particularly in the context of ‘development’ and ‘globalization’. It addresses the various interpretations and meanings of ESD, shows how these relate to environmental education and emergi

  2. Research and development complex with remote access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilov, Y. V.; Kolesnik, L. L.; Ryabov, V. T.; Sidorova, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    Vacuum modular tool for thin films vacuum deposition was considered. Deposition tool automatic control system built-in to the remote access. Methodological support for the preparation of laboratory works and virtual simulator for mastering the ability to work on the vacuum deposition tool were developed.

  3. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    million for the Office of International Science and Engineering ( OISE ), an 11.3% increase over FY2009. The OISE manages NSF’s offices in Beijing...Paris, and Tokyo that analyze and report on in-country and regional science and technology policies and developments. The OISE serves as a liaison

  4. Development of a cell-seeded modified small intestinal submucosa for urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A modified 3D porous SIS scaffold seeded with UC and treated with PAA produces better urethroplasty results than cell-seeded untreated SIS scaffolds, or unseeded PAA treated SIS scaffolds.

  5. Supplier Development Literature Review and Key Future Research Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddassir Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a Supplier Development (SD literature framework and identify the main focus areas in SD research. To this end, a comprehensive review of the existing SD academic literature has been undertaken, which includes 62 research papers. These papers are classified according to their research content and the research methodology employed. A comprehensive list of future research areas is also presented. Thus, this paper will also briefly explore proposed future research. The review of the SD literature presented here identifies the following main areas of focus: Supplier Development Activities, Practices and Success Factors; Direct or Indirect Supplier Development; Supplier Development as a Reactive or Strategic Process; Supplier Development in a Lean Six Sigma & SME context.

  6. Faculty development in medical education research: a cooperative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E

    2010-05-01

    As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM.

  7. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  8. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY-10 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dena Tomchak

    2011-03-01

    The FY 2010 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Annual Report is a compendium of the diverse research performed to develop and ensure the INL's technical capabilities can support the future DOE missions and national research priorities. LDRD is essential to the INL -- it provides a means for the laboratory to pursue novel scientific and engineering research in areas that are deemed too basic or risky for programmatic investments. This research enhances technical capabilities at the laboratory, providing scientific and engineering staff with opportunities for skill building and partnership development.

  9. THE RESEARCH OF SORBENT PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED PEAT OF TOMSK REGION

    OpenAIRE

    CHUHAREVA N.V.; MARTYNIUK A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of different components (bitumen) from thermoprocessed up to 200-300°С peat puts the task of searching new alternative decisions of using the obtained remains. They can be used as cheap sorbent materials. The aim of this research is to estimate sorbent properties of peat remains after the extraction bitumen from them.

  10. THE RESEARCH OF SORBENT PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED PEAT OF TOMSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUHAREVA N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of different components (bitumen from thermoprocessed up to 200-300°С peat puts the task of searching new alternative decisions of using the obtained remains. They can be used as cheap sorbent materials. The aim of this research is to estimate sorbent properties of peat remains after the extraction bitumen from them.

  11. Developing Effective Case Scenarios for Interprofessional Electronic Health Record Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristie; Courtney, Karen L; Frisch, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, there have been numerous calls for research in interprofessional communication and documentation. Some of the limitations of research in this area have been proprietary user interfaces that may not be generalizable and impact varying adoption rates of electronic documentation among different health disciplines. In order to address these concerns, researchers need to create standardized case scenarios as research instruments. This paper outlines the process for developing a case scenario instrument for use in interprofessional electronic documentation research.

  12. Rethinking the Role of Information Technology-Based Research Tools in Students' Development of Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijck, Michiel; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-06-01

    Given the central place IT-based research tools take in scientific research, the marginal role such tools currently play in science curricula is dissatisfying from the perspective of making students scientifically literate. To appropriately frame the role of IT-based research tools in science curricula, we propose a framework that is developed to understand the use of tools in human activity, namely cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). Accordingly, IT-based research tools constitute central moments of scientific research activity and neither can be seen apart from its objectives, nor can it be considered apart from the cultural-historical determined forms of activity (praxis) in which human subjects participate. Based on empirical data involving students participating in research activity, we point out how an appropriate account of IT-based research tools involves subjects' use of tools with respect to the objectives of research activity and the contribution to the praxis of research. We propose to reconceptualize the role of IT-based research tools as contributing to scientific literacy if students apply these tools with respect to the objectives of the research activity and contribute to praxis of research by evaluating and modifying the application of these tools. We conclude this paper by sketching the educational implications of this reconceptualized role of IT-based research tools.

  13. Modifying a Research-Based Problem-Solving Intervention to Improve the Problem-Solving Performance of Fifth and Sixth Graders With and Without Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a modified cognitive strategy instructional intervention originally developed to improve the mathematical problem solving of middle and high school students with learning disabilities (LD). Fifth and sixth grade general education mathematics teachers and their students of varying ability (i.e., average-achieving [AA] students, low-achieving [LA] students, and students with LD) participated in the research study. Several features of the intervention were modified, including (a) explicitness of instruction, (b) emphasis on meta-cognition, (c) focus on problem-solving prerequisites, (d) extended duration of initial intervention, and (e) addition of visual supports. General education math teachers taught all instructional sessions to their inclusive classrooms. Curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of math problem solving were administered five times over the course of the year. A multilevel model (repeated measures nested within students and students nested within schools) was used to analyze student progress on CBMs. Though CBM scores in the intervention group were initially lower than that of the comparison group, intervention students improved significantly more in the first phase, with no differences in the second phase. Implications for instruction are discussed as well as directions for future research.

  14. 汽车用改性塑料的发展概况%Automotive Modified Plastics Development Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兴兴

    2015-01-01

    在汽车工业中,“以轻代重”“以塑代钢”已经逐渐成为了该行业未来发展的主流方向,特别是聚苯醚(PPO)、尼龙(PA)、聚丙烯(PP)、聚碳酸酯(PC)和聚甲醛(POM)这5类材料改性塑料的应用。简要探讨了与这些材料有关的最新研究成果和其在汽车零部件上的最新应用情况,并分析了改性塑料行业的技术发展趋势和行业应用趋势。%In the automotive industry, the“light generation heavy”“plastic steel”has gradually become the mainstream of the industry’s future development, especially polyphenylene oxide(PPO), nylon(PA), polypropylene(PP), polycarbonate(PC)and POM(POM)plastic material modification of these five categories of applications. Brief discussion of the latest research results and its latest applications with these materials related to the automotive components and analyzes technology trends and industry trends modified plastics industry applications.

  15. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    completely •- knocked down ( CKD ) condi- tion before shipment to China. ..••■• -i . • The joint Venture con- tract was signed on Monday by...microwave System was’ ■chosen after careful study be- ; cause it offered the most! ’economical and efficient ser-’ ’vice in rural areas JPRS-TTP󈨙...completion of this expanded microwave project, favorable conditions will be provided for the development of the broadcasting and television cause in

  16. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)d 4,701 1,113 4,817 4,977 General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) 1,997 505 2,051 2,125 Child Health and Human...integrated ecosystem assessments.70 The Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 (P.L. 111-212) includes emergency funding for the Gulf of Mexico oil...agricultural security, local and regional emergencies, zoonotic diseases, climate change, childhood obesity , pest risk management, and development of biofuels

  17. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    Agencies Appropriations Act Department of Transportation Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act...Administration’s $4.911 billion request for NASA’s Science account in FY2013 was 3.5% less than the FY2012 appropriation. Funding for planetary science...would have decreased $308.1 million or 20.5%. Most of the proposed reduction for planetary science was in the Mars exploration program, whose expected

  18. Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Engineer Research and Development Center's Materials Testing Center (MTC) is committed to quality testing and inspection services that are delivered on time and...

  19. Geo energy research and development: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeger, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    Sandia Geo Energy Programs related to geothermal, coal, oil and gas, and synfuel resources have provided a useful mechanism for transferring laboratory technologies to private industry. Significant transfer of hardware, computer programs, diagnostics and instrumentation, advanced materials, and in situ process understanding has occurred through US/DOE supported programs in the past five years. The text briefly reviews the technology transfer procedures and summarizes 32 items that have been transferred and another 20 technologies that are now being considered for possible transfer to industry. A major factor in successful transfer has been personal interactions between Sandia engineers and the technical staff from private industry during all aspects of the technology development.

  20. Recent Developments of Genomic Research in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching Chan; Xinpeng Qi; Man-Wah Li; Fuk-Ling Wong; Hon-Ming Lam

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is an important cash crop with unique and important traits such as the high seed protein and oil contents,and the ability to perform symbiotic nitrogen fixation.A reference genome of cultivated soybeans was established in 2010,followed by whole-genome re-sequencing of wild and cultivated soybean accessions.These efforts revealed unique features of the soybean genome and helped to understand its evolution.Mapping of variations between wild and cultivated soybean genomes were performed.These genomic variations may be related to the process of domestication and human selection.Wild soybean germplasms exhibited high genomic diversity and hence may be an important source of novel genes/alleles.Accumulation of genomic data will help to refine genetic maps and expedite the identification of functional genes.In this review,we summarize the major findings from the whole-genome sequencing projects and discuss the possible impacts on soybean researches and breeding programs.Some emerging areas such as transcriptomic and epigenomic studies will be introduced.In addition,we also tabulated some useful bioinformatics tools that will help the mining of the soybean genomic data.

  1. The Impact of Tax Incentives on Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Svoboda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to analyze the impact of tax incentives on research and development and compare its effectiveness to direct government support of research and development. The analysis is based on regression analysis, which compares effect of tax incentives for research and development and direct government support (as percentage of GDP in 28 countries of OECD in 2013 on innovative effectiveness of these countries measured by number of registered triadic patent families per billion GDP in the same year. Results suggest that tax incentives are more effective form of research and development support than direct government funding. Research also revealed interesting case of Switzerland’s research and development performance backed by almost none government support, which should be subject to future study.

  2. Development of a modified gentamicin protection assay to investigate the interaction between Campylobacter jejuni and Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Brian P; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2014-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. It is persistent in the environment and on poultry despite its microaerophilic nature and sensitivity to dessication and pH. Studies have demonstrated that C. jejuni co-incubated with Acanthamoeba spp. may be protected from harmful environmental factors. Research in this area, however has included a range of different methodologies for co-incubation, recovery of bacteria and amoebae, and verification of internalization. In this study a modified gentamicin protection assay (mGPA) was developed with a standardized co-incubation procedure. The mGPA addresses limitations of the traditional GPA by providing quantification of the rate of internalization, or lack of internalization, of C. jejuni by Acanthamoeba castellanii. The mGPA described here utilizes tubes instead of cell culture plates allowing for determination of exact numbers of A. castellanii and C. jejuni to be co-incubated prior to addition to tubes. Additionally, the mGPA allows for the incorporation of C. jejuni-only controls to determine the fate of C. jejuni throughout the assay in the absence of A. castellanii. Using the mGPA it was determined that on average 1.6×10(5) C. jejuni (or 0.006% of initial 1×10(9) inoculum) survive the assay in the absence of A. castellanii. Additionally, results obtained with the mGPA demonstrated that while co-incubation with amoebae sometimes (56% of co-incubations) provided a protective effect for C. jejuni, in other cases it did not provide any protective effect (39% of co-incubations), and in at least one case there was a statistically significant higher recovery of C. jejuni in controls when compared to C. jejuni co-incubated with amoebae. The modified gentamicin protection assay described here allows better quantification of the rate and incidence of internalization of bacteria by amoebae. Use of the standardized mGPA developed here with varying environmental parameters and/or strains

  3. Development of Multifunctional Active Film and Its Application in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Shiitake Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Jiang; An, Duck Soon; Lee, Dong Sun

    2016-09-01

    Agar-based films with multiple functions (CO2 absorption, water vapor absorption, and antimicrobial activity) were developed, tested for their properties, and then applied to the packaging of fresh shiitake mushrooms as an insert label. The films were cast from an agar-based aqueous solution containing a dissolving plasticizer (glycerol), a CO2 absorbent (sodium carbonate [SC] alone or a combination of SC and sodium glycinate [SC-SG]), and a volatile antimicrobial agent (carvacrol [CRV]). The agar of the film matrix is designed to serve as a water vapor absorbent. The multifunctional films tended to have poor mechanical properties, with a hard texture and an opaque and yellowish color. The CO2 absorbent, either SC alone or SC-SG, affected CRV retention and release along with the CO2 and water vapor absorption behavior. Both films (SC-CRV and SC-SG-CRV films) showed good inhibitory effects against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . SC-CRV film had a higher and faster CO2 absorption property, higher retention and extended release of CRV, and lower and slower water vapor absorption and was assessed to be better suited for use in shiitake mushroom packaging. The packaging in which the SC-CRV film with an appropriate amount of CRV was used as an insert label was able to generate the desired atmosphere and less moisture condensation inside the package, producing the best preservation of quality in terms of mushroom color, firmness, flavor score, and microbial counts after 6 days of storage at 10°C. A tailored modified atmosphere packaging system using multifunctional film would be useful in the preservation of CO2-sensitive fresh commodities.

  4. Lignocellulosic-derived modified agricultural waste: development, characterisation and implementation in sequestering pyridine from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md Juned K; Ahmaruzzaman, M; Reza, Ruhul A

    2014-08-15

    The development and characterisation of modified agricultural waste (MAW) by H3PO4 activation is addressed in this study for sequestering pyridine from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent is characterised by carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content of 55.53%, 3.28% and 0.98% respectively. The adsorbent also shows acidic (carboxylic, lactonic, phenolic groups) and basic carbon surface functionalities, functional groups viz. hydroxyl, carboxylic acid and bounded water molecules, BET surface area of 1254.67 m(2) g(-1), heterogeneous surface morphology and graphite like XRD patterns. Adsorption of pyridine is executed to evaluate the adsorptive uptake in batch (q(e)=107.18 mg g(-1)) as well as in column system (q(e)=140.94 mg g(-1)). The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics with the Langmuir isotherm best representing the equilibrium adsorption data. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH(o)=9.39 kJ mol(-1), ΔG(o)=-5.99 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(o)=50.76 J K(-1) mol(-1)) confirm the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process with increase in randomness at solid/solution interface. The adsorption mechanism is governed by electrostatic and π-π dispersive interactions as well as by a two stage diffusion phenomena. Thermally regenerated spent MAW exhibited better adsorption efficiency for five adsorption-desorption cycles than chemically regenerated. The low-cost of MAW (USD 10.714 per kg) and favourable adsorption parameters justifies its use in the adsorptive removal of pyridine.

  5. Research and development in the textile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-06-01

    Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

  6. Antibiotic research and development: business as usual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbarth, S; Theuretzbacher, U; Hackett, J

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of antibiotic resistance is tremendous and, without new anti-infective strategies, will continue to increase in the coming decades. Despite the growing need for new antibiotics, few pharmaceutical companies today retain active antibacterial drug discovery programmes. One reason is that it is scientifically challenging to discover new antibiotics that are active against the antibiotic-resistant bacteria of current clinical concern. However, the main hurdle is diminishing economic incentives. Increased global calls to minimize the overuse of antibiotics, the cost of meeting regulatory requirements and the low prices of currently marketed antibiotics are strong deterrents to antibacterial drug development programmes. New economic models that create incentives for the discovery of new antibiotics and yet reconcile these incentives with responsible antibiotic use are long overdue. DRIVE-AB is a €9.4 million public-private consortium, funded by the EU Innovative Medicines Initiative, that aims to define a standard for the responsible use of antibiotics and to develop, test and recommend new economic models to incentivize investment in producing new anti-infective agents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Small Hydropower Research and Development Technology Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmore, Mo [Near Space Systems, Inc.

    2013-12-06

    The objective of this work was to investigate, develop, and validate the next generation of small hydroturbine generator designs that maximize the energy transfer from flowing water to electrical power generation. What resulted from this effort was the design of a new technology hydroturbine that Near Space Systems (NSS) has named the Star*Stream© Hydroturbine. Using a design that eliminates nearly all of the shortfalls of conventional hydroturbines, the Star*Stream© Hydroturbine employs a new mechanical-to-electrical energy transfer hydro design that operates without lubrication of any kind, and does not introduce foreign chemicals or particulate matter from oil or drive shaft seal degradation into the hydro ecology. In its unique configuration, the Star*Stream© Hydroturbine is nearly environmentally inert, without the negative aspects caused by interrupting the ecological continuity, i.e., disruptions to sedimentation, water quality, habitat changes, human displacement, fish migration, etc., - while it ensures dramatically reduced timeframes to project completion. While a remarkable reduction in LCOE resulting from application of the Star*Stream© Hydroturbine technology has been the core achievement of the this effort, there have been numerous technological breakthroughs from the development effort.

  8. Healthcare Energy Efficiency Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Douglas R.; Lai, Judy; Lanzisera, Steven M; Parrish, Kristen D.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-01-31

    Hospitals are known to be among the most energy intensive commercial buildings in California. Estimates of energy end-uses (e.g. for heating, cooling, lighting, etc.) in hospitals are uncertain for lack of information about hospital-specific mechanical system operations and process loads. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a benchmarking system designed specifically for hospitals. Version 1.0 featured metrics to assess energy performance for the broad variety of ventilation and thermal systems that are present in California hospitals. It required moderate to extensive sub-metering or supplemental monitoring. In this new project, we developed a companion handbook with detailed equations that can be used toconvert data from energy and other sensors that may be added to or already part of hospital heating, ventilation and cooling systems into metrics described in the benchmarking document.This report additionally includes a case study and guidance on including metering into designs for new hospitals, renovations and retrofits. Despite widespread concern that this end-use is large and growing, there is limited reliable information about energy use by distributed medical equipment and other miscellaneouselectrical loads in hospitals. This report proposes a framework for quantifying aggregate energy use of medical equipment and miscellaneous loads. Novel approaches are suggested and tried in an attempt to obtain data to support this framework.

  9. Action Research as Empowering Professional Development: Examining a District-Based Teacher Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Using critical constructivism as the theoretical lens, the researcher used action research to systematically examine the experience of PreK-12 teachers in his district-based teacher research professional development course, while also examining his development as a teacher educator. The results of this study showed that the teachers made progress…

  10. Researchers Put Embryo Development 'On Hold' in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162187.html Researchers Put Embryo Development 'On Hold' in Mice Putting stem cells ... were able to halt development of early mouse embryos for up to a month in the lab ...

  11. Symposium: Organizational Health Intervention Research: Current Empirical Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jenny, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    This symposium is one of three symposia submitted by the "International organizational health intervention research partnership". The aim of this symposium is to present new empirical developments based on participatory intervention models. All five studies have developed and applied intervention...

  12. Advanced Turbo-Charging Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-27

    The objective of this project is to conduct analysis, design, procurement and test of a high pressure ratio, wide flow range, and high EGR system with two stages of turbocharging. The system needs to meet the stringent 2010MY emissions regulations at 20% + better fuel economy than its nearest gasoline competitor while allowing equivalent vehicle launch characteristics and higher torque capability than its nearest gasoline competitor. The system will also need to meet light truck/ SUV life requirements, which will require validation or development of components traditionally used only in passenger car applications. The conceived system is termed 'seriessequential turbocharger' because the turbocharger system operates in series at appropriate times and also sequentially when required. This is accomplished using intelligent design and control of flow passages and valves. Components of the seriessequential system will also be applicable to parallel-sequential systems which are also expected to be in use for future light truck/SUV applications.

  13. Research Managers at Jamaica's National University Are Strategically Deploying a Modest Research Development Fund in Support of Impactful Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Paul W.; Henry, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight, using examples, how the University of Technology, Jamaica (UTech, Jamaica) is strategically using a modest internal research development fund, which is managed by the research managers in its research and innovation management office, to support impactful research projects. Critical reflection and the…

  14. Building an agricultural research for development system in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses how impact-oriented agricultural research for development systems in Africa can be better organized and managed. Specifically, the paper puts forth the argument that achieving the development targets set by African leaders and the international community, for example, through the Millennium Development Goals, will be extremely difficult without a satisfactory re-orientation of the organization and management of African research for development systems. Such a re-orientati...

  15. 美欧转基因食品安全政策比较研究%The Comparation Research about the Genetically Modified Food in Europe and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡日查; 马晨颉

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of genetically modified food security of United States and Europe,the United States and Europe comparative analysis of the characteristics of genetically modified food safety policy and the causes,examine the problems and deficiencies of GM food safety policy exists. So our GM food safety policy development,should be based on the protection of national physical and mental health,through technical support,policy guidance and capacity building,promoting turn commercial application of gene technology research and genetically modified food,to protect our food security and food safety to provide support.%首先阐述了美欧转基因食品安全的发展现状,比较分析美欧转基因食品安全政策特点及形成原因,考察了我国转基因食品安全政策存在的问题和不足。为此,我国转基因食品安全政策制定,应在保障国民身心健康的基础上,通过相关技术支持、政策引导和能力建设,推进转基因技术的研发及转基因食品的商业化应用,为保障我国粮食安全和食品安全提供支撑。

  16. Developing research skills in medical students: AMEE Guide No. 69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; Aiton, Jim; Struthers, Julie; Guild, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This Guide has been written to provide guidance for individuals involved in curriculum design who wish to develop research skills and foster the attributes in medical undergraduates that help develop research. The Guide will provoke debate on an important subject, and although written specifically with undergraduate medical education in mind, we hope that it will be of interest to all those involved with other health professionals' education. Initially, the Guide describes why research skills and its related attributes are important to those pursuing a medical career. It also explores the reasons why research skills and an ethos of research should be instilled into professionals of the future. The Guide also tries to define what these skills and attributes should be for medical students and lays out the case for providing opportunities to develop research expertise in the undergraduate curriculum. Potential methods to encourage the development of research-related attributes are explored as are some suggestions as to how research skills could be taught and assessed within already busy curricula. This publication also discusses the real and potential barriers to developing research skills in undergraduate students, and suggests strategies to overcome or circumvent these. Whilst we anticipate that this Guide will appeal to all levels of expertise in terms of student research, we hope that, through the use of case studies, we will provide practical advice to those currently developing this area within their curriculum.

  17. A Proposed Framework of Institutional Research Development Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Anita; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    Globally, research has become a key driver for the achievement of status and the procurement of funding for higher education institutions. Although there is mounting pressure on institutions to become research active, many institutions are rooted in a strong tradition of teaching. These institutions find it challenging to develop research capacity…

  18. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  19. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  20. Market research companies and new product development tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Frambach, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates (1) the share of new product development (NPD) research services in market research (MR) companies’ turnover, (2) MR companies’ awareness and use of NPD tools and the modifications made to these NPD tools, and (3) MR company managers’ perceptions of the influence of client

  1. Development of a Research Methods and Statistics Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Chapman, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are core courses in the undergraduate psychology major. To assess learning outcomes, it would be useful to have a measure that assesses research methods and statistical literacy beyond course grades. In two studies, we developed and provided initial validation results for a research methods and statistical knowledge…

  2. Quetiapine: recent developments in preclinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orsetti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QTP is an atypical antipsychotic labelled for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar mania and bipolar depression. Nevertheless, QTP has been tried across multiple diagnosis categories and seems to be used, among other atypical antipsychotics, in clinical practice for an expanding range of disorders such as major depression, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders, and borderline personality disorders. The present review focuses on papers which investigated the molecular mechanism(s of QTP antidepressant effect. In particular, preclinical studies performed by coupling the chronic mild stress, an animal model of human depression with Affymetrix microarray technology, revealed that chronic QTP administration prevented the stress-induced up- or down-regulation of 42 genes involved in the central nervous system development or having a crucial role for viability of neural cells, like regulation of signal transduction, inorganic ion transport, membrane organisation, and neurite morphogenesis. Among these, Ptgs2, Hes5, Plcb1, Senp2, Gad1, and Marcks are presumably the effectors of the QTP clinical efficacy.

  3. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Paul N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  4. Cyclonic Separation Technology: Researches and Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪华林; 张艳红; 王剑刚; 刘洪来

    2012-01-01

    Centered on thetechniques and industrial applications of the reinforced cyclonic separation process, its principles and mechanism for separation ot ions, molecules and their aggregates using polyalsperse aroplets are discussed generally; the characteristics and influential factors of fish-hook phenomenon of the grade efficiency curve in cyclonic separation for both gas and liquid are analyzed; and the influence of shear force on particle be- havior (or that of particle swarm) is also summarized. A novel idea for cyclonic separation is presented here: enhancing the cyclonic seoaration process of ions, molecules and their aggregates with monodisperse microspheres and their surface grafting, rearranging the distribution of particles by size using centrifugal field, reinforcing the cyclonic separation performance with orderly arranged particle swarm. Also the investigation of the shortcut flow, recirculation flow, the asymmetric structure and non-linear characteristics of the cyclonic flow field with a com-bined method of Volumetric 3-component Velocimetry (V3V) and Phase-Doppler Particle Anemometer (PDPA) are elaborated. It is recommended to develop new systems for the separation of heterogeneous phases with cyclonic technology, in accordance with the capture and reuse of CO2, methanol to olefins (MTO) process, coal transfer, andthe exploitation of oil shale.

  5. Research and development of prefabricated terminal cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huawei; Chen, Junjie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Yi; Geng, Yixiao; Huang, Nan; Yin, Yaohua

    2017-04-01

    At present, the terminal Cabinet used in the substation is mostly integral type, the terminal Cabinet adopts fixed wiring mode, the texture is mostly iron, and the few are stainless steel. Inside it, all kinds of air, cable and terminal block are fixed in the terminal Cabinet. Equipment replacement, and technical projects to promote, often need to transform the terminal Cabinet, this time, you need to remove the terminal Cabinet as a whole, the cable cable removed, while replacing the overall terminal block, often replace the terminal block, then the cable Installation, it will cause the terminal block, open space, shell, etc. can not be used twice, resulting in a great waste, while the replacement of power outages for a long time, construction workload, therefore, the team decided to develop a Prefabricated terminal Cabinet, the shell and the internal terminal blocks and empty open modular Prefabricated way, the replacement of the terminal Cabinet, you can easily replace the need to be part of the construction, rather than the terminal Cabinet as a whole construction, reduce power outages, Reduce the workload, saving labor costs, engineering costs.

  6. Advanced imaging research and development at DARPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Nibir K.; Dat, Ravi

    2012-06-01

    Advances in imaging technology have huge impact on our daily lives. Innovations in optics, focal plane arrays (FPA), microelectronics and computation have revolutionized camera design. As a result, new approaches to camera design and low cost manufacturing is now possible. These advances are clearly evident in visible wavelength band due to pixel scaling, improvements in silicon material and CMOS technology. CMOS cameras are available in cell phones and many other consumer products. Advances in infrared imaging technology have been slow due to market volume and many technological barriers in detector materials, optics and fundamental limits imposed by the scaling laws of optics. There is of course much room for improvements in both, visible and infrared imaging technology. This paper highlights various technology development projects at DARPA to advance the imaging technology for both, visible and infrared. Challenges and potentials solutions are highlighted in areas related to wide field-of-view camera design, small pitch pixel, broadband and multiband detectors and focal plane arrays.

  7. Ramucirumab: preclinical research and clinical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Erika Rijavec,2 Caterina Fontanella,1 Karim Rihawi,1 Francesco Grossi21Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, Italy; 2Lung Cancer Unit, National Cancer Institut “San Martino”, Genoa, ItalyAbstract: Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B, LY3009806, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2, is a new therapeutic option that selectively inhibits the human VEGFR-2 with a much greater affinity than its natural ligands. Based on the promising results of both preclinical and early clinical studies, ramucirumab has been tested in different tumor types either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. While it has recently been granted its first US Food and Drug Administration approval for use as a single agent in patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction carcinoma, its role for metastatic breast cancer or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer is still debated. The aims of this review are to recall and discuss the most significant preclinical and clinical studies that led to the development of ramucirumab and to present the results of the randomized clinical trials that have tested its efficacy in different malignancies, including gastric and lung cancer. Keywords: ramucirumab, gastric cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, antiangiogenic

  8. Ramucirumab: preclinical research and clinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Giuseppe; Rijavec, Erika; Fontanella, Caterina; Rihawi, Karim; Grossi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B, LY3009806), a fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), is a new therapeutic option that selectively inhibits the human VEGFR-2 with a much greater affinity than its natural ligands. Based on the promising results of both preclinical and early clinical studies, ramucirumab has been tested in different tumor types either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. While it has recently been granted its first US Food and Drug Administration approval for use as a single agent in patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction carcinoma, its role for metastatic breast cancer or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer is still debated. The aims of this review are to recall and discuss the most significant preclinical and clinical studies that led to the development of ramucirumab and to present the results of the randomized clinical trials that have tested its efficacy in different malignancies, including gastric and lung cancer.

  9. Development of Modified Pag (Polyalkylene Glycol) High VI High Fuel Efficient Lubricant for LDV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, Arup [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); McWatt, D. G. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Zdrodowski, R. J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Liu, Zak [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Elie, Larry [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Simko, S. J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ramirez, Giovanni [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cuthbert, J. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Hock, E. D. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Engine oils play a critical role in friction reduction. Improvements in engine oil technology steadily improved fuel economy as the industry moved through ILSAC GF-1 to GF-5 specifications. These improvements were influenced by changes in base oil chemistry, development of new friction modifiers and their treat levels, and the total additive package consisting of various other components. However, the improvements are incremental and further fuel consumption reduction opportunities are becoming more challenging. Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) based engine oils are being explored as a step forward for significant fuel consumption reduction. Although PAG fluids are used in many industrial applications, its application as an engine oil has been explored in a limited way. The objective of this project is to deep dive in exploring the applicability of PAG technology in engine oil, understanding the benefits, and limitations, elucidating the mechanism(s) for friction benefits, if any, and finally recommending how to address any limitations. The project was designed in four steps, starting with selection of lubricant technology, followed by friction and wear evaluations in laboratory bench tests which are relatively simple and inexpensive and also served as a screener for further evaluation. Selected formulations were chosen for more complex engine component level tests i.e., motored valvetrain friction and wear, piston ring friction using a motored single cylinder, and motored engine tests. A couple of formulations were further selected based on component level tests for engine dyno tests i.e., Sequence VID (ASTM D6709) for fuel economy, Sequence IVA (ASTM D6891) for valvetrain wear, and Sequence VG (ASTM D6593) for sludge and varnish protection. These are some of the industry standard tests required for qualifying engine oils. Out of these tests, a single PAG oil was selected for chassis roll dynamometer tests for fuel economy and emission measurements using FTP (Federal

  10. Postscript: Researching Stochastic Understanding--The Place of a Developing Research Field in PME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truran, John

    2001-01-01

    Traces some aspects of the development of stochastics education and research to provide a background for understanding the place of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) Stochastics Group in the research process. (MM)

  11. Possible Challenges of Teacher Research for Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Widiati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher research (i.e. action research has gained acceptance as a tool for teacher professional development. In spite of its increasing popularity in language classrooms, concerns have been raised in the implementation of teacher research, such as issues of quality, sustainability, the development of standards, and accessibility. In the Indonesian context, the unprofessional working conditions and the education background of most teachers have made it difficult for teachers to sustain and access research. Since changing the former appears beyond the aim of this article, it is suggested that teacher education institutions focus on the latter, revisiting the curriculum of teacher education to provide more research components

  12. The spaghetti calorimeter. Research, development, application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, C.V.

    1994-12-22

    The Spaghetti Calorimeter (SPACAL) is a detector intended primarily for the energy measurement of high-energy particles, but also provides spatial information and particle identification. It is a sampling calorimeter composed of plastic scintillating fibers, oriented in the direction of the particle, embedded in lead. The scintillation light is read out by photomultipliers, which are coupled to bunches of fibers through light guides, each forming a tower. It was developed as an electromagnetic (e.m.) and compensating hadronic calorimeter for use in future multi-TeV collider experiments. The largest prototype was installed for an alternative application as an hadronic calorimeter in the WA89 experiment, where it is used for the detection of neutrons resulting from {Sigma} decays. The basic concepts behind calorimetry are discussed in detail. Several prototypes were tested in beams of electrons and pions with energies up to 150 GeV. Resonable e.m. energy resolution, at {sigma}/E=12.9%/{radical}E[GeV]+1.23%, was measured. Excellent hadronic energy resolution was found, at 30.6%/{radical}E[GeV]+1.0%, but the calorimeter was found to be slightly undercompensating with e/h=1.15. The position of the shower barycenter for both electrons and pions was easily found according to the relative energy deposits in the calorimeter towers. The calorimeter was also found to be able to provide effective discrimination between electrons and hadrons. The performance of SPACAL in the WA89 experiment at the Omega spectrometer at CERN was studied with the reconstruction of beam {Sigma}{sup -}particles via its decay {Sigma}{sup -}{yields}n{pi}{sup -}. Details of the calibration of SPACAL with electrons and protons are presented. (orig.).

  13. Social Media and Mentoring in Biomedical Research Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruya, Stacey Alan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how effective and collegial mentoring in biomedical research faculty development may be implemented and facilitated through social media. Method: The authors reviewed the literature for objectives, concerns, and limitations of career development for junior research faculty. They tabularized these as developmental goals, and…

  14. 75 FR 56525 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the... participation. This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical...

  15. 76 FR 9339 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development... on USDA Biomass R&D Activities. Update on DOE Biomass R&D Activities. Overview of the DOE...

  16. 78 FR 44105 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy... announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal... contact (Departments of Energy and Agriculture) with respect to the Biomass R&D Initiative...

  17. 75 FR 74026 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. DATES: December 15, 2010...

  18. 76 FR 22091 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy... announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal... products. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass R&D Activities...

  19. 77 FR 64970 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development... and biobased products. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass...

  20. 75 FR 30804 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the... participation. This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical...

  1. 78 FR 29125 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development... ] Energy and Agriculture) with respect to the Biomass R&D Initiative (Initiative) and also makes...

  2. 75 FR 11526 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the... participation. This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical...

  3. 77 FR 26276 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy... announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal... products. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass R&D Activities...

  4. 78 FR 64932 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biomass... Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the Food.... This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory...

  5. 78 FR 8500 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development.... Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include the following: Update on USDA Biomass R&D Activities Update on...

  6. Developing Collaboration Skills in Team Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Kelly K.; Bishop, Pamela; Lenhart, Suzanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary undergraduate research experiences often require students to work in teams with other students and researchers from different disciplines, creating a need for development of new skills in interdisciplinary collaboration. In this paper, we describe our unique efforts to mentor participants in developing these skills during our…

  7. Social Media and Mentoring in Biomedical Research Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruya, Stacey Alan; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how effective and collegial mentoring in biomedical research faculty development may be implemented and facilitated through social media. Method: The authors reviewed the literature for objectives, concerns, and limitations of career development for junior research faculty. They tabularized these as developmental goals, and…

  8. DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS AND RESEARCH NEEDS IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lothar Reh

    2003-01-01

    First a report about present status of circulating fluidized bed reactors for coal and multi-fuel combustion in power plants is given. Thereafter the development potentials and research needs for further improvement of CFB combustors operating with finely grained bed materials are discussed and recommendations for direction of further research and development work are presented.

  9. 77 FR 47047 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research ] and Development... Biomass R&D Activities Update on DOE Biomass R&D Activities Review of the recently awarded Biomass...

  10. Educational Research and Development: Austria, Germany, Switzerland. OECD Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Three joint international seminars on governmental roles in organizing and promoting educational research and development were held as part of a study conducted by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This document contains the proceedings of the third…

  11. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their uses... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research,...

  12. Development of a DNA Sensor Based on Alkanethiol Self- Assembled Monolayer-Modified Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Pingarrón

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA biosensor based on recognition of double or singlestranded DNA (ds-DNA/ss-DNA immobilised on a self-assembled modified gold electrodeis presented for denaturalisation and hybridisation detection. DNA is covalently bond on aself assembled 3-mercaptopropionic acid monolayer by using water soluble N-3-(dimethylaminopropyl-N´ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC and Nhydroxisulfosuccinimide(NHSS as linkers. The interaction between the immobilised DNAand methylene blue (MB is investigated using square wave voltammetry (SWV. Theincrease or diminution of peak currents of the MB upon the hybridisation or denaturalisationevent at the modified electrode surface is studied.

  13. Research into the development of a knowledge acquisition taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the research was on the development of a problem solving taxonomy that can support and direct the knowledge engineering process during the development of an intelligent tutoring system. The results of the research are necessarily general. Being only a small initial attempt at a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, the process has had to be bootstrapped and the results can only provide pointers to further, more formal research designs.

  14. Possible Challenges of Teacher Research for Teacher Professional Development

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Teacher research (i.e. action research) has gained acceptance as a tool for teacher professional development. In spite of its increasing popularity in language classrooms, concerns have been raised in the implementation of teacher research, such as issues of quality, sustainability, the development of standards, and accessibility. In the Indonesian context, the unprofessional working conditions and the education background of most teachers have made it difficult for teachers to sustain and ac...

  15. Session 17: Needs in Drilling Technology Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Charles C.

    1983-12-01

    This paper briefly discusses findings from a recent study of needs in drilling research and development that was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the Office of Energy Research of the Department of Energy. The purpose of the study was to identify areas in which research and development are necessary in order to meet future drilling requirements. The complete study will be documented in a soon-to-be-published final report.

  16. Using gender research in development: Food security in practice

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This guide presents research from several countries in IFPRI's research program on gender and intrahousehold relations, using quantitative and qualitative methods. It examines the implications of these issues in the success of development initiatives and suggestions for integrating gender research in projects and policy. The guide is divided into the following sections: the importance of using gender and intrahousehold research to inform projects and policies; gender a...

  17. Present status of research and development on underground disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation published the technical report `Research and development of the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste` 1991 in 1992, summarizing the results of the research and development of the formation disposal which have been advanced by dividing into three parts, that is, the investigation and research of geological environment conditions, the research and development of disposal technologies, and the research on the performance evaluation. Based on the subjects pointed out during the process of making the technical report, the results of evaluation by the state, and the opinions of those concerned, the efforts are exerted toward the second summarization expected in about 2000. By informing the present state of the research and development, in order to accept the criticism and advice, this book was published. The way of thinking and the method of advancing of the research and development of formation disposal, the present state of the research on geological environment conditions, disposal technologies and the performance evaluation are described. Also the present state of the research on stratum science in Tono and Kamaishi mines and others is reported. (K.I.).

  18. Developing Researching Managers and Relevant Research--The "Executive Research Programme"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werr, Andreas; Strannegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The current paper argues for bridging the "relevance gap" in management research and education by creating educational programmes that bring together experienced managers and management researchers. In the "Executive Research Programme" discussed in this paper, managers were paired up with researchers to conduct a collaborative…

  19. [Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure.

  20. Research on the Development and Teaching of Thinking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Amestoy de Sánchez

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation it is proposed and justified an integrated model of research and development that could be applicable to the building, implementation and evaluation of the teaching and transfer of thinking skills. First, the principles underlying the development of thought are presented; next, the role of research in the construction and application of the intellectual development and process-based learning model; its components and interrelations are identified. Finally, the role of research in the design and application of projects aiming at the development of thinking skills is analyzed.

  1. Global product development: an attempt at harmonising the research effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Simplay, Steve

    & Development, Organizational Studies, and Operations Management. These research areas all contribute different insights into how the global product development process can be viewed, understood and analysed. This paper overviews current research in these research areas and illustrates that by creating...... a synthesis which utilizes the empirical insights and theories from these areas, a more holistic picture can be painted of global product development.......More companies are increasingly globalising activities throughout the product development process, from R&D to manufacturing. This presents companies with both technical and organisational challenges. These are addressed in different theoretical areas, in particular within Engineering Design...

  2. Synthesis and Development of Modified OMC-Supported Platinum Electrocatalyst for PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muonagolu, Emeka Paul

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) has been considered as a promising Platinum catalyst support because of its large surface area, uniform ordered hexagonal mesopores, porous structure and high electrical conductivity. Graphitization of the walls of OMC is vital when the electrical conductivity of the catalyst is the main concern. The objective of this work was to improve the electrical conductivity of the ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) support by utilizing transition metals such as Ni, Co and Fe to graphitize the pore walls of OMC via catalytic graphitization. Metal modified OMCs have been synthesized following two steps. First step is synthesizing metal modified SBA-15 as a template containing 10wt% transition metals (Ni, Co, Fe) and TEOS as a source of silica followed by calcination. The second step is introducing sucrose as the carbon source into the pores of the silica template followed by carbonization at 900°C and removal of the silica template using hydrofluoric acid. The synthesized Metal modified OMCs were characterized using Brunaeur Emmit Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy. Surface area for the metal modified --OMC was found around 1300--1500m 2/g and pore sizes in the range of 3--4nm. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was prepared using the synthesized electrocatalyst and was used to evaluate the performance of the catalyst by testing it on the fuel cell test station. The results were compared to that of commercial catalyst.

  3. Advanced REACH Tool : Development and application of the substance emission potential modifying factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, M. van; Fransman, W.; Spankie, S.; Tischer, M.; Brouwer, D.; Schinkel, J.; Cherrie, J.W.; Tielemans, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced REACH Tool (ART) is an exposure assessment tool that combines mechanistically modelled inhalation exposure estimates with available exposure data using a Bayesian approach. The mechanistic model is based on nine independent principal modifying factors (MF). One of these MF is the

  4. 77 FR 59930 - Clinical Development Programs for Disease-Modifying Agents for Peripheral Neuropathy; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... for Peripheral Neuropathy; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...-modifying agents for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Discussion will focus on possible therapeutic targets for these agents, the types of painful peripheral neuropathies amenable to treatment with disease...

  5. Developing Canadian oncology education goals and objectives for medical students: a national modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vincent C.; Ingledew, Paris-Ann; Berry, Scott; Verma, Sunil; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that there is a deficiency in focused oncology teaching during medical school in Canada. This study aimed to develop oncology education goals and objectives for medical students through consensus of oncology educators from across Canada. Methods: In 2014 we created a comprehensive list of oncology education objectives using existing resources. Experts in oncology education and undergraduate medical education from all 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in a 3-round modified Delphi process. In round 1, the participants scored the objectives on a 9-point Likert scale according to the degree to which they agreed an objective should be taught to medical students. Objectives with a mean score of 7.0 or greater were retained, those with a mean score of 1.0-3.9 were excluded, and those with a mean score of 4.0-6.9 were discussed at a round 2 Web meeting. In round 3, the participants voted on inclusion and exclusion of the round 2 objectives. Results: Thirty-four (92%) of the 37 invited oncology educators, representing 14 medical schools, participated in the study. They included oncologists, family physicians, members of undergraduate medical education curriculum committees and a psychologist. Of the 214 objectives reviewed in round 1, 146 received a mean score of 7.0 or greater, and 68 were scored 4.0-6.9; no objective received a mean score below 4.0. Nine new objectives were suggested. The main themes of participants' comments were to minimize the number of objectives and to aim objectives at the knowledge level required for family physicians. In round 2, the participants were able to combine 28 of the objectives with other existing objectives. In round 3, 7 of the 49 objectives received consensus of at least 75% for inclusion. The final Canadian Oncology Goals and Objectives for Medical Students contained 10 goals and 153 objectives. Interpretation: Through a systematic process, we created a comprehensive, consensus

  6. Developing, testing, and sustaining rehabilitation interventions via participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T; Williams, Rhonda M; Ephraim, Patti L; Stevenson, Jennifer E; Isenberg, Patricia J; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2013-01-01

    Few published intervention studies in the rehabilitation literature have included consumers in the research process other than as study participants. This lack of consumer involvement in intervention research may contribute to the challenges encountered developing, translating, disseminating, and sustaining evidence-based rehabilitation interventions in clinical practice. The overall objective of this article is to promote the integration of participatory action research (PAR) into rehabilitation intervention research as a mechanism for addressing these gaps. First, we outline essential components of a PAR model across 5 key phases of intervention research, specifically: agenda setting, methods, implementation, diffusion/dissemination, and sustainability. Second, we describe the use of PAR in rehabilitation intervention research within each of these phases by reviewing relevant literature and by providing an illustrative research example from a randomized controlled trial that integrated PAR throughout the research process. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of 5 specific recommendations for promoting the integration of PAR into rehabilitation intervention research.

  7. Development of Modified Pag (Polyalkylene Glycol) High VI High Fuel Efficient Lubricant for LDV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, Arup [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); McWatt, D. G. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Zdrodowski, R. J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Liu, Zak [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Elie, Larry [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Simko, S. J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ramirez, Giovanni [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cuthbert, J. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Hock, E. D. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Engine oils play a critical role in friction reduction. Improvements in engine oil technology steadily improved fuel economy as the industry moved through ILSAC GF-1 to GF-5 specifications. These improvements were influenced by changes in base oil chemistry, development of new friction modifiers and their treat levels, and the total additive package consisting of various other components. However, the improvements are incremental and further fuel consumption reduction opportunities are becoming more challenging. Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) based engine oils are being explored as a step forward for significant fuel consumption reduction. Although PAG fluids are used in many industrial applications, its application as an engine oil has been explored in a limited way. The objective of this project is to deep dive in exploring the applicability of PAG technology in engine oil, understanding the benefits, and limitations, elucidating the mechanism(s) for friction benefits, if any, and finally recommending how to address any limitations. The project was designed in four steps, starting with selection of lubricant technology, followed by friction and wear evaluations in laboratory bench tests which are relatively simple and inexpensive and also served as a screener for further evaluation. Selected formulations were chosen for more complex engine component level tests i.e., motored valvetrain friction and wear, piston ring friction using a motored single cylinder, and motored engine tests. A couple of formulations were further selected based on component level tests for engine dyno tests i.e., Sequence VID (ASTM D6709) for fuel economy, Sequence IVA (ASTM D6891) for valvetrain wear, and Sequence VG (ASTM D6593) for sludge and varnish protection. These are some of the industry standard tests required for qualifying engine oils. Out of these tests, a single PAG oil was selected for chassis roll dynamometer tests for fuel economy and emission measurements using FTP (Federal

  8. Integrating climate change into agricultural research for development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Anderson, Simon

    2011-09-15

    African agriculture is already struggling to meet increasing demand for food. Climate change, which will alter agroecological conditions and looks set to arrest and decrease agricultural yields on the continent, will make it even harder to achieve food security. Boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, especially in the face of climate change, cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting edge science. Advances in technology development and transfer, capacity building and policy research must be harnessed by developing and disseminating relevant strategies and technologies, and improving policy environments. The European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), which facilitates and coordinates European policy and support for agricultural research for development, must integrate climate change into its activities and ensure that agricultural research for development and climate change adaptation are not disjointed. This demands a more strategic and coordinated approach from the initiative — one that reflects African realities, responds to African priorities for adaptation and development, and makes the best use of limited resources.

  9. Research and Development Strategies in the Semiconductor Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Allen

    2003-03-01

    In the 21st Century semiconductor industry, there is a critical balance between internally funded semiconductor research and development (R) and externally funded R. External R may include jointly-funded research collaborations/partnerships with other device manufacturers, jointly-funded consortia-based R, and individually-funded research programs at universities and other contract research locations. Each of these approaches has merits and each has costs. There is a critical balance between keeping the internal research and development pipeline filled and keeping it from being overspent. To meet both competitive schedule and cost goals, a semiconductor device manufacturer must decide on a model for selection of internal versus external R. Today, one of the most critical decisions is whether or not to do semiconductor research and development on 300 mm silicon wafers. Equipment suppliers are doing first development on 300 mm equipment. So, for the device manufacturer, there is a balance between the cost of doing development on 300 mm wafers and the development time schedule driven by equipment availability. In the face of these cost and schedule elements, device manufacturers are looking to consortia such as SEMATECH, SRC, and SRC MARCO for early development and screening of new materials and device structure approaches. This also causes much more close development collaboration between device manufacturer and equipment supplier. Many device manufacturers are also making use of direct contract research with universities and other contract-research organizations, such as IMEC, LETI, and other government-funded research organizations around the world. To get the most out of these external research interactions, the company must develop a strategy for management and technology integration of external R.

  10. Against Permitted Exploitation in Developing World Research Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Danielle M

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the moral force of exploitation in developing world research agreements. Taking for granted that some clinical research which is conducted in the developing world but funded by developed world sponsors is exploitative, it asks whether a third party would be morally justified in enforcing limits on research agreements in order to ensure more fair and less exploitative outcomes. This question is particularly relevant when such exploitative transactions are entered into voluntarily by all relevant parties, and both research sponsors and host communities benefit from the resulting agreements. I show that defenders of the claim that exploitation ought to be permitted rely on a mischaracterization of certain forms of interference as unjustly paternalistic and two dubious empirical assumptions about the results of regulation. The view I put forward is that by evaluating a system of constraints on international research agreements, rather than individual transaction-level interference, we can better assess the alternatives to permitting exploitative research agreements.

  11. Research on the Development and Teaching of Thinking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Amestoy de Sánchez

    2002-01-01

    In this presentation it is proposed and justified an integrated model of research and development that could be applicable to the building, implementation and evaluation of the teaching and transfer of thinking skills. First, the principles underlying the development of thought are presented; next, the role of research in the construction and application of the intellectual development and process-based learning model; its components and interrelations are identified. Finally, the role...

  12. Economic analysis of opportunities to accelerate Alzheimer's disease research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Troy J; O'Connor, Alan C; Link, Albert N; Beaulieu, Travis J

    2014-04-01

    The development of disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) faces a number of barriers. Among these are the lack of surrogate biomarkers, the exceptional size and duration of clinical trials, difficulties in identifying appropriate populations for clinical trials, and the limitations of monotherapies in addressing such a complex multifactorial disease. This study sets out to first estimate the consequent impact on the expected cost of developing disease-modifying treatments for AD and then to estimate the potential benefits of bringing together industry, academic, and government stakeholders to co-invest in, for example, developing better biomarkers and cognitive assessment tools, building out advanced registries and clinical trial-readiness cohorts, and establishing clinical trial platforms to investigate combinations of candidate drugs and biomarkers from the portfolios of multiple companies. Estimates based on interviews with experts on AD research and development suggest that the cost of one new drug is now $5.7 billion (95% confidence interval (CI) $3.7-9.5 billion) and could be reduced to $2.0 billion (95% CI $1.5-2.9 billion). The associated acceleration in the arrival of disease-modifying treatments could reduce the number of case years of dementia by 7.0 million (95% CI 4.4-9.4 million) in the United States from 2025 through 2040.

  13. Managing scientists leadership strategies in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Sapienza, Alice M

    1995-01-01

    Managing Scientists Leadership Strategies in Research and Development Alice M. Sapienza "I found ...this book to be exciting ...Speaking as someone who has spent 30 years grappling with these issues, I certainly would be a customer." -Robert I. Taber, PhD Senior Vice President of Research & Development Synaptic Pharmaceutical Corporation In today's climate of enormous scientific and technologic competition, it is more crucial than ever that scientists involved in research and development be managed well. Often trained as individual researchers, scientists can find integration into teams difficult. Managers, from both scientific and nonscientific backgrounds, who are responsible for these teams frequently find effective team building a long and challenging process. Managing Scientists offers strategies for fostering communication and collaboration among scientists. It shows how to build cohesive, productive, and focused teams to succeed in the competitive research and development marketplace. This book wil...

  14. Development of a structured undergraduate research experience: Framework and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anne M; Lewis, Stephanie N; Bevan, David R

    2016-09-10

    Participating in undergraduate research can be a pivotal experience for students in life science disciplines. Development of critical thinking skills, in addition to conveying scientific ideas in oral and written formats, is essential to ensuring that students develop a greater understanding of basic scientific knowledge and the research process. Modernizing the current life sciences research environment to accommodate the growing demand by students for experiential learning is needed. By developing and implementing a structured, theory-based approach to undergraduate research in the life sciences, specifically biochemistry, it has been successfully shown that more students can be provided with a high-quality, high-impact research experience. The structure of this approach allowed students to develop novel, independent projects in a computational molecular modeling lab. Students engaged in an experience in which career goals, problem-solving skills, time management skills, and independence in a research lab were developed. After experiencing this approach to undergraduate research, students reported feeling challenged to think critically and prepared for future career paths. The approach allowed for a progressive learning environment where more undergraduate students could participate in publishable research. Future areas for development include implementation in a bench-top lab and extension to disciplines beyond biochemistry. In this study, it has been shown that utilizing the structured approach to undergraduate research could allow for more students to experience undergraduate research and develop into more confident, independent life scientists well prepared for graduate schools and professional research environments. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):463-474, 2016.

  15. Do Organic Consumers Oppose Genetically Modified Food Stronger than Others? Results of a Consumer Research in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wirthgen, Antje

    2007-01-01

    The majority of consumers, in particular European consumers oppose genetic modifi-cation of food. Although consumers oppose strongly genetic modification of food, genetically modified food production increases world wide. The co-existence of both, genetically modified food production and food production free of genetic modification cannot be ensured. There is always a risk that non-genetically modified food gets contaminated despite safety regulations. Thus, even organic production, which is ...

  16. Psychometric Development of the Research and Knowledge Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lauren R.; Ojukwu, Elizabeth; Person, Sharina D.; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many research participants are misinformed about research terms, procedures, and goals; however, no validated instruments exist to assess individual’s comprehension of health-related research information. We propose research literacy as a concept that incorporates understanding about the purpose and nature of research. Objectives: We developed the Research and Knowledge Scale (RaKS) to measure research literacy in a culturally, literacy-sensitive manner. We describe its development and psychometric properties. Research Design: Qualitative methods were used to assess perspectives of research participants and researchers. Literature and informed consent reviews were conducted to develop initial items. These data were used to develop initial domains and items of the RaKS, and expert panel reviews and cognitive pretesting were done to refine the scale. We conducted psychometric analyses to evaluate the scale. Subjects: The cross-sectional survey was administered to a purposive community-based sample (n=430) using a Web-based data collection system and paper. Measures: We did classic theory testing on individual items and assessed test-retest reliability and Kuder-Richardson-20 for internal consistency. We conducted exploratory factor analysis and analysis of variance to assess differences in mean research literacy scores in sociodemographic subgroups. Results: The RaKS is comprised of 16 items, with a Kuder-Richardson-20 estimate of 0.81 and test-retest reliability 0.84. There were differences in mean scale scores by race/ethnicity, age, education, income, and health literacy (all P<0.01). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the RaKS. This scale can be used to measure research participants’ understanding about health-related research processes and identify areas to improve informed decision-making about research participation. PMID:27579914

  17. Research and Application of Acetate Modified Starch%醋酸酯淀粉浆料的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董跃清

    2001-01-01

    The modified principle and processing method of acetate modified starch is introduced briefly,and then according to the relationship between D.S. and size performance,suggestion on the application of the size is raised.Finally,the conclusion is that with the development of research on modification processing of acetate starch,it will be more and more important in the field of application of size.%对醋酸酯淀粉浆料的变性原理及制取方法作了简单介绍,并根据取代度与浆料性能的关系,对醋酸酯淀粉浆料的应用提出建议,认为随着醋酸酯淀粉变性工艺研究的深化和优化,其在我国浆料应用结构中的比重将越来越大。

  18. Redox polymer film modified electrodes research progress%氧化还原聚合物薄膜修饰电极的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海霞; 王焕梅; 侯侠; 尚秀丽; 王雪香

    2013-01-01

    对近年来氧化还原聚合物薄膜(包括有机染料、醌、酚、醚、卟啉类、酞菁类等)修饰电极的发展及应用做了综述.此类电极的应用检测集中在多巴胺、抗坏血酸、过氧化氢、葡萄糖、部分药物等,未来研究的重点是扩大分析检测的对象,建立制备方便,性能稳定的修饰电极,实现更方便、快速的在线分析检测.%In recent years redox polymer film (including organic dyes, quinone, phenol, ether, porphyrin class,the phthalocyanin.es,etc. ) modified electrodes development and applications were briefly reviewed. This kind of electrode detection focused on dopamine, ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, glucose, part of the drug,etc. The future research focus on expanding analysis detection object,preparation modified elec-trode which is more convenient, more stable, realizing a more convenient, fast online analysis detection.

  19. SARC: Development and Support of a Sarcoma Research Consortium Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkison, Jim

    2007-10-29

    SARC is a non-for-profit organization whose mission and vision is to advocate for the collaboration on the design of clinical trials on sarcoma, to further the knowledge regarding the diagnosis and treatment of sarcoma and provide accurate and up to date information to physicians, patients and families. The objectives are to assist in the development of the infrastructure for the continued growth and spectrum of clinical research, to facilitate biannual meeting of investigators, and to develop a preclinical research base that would design and conduct research that would improve the process of drug treatments selected for clinical research trials.

  20. 纳米材料改性水性聚氨酯的研究进展%Research progress of waterborne polyurethane modified with nano materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑾; 马咏梅; 安招鹏

    2015-01-01

    综述了纳米材料改性水性聚氨酯几种常用方法的特点和研究进展,指出了纳米材料改性水性聚氨酯存在的问题。%Several commonly used methods and recent research progress of the nano materials in modified waterborne polyurethane were reviewed. And the existing questions for waterborne polyurethane modified with the nano materials were pointed out.