External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children
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Amir Hossein Zare
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.
A Case of Male Osteoporosis: A 37-Year-Old Man with Multiple Vertebral Compression Fractures
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Suhaib Radi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available While the contributing role of testosterone to bone health is rather modest compared to other factors such as estradiol levels, male hypogonadism is associated with low bone mass and fragility fractures. Along with stimulating physical puberty by achieving virilization and a normal muscle mass and improving psychosocial wellbeing, the goals of testosterone replacement therapy in male hypogonadism also include attainment of age-specific bone mineral density. We report on a 37-year-old man who presented with multiple vertebral compression fractures several years following termination of testosterone replacement therapy for presumed constitutional delay in growth and puberty. Here, we discuss the management of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with hyposmia (Kallmann syndrome, with which the patient was ultimately diagnosed, the role of androgens in the acquisition of bone mass during puberty and its maintenance thereafter, and outline specific management strategies for patients with hypogonadism and high risk for fragility fractures.
A 37-year-old man trying to choose a high-quality hospital: review of hospital quality indicators.
Howell, Michael D
2009-12-01
Mr A, a previously healthy 37-year-old man, was diagnosed as having Prinzmetal angina and a hypercoagulable state 3 years ago after an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Now, his cardiologist is moving and Mr A must select a new physician and health system. Geographic relocation, insurance changes, and other events force millions in the United States to change physicians and hospitals every year. Mr A should begin by choosing a primary care physician, since continuity and coordination of care improves outcomes. Evidence for evaluating specific physicians is less robust, though a variety of sources are available. A broad range of detailed quality information, such as Medicare's Hospital Compare (http://www.hospitalcompare.hhs.gov/), is available for selecting a hospital. However, the relationship of these metrics to patient outcomes is variable, and different Web sites provide meaningfully different rankings and data interpretations. For Mr A in particular, a warfarin management team, the hospital's location, and a cardiologist with whom he feels comfortable and who can communicate with his primary care physician are important factors. Nevertheless, hospital quality information and metrics are an important component of the strategy Mr A should take to solve this challenging problem.
[Granuloma Gravidarum in a 37-year-old 1st Gravida, 1st Para--A Case Report].
Findeklee, S
2015-10-01
The granuloma gravidarum is a rare benign tumour with gingival origin. It occurs in circa 0.2% of pregnancies. Mostly we see an asymptomatic course of disease terminated by hormonal changes after delivery. If the granuloma is associated with complaints of the pregnant woman, for example masticational pain or recurrent bleedings, therapeutic options are conservative therapy, surgery or delivery. We report the case of a 37-year-old 1st gravida, 1st para who had an induced delivery in the 39+2 gestational week because of a symptomatic granuloma gravidarum. We saw a spontaneous remission of the granuloma within 3 months post partum. The case report underlines the importance of suitable information for pregnant women about oral hygiene and the necessity of regular dental controls during pregnancy for prophylaxis of granuloma gravidarum.
Andrei, Mirela; Bandarchuk, Andrei; Abdelmalek, Cherif; Kundra, Ajay; Gotlieb, Vladimir; Wang, Jen Chin
2017-01-01
Patient: Male, 37 Final Diagnosis: PDGFRβ-rearranged myeloid neoplasm with eosinophilia Symptoms: Night sweats • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: PDGFRβ-positive myeloid neoplasms are rare. Marked leukocytosis (over 100×109/L) with marked eosinophilia (over 10%) has been rarely described in myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFRβ rearrangement. Case report: We report a case of 37-year-old man with myeloid neoplasm associated with PDGFRβ rearrangement who presented with marked eosinophilia of 13.3% and leukocytosis with WBC count of 189×109/L. He was found to have PDGFRβ locus rearrangement at 5q32-33 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). He responded very well to low-dose imatinib therapy. To the best of our knowledge this degree of hypereosinophilia and leukocytosis in a young adult was reported only once previously. Using low dose therapy in treating this condition has rarely been reported and has not been clearly defined. Our case demonstrated that low dose imatinib therapy can be as effective as high dose imatinib therapy in treating PDGFRβ-positive myeloid neoplasms. Conclusions: The patient presented with very high WBC and eosinophil count rarely reported in a young adult with PDGFRβ-rearranged myeloid neoplasm. The recognition of this rare presentation as a manifestation of PDGFRβ-gene translocation is important, and equally important that low-dose imatinib (100 mg/day) might have the same effect as higher dose imatinib (400 mg/day). PMID:28209946
Andrei, Mirela; Bandarchuk, Andrei; Abdelmalek, Cherif; Kundra, Ajay; Gotlieb, Vladimir; Wang, Jen Chin
2017-02-17
BACKGROUND PDGFRᵝ-positive myeloid neoplasms are rare. Marked leukocytosis (over 100×10⁹/L) with marked eosinophilia (over 10%) has been rarely described in myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFRᵝ rearrangement. CASE REPORT We report a case of 37-year-old man with myeloid neoplasm associated with PDGFRᵝ rearrangement who presented with marked eosinophilia of 13.3% and leukocytosis with WBC count of 189×10⁹/L. He was found to have PDGFRᵝ locus rearrangement at 5q32-33 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). He responded very well to low-dose imatinib therapy. To the best of our knowledge this degree of hypereosinophilia and leukocytosis in a young adult was reported only once previously. Using low dose therapy in treating this condition has rarely been reported and has not been clearly defined. Our case demonstrated that low dose imatinib therapy can be as effective as high dose imatinib therapy in treating PDGFRᵝ-positive myeloid neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS The patient presented with very high WBC and eosinophil count rarely reported in a young adult with PDGFRᵝ-rearranged myeloid neoplasm. The recognition of this rare presentation as a manifestation of PDGFRᵝ-gene translocation is important, and equally important that low-dose imatinib (100 mg/day) might have the same effect as higher dose imatinib (400 mg/day).
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Motlagh Mehdi Ghandehari
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental environment is a stressful place for children. In many cases, parents transmit their anxiety to their children in the first dental visit. Mothers as the closest person to the children may have important influence on their children’s behavior in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational pamphlet for mothers on children’s behavior in the first dental visit. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 238 mothers who had 3-7 years old children undergoing dental treatment for the first time. The participants were divided into interventional and control group randomly. Behavior of children was assessed by questionnaire according to 4 point scale of Frankle. The questionnaire contained 5 parts: separation of child from the mother, entering the dental room, opening the mouth, communicating with dentist, getting the prize. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The educational pamphlet was effective on the separation of child from the mother, the cooperation of children in interventional group was better than the control group (P=0.006. In interventional group 96.2% of and in the control group 90.8% of children had good and very good behavior but the difference was not significant (P=0.11. Conclusion: Although the educational pamphlet was effective on the separation of child from mother. No significant difference in behavior of 3-7 year-old children between interventional and control group was found.
Gundling, Felix; Nerlich, Andreas; Heitland, Wolf; Schepp, Wolfgang
2014-05-01
An acute presentation after pregnancy of coeliac disease (CD) in the puerperium is a rare condition which has been described mostly in primigravidae in patients highly suspicious of latent CD. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman who was referred to our Hospital because of refractory watery diarrhea and malnutrition syndrome. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract revealed the classic visual features of CD and in addition, some duodenal ulcers negative for Helicobacter pylori, which seems to be another clinical feature in patients with CD. The diagnosis of acute onset of fulminant postpartal CD (Marsh score stage 3c) was confirmed histologically. Remarkably, simultaneous well-differentiated neuroendocrine non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNET) was diagnosed on radiological abdominal imaging which was performed since serum gastrin was remarkably high, treated by distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. This report is, to our knowledge, the first description of the two entities, CD and PNET occurring together. Since results of antral histological studies showed diffuse hyperplasia of G-cells, probably in response to hypergastrinaemia, enterochromaffin cell carcinogenesis might have served as a possible link between both diseases.
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Barriuso Clemente
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract We report about a 37 year old male patient with a pectus excavatum. The patient was in NYHA functional class III. After performed computed tomography the symptoms were thought to be related to the severity of chest deformation. A Ravitch-procedure had been accomplished in a district hospital in 2009. The crack of a metal bar led to a reevaluation 2010, in which surprisingly the presence of an annuloaortic ectasia (root 73 × 74 mm in direct neighborhood of the formerly implanted metal-bars was diagnosed. Echocardiography revealed a severe aortic valve regurgitation, the left ventricle was massively dilated presenting a reduced ejection fraction of 45%. A marfan syndrome was suspected and the patient underwent a valve sparing aortic root replacement (David procedure in our institution with an uneventful postoperative course. A review of the literature in combination with discussion of our case suggests the application of stronger recommendations towards preoperative cardiovascular assessment in patients with pectus excavatum.
Problem Solving: Polya's Heuristic Applied to Psychological Research.
Damarin, Suzanne K.
Using the "How to Solve It" list developed by Polya as a vehicle of comparison, research findings and key concepts from the psychological study of problem solving are applied to mathematical problem solving. Hypotheses concerning the interpretation of psychological phenomena for mathematical problem situations are explored. Several areas…
Cognitive variables in science problem solving: a review of research
Solaz Portolés, Joan Josep; Vicente SANJOSÉ LÓPEZ
2007-01-01
This paper provides an overview of research into cognitive variables that are involved in problem solving and how these variables affect the performance of problem solvers. The variables discussed are grouped together in: prior knowledge, formal reasoning ability and neo-Piagetian variables, long-term memory and working memory, knowledge base, and metacognitive variables.
Kinsella, John J.
1970-01-01
Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯夏婷
2005-01-01
本研究选择了3-7岁的攻击性儿童和非攻击性儿童各33人,通过实验研究了攻击性儿童和非攻击性儿童的意图认知和行为预期方面的差异.研究结果表明,攻击性儿童容易把别人的行为判断为具有攻击性意图,攻击性儿童的行为预期能力不如非攻击性儿童,他们容易作出攻击性的行为预期.
Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research
Parr, Michelann
2010-01-01
This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…
Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding
Maiden, N.; Jones, S; Karlsen, I. K.; Neill, R.; Zachos, K.; Milne, A.
2010-01-01
This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then maps established requirements activities onto one of the longest-esta...
The behavior modification through the play of children aged 3-7 years old
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Flora Lamcja (Zeqaj
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The integration of theory, technique and common factors in psychotherapy has gained prominence since the 1990s. Previously, it was called eclecticism, but integration has become the preferred term to describe the blending of theory, technique and common factors (Norcross, 2005. In the past, eclecticism meant to choose from various theories and techniques a therapeutic strategy that appears best for a particular client (Schaefer, 2003, .308. However, Norcross (1987 explains eclecticism as a further integration through which various theories are applied on interactive and coordinated explanations of the therapy. Psychological disorders, especially in complex children and adolescents a multifaceted treatment approach is needed (Schaefer 2003. Indeed, many clients do not come with a clearly defined diagnosis, but rather several overlapping problems due to the co morbidity of issues (such as in the cases of complex trauma resulting in overlapping attention problems, along with phobias and sexualized behaviors. The clinicians trained in one theoretical and treatment approach are finding the “one size” cannot fit in all the presenting problems that are being faced today. Due to this multidimensional aspect the play child/play therapy calls for the unique demand that the therapist should wear a lot of different hats and should be skillful in changing from one therapeutic stance to another, in order to meet the needs of the child and of the various members in the child’s life (Coonerty, 1993. In one moment, the play therapist is intensively involved in deeply evocative and conflicted play therapy the child client. At that moment, the therapist needs to deal with the child’s internal struggles, setting limits and being an educator or mediator with the child, while in the next moment the therapist should be engaged with the role of a parent, or school psychologist, or classroom teacher to assess the child’s functioning
Candidal liver abscesses and cholecystitis in a 37-year-old patient without underlying malignancy
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Chung-Hsu Lai; Hsin-Pai Chen; Te-Li Chen; Chang-Phone Fung; Cheng-Yi Liu; Shou-Dong Lee
2005-01-01
We report a case of candidal liver abscesses and concomitant candidal cholecystitis in a diabetic patient, in whom differences were noted relative to those found in patients with hematologic malignancies. In our case, the proposed entry route of infection is ascending retrograde from the biliary tract. Bile and aspirated pus culture repeatedly tested positive, and blood negative, for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Cholecystitis was cured by percutaneous gallbladder drainage and amphotericin B therapy. The liver abscesses were successfully treated by a cumulative dosage of 750 mg amphotericin B. We conclude that in cases involving less immunocompromised patients and those without candidemia, a lower dosage of amphotericin B may be adequate in treating candidal liver abscesses.
Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem-solving....... This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education. The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher...... education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers...
Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chemi, Tatiana
2016-01-01
Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem......-solving. This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education. The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher...... education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers...
Research Projects in Physics: A Mechanism for Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving
Milbourne, Jeff; Bennett, Jonathan
2017-10-01
Physics education research has a tradition of studying problem solving, exploring themes such as physical intuition and differences between expert and novice problem solvers. However, most of this work has focused on traditional, or well-structured, problems, similar to what might appear in a textbook. Less work has been done with open-ended, or ill-structured, problems, similar to the types of problems students might face in their professional lives. Given the national discourse on educational system reform aligned with 21st century skills, including problem solving, it is critical to provide educational experiences that help students learn to solve all types of problems, including ill-structured problems.
Major research approaches to solve gas-dynamic problems in Donbass coal mines
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Kuzyara, V.I.; Agaphonov, A.V. [Makeyevka State Safety in Mine Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
The number of gas-dynamic events per million tons of coal mined remains great though coal output from underground coal mines in Donetsk basin has dropped. This dictates enhanced research efforts to solve the following gas-dynamic problems: sudden coal, rock and gas outbursts, sudden coal, rock and gas outbursts, sudden squeezing, falls (coal spillage) sudden methane inrushes from the bottom, and bumps. New approaches to solve these problems have been based on modern concepts and ideas of natural mechanisms of the events. Current and future research needs are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid
2013-03-01
Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.
Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K
2012-01-01
Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...
Micro-Cognitive-Processes at the Interface Research-Education-Problem Solving
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Josiane Caron-Pargue
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A first part of this paper gives a rough picture of some difficulties encountered in research, in education, and in problem solving, for integrating them to one another. One can notice a much too global characterization of cognitive processes and a lack in the characterization of semiotic aspects. A second part analyses some theoretical limits to this integration. They are mainly due to the current conception of memories unable to take into consideration the micro-cognitive-processes at work under the reorganizations of knowledge when actualized within the situation. A third part presents a way toward the integration research-education-problem solving, relying on a cognitive approach of Culioli's enunciative theory of language, and presents some of the author's data. Micro-cognitive-processes are depicted in terms of the construction of aggregates (declarative versus procedural ones, standing at different levels of internalization and externalization, and of different processes of detachment from the situation. Then several kinds of interactions allow an on-line identification of the constraints of the task. The characterization of these constraints seems basic for each of the considered areas, research, education, and problem solving.
Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research
Chen, Hongwei
2010-01-01
Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.
Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia
2016-05-10
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a modified cognitive strategy instructional intervention originally developed to improve the mathematical problem solving of middle and high school students with learning disabilities (LD). Fifth and sixth grade general education mathematics teachers and their students of varying ability (i.e., average-achieving [AA] students, low-achieving [LA] students, and students with LD) participated in the research study. Several features of the intervention were modified, including (a) explicitness of instruction, (b) emphasis on meta-cognition, (c) focus on problem-solving prerequisites, (d) extended duration of initial intervention, and (e) addition of visual supports. General education math teachers taught all instructional sessions to their inclusive classrooms. Curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of math problem solving were administered five times over the course of the year. A multilevel model (repeated measures nested within students and students nested within schools) was used to analyze student progress on CBMs. Though CBM scores in the intervention group were initially lower than that of the comparison group, intervention students improved significantly more in the first phase, with no differences in the second phase. Implications for instruction are discussed as well as directions for future research.
Eyisi, Daniel
2016-01-01
Research in science education is to discover the truth which involves the combination of reasoning and experiences. In order to find out appropriate teaching methods that are necessary for teaching science students problem-solving skills, different research approaches are used by educational researchers based on the data collection and analysis…
Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal
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Maria Helena Fávero
2001-05-01
Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.
Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K
2013-06-01
If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.
Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research
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A.V. Zhilinskaya,
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.
One More Time: The Need for More Mathematical Problem Solving and What the Research Says about It
Woodward, John
2013-01-01
This article reviews recent research in math problem solving for students with learning disabilities. Two recently published syntheses of research on mathematics by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) are used as frameworks for interpreting this body of work. A significant amount of the work in special education over the last decade is…
Durrance, Joan C.; Souden, Maria; Walker, Dana; Fisher, Karen E.
2006-01-01
Introduction: This article results from a qualitative study of 1) information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2) approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method: Several approaches to data collection were…
Research on problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of some variables
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Eroğlu Başak
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of different variables. 157 male and 43 female orienteering athletes, making a total of 200 athletes that joined the 3rd Level of Turkey Championship in 2015 have participated in this study which is in a survey model. The data collection tools were the Problem Solving Inventory and Personal Information Form that were formed by Heppner & Peterson (1982 and adapted into Turkish by Şahin, Şahin & Heppner (1993. In the data analysis, descriptive statics, anova, t test and Tukey test have been utilized. In the line with the findings, it has been determined that the difference between the total mean values (85.55+20.45 that the orienteering athletes got from the problem solving inventory and their age, marital status, sports age, the years of practice in orienteering sports, and the status of being national player is significant (p<0.05. It has been found that male orienteering athletes perform higher evaluating approach compared to the female athletes, and that as the age levels increase, the problem solving skill is affected more positively. Furthermore, it has been determined that the perceptions of the participants that have more experience and sports age in orienteering sports and that do orienteering sports at a national level are more positive in the matter of problem solving skills.
Bassuk, James A.; Washington, Ida M.
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponso...
RESEARCH ON SOLVING TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM USING RANK BASED ANT SYSTEM ON GPU
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Khushbu Khatri
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is meta-heuristic algorithm inspired from nature to solve many combinatorial optimization problems such as Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. There are many versions of ACO used to solve TSP like, Ant System, Elitist Ant System, Max-Min Ant System, Rank based Ant System algorithm. For improved performance, these methods can be implemented in parallel architecture like GPU, CUDA architecture. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU provides highly parallel and fully programmable platform. GPUs which have many processing units with an off-chip global memory can be used for general purpose parallel computation. This paper presents a parallel Rank Based Ant System algorithm to solve TSP by use of Pre Roulette Wheel Selection Method.
Information problem solving instruction: An overview of 21st century research
Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Testers, Laurent; Van Strien, Johan; Walhout, Jaap; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
2015-01-01
Information problem solving (IPS) is the process of locating, selecting, evaluating, and integrating information from various sources to fulfill an information need (Brand-Gruwel, Wopereis, & Vermetten, 2005). It is regarded an important contemporary skill, at times categorized as twenty-first centu
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Joan C. Durrance
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.
Information problem solving instruction: An overview of 21st century research
Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Testers, Laurent; Van Strien, Johan; Walhout, Jaap; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
2015-01-01
Information problem solving (IPS) is the process of locating, selecting, evaluating, and integrating information from various sources to fulfill an information need (Brand-Gruwel, Wopereis, & Vermetten, 2005). It is regarded an important contemporary skill, at times categorized as twenty-first
Agent-Based Modeling of Collaborative Problem Solving. Research Report. ETS RR-16-27
Bergner, Yoav; Andrews, Jessica J.; Zhu, Mengxiao; Gonzales, Joseph E.
2016-01-01
Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is a critical competency in a variety of contexts, including the workplace, school, and home. However, only recently have assessment and curriculum reformers begun to focus to a greater extent on the acquisition and development of CPS skill. One of the major challenges in psychometric modeling of CPS is…
Information problem solving instruction: An overview of 21st century research
Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Testers, Laurent; Van Strien, Johan; Walhout, Jaap; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
2015-01-01
Information problem solving (IPS) is the process of locating, selecting, evaluating, and integrating information from various sources to fulfill an information need (Brand-Gruwel, Wopereis, & Vermetten, 2005). It is regarded an important contemporary skill, at times categorized as twenty-first centu
Research on cultural algorithm for solving routing problem of mobile agent
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
The key idea behind cultural algorithm is to explicitly acquire problem-solving knowledge from the evolving population and in return apply that knowledge to guide the search. In this article, cultural algorithm-simulated annealing is proposed to solve the routing problem of mobile agent. The optimal individual is accepted to improve the belief space's evolution of cultural algorithms by simulated annealing. The step size in search is used as situational knowledge to guide the search of optimal solution in the population space. Because of this feature, the search time is reduced. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this article can ensure the quality of optimal solutions, and also has better convergence speed. The operation efficiency of the system is considerably improved.
Mangion, Ian; Liu, Yizhou; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Welch, Christopher J
2016-08-19
As new chemical methodologies driven by single-electron chemistry emerge, process and analytical chemists must develop approaches to rapidly solve problems in this nontraditional arena. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been long known as a preferred technique for the study of paramagnetic species. However, it is only recently finding application in contemporary pharmaceutical development, both to study reactions and to track the presence of undesired impurities. Several case studies are presented here to illustrate its utility in modern pharmaceutical development efforts.
2016-01-01
This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .
The SERP Approach to Problem-Solving Research, Development, and Implementation
Donovan, M. Suzanne; Snow, Catherine; Daro, Phil
2013-01-01
Education researchers are increasingly working in practice-based partnerships in order to direct their research efforts toward important problems of practice. We argue for the creation of an infrastructure to support routine and sustained interaction among researchers, practitioners, and designers in order to make partnership efforts more…
Archbald, Doug
2008-01-01
Background: A growing literature is questioning the appropriateness of a research dissertation for practitioners in education doctoral programs. Although this literature persuasively critiques the prevailing theory-research orientation of most programs and theses, it goes little beyond exhorting change and describing extant alternatives in a few…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James A Bassuk
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation. The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Despina Moissidou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification. Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry, although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.M. Chapman
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In a human-altered world where biodiversity is in decline and conservation problems abound, there is a dire need to ensure that the next generation of conservation scientists have the knowledge, skills, and training to address these problems. So called “early career researchers” (ECRs in conservation science have many challenges before them and it is clear that the status quo must change to bridge the knowledge–action divide. Here we identify thirteen practical strategies that ECRs can employ to become more relevant. In this context, “relevance” refers to the ability to contribute to solving conservation problems through engagement with practitioners, policy makers, and stakeholders. Conservation and career strategies outlined in this article include the following: thinking ‘big picture’ during conservation projects; embracing various forms of knowledge; maintaining positive relationships with locals familiar with the conservation issue; accepting failure as a viable (and potentially valuable outcome; daring to be creative; embracing citizen science; incorporating interdisciplinarity; promoting and practicing pro-environmental behaviours; understanding financial aspects of conservation; forming collaboration from the onset of a project; accepting the limits of technology; ongoing and effective networking; and finally, maintaining a positive outlook by focusing on and sharing conservation success stories. These strategies move beyond the generic and highlight the importance of continuing to have an open mind throughout the entire conservation process, from establishing one’s self as an asset to embracing collaboration and interdisciplinary work, and striving to push for professional and personal connections that strengthen personal career objectives.
Laughlin, Patrick R
2011-01-01
Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical
Solving Research Tasks Using Desk top Scanning Electron Microscope Phenom ProX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vertsanova, O.V.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Phenom ProX — morden effective universal desktop Scanning Electron Microscope with integrated EDS system. Phenom-World helps customers to stay competitive in a world where critical dimensions are continuously getting smaller. All Phenom desktop systems give direct access to the high resolution and high-quality imaging and analysis required in a large variety of applications. They are affordable, flexible and a fast tool enabling engineers, technicians, researchers and educational professionals to investigate micron and submicron structures.
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Earth Rotation : Solved and Unsolved Problems
1986-01-01
The idea for organl.zl.ng an Advanced Research Workshop entirely devoted to the Earth rotation was born in 1983 when Professor Raymond Hide suggested this topic to the special NATO panel of global transport mechanism in the Geosciences. Such a specialized meeting did not take place since the GEOP research conference on the rotation of the Earth and polar motion which was held at the Ohio State University (USA) in 1973. In the last ten years, highly precise measurements of the Earth's rotation parameters and new global geophysical data have become available allowing major advance to be made in the under standing of the various irregularities affecting the Earth's rotation. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists who have made important contributions in this field during the last decade both at the observational and geophysical interpretation levels. The confe rence was divided into four main topics. The first session was dedicated to the definition, implementation and maintenance of the te...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
万小妹
2016-01-01
In this article,we have made a deep research on existing problems and solving strategies of English listening teaching in junior high school,the goal of which is to improve the English listening teaching in the future.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chin, George
1999-01-11
A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.
Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas
2017-01-01
This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues.
Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas
2017-01-01
This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues. PMID:28220098
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.P. Kosenko
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to justify the methodical recommendations on formation and implementation of a mechanism for assessing the current state of technological market of Ukraine, to identify the problems of its development and to form the ways to eliminate them. The results of the analysis. The analysis of current state and prospects of the Ukrainian market of intellectual and innovative technologies development is made. It is proposed a set of indicators that can characterize the current state of modern technological market. The author offered to include indicators of intellectual and innovative activity of Ukraine, which will characterize he level of patent activity, the level of inventive activity, the level of implementation of inventive capacity, the level of technological dependence of the country, the level of intellectual independence of the country, the level of technological distribution, the quality level of domestic scientific and technological developments. It is proposed to assess the state of technological market of the country using citation indexes of scientific research (Hirsch index. The author conducted a questionnaire survey of machine-building industrial enterprises of Kharkiv region to clarify the most significant constraint on industrial enterprises innovative development, adversely affect patent activity, not conducive to the development of inventions and the development of intellectual and innovative technologies. It is identified the most significant factors hindering innovation development, adversely affect patent activity, not conducive to the development of inventions and the development of intellectual and innovative technologies. The ways of solving problems of technological development of machine-building enterprises are suggested. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The following provisions of innovation policy subject are proposed on the basis of the research: (a
Mathematics Teaching, 1973
1973-01-01
Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)
Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for metacognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Solving Problems through Circles
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Solving Problems through Circles
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2015
2015-01-01
The Social Spending Innovation Research (SSIR) proposal seeks to replicate, in social spending, the great success of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in technology development. The SBIR program funds technology development by entrepreneurial small companies. The program has spawned breakthrough technologies in diverse areas…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher......Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... and participants and was documented by qualitative methods. This paper presents an academic literature review on Appreciative Inquiry and problem solving for continuous improvements that did not reveal successful attempts in combining the two.Both the literature and the empirical study showed one of the main...
Creativity and problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2004-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?”The r...
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
von Davier, Alina A.; Halpin, Peter F.
2013-01-01
Collaboration is generally recognized as a core competency of today's knowledge economy and has taken a central role in recent theoretical and technological developments in education research. Yet, the methodology for assessing the learning benefits of collaboration continues to rely on educational tests designed for isolated individuals. Thus,…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Инга Валерьевна Дементьева
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of forming high-school students’ design and research competence can be successfully solved with the help of the realization of pedagogical model based on the systematic, person- orientated and competence - active approach. The aim of the research is to theoretically justify and experimentally examine the model of formation of high-school students’ design and research competence. The importance of the research is that during it the set of scientific approaches (systematic, person- orientated and competence - active ones as the methodological basis for projecting the model were justified and the complex of pedagogical conditions served as the guide for the further research of the problem of high-school students’ design and research competence formation. The methods of the analysis of pedagogical, methodological literature, theoretical modeling, as well as empiric methods of research served as the basis of the methodology of the research in the process of model approbation. The value of the given research is that the practice-oriented model of forming design and research competence of high school students represents the multilevel dynamic system consisting of mutually conditioned components (objective, methodological, meaningful, technological and diagnostic-effective ones and can be included into the practice of other educational institutions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-11-2
Nearing, Kathryn A.; Hunt, Cerise; Presley, Jessica H.; Nuechterlein, Bridget M.; Moss, Marc; Manson, Spero M.
2015-01-01
This paper is the first in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline and presents strategies to support recruitment and retention to create diverse pathways into clinical and translational research (CTR). The strategies address multiple levels or contexts of persistence decisions and include: 1) creating a seamless pipeline by forming strategic partnerships to achieve continuity of support for scholars and collective impact; 2) providing ...
Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework
Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam
2012-01-01
Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…
Nearing, Kathryn A; Hunt, Cerise; Presley, Jessica H; Nuechterlein, Bridget M; Moss, Marc; Manson, Spero M
2015-10-01
This paper is the first in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline and presents strategies to support recruitment and retention to create diverse pathways into clinical and translational research (CTR). The strategies address multiple levels or contexts of persistence decisions and include: (1) creating a seamless pipeline by forming strategic partnerships to achieve continuity of support for scholars and collective impact; (2) providing meaningful research opportunities to support identity formation as a scientist and sustain motivation to pursue and persist in CTR careers; (3) fostering an environment for effective mentorship and peer support to promote academic and social integration; (4) advocating for institutional policies to alleviate environmental pull factors; and, (5) supporting program evaluation-particularly, the examination of longitudinal outcomes. By combining institutional policies that promote a culture and climate for diversity with quality, evidence-based programs and integrated networks of support, we can create the environment necessary for diverse scholars to progress successfully and efficiently through the pipeline to achieve National Institutes of Health's vision of a robust CTR workforce. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
基于蚁群算法的旅行商问题的研究%Research for Solving Traveling Salesman Problem Based on Ant Colony Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李辉
2015-01-01
It provides a powerful method of the design of distributed control and optimization for computer scientists that the study of social insect behavior. Research on swarm intelligence to ant colony algorithm as the representative has gradually become a research hotspot. Ant colony algorithm is very useful in real life, such as solving the traveling salesman problem, this paper introduces a solution of complex of the ant colony algorithm TSP, expounds the basic principle and realization process of the algorithm, and trys to use the coding form to be the basic ant colony algorithm applied to solve the traveling salesman problem.%群居性昆虫行为的研究为计算机科学家提供了设计分布式控制和优化算法的有力方法。对以蚁群算法为代表的群集智能的研究已经逐渐成为一个研究热点。蚁群算法在实际的生活中有很大的用处，比如求解旅行商问题，文章介绍了一种求解复杂TSP的蚁群算法，阐述了该算法的基本原理及实现过程，并且在本文中尝试用编码的形式将基本蚁群算法应用到求解旅行商问题中去。
Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul
2010-09-01
The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.
Research Progress on Solving Lack of Bone Mass in Dental Implant%牙齿种植骨量不足的相关研究进展
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李雅巍; 孙晓梅; 滕利; 丁波; 卢建建
2015-01-01
[Summary] Missing teeth usually cause alveolar bone absorption, manifest as the decrease of the alveolar height and width, hinder the operating of dental implant, and affect the denture and chewing function recovery. Reliable technologies are adopted to repair alveolar ridge, in order to make sure successful dental implant and meet the basic requirements for implant. In this paper, the researches on solving lack of bone mass in dental implant were reviewed.%牙齿缺失通常会导致牙槽骨吸收，主要表现为牙槽嵴高度、宽度的缩小，阻碍了种植修复的顺利进行，影响义齿修复及咀嚼功能的恢复。针对此类不能顺利进行种植手术的牙槽嵴，需采用可靠的技术进行修复，以满足种植的基本要求。本文对当前解决牙齿种植骨量不足问题的研究进展进行综述。
Problem Solving and Reasoning.
1984-02-01
6 here Acquisition of Problem - Solving Skill . An imporrant qLestinn is how the knowledge required For solving problems in a domain such as geometry is...Neves, 0. 4. (1981). Acquisition of problem - solving skill . In J. R. Anderson (Eds), Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum...NJ: Erlbaum. Voss, J. F., Greene, T. R., Post, T. A., & Penner, B. C. (1983). Problem solving skill in the social sciences. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The
Research on the basic factors and strategies for solving mathematical problems%数学问题解决的基本要素和策略研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄燕
2014-01-01
数学问题解决，是以思考为内涵，以问题目标为定向的心理活动及心理过程。数学问题的解决受到很多方面的影响，现就知识结构、技能因素和情感因素这三方面来谈它们对数学问题解决的影响并对其提出一些改进的策略。%The mathematical problem solving,is its connotation is thinking to problem of goal orientation,the psychological activity and psychological process.Mathematical problem solving is influenced by many aspects,the structure of knowledge, skills and emotional factors of these three aspects to discuss their influence on mathematical problem solving,and puts forward some strategies to improve on it.
Pizlo, Zygmunt
2007-01-01
This paper presents a bibliography of a little more than 100 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Compendex databases. Only journal papers, books and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, research in applied…
Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.
This paper identifies five types of learning experiences which are relevant to understanding students' grasp of concepts and principles. These include exploring existing concepts, honing and clustering concepts, developing analytical and reasoning skills, developing problem solving skills, and structuring knowledge in memory. Each of these…
Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andrew R.; Jenkins, Frank
2007-01-01
The Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments (TRE) study was designed to demonstrate and explore innovative use of computers for developing, administering, scoring, and analyzing the results of National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments. Two scenarios (Search and Simulation) were created for measuring problem solving…
The researches on the problem solving ability of primary mathematics%小学数学问题解决能力培养探究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙群若
2015-01-01
As a problem-centered teaching mode,“problem solving”can give full play to the dominant position of students,raise their interests in learning math,and help them to enhance the ability of analyzing and solving problems. By chan-ging the way of students’solving problems,“problem solving”can improve teachers'teaching mode and build efficient and stra-tegic classroom. Strategic teaching will benefit for the elementary mathematical problems. It will provide a useful reference for the promotion of the students’problem-solving skills and the ability to improve application.%“问题解决”作为一种以问题为核心的教学模式，能够充分发挥学生的主体地位，提高学习数学的兴趣，有助于学生分析问题和解决问题的能力的培育。通过转变学生问题解决方式，完善教师的教学模式，可以构建高效的课堂等教学策略对小学数学问题解决影响的探讨，为促进学生问题解决能力和应用能力的提高提供有益参考。
Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster
Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya
2016-06-01
The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
The Process of Solving Complex Problems
Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…
解决LCD动态图像拖尾现象的技术研究%Technology Research on Solving the Dynamic LCD Images Smearing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方奋奇; 边学军
2012-01-01
Based on reveal the underlying how to effectively reduce and solve the trailing phenomenon,from two aspects of the LCD display material properties and the human visual characteristics the reason of LCD to displaying moving images generating tailing phenomenon were analysed.Improving the response speed of liquid crystal and the black frame insertion technique is used to solve LCD display field exercise streaking problem.%基于能从根源上揭示如何更好更有效地减轻和解决拖尾现象.从LCD显示材料特性、人眼视觉特性两个方面分析LCD显示运动图像时产生拖尾现象的原因,提高液晶响应速度和全黑帧插入技术是目前LCD显示领域用来解决运动图像拖尾问题的有效方法.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
岳科来
2016-01-01
There have considerable number of design philosophies and design methods in this world,but today I’d like to intorduce a new design problem solving system which comes from Chinese traditonal religion Dao.
Miller, Michael B
2010-01-01
Solving tooth sensitivity requires both you and the patients to be resilient and to understand that if one approach doesn't work, you can try another one that is non-invasive or, at worst, minimally invasive. Much like the clinician who posted the original question, I strongly believe that it is our responsibility to convince patients that jumping to a radical solution could be totally unnecessary--and expensive-- and still might not solve the problem.
An investigation on solving cooperative problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoumeh Sadat Abtahi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most important techniques to improve teaching skills is to use cooperative problem solving (CPS approach. Implementing CPS techniques in elementary schools helps us train more creative generations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find out how much elementary teachers use CPS techniques at different schools located in city of Zanjan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 90 volunteers out of 120 teachers who were enrolled in elementary schools. The study analyzes the data using some basic statistics and the result indicates that teachers maintain an average CPS score of 39.37, which is well above the average level. The study provides some guidelines for exploring teachers CPS’s capabilities.
Genetics problem solving and worldview
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Sports Intergenerational Conflicts and Its Solving Strategies Researches%体育代际冲突及其解决策略研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苗治文; 王赢
2015-01-01
随着我国体育事业的蓬勃发展，人们对于体育的观念也不断的更新和转变，而由于“青年代”与“成年代”代际之间所处的时代和环境的不同，在体育领域内就随之出现了体育代际冲突的现象。围绕体育代际冲突问题展开讨论，分析其特征、表现和产生原因，提出体育代际冲突的解决策略。%With the prosperous of our country’s sports cause,the viewpoints of sport have changed. Due to the era and environment are different between“young generation”and“adult generation”,then sports intergenerational con-flicts appeared in sports field. This article discuss the problem about sports intergenerational conflicts, analyse its features、performance and cause,put forward the solving strategies to sports intergenerational conflicts.
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-10-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we conducted an interview study with 16 graduate students coming from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds. During the interviews, we asked participants to solve two interdisciplinary science problems on the topic of osmosis. We investigated participants' problem reasoning processes and probed in their attitudes toward general interdisciplinary approach and specific interdisciplinary problems. Through a careful inductive content analysis of their responses, we studied how disciplinary, cognitive, and affective factors influenced their interdisciplinary problems-solving. We found that participants' prior discipline-based science learning experiences had both positive and negative influences on their interdisciplinary problem-solving. These influences were embodied in their conceptualization of the interdisciplinary problems, the strategies they used to integrate different disciplinary knowledge, and the attitudes they had toward interdisciplinary approach in general and specific interdisciplinary problems. This study sheds light on interdisciplinary science education by revealing the complex relationship between disciplinary learning and interdisciplinary problem-solving.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Havva ILGIN
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts were carried out with problem solving activities in experimental group. In the research, “Problem Solving Test” which were used as data collection tools, were developed by benefiting from matching of attainment-problem solving steps-cognitive domain steps. Problem Solving Test is made up of 16 multiple choice and 9 open ended questions. In the analysis of data, t test was used. It was found that problem solving teaching succeeded at “identifying different possible solutions in the light of collected data, applying the decided way of solution, evaluating types of solutions, evaluating used problem solving method” stages of problem solving.
Problem Solving Using Microcomputers.
Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert
1987-01-01
It is argued that microcomputer technology has evolved to the stage that it should be routinely used by mathematics students at all levels. It is shown how the use of microcomputers can change the way problems are solved. Computer-generated graphics are highlighted. (PK)
Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2006-01-01
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms....
Mathematics as Problem Solving.
Soifer, Alexander
This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)
Ayrinhac, Simon
2014-01-01
We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…
Universal Design Problem Solving
Sterling, Mary C.
2004-01-01
Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…
Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."
Pestel, Beverly C.
1993-01-01
Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
2008-01-01
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evelio F Machado Ramírez
2009-08-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como propósito realizar un análisis de diversas definiciones que se han otorgado al concepto investigación para llegar a reformularlo desde una perspectiva aplicable a los propósitos del estudio. Especial énfasis además se presta a la fundamentación de la habilidad solucionar problemas (profesionales como habilidad investigativa compleja de mayor nivel de integración en el ámbito de formación del profesional de la educación superior; y en su primera y externa representación, el modelo y los eslabones que la componen, los cuales se constituyen en el escenario propicio para la dirección del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje en función de su desarrollo.This article analyzes various definitions of research so as to re-express it from a viewpoint related to this study. The foundations of the professional problem solving skill are specially emphasized as a complex research skill of a higher integration level within professional formation in higher education. Herein, we present the model and links of professional problem solving, which promote the development of the teaching-learning process direction.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh
.... Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students' problem solving skills...
2017-03-01
the "SAS+-level Changes" section. Many modern heuristics use a technique called "delete- relaxation ". Delete relaxation does not handle counts and...use the same algorithm, representation, and use the same technique to generate their heuristics. The drawback of this is that there is almost never...one problem solving technique , one representation, or one way to create heuristics that works well on all problems/domains. There is a tradeoff
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems
Mairing, Jackson Pasini
2017-01-01
Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Evdokimov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available There have been provided an analysis of the digitized full-text abstracts and dissertations on the official websites of institutions with dissertation councils on hygiene, in the digital libraries of the Russian State Library (RSL and the National Library of Russia (NLR and the website of the Higher Attestation Commission at the Ministry of Education. An array was formed of 1446 theses on the specialty 14.02.01 (old code – 14.00.07 «Hygiene» for 2000–2012. Doctoral theses comprised 19.8 % – significantly more than cumulative biological and medical theses (14.8 % for the same period inRussia. Polynomial trend with a coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.73 with statistical significance indicates a decrease in the number of theses. Every year inRussiadissertation councils on hygiene received (111 ± 9 theses. It is established that in 76.9 % of abstracts are digitized in NLR and 63.7 % in RSL. Digitized documents can be accessed in the halls of the library for free, and in a mode of remote access – for a fee. Measures to optimize dissertation documents digitizing by librarians are described, as well as to seek opportunities to create a unified information system of dissertation research in Russia in the Scientific Electronic Library within the reference-analytical system Science Index for dissertation councils, free subscription of national research libraries to digital full-text databases of abstracts and dissertations and integration of Russian scientists in the international scientific community.
INVESTIGATION OF MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ VIEWS ABOUT IMPROVING PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
YILDIZ, Cemalettin
2016-01-01
Since problem solving skills playa central role in middle and secondary school mathematics curricula, this made mathematicseducators give importance to this subject. Improving problem solving skills ofstudents is one of the primary aims of education so it is very important tomake students gain problem solving skills. Thus, the aim of this research is toinvestigate views of middle and secondary school mathematics teachers relatedto improvement of students’ problem solving skills. Qualitative r...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑伟; 张永飞
2016-01-01
结合IEEE标准电脑鼠走迷宫竞赛的要求，为了进一步提高电脑鼠的性能，在对电脑鼠软硬件系统做深入研究的基础上，优化了电脑鼠走迷宫控制算法。通过10个随机迷宫实验，结果显示优化后电脑鼠迷宫冲刺时间平均减少了37.2%。%Combined with the requirements of IEEE criterion on solving the maze in micro-mouse contest, and in order to improve the performance of micro-mouse, the control algorithm of solving the maze has been optimized on the basis of researching the mi⁃cro-mouse’s systems of software and hardware. By conducting experiments with 10 random mazes, the results demonstrate that the average time of spurting in the maze reduces by 37.2%.
ILGIN, Havva; ARSLAN, Derya
2012-01-01
In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esther T. Kok
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide, rising numbers of deaths and costs associated with this, and the fact that hardly any new antimicrobial drugs have been developed during the last decade have increased the interest in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM therapeutic interventions, if proven safe and effective. Observational studies on clinical CAM practices demonstrate positive effects of treatment of infections with CAM therapies (clinical effects, patient satisfaction in combination with small percentages of antibiotics prescription. However, Cochrane reviews and other studies demonstrate that in most instances the quality of clinical trials on CAM treatment of infections is currently too low to provide sufficient evidence. Therefore a Dutch consortium on (in vitro and clinical scientific research on CAM and antibiotic resistance has been formed. The aim and objective of the consortium is to establish an enduring partnership and to develop expertise to further develop and investigate safe and effective CAM treatments for infectious diseases of humans (and animals. A first ongoing project on the development of safe and effective biobased CAM antimycotics in women with (recurrent vaginal candidiasis infection is introduced.
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erkki Pehkonen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.
1982-10-01
Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R
Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve
Soetaert, K.E.R.; Petzoldt, T.; Setzer, R.W.
2010-01-01
In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The differenti
Algorithms in Solving Polynomial Inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher M. Cordero
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A new method to solve the solution set of polynomial inequalities was conducted. When −1 −2 >0 ℎ 1,2∈ ℝ 10 if n is even. Then, the solution set is ∈ ℝ ∈ −∞,1 ∪ ,+∞ ∪ ,+1 : }. Thus, when −1−2…−≥0, the solution is ∈ ℝ ∈−∞, 1∪ ,+∞∪, +1: }. If is odd, then the solution set is ∈ ℝ ∈ ,+∞ ∪ ,+1 : }. Thus, when −1 −2…−≥0, the solution set is ∈ ℝ ∈ ,+∞∪, +1: }. Let −1−2…−<0 if n is even. Then, the solution set is ∈ ℝ ∈ ,+1 ∶ }. Thus, when −1 −2…−≤0, then the solution set is ∈ ℝ ∈, +1: }. If is an odd, then the solution set is ∈ ℝ ∈ −∞,1 ∪ ,+1 : }. Thus, when −1 −2 … − ≤0, the solution set is ∈ ℝ ∈ −∞,1 ∪ ,+1 : }. This research provides a novel method in solving the solution set of polynomial inequalities, in addition to other existing methods.
Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective
Adams, Verna
1989-01-01
Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...
Solved problems in electromagnetics
Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco
2017-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .
2010-11-01
By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张婷; 张仲明; 李红
2012-01-01
Transitive inference is the core competence of cognitive development. It plays an important role in children＇ s cognition development. In real life, there are usually three types of transitive inference ： First, the True Transitive Inference, in which the context of the transmission is affirmative, and the individual makes definitive conclusion according to the transmission; Second, the Uncertain Transitive Inference, in which the context of the transmission is uncertain, that is, whether the relationship can transfer hinges on the actual situation and social experience; Third, Negative Transitive Inference. Based on its premise, a conclusion of non-transitivity can be made. It is clear that in real life, people are facing more uncertain transitive inference. However, as this widespread uncertain tran- sitive inference has received little concern, it is necessary to study in the actual situation what will happen to the three types of transitive inference. This article studied regular patterns of 3--7-year-old children＇ s development of capacity, speed and strategy-applying in the process of solving three types of transitive inference, which is an exploratory research of these three types of transitive inference. We used self-compiled pictures （ including four group pictures of true transitive inference, four group pictures of uncertain transitive inferenee and four group pictures of negative transitive inference） to test one by one 139 children aged 3--7 years. The method applied the classical transitive task and the ＂good friends＂ task to test whether the children could choose the right answer. For example, we would show three pictures to the subject, and told him that Picture A was the father of Picture B, while Picture B was the father of Picture C; then we told the subject to judge whether Picture A was the father of Picture C ; there were three options, ＂yes＂, ＂no＂ and ＂not sure＂. The results and the oral report of solving strategies
Trimmer, Ronald G.
This literature review focuses on determining the psychological variables related to problem solving and presents arguments for self-correcting manipulatives as a media for teaching problem solving. Ten traits are considered: attitude, debilitating anxiety, self-concept, orderliness, set, confidence, impulsive/reflective thinking, concentration…
Depression and social problem solving.
Marx, E M; Williams, J M; Claridge, G C
1992-02-01
Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit in problem solving in all three measures. The majority of these deficits were also displayed by the clinical control group rather than being specific to a diagnosis of depression. However, depressed subjects produced less effective solutions than did normal and clinical control subjects. The results suggest that depressed and anxious patients may have difficulties at different stages of the problem-solving process.
Solving Environmental Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grimpe, Christoph; Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang
Recent innovation and strategy research emphasizes the importance of firm’s search for external knowledge to improve innovation performance. We focus on such search strategies within the domain of sustainable innovation in which probl ems are inherently complex and the relevant knowledge is widel...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evelio F Machado Ramírez
2009-12-01
Full Text Available En el presente artículo los autores realizan el tratamiento de otros eslabones de la compleja e integradora habilidad solucionar problemas. Al igual que en los artículos anteriores, se fundamenta la importancia que poseen estos eslabones en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en la educación superior y la posibilidad de formar un egresado competente para enfrentar los retos del nuevo milenio. Se proponen diversos conceptos y categorías que enriquecen el tratamiento didáctico del currículo en este nivel y, como colofón, se argumenta la estrategia didáctica Aprendizaje Basado en la Solución de Tareas Investigativas.In this article, the authors focus on other links of the complex integrative problem solving skill. As in previous articles, we support the important role of these links in the teaching-learning process in higher education and the achievable formation of a competent graduate who can deal with challenges of the new millennium. We propose diverse concepts and categories enhancing the didactic treatment of the curriculum in this level; and, as coda, we support the didactic strategy called Learning Based on Research Tasks Solution.
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Phenomenographic study of students’ problem solving approaches in physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura N. Walsh
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study is a hierarchical set of categories that describe the students’ problem solving approaches in the context of introductory physics.
PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BASED ON HEURISTIC STRATEGIES
Novotná, Jarmila; EISENMANN. Petr; PŘIBYL, Jiří; ONDRUŠOVÁ, Jiřina; BŘEHOVSKÝ, Jiří
2014-01-01
The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-te...
Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress
J. David Creswell; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M.P.; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M.
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indi...
Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.
Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J
2016-11-01
Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Combinatorial reasoning to solve problems
Coenen, Tom; Hof, Frits; Verhoef, Nellie
2016-01-01
This study reports combinatorial reasoning to solve problems. We observed the mathematical thinking of students aged 14-16. We study the variation of the students’ solution strategies in the context of emergent modelling. The results show that the students are tempted to begin the problem solving pr
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...
Crime Solving Techniques: Training Bulletin.
Sands, Jack M.
The document is a training bulletin for criminal investigators, explaining the use of probability, logic, lateral thinking, group problem solving, and psychological profiles as methods of solving crimes. One chpater of several pages is devoted to each of the five methods. The use of each method is explained; problems are presented for the user to…
Program Transformation by Solving Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱鸿
1991-01-01
Based on the theory of orthogonal program expansion[8-10],the paper proposes a method to transform programs by solving program equations.By the method,transformation goals are expressed in program equations,and achieved by solving these equations.Although such equations are usually too complicated to be solved directly,the orthogonal expansion of programs makes it possible to reduce such equations into systems of equations only containing simple constructors of programs.Then,the solutions of such equations can be derived by a system of solving and simplifying rules,and algebraic laws of programs.The paper discusses the methods to simplify and solve equations and gives some examples.
Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David S. H. Rosenthal
2010-07-01
Full Text Available For years, discussions of digital preservation have routinely featured comments such as “bit preservation is a solved problem; the real issues are ...”. Indeed, current digital storage technologies are not just astoundingly cheap and capacious, they are astonishingly reliable. Unfortunately, these attributes drive a kind of “Parkinson’s Law” of storage, in which demands continually push beyond the capabilities of systems implementable at an affordable price. This paper is in four parts:Claims, reviewing a typical claim of storage system reliability, showing that it provides no useful information for bit preservation purposes.Theory, proposing “bit half-life” as an initial, if inadequate, measure of bit preservation performance, expressing bit preservation requirements in terms of it, and showing that the requirements being placed on bit preservation systems are so onerous that the experiments required to prove that a solution exists are not feasible.Practice, reviewing recent research into how well actual storage systems preserve bits, showing that they fail to meet the requirements by many orders of magnitude.Policy, suggesting ways of dealing with this unfortunate situation.
1979-01-01
The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.
Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics
Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian
2007-01-01
This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…
Structured collaboration versus individual learning in solving physics problems
Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning
2006-01-01
The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took
The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving
Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli
2016-01-01
Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which it…
Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development
McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley
2012-01-01
In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…
Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark
2016-01-01
We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…
Yakubova, Gulnoza
2013-01-01
Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…
Yakubova, Gulnoza
2013-01-01
Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related to ...... to both natural, other material and to cultural conditions. Hence, solving the discard problem requires not only technical and regulatory instruments, but also arenas and structures that allow and facilitate processes of cultural change....
An Integer Programming Approach to Solving Tantrix on Fixed Boards
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushi Uno
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Tantrix (Tantrix R ⃝ is a registered trademark of Colour of Strategy Ltd. in New Zealand, and of TANTRIX JAPAN in Japan, respectively, under the license of M. McManaway, the inventor. is a puzzle to make a loop by connecting lines drawn on hexagonal tiles, and the objective of this research is to solve it by a computer. For this purpose, we first give a problem setting of solving Tantrix as making a loop on a given fixed board. We then formulate it as an integer program by describing the rules of Tantrix as its constraints, and solve it by a mathematical programming solver to have a solution. As a result, we establish a formulation that can solve Tantrix of moderate size, and even when the solutions are invalid only by elementary constraints, we achieved it by introducing additional constraints and re-solve it. By this approach we succeeded to solve Tantrix of size up to 60.
How to solve mathematical problems
Wickelgren, Wayne A
1995-01-01
Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.
Techniques for Solving Sudoku Puzzles
Chi, Eric C
2012-01-01
Solving Sudoku puzzles is one of the most popular pastimes in the world. Puzzles range in difficulty from easy to very challenging; the hardest puzzles tend to have the most empty cells. The current paper compares the performance of three computer algorithms in solving puzzles. Backtracking, simulated annealing, and alternating projections are generic methods for attacking combinatorial optimization problems. Our results favor backtracking. It infallibly solves Sudoku puzzles or deduces that a unique solution does not exist. However, backtracking does not scale well in high-dimensional combinatorial optimization. Hence, it is useful to expose statistics students to the other two solution techniques in a concrete setting. Simulated annealing shares a common structure with MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) and enjoys wide applicability. The method of alternating projections solves the feasibility problem in convex programming. Converting a discrete optimization problem into a continuous optimization problem opens...
数学解题自我监控能力培养的实践研究%Mathematics Problem-solving Ability of Serf-monitoring Research Practice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨巧梅
2009-01-01
通过分析学生数学解题的现状,从重视学生数学解题的主动性、自觉性和主体性的角度出发,提出影响学生数学解题能力和解题质量的关键因素在于学生的自我监控能力.解题自我监控能力的培养是提高教学质量、教学生学会学习的有效途径.%By analyzing the status of students in mathematical problem solving, attention to students from the mathe-matics problem-solving initiative, consciousness and the point of view of subjectivity, the impact on students mathe-matical problem-solving abihty and problem-solving is a key factor in the quality of the self-monitoring ability of students. Problem-solving ability in self-monitoring is to improve the quality of teaching and teaching students an ef-fective way to learn how to learn.
Solving Optimal Timing Problems Elegantly
Todorova, Tamara
2013-01-01
Few textbooks in mathematical economics cover optimal timing problems. Those which cover them do it scantly or in a rather clumsy way, making it hard for students to understand and apply the concept of optimal time in new contexts. Discussing the plentiful illustrations of optimal timing problems, we present an elegant and simple method of solving them. Whether the present value function is exponential or logarithmic, a convenient way to solve it is to convert the base to the exponential numb...
Thinking can cause forgetting: memory dynamics in creative problem solving.
Storm, Benjamin C; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
2011-09-01
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found that attempting to generate a novel common associate to 3 cue words caused the forgetting of other strong associates related to those cue words. This problem-solving-induced forgetting effect occurred even when participants failed to generate a viable solution, increased in magnitude when participants spent additional time problem solving, and was positively correlated with problem-solving success on a separate set of RAT problems. These results implicate a role for forgetting in overcoming fixation in creative problem solving.
Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2013-01-01
Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students' problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student's expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value "communication" between the…
Problem Solving of Newton's Second Law through a System of Total Mass Motion
Abdullah, Helmi
2014-01-01
Nowadays, many researchers discovered various effective strategies in teaching physics, from traditional to modern strategy. However, research on physics problem solving is still inadequate. Physics problem is an integral part of physics learning and requires strategy to solve it. Besides that, problem solving is the best way to convey principle,…
Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2013-01-01
Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students' problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student's expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value "communication" between the student's…
INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR STIMULATING CREATIVITY AND PROBLEM SOLVING
Octav Dumitru DAFINOIU
2015-01-01
Abstract The creation of knowledge, the advanced research in strategic directions, the increasing of economic competitiveness and the transfer of knowledge in the economy are priorities of economic policies. They are based on research, development and innovation activities, which although take various shapes, have something in common: they relate to problem solving. Strategies, methods and techniques used in order to find solutions for problems are based on problem solving techniques taken f...
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.
Imagination as the crank of problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolbæk, Ditte
and the imagination of the preferred present or future. Imagination is the foundation of problem solving, in this case the problems identified in the PR. The role of imagination cannot be underestimated in this collaborative process in which the interface between the individual and the collective dimensions merge...... and encourage the participants’ imagination to flow freely in order to redefine reality at work. I see different paths for this exploration: I could look into cultural practices and values concerning relations and interactions among colleagues who have solved a task together (Branco & lopes). Or I could dig...... into who “says” or “decides” what is preferred or favored in the sense of who seems to get the power in the team (Latour, Dunne & Raby). Or I could concentrate on the term “dialogue” (Bakhtin, Bohm, Oliveira). I hope the winterschool will add more view angles to this study.My premature research question is...
Creative problem solving: an applied university course
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the principles of active learning and the contents of a creativity course entitled: Creativity and Problem Solving. The main purpose of this course is to create a space to discuss, reflect and experiment with creativity, creative processes and creative tools of relevance for students of any speciality (60% will end as operational researchers working with problem solving approaches. This course has run with big success since 1998 at the Technical University of Denmark. It started with very few students, now is a very popular course attracting many students from abroad. The selected themes, the methods and techniques, the structure of this course, the learning processes and the achieved results are presented. The results of student's and teacher's evaluations are also outlined. Finally some reflections, recommendations and conclusions are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宁兴全; 冯长焕; 王博蓉
2015-01-01
本文利用“数学问题解决中的元认知问卷量表”，对初中学生进行了抽样调查。然后对数据进行了数学问题解决中的元认知与数学成绩的相关性研究，对不同性别、不同成绩段以及不同年级学生的数学问题解决中的元认知进行了差异分析。结果表明，初中生数学问题解决中的元认知与数学成绩成显著正相关；初中生数学问题解决中的元认知在性别上差异不大，但在年级和优差生间差异较大。%Using a questionnaire about meta-cognition of mathematics problem solving , this study conducted a sample survey in junior middle school students .Analysis of the correlation between meta-cognition of mathematics problem solving and math scores , we also have analyzed the difference about meta-cognition of mathematics problem solving for different gender , math scores and grades .The following results are obtained: the meta-cognition of mathematics problem solving and math scores are of significant positive correlation on the part of junior middle school students;the meta-cognition of mathematics problem solving is little difference in gender , but there are sig-nificant differences in different grades and different math scores .
The Students Decision Making in Solving Discount Problem
Abdillah; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Susanto, Hery; Abadyo
2016-01-01
This research is reviewing students' process of decision making intuitively, analytically, and interactively. The research done by using discount problem which specially created to explore student's intuition, analytically, and interactively. In solving discount problems, researcher exploring student's decision in determining their attitude which…
Problem Solving and Complex Systems
Guinand, Frédéric
2008-01-01
The observation and modeling of natural Complex Systems (CSs) like the human nervous system, the evolution or the weather, allows the definition of special abilities and models reusable to solve other problems. For instance, Genetic Algorithms or Ant Colony Optimizations are inspired from natural CSs to solve optimization problems. This paper proposes the use of ant-based systems to solve various problems with a non assessing approach. This means that solutions to some problem are not evaluated. They appear as resultant structures from the activity of the system. Problems are modeled with graphs and such structures are observed directly on these graphs. Problems of Multiple Sequences Alignment and Natural Language Processing are addressed with this approach.
Aging and skilled problem solving.
Charness, N
1981-03-01
Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span.
2008+ solved problems in electromagnetics
Nasar, Syed
2007-01-01
SciTech Publishing is reissuing this extremely valuable learning resource, originally published in 1992 in the Schaum's Problem-Solving Series for students of electromagnetics and those who wish to refresh and solidify their understanding of its challenging applications. Problem-solving drill helps develop confidence, but few textbooks offer the answers, never mind the complete solutions, to their chapter exercises. Here noted author Professor Syed Nasar has divided the book's problems into topic areas similar to a textbook and presented a wide array of problems, followed immediately by their
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Interactive problem solving using LOGO
Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more
Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.
Logan, Corina J
2016-01-01
Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.
Robot computer problem solving system
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
On transfer during problem solving
Hamel, R.; Jakab, E.
2013-01-01
A puzzle is equally new for everyone who is presented with it for the first time. However, it is not if we take one’s previous knowledge into account. Some knowledge may be utilised while working on the puzzle. If this is the case, problem solving as well as the development of knowledge about the pu
Common Core: Solve Math Problems
Strom, Erich
2012-01-01
The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…
Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2013-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Promote Problem-Solving Discourse
Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim
2010-01-01
Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…
Teaching Employees to Solve Problems.
Miller, Lauren E.; Feggestad, Kurt
1987-01-01
John Deere's systematic problem-solving training for its employees is applicable in the vocational classroom. The process includes stating the problem, writing its specifications, identifying distinctions, determining changes that occurred at the time, identifying possible causes, testing the possibilities, verifying the most probable cause, and…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑瑞丽
2014-01-01
Today's talent with problem solving ability more and more get the welcome of the society, based on the teaching reform, and also adapt elementary school teaching form, take active reform itself,"problem solving"as the teaching goal. In this paper, according to the teaching content of teaching material for primary school grade four top volume, according to the existing elementary school mathematics education of cultivating the ability of problem solving oriented game design should follow the design concept and strategy, has carried on the case of conceptual design in the world, and its teaching function has carried on the detailed elaboration, and explains how to implementation in elementary school mathematics education game problem solving ability.%当今具有问题解决能力的人才越来越受到社会的欢迎，基于此教学改革势在必行，而基础小学教学也随之适应形式，积极采取自身改革，将“问题解决能力”作为教学目标。本文依照小学四年级上册教材的教学内容，根据已有的面向问题解决能力培养的小学数学教育游戏设计时要遵循的设计理念与策略，进行了世界案例的概念设计，并对其教学功能进行了详细的阐述，并解释了如何在小学数学教育游戏中实现问题解决能力的培养。
Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve
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Karline Soetaert
2010-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP written as ordinary differential equations (ODE, differential algebraic equations (DAE of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE, the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The differential equations can be represented in R code or as compiled code. In the latter case, R is used as a tool to trigger the integration and post-process the results, which facilitates model development and application, whilst the compiled code significantly increases simulation speed. The methods implemented are efficient, robust, and well documented public-domain Fortran routines. They include four integrators from the ODEPACK package (LSODE, LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, DVODE and DASPK2.0. In addition, a suite of Runge-Kutta integrators and special-purpose solvers to efficiently integrate 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional partial differential equations are available. The routines solve both stiff and non-stiff systems, and include many options, e.g., to deal in an efficient way with the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix, or finding the root of equations. In this article, our objectives are threefold: (1 to demonstrate the potential of using R for dynamic modeling, (2 to highlight typical uses of the different methods implemented and (3 to compare the performance of models specified in R code and in compiled code for a number of test cases. These comparisons demonstrate that, if the use of loops is avoided, R code can efficiently integrate problems comprising several thousands of state variables. Nevertheless, the same problem may be solved from 2 to more than 50 times faster by using compiled code compared to an implementation using only R code. Still, amongst the benefits of R are a more flexible and interactive implementation, better readability of the code, and access to R’s high-level procedures. deSolve is the successor of package odesolve which will be deprecated in
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developing a repertoire of professional practice and clinical reasoning skills.[2]. Learning ... experience where students become engaged in socially authentic workplace .... and the taxi … how do we then expect them to then problem solve for.
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
(Numerical algorithms for solving linear algebra problems). Final report
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Golub, G.H.
1985-04-16
We have concentrated on developing and analyzing various numerical algorithms for solving problems arising in a linear algebra context. The papers and research fall into basically three categories: (1) iterative methods for solving linear equations arising from p.d.e.'s; (2) calculation of Gauss-type quadrature rules; and (3) solution of matrix and data problems arising in statistical computation. We summarize some of these results, highlighting those which are of most importance.
Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries
2003-08-01
distance. "Our measurements showed that the pulsar is about 950 light-years from Earth, essentially the same distance as the supernova remnant," said Steve Thorsett, of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "That means that the two almost certainly were created by the same supernova blast," he added. With that problem solved. the astronomers then turned to studying the pulsar's neutron star itself. Using a variety of data from different telescopes and armed with the new distance measurement, they determined that the neutron star is between 16 and 25 miles in diameter. In such a small size, it packs a mass roughly equal to that of the Sun. The next result of learning the pulsar's actual distance was to provide a possible answer to a longstanding question about cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are subatomic particles or atomic nuclei accelerated to nearly the speed of light. Shock waves in supernova remnants are thought to be responsible for accelerating many of these particles. Scientists can measure the energy of cosmic rays, and had noted an excess of such rays in a specific energy range. Some researchers had suggested that the excess could come from a single supernova remnant about 1000 light-years away whose supernova explosion was about 100,000 years ago. The principal difficulty with this suggestion was that there was no accepted candidate for such a source. "Our measurement now puts PSR B0656+14 and the Monogem Ring at exactly the right place and at exactly the right age to be the source of this excess of cosmic rays," Brisken said. With the ability of the VLBA, one of the telescopes of the NRAO, to make extremely precise position measurements, the astronomers expect to improve the accuracy of their distance determination even more. "This pulsar is becoming a fascinating laboratory for studying astrophysics and nuclear physics," Thorsett said. In addition to Brisken and Thorsett, the team of astronomers includes Aaron Golden of the National University of Ireland, Robert
Methods of solving nonstandard problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2015-01-01
This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas. It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions. The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem. Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems. Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...
Solving higher curvature gravity theories
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Chakraborty, Sumanta [IUCAA, Pune (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Theoretical Physics Department, Kolkata (India)
2016-10-15
Solving field equations in the context of higher curvature gravity theories is a formidable task. However, in many situations, e.g., in the context of f(R) theories, the higher curvature gravity action can be written as an Einstein-Hilbert action plus a scalar field action. We show that not only the action but the field equations derived from the action are also equivalent, provided the spacetime is regular. We also demonstrate that such an equivalence continues to hold even when the gravitational field equations are projected on a lower-dimensional hypersurface. We have further addressed explicit examples in which the solutions for Einstein-Hilbert and a scalar field system lead to solutions of the equivalent higher curvature theory. The same, but on the lower-dimensional hypersurface, has been illustrated in the reverse order as well. We conclude with a brief discussion on this technique of solving higher curvature field equations. (orig.)
Solving Limited Memory Influence Diagrams
Mauá, Denis Deratani; Zaffalon, Marco
2011-01-01
We present a new algorithm for exactly solving decision making problems represented as influence diagrams. We do not require the usual assumptions of no forgetting and regularity; this allows us to solve problems with simultaneous decisions and limited information. The algorithm is empirically shown to outperform a state-of-the-art algorithm on randomly generated problems of up to 150 variables and $10^{64}$ solutions. We show that the problem is NP-hard even if the underlying graph structure of the problem has small treewidth and the variables take on a bounded number of states, but that a fully polynomial time approximation scheme exists for these cases. Moreover, we show that the bound on the number of states is a necessary condition for any efficient approximation scheme.
Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Intelligence.
1980-04-01
first half of the analogy or because of vocabulary demand in the second half of the analogy. For example, FELINE is to CANINE as CAT is to ? was...the ecological validity of the task as a representative case of real-world problem solving. Investigation of the task’s ecological validity, or at...analogies) measure intellectual functioning of such a basic kind that ecological validity is less important. But if one’s goal is to study the ability to
Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving
Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.
2010-01-01
Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…
Anticipating Student Responses to Improve Problem Solving
Wallace, Ann H.
2007-01-01
This article illustrates how problem solving can be enhanced through careful planning and problem presentation. Often, students shut down or are turned off when presented with a problem to solve. The author describes how to motivate students to embrace a problem to be solved and provides helpful prompts to further the problem-solving process.…
Solving the drift control problem
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Melda Ormeci Matoglu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We model the problem of managing capacity in a build-to-order environment as a Brownian drift control problem. We formulate a structured linear program that models a practical discretization of the problem and exploit a strong relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a functional lower bound for the continuous problem from a dual solution to the discrete problem. Refining the discretization proves a functional strong duality for the continuous problem. The linear programming formulation is so badly scaled, however, that solving it is beyond the capabilities of standard solvers. By demonstrating the equivalence between strongly feasible bases and deterministic unichain policies, we combinatorialize the pivoting process and by exploiting the relationship between dual solutions and relative value functions, develop a mechanism for solving the LP without ever computing its coefficients. Finally, we exploit the relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a scheme analogous to column generation for refining the discretization so as to drive the gap between the discrete approximation and the continuous problem to zero quickly while keeping the LP small. Computational studies show our scheme is much faster than simply solving a regular discretization of the problem both in terms of finding a policy with a low average cost and in terms of providing a lower bound on the optimal average cost.
Mathematical problem solving by analogy.
Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J
1991-05-01
We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.
Rewarding Multitasking: Negative Effects of an Incentive on Problem Solving under Divided Attention
Wieth, Mareike B.; Burns, Bruce D.
2014-01-01
Research has consistently shown negative effects of multitasking on tasks such as problem solving. This study was designed to investigate the impact of an incentive when solving problems in a multitasking situation. Incentives have generally been shown to increase problem solving (e.g., Wieth & Burns, 2006), however, it is unclear whether an…
Increasing Skill Performances of Problem Solving in Students with Intellectual Disabilities
Cote, Debra; Pierce, Tom; Higgins, Kyle; Miller, Susan; Tandy, Richard; Sparks, Shannon
2010-01-01
Problem-solving instruction facilitates children in becoming successful real-world problem solvers. Research that incorporates problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. However, this population of students needs increased opportunities to learn the skills of problem solving. Using a…
Do Scaffolded Supports between Aspects of Problem Solving Enhance Assessment Usability?
McCoy, Jan D.; Braun-Monegan, Jenelle; Bettesworth, Leanne; Tindal, Gerald
2015-01-01
While problem solving as an instructional technique is widely advocated, educators are often challenged in effectively assessing student skill in this area. Students failing to solve a problem might fail in any of several aspects of the effort. The purpose of this research was to validate a scaffolded technique for assessing problem solving in…
Balta, Nuri; Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and…
Factors Contributing to Problem-Solving Performance in First-Semester Organic Chemistry
Lopez, Enrique J.; Shavelson, Richard J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Szu, Evan; Penn, John
2014-01-01
Problem solving is a highly valued skill in chemistry. Courses within this discipline place a substantial emphasis on problem-solving performance and tend to weigh such performance heavily in assessments of learning. Researchers have dedicated considerable effort investigating individual factors that influence problem-solving performance. The…
Examining the Relationship of Scientific Reasoning with Physics Problem Solving
Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen
2015-01-01
Recent research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little research has been done to establish a relationship between scientific reasoning and problem solving abilities by novices. In this exploratory study, we compared scientific reasoning abilities of students enrolled in a college level…
Reasoning Processes Used by Paramedics to Solve Clinical Problems
Alexander, Melissa
2009-01-01
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine the reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Existing research documents concern over the accuracy of paramedics' clinical decision-making, but no research was found that examines the cognitive processes by which paramedics make either faulty or accurate…
Thinking Can Cause Forgetting: Memory Dynamics in Creative Problem Solving
Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
2011-01-01
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…
Hafner, Robert; Stewart, Jim
Past problem-solving research has provided a basis for helping students structure their knowledge and apply appropriate problem-solving strategies to solve problems for which their knowledge (or mental models) of scientific phenomena is adequate (model-using problem solving). This research examines how problem solving in the domain of Mendelian genetics proceeds in situations where solvers' mental models are insufficient to solve problems at hand (model-revising problem solving). Such situations require solvers to use existing models to recognize anomalous data and to revise those models to accommodate the data. The study was conducted in the context of 9-week high school genetics course and addressed: the heuristics charactenstic of successful model-revising problem solving: the nature of the model revisions, made by students as well as the nature of model development across problem types; and the basis upon which solvers decide that a revised model is sufficient (that t has both predictive and explanatory power).
Survey on Multi-Agent Collaborative Problem Solving%多Agent合作求解
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张新良; 石纯一
2003-01-01
Multi-Agent Collaborative Problem Solving is one basic issue of the research of Multi-Agent Systen(MAS). In this paper we summarize some research work of Multi-Agent collaborative problem solving,expound thecharacteristic of Multi-Agnet collaborative problem solving,Model of Multi-Agent collaborative problem solving,pro-cess of solving、the application field of Multi-Agent collaborative problem solving and some challenge. Especially wediscuss the main models ,introduce the representative model including joint-intention,joint-commitment ,shared plan.
Relooking "Look Back": A Student's Attempt at Problem Solving Using Polya's Model
Leong, Yew Hoong; Toh, Tin Lam; Tay, Eng Guan; Quek, Khiok Seng; Dindyal, Jaguthsing
2012-01-01
Against the backdrop of half a century of research in mathematics problem solving, Polya's last stage is especially conspicuous--by the scarcity of research on it! Much of the research focused on the first three stages (J.M. Francisco and C.A. Maher, "Conditions for promoting reasoning in problem solving: Insights from a longitudinal…
Problem solving through recreational mathematics
Averbach, Bonnie
1999-01-01
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
Brainstorming: Thinking - Problem Solving Strategy
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Ms. Agnes Monica .V
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Brainstorming is a popular tool that helps you generate creative answers to a problem. It is mainly useful when you want to break out of stale, established patterns of thinking, so that you can develop new ways of looking at things. The aforementioned also helps you overcome many of the concerns that can make collection problemsolving a sterile and substandard process. Though group brainstorming is often more effective at generating ideas than normal group problem-solving, study after study has revealed that when individuals brainstorm on their own, they come up with more ideas and often better quality ideas than groups of people who brainstorm together
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
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J David Creswell
Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress
Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751
Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems
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Khoo Jia Sian
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90
A Problem with Current Conceptions of Expert Problem Solving
Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2011-01-01
Current conceptions of expert problem solving depict physical/conceptual reasoning and formal mathematical reasoning as separate steps: a good problem solver first translates a physical understanding into mathematics, then performs mathematical/symbolic manipulations, then interprets the mathematical solution physically. However, other research suggests that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning during symbolic manipulations can reflect expertise. We explore the hypothesis that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning (i) indicates problem-solving expertise more than adherence to "expert" problem-solving steps and (ii) is something some undergraduates do spontaneously, suggesting it's a feasible instructional target. Interviewed students were asked to (1) explain a particular equation and (2) solve a problem using that equation. In-depth analysis of two students, Alex and Pat, revealed a pattern of behavior. All 11 interviews were coded to investigate the generalizability of this pattern. Alex describe...
Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving
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María F. Ayllón
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.
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Lenny Kurniati
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT The aim of this research to develop a mathematics learning instrument using contextual open ended problem solving with mathematic comic to increase the problem solving skill which valid, practical and effective. The type of research used in this study is development research using modification of Plomp model. Learning instrumen that have been develop are: syllabus, Lesson plan, worksheet, mathematics comic, and problem solving ability test. The results showed: (1 device developed valid; (2 practical learning is characterized by the positive response of students and good teachers ability, (3 Effectiveness characterized by (a problem solving ability score of the experimental class higher than minimum completeness criterion, (b learn interest and problem solving skill, both affected the problem solving ability positively, (c problem solving ability of the experimental class score is higher than the control class, (d problem solving skill of the experimental class is increasing by 31%, the problem solving ability of the experimental class higher than the control class.. Because of the learning instrument develope are valid, practice and effective, it is shows that the research has ben reach out. Keywords: contextual teaching and learning, open ended problem solving, mathematics comic, problem solving.
Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-04-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to
Solving Operator Equation Based on Expansion Approach
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A. Aminataei
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To date, researchers usually use spectral and pseudospectral methods for only numerical approximation of ordinary and partial differential equations and also based on polynomial basis. But the principal importance of this paper is to develop the expansion approach based on general basis functions (in particular case polynomial basis for solving general operator equations, wherein the particular cases of our development are integral equations, ordinary differential equations, difference equations, partial differential equations, and fractional differential equations. In other words, this paper presents the expansion approach for solving general operator equations in the form Lu+Nu=g(x,x∈Γ, with respect to boundary condition Bu=λ, where L, N and B are linear, nonlinear, and boundary operators, respectively, related to a suitable Hilbert space, Γ is the domain of approximation, λ is an arbitrary constant, and g(x∈L2(Γ is an arbitrary function. Also the other importance of this paper is to introduce the general version of pseudospectral method based on general interpolation problem. Finally some experiments show the accuracy of our development and the error analysis is presented in L2(Γ norm.
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
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Eric D. Johnson
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.
Meredith, Mark
This paper introduces, as a new, relevant, technique for use in institutional research and planning, the concept of paradigms as presented by J. A. Barker. The paper uses as examples of these concepts analysis of two major problems, frequently found in higher education and institutional research and planning. These examples illustrate how outsider…
Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment
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Raafat George Saadé
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This article investigates students’ perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills acquisition including research, creativity and critical thinking skills. The course entailed two categories of learning, namely resources-based and interactive components. The study aimed at answering the following questions: 1 To what extent do students understand the definitions of Problem-solving, Research, and Creative Idea Generation skills, and Critical Thinking skills? (2 What is the relative contribution of the various learning components (activities and resources of the course to the perceived acquisition of Problem-Solving, Research, and Creative Idea Generations skills, and Critical Thinking skills; (3 Is the understanding of the definitions correlated with the perceived contributions of the learning components (activities and resources of the course to the skills development? (4 To what extent is perceived Problem-solving skill acquisition explained by the acquisition of the other three skills?
Creative Problem Solving for Social Studies.
Weiss, Steve; Kinney, Mark; And Others
1980-01-01
This article discusses techniques for integrating real problem solving and decision making into secondary social studies programs. Approaches to creative problem solving are presented, and various systematic decision making programs currently available for classroom use are identified. (Author/RM)
Sleegers, Peter; Wassink, Hartger; van Veen, Klaas; Imants, Jeroen
2009-01-01
In addition to cognitive research on school leaders' problem solving, this study focuses on the situated and personal nature of problem framing by combining insights from cognitive research on problem solving and sense-making theory. The study reports the results of a case study of two school leaders solving problems in their daily context by…
Heisenberg Honeycombs Solve Veneziano Puzzle
Kholodenko, A L
2006-01-01
In this paper we reformulate some results obtained by Heisenberg into modern mathematical language of honeycombs. This language was developed in connection with complete solution of the Horn conjecture problem. Such a reformulation is done with the purpose of posing and solving the following problem. Is by analysing the (spectroscopic) experimental data it possible to restore the underlying microscopic physical model generating these data? Development of Heisenberg's ideas happens to be the most useful for this purpose. Solution is facilitated by our earlier developed string-theoretic formalism. In this paper only qualitative arguments are presented (with few exceptions). These arguments provide enough evidence that the underelying microscopic model compatible with Veneziano-type amplitudes is the standard (i.e. non supersymmetric!) QCD. In addition, usefulness of the formalism is illustrated on numerous examples such as physically motivated solution of the saturation conjecture, derivation of the Yang-Baxter...
Solving the structure of metakaolin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Claire E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Provis, John L [UNIV. OF MELBOURNE; Riley, Daniel P [UNIV. OF MELBOURNE; Van Deventer, Jannie S J [UNIV. OF MELBOURNE
2009-01-01
Metakaolin has been used extensively as a cement additive and paint extender, and recently as a geopolymer precursor. This disordered layered aluminosilicate is formed via the dehydroxylation of kaolinite. However, an accurate representation of its atomic structure has bever before been presented. Here, a novel synergy between total scattering and density functional modeling is presented to solve the structure of metakaolin. The metastable structure is elucidated by iterating between least-squares real-space refinement using neutron pair distribution function data, and geometry optimization using density functional modeling. The resulting structural representation is both energetically feasible and in excellent agreement with experimental data. This accurate structure of metakaolin provides new insight into the local environment of the aluminum atoms, with evidence of the existence of tri-coordinated aluminum. By the availability of this detailed atomic description, there exists the opportunity to tailor chemical and mechanical processes involving metakaolin at the atomic level to obtain optimal performance at the macro-scale.
Solving rational expectations models using Excel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Strulik, Holger
2004-01-01
Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved......Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved...
Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved
1997-01-01
Supernova Propels Companion Star through Interstellar Space The following success story is a classical illustration of scientific progress through concerted interplay of observation and theory. It concerns a 35-year old mystery which has now been solved by means of exciting observations of a strange double star. An added touch is the successive involvement of astronomers connected to the European Southern Observatory. For many years, astronomers have been puzzled by the fact that, among the thousands of very young, hot and heavy stars which have been observed in the Milky Way, there are some that move with exceptionally high velocities. In some cases, motions well above 100 km/sec, or ten times more than normal for such stars, have been measured. How is this possible? Which mechanism is responsible for the large amounts of energy needed to move such heavy bodies at such high speeds? Could it be that these stars are accelerated during the powerful explosion of a companion star as a supernova? Such a scenario was proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw [1], but until now, observational proof has been lacking. Now, however, strong supporting evidence for this mechanism has become available from observations obtained at the ESO La Silla observatory. The mysterious runaway stars OB-runaway stars [2] are heavy stars that travel through interstellar space with an anomalously high velocity. They have been known for several decades, but it has always been a problem to explain their high velocities. Although most OB-runaway stars are located at distances of several thousands of lightyears, their high velocity results in a measurable change in position on sky photos taken several years apart. The velocity component in the direction of the Earth can be measured very accurately from a spectrogram. From a combination of such observations, it is possible to measure the space velocity of OB-runaways. Bow shocks reveal runaway stars It has also been found that some OB-runaways display
Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques
Varga, Andreas
2017-01-01
This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...
Solving Problems with The Percentage Bar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frans van Galen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a teaching experiment the students were then taught the use of the percentage bar. Although the teaching experiment was very short - just one lesson - the results confirm that the percentage bar is a powerful model that deserves a central place in the teaching of percentages.Keywords: percentage, model, design research DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.558.1-8
Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.
Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others
The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving
Barczi, Krisztina
2013-01-01
Teaching how to solve problems--from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks--has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might…
Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.
Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.
Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…
Developing Creativity through Collaborative Problem Solving
Albert, Lillie R.; Kim, Rina
2013-01-01
This paper discusses an alternative approach for developing problem solving experiences for students. The major argument is that students can develop their creativity by engaging in collaborative problem solving activities in which they apply a variety of mathematical methods creatively to solve problems. The argument is supported by: considering…
ON ALGEBRICO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS-SOLVING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Wenjun(Wu Wen-tsun)
2004-01-01
The char-set method of polynomial equations-solving is naturally extended to the differential case which gives rise to an algorithmic method of solving arbitrary systems of algebrico-differential equations. As an illustration of the method, the Devil's Problem of Pommaret is solved in details.
INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR STIMULATING CREATIVITY AND PROBLEM SOLVING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Octav Dumitru DAFINOIU
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract The creation of knowledge, the advanced research in strategic directions, the increasing of economic competitiveness and the transfer of knowledge in the economy are priorities of economic policies. They are based on research, development and innovation activities, which although take various shapes, have something in common: they relate to problem solving. Strategies, methods and techniques used in order to find solutions for problems are based on problem solving techniques taken from psychology. This paper, which creates a bridge between the field of economy and that of psychology, proposes innovative tools to stimulate creativity and the problem solving ability. The tools suggested are based on analogy, the fundamental operation of thinking and creative imagination, and can be applied in various business functions.
Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh
2014-01-01
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dana Ganor-Stern
Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Research on the Effect of Different Thinking Types in Solving Mathematics Problems%不同思维类型对数学解题的影响研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张跃红
2015-01-01
美国学者安东尼·格里高提出了4种不同的思维类型,即具体而有序、抽象而有序、具体而随机、抽象而随机的思维.不同的思维类型对数学解题理当产生不同的影响,通过对240名学生进行的相关调查研究,获得了一些初步的结论,并由此提出了相应的发展性策略建议,即具体而有序的思维需要提高抽象概括能力,抽象而有序的思维需要提高发散思维能力,具体而随机的思维需要提高集中概括能力,抽象而随机的思维需要提高集中思维能力.%U.S. scholar Anthony Gregory has proposed four thinking types which contained Specific and Ordered (SO), Abstract and Ordered (AO), Specific and Random (SR) and Abstract and Random (AR). It is believed that different thinking types can exert different influences in mathematics problem-solving. Based on an investigation involving 240 students, this paper concluded some preliminary findings, and therefore proposed corresponding developmental strategies: students with SO thinking type should promote abstract generalization ability; students with AO thinking type should promote divergent thinking ability; students with SR thinking type should promote concentrated generalization ability and students with AR thinking type should promote concentrated thinking ability.
SCN-HASL-free relfow pad change color research and solve%锡铜镍无铅热风整平产品回流焊后焊盘变色的研究与解决
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张秋荣; 顾湧; 徐欢; 李楠
2014-01-01
无铅锡铜镍热风整平工艺产品在下游客户端做回流焊接工艺时，经过1-2次高温回流焊接后，仍然会有少量的焊盘未被焊接而裸露，这时未被焊接的焊盘表面变色发黄了。文章将围绕如何改善此类未焊接的焊盘发黄的问题进行一系列的试验和测试，最终得出最有效的处理方式。既降低了加工成本，又有效地解决了回流焊后焊盘发黄的问题，满足了客户的要求，杜绝了客户反馈的发生，保住了订单。%Lead free tin copper nickel hot air leveling product relfow soldering process in the lower reaches of the client, after 1-2 times of high temperature relfow soldering, there will still be a small amount of not welding pads and bare, surface discoloration pad yellow when is not welded. In this paper, a series of tests and test focused on how to improve the welding pad yellow without question, the most effective way to reach processing. Not only the processing cost is reduced, but also effectively solves the problem of yellow pad after relfow, meet customer requirements.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵飞; 吴航; 龚跃
2013-01-01
Task scheduling in grid environment is a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem,and has been the focus which scholars study intensely in recent years.The traditional Min-Min algorithm has the defects such as long task completing time and poor load balance performs,therefore we propose using ant colony algorithm to solve the problem.According to the nature by which that ants can always frnd the shortest path from the cave to the food source,one task allocation process is abstracted as a path finding procedure of ants allocation and experimental simulation results wene obtained.%网格环境下的任务调度是典型的NP难组合优化问题,是近些年来学者们争相研究的热点.传统的Min-Min算法具有任务完成时间长,负载平衡性差等缺点,因此,本文提出了一种应用蚁群算法解决该问题的方法.利用蚂蚁总能从蚁穴到食物源之间找到最短路径这一自然特性,将任务的一次分配过程抽象为蚂蚁的一次探路过程,最终得到较优的分配结果,并进行了实验仿真模拟,取得了不错的效果.
The Investigation of Problem Solving Skill of the Mountaineers in Terms of Demographic Variables
Gürer, Burak
2015-01-01
The aim of this research is to investigate problem solving skills of the individuals involved in mountaineering. 315 volunteers participated in the study. The research data were collected by problem solving scale developed by Heppner and Peterson and the Turkish version of which was conducted by Sahin et al. There are totally 35 items and only 3…
The Investigation of Problem Solving Skill of the Mountaineers in Terms of Demographic Variables
Gürer, Burak
2015-01-01
The aim of this research is to investigate problem solving skills of the individuals involved in mountaineering. 315 volunteers participated in the study. The research data were collected by problem solving scale developed by Heppner and Peterson and the Turkish version of which was conducted by Sahin et al. There are totally 35 items and only 3…
A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.
Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna
2010-08-01
The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.
Complex collaborative problem-solving processes in mission control.
Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J; Oglesby, James M; O'Keefe, William S; Salas, Eduardo
2014-04-01
NASA's Mission Control Center (MCC) is responsible for control of the International Space Station (ISS), which includes responding to problems that obstruct the functioning of the ISS and that may pose a threat to the health and well-being of the flight crew. These problems are often complex, requiring individuals, teams, and multiteam systems, to work collaboratively. Research is warranted to examine individual and collaborative problem-solving processes in this context. Specifically, focus is placed on how Mission Control personnel-each with their own skills and responsibilities-exchange information to gain a shared understanding of the problem. The Macrocognition in Teams Model describes the processes that individuals and teams undertake in order to solve problems and may be applicable to Mission Control teams. Semistructured interviews centering on a recent complex problem were conducted with seven MCC professionals. In order to assess collaborative problem-solving processes in MCC with those predicted by the Macrocognition in Teams Model, a coding scheme was developed to analyze the interview transcriptions. Findings are supported with excerpts from participant transcriptions and suggest that team knowledge-building processes accounted for approximately 50% of all coded data and are essential for successful collaborative problem solving in mission control. Support for the internalized and externalized team knowledge was also found (19% and 20%, respectively). The Macrocognition in Teams Model was shown to be a useful depiction of collaborative problem solving in mission control and further research with this as a guiding framework is warranted.
Problem solving verbal strategies in children with mild intellectual disability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gligorović Milica
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a process conditioned by the development and application of efficient strategies. The aim of this research is to determine the level of verbal strategic approach to problem solving in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 93 children with MID, aged between 10 and 14. Intellectual abilities of the examinees are within the defined range for mild intellectual disability (AM=60.45; SD=7.26. The examinees with evident physical, neurological, and emotional disorders were not included in the sample. The closed 20 Questions Test (20Q was used to assess the development and use of verbal strategy, where the examinee is presented with a poster containing 42 different pictures, and instructed to guess the picture selected by the examiner by asking no more than 20 closed questions. Test χ2, and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used in statistical analysis. Research results indicate that most children with MID, aged between 10 and 14, use non-efficient strategy in solving the 20 Questions Test. Although strategic approach to problem solving is present in most children (72%, more than half of the examinees (53.5% use an inadequate strategy. Most children with MID have the ability to categorize concepts, however, they do not use it as a strategy in problem solving.
Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vergult Anneleen
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter. In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM, the finite element method (FEM and the finite difference method (FDM. In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭建; 王艳平
2015-01-01
The forms of tourism methods studying are more and more multiple and complicated as the methodology research is now one of the hottest topics in tourism study . This paper , in a tourism geography perspective , discusses the basic theory in tourism study and speculates the academic style in the next stage in response to this phenomenon , thinking that tourism research into subjectivity research from objectivity research is in line with the cultural turn in geography . From basic theory research to methodology research the tourism research is mixed with objective and subjective nature , in line with the feature of tourism multidisciplinary . And then , this paper argues that tourism research would be split into two parts , basic theory and application research , which interact with each other , but it does not mean the two parts will be integrated or unrelated . At the same time , the system of tourism knowledge constituted by them will be operated around living system . Finally , the article proposes the view of stage theory and thinks that there is no strict order in different stages differing from other stage theories . The knowledge of tourism domain must be adopted by other fields if the tourism research enters to the final stage , the philosophical research .%旅游学界目前很重视方法论研究，旅游论证越来越美丽。针对这一现象，以旅游地理学思维方式，探讨了位于其前的基础理论研究，推测了居于其后的将关注的研究风格，认为旅游研究客观性有所减弱而能动性开始增强，符合地理学的文化转向判断。由基础理论转向方法论，使旅游研究具有了客观与主观相混合的性质，符合旅游多学科特征。进而，本文认为旅游知识将分裂为基础理论与应用研究两部分，彼此相互作用但不会融合，也不会背向行至无关联，两者组成的旅游知识系统将环绕生活系统做运转。最后，文章提出了阶段论观点
Computational neural networks driving complex analytical problem solving.
Hanrahan, Grady
2010-06-01
Neural network computing demonstrates advanced analytical problem solving abilities to meet the demands of modern chemical research. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).
How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors
Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling
2011-01-01
Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…
Towards efficient measurement of metacognition in mathematical problem solving
Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.
Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols.
Hats off to Problem-Solving with Couples
Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Nelson, Judy; Eckstein, Daniel
2008-01-01
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how counselors can use de Bono's Six Thinking Hats problem-solving technique in their work with couples. Part 1 of the article focuses on an introduction to the technique, including a theoretical rationale and supporting research. Following a detailed description of the process of using the model as a…
Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions
Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2011-01-01
Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…
Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review
Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.
2011-01-01
The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…
Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali
2012-01-01
Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem s...
Team Self-Assessment: Problem Solving for Small Workgroups.
LoBue, Robert
2002-01-01
Describes team self-assessment, a task force approach involving frontline workers/supervisors in solving problems or improving performance. Provides examples and discusses its theoretical bases: control self-assessment, Belbin's team roles research, and the team climate inventory. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Problem Solving and Emotional Education in Initial Primary Teacher Education
Caballero, Ana; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Guerrero, Eloisa
2011-01-01
Our work is based on two premises. The first is that affective factors (beliefs, attitudes, and emotions) influence teaching and learning mathematics, and problem solving in particular. The second is that initial teacher education is an important element in the process of improving overall educational practice. On this basis, our research group…
Computer as a Medium for Overcoming Misconceptions in Solving Inequalities
Abramovich, Sergei; Ehrlich, Amos
2007-01-01
Inequalities are considered among the most useful tools of investigation in pure and applied mathematics; yet their didactical aspects have not received much attention in mathematics education research until recently. An important aspect of teaching problem solving at the secondary level deals with the notion of equivalence of algebraic…
Creative and Participative Problem Solving - The Art and the Science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
This book collects my experiences as a facilitator for many different communities and organizations and as a teacher at the Technical University of Denmark for the courses Creativity and Problem Solving and Systemic Operational Research. Several of the chapters has been used in my lecturing...
Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.
Berner, Eta S.
1984-01-01
Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)
Blaine, A. C.; Martin, A. C.; Hogue, T. S.
2016-12-01
Colorado School of Mines (CSM) recently kicked-off a three year K-12 teacher training program with an inaugural six-week summer Research Experience for Teachers (RET). The WE2NG, or Water-Energy Education for the Next Generation program, hosted nine Colorado public school teachers, giving them content and tools to enhance curricula and STEM topics in the classroom. WE2NG is an NSF (National Science Foundation) RET program that seeks to advance public knowledge and dialogue on the water-energy nexus through integration of teachers, and ultimately their students, by infusing standards-based, active-learning lessons with cutting-edge research in the water-energy nexus. The teachers' experience begins with a six week summer program at CSM that consists of different activities collectively integrated to give participants a holistic understanding of STEM research from inception to actualization. Three days a week, the participants focus on integration into a mentor faculty's research projects concerning water and/or energy. During the other two days, participants benefit from research presentations and lab tours from participating faculty, technical workshops on interdisciplinary topics, interaction with industry via field trips and speakers, and professional collaborative STEM curriculum development training. However, the teachers' experience does not end with the summer program; WE2NG also establishes long-term collaborative relationships with the summer participants by providing classroom support throughout the academic year. Graduate and undergraduate students from CSM Centers on campus are paired with the teachers to provide significant, sustained support and act as liaisons throughout the academic year. This presentation will highlight successes and lessons learned during the first year of the program, including a summary of how collaboration between K-12 teachers, Mines faculty and industry leaders can radically impact STEM education in Colorado.
Clark, Kathleen; James, Alex; Montelle, Clemency
2014-01-01
The ability to address and solve problems in minimally familiar contexts is the core business of research mathematicians. Recent studies have identified key traits and techniques that individuals exhibit while problem solving, and revealed strategies and behaviours that are frequently invoked in the process. We studied advanced calculus students…
Clark, Kathleen; James, Alex; Montelle, Clemency
2014-01-01
The ability to address and solve problems in minimally familiar contexts is the core business of research mathematicians. Recent studies have identified key traits and techniques that individuals exhibit while problem solving, and revealed strategies and behaviours that are frequently invoked in the process. We studied advanced calculus students…
Solving equations through particle dynamics
Edvardsson, S.; Neuman, M.; Edström, P.; Olin, H.
2015-12-01
The present work evaluates a recently developed particle method (DFPM). The basic idea behind this method is to utilize a Newtonian system of interacting particles that through dissipation solves mathematical problems. We find that this second order dynamical system results in an algorithm that is among the best methods known. The present work studies large systems of linear equations. Of special interest is the wide eigenvalue spectrum. This case is common as the discretization of the continuous problem becomes dense. The convergence rate of DFPM is shown to be in parity with that of the conjugate gradient method, both analytically and through numerical examples. However, an advantage with DFPM is that it is cheaper per iteration. Another advantage is that it is not restricted to symmetric matrices only, as is the case for the conjugate gradient method. The convergence properties of DFPM are shown to be superior to the closely related approach utilizing only a first order dynamical system, and also to several other iterative methods in numerical linear algebra. The performance properties are understood and optimized by taking advantage of critically damped oscillators in classical mechanics. Just as in the case of the conjugate gradient method, a limitation is that all eigenvalues (spring constants) are required to be of the same sign. DFPM has no other limitation such as matrix structure or a spectral radius as is common among iterative methods. Examples are provided to test the particle algorithm's merits and also various performance comparisons with existent numerical algorithms are provided.
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.
Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability Of Form Four Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lim Hooi Lian
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Mathematics researchers generally agree that algebra is a tool for problem solving, a method of expressing relationship, analyzing and representing patterns, and exploring mathematical properties in a variety of problem situations. Thus, several mathematics researchers and educators have focused on investigating the introduction and the development of algebraic solving abilities. However research works on assessing students' algebraic solving ability is sparse in literature. The purpose of this study was to use the SOLO model as a theoretical framework for assessing Form Four students' algebraic solving abilities in using linear equation. The content domains incorporated in this framework were linear pattern (pictorial, direct variations, concepts of function and arithmetic sequence. This study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, students were given a pencil-and-paper test. The test comprised of eight superitems of four items each. Results were analyzed using a Partial Credit model. In the second phase, clinical interviews were conducted to seek the clarification of the students' algebraic solving processes. Results of the study indicated that 62% of the students have less than 50% probability of success at relational level. The majority of the students in this study could be classified into unistructural and multistructural. Generally, most of the students encountered difficulties in generalizing their arithmetic thinking through the use of algebraic symbols. The qualitative data analysis found that the high ability students seemed to be more able to seek the recurring linear pattern and identify the linear relationship between variables. They were able to co-ordinate all the information given in the question to form the algebraic expression and linear equations. Whereas, the low ability students showed an ability more on drawing and counting method. They lacked understanding of algebraic concepts to express the relationship
Konstruksi dan Profil Problem Solving Skill Siswa SMP dalam Materi Pesawat Sederhana
Sutiadi, Asep; Nurwijayaningsih, Hedya
2016-01-01
AbstractA set of test instrument about Problem Solving Skill has been created in essay form in concept of simple tool for junior high school. The research objective is to construct a test Problem Solving Skill and obtain information relating application results. The research method used is descriptive research. Data gathered from the results of the test and research notes. Test of validity using professional judgment and statistical validity. Reliability testing using Cronbach Alpha. The resu...
On the Applicability of Lower Bounds for Solving Rectilinear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Jens; Karisch, Stefan E.; Perregaard, M.;
1998-01-01
The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) belongs to the hard core of NP-hard optimization problems. After almost forty years of research only relatively small instances can be solved to optimality. The reason is that the quality of the lower bounds available for exact methods is not sufficient....... Recently, lower bounds based on decomposition were proposed for the so called rectilinear QAP that proved to be the strongest for a large class of problem instances. We investigate the strength of these bounds when applied not only at the root node of a search tree but as the bound function used...... in a Branch-and-Bound code solving large scale QAPs....
A new algorithm for solving linear programming problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Leonardo Ramírez Leal
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Linear programming (LP is one of the most widely-applied techniques in operations research. Many methods have been developed and several others are being proposed for solving LP problems, including the famous simplex method and interior point algorithms. This study was aimed at introducing a new method for solving LP problems. The proposed algorithm starts from an interior point and then carries out orthogonal projections using parametric straight lines to move between the interior and polyhedron frontier defining the feasible region until reaching the extreme optimal point.
IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eny Susiana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make studentâ€™s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polyaâ€™s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.
Solving the mystery of the human cerebellum.
Leiner, Henrietta C
2010-09-01
The mystery of the human cerebellum is this: Why did it enlarge so dramatically in the last million years of human evolution, concomitantly with the greater enlargement of the cerebral cortex? A solution to this mystery was proposed in the 20th century as a result of research by several groups of scientists who investigated the contributions of the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex. In contrast to the 19th century investigations, which were focused on the motor functions of the cerebellum, the focus of the subsequent investigations was expanded to include some mental functions because evidence was produced that the cerebellum contributes to cognition. It was proposed that the combination in the cerebellum of motor and mental capabilities enables the cerebellum to confer on humans some adaptive advantages of great value, and this ability would explain why the human cerebellum has continued to enlarge so dramatically. A valuable adaptive advantage that is included in the proposal is the possibility that the cerebellum couples the motor function of articulating speech to the mental function that selects the language to be spoken, thus helping to produce fluent human speech and language. The validity of this proposal about linguistic processing has not yet been verified. Therefore the mystery of cerebellar enlargement in humans is not yet solved and requires further research.
Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pina Filippello
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers, which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A possible strategy to influence students' understanding and perception ... researcher in higher education teaching and learning facilitated the data- ..... B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures.
Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish
2014-01-01
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...
Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions about Their Problem Solving Abilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasan DEMİRTAŞ
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the perceptions of high school teachers abouttheir level of problem solving skills and to find out whether their perceptions differaccording to gender, seniority, branch, marital status, how many children they have, thelast school of graduation, their mothers’ and fathers’ the level of education. Theresearch was conducted on 445 high school teachers working in Malatya city centerduring 2005-2006 academic year. The data were collected using Problem SolvingInventory, Form-A (PSI-A. In order to analyze the data, t-test, One-Way Anova, LSD,Kruskal Wallis H-test, and Mann Whitney U-test were used. Research results revealedthat high school teachers perceived their problem solving skill levels as “medium”.Results also showed that there were statistically significant differences among teachers’perceptions according to their seniority, the last school of graduation, and theeducation level of teachers’ mothers and fathers.
IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika
Eny Susiana
2012-01-01
Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving) is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and l...
Geometric constraint solving with geometric transformation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper proposes two algorithms for solving geometric constraint systems. The first algorithm is for constrained systems without loops and has linear complexity. The second algorithm can solve constraint systems with loops. The latter algorithm is of quadratic complexity and is complete for constraint problems about simple polygons. The key to it is to combine the idea of graph based methods for geometric constraint solving and geometric transformations coming from rule-based methods.
A multidisciplinary approach to solving computer related vision problems.
Long, Jennifer; Helland, Magne
2012-09-01
This paper proposes a multidisciplinary approach to solving computer related vision issues by including optometry as a part of the problem-solving team. Computer workstation design is increasing in complexity. There are at least ten different professions who contribute to workstation design or who provide advice to improve worker comfort, safety and efficiency. Optometrists have a role identifying and solving computer-related vision issues and in prescribing appropriate optical devices. However, it is possible that advice given by optometrists to improve visual comfort may conflict with other requirements and demands within the workplace. A multidisciplinary approach has been advocated for solving computer related vision issues. There are opportunities for optometrists to collaborate with ergonomists, who coordinate information from physical, cognitive and organisational disciplines to enact holistic solutions to problems. This paper proposes a model of collaboration and examples of successful partnerships at a number of professional levels including individual relationships between optometrists and ergonomists when they have mutual clients/patients, in undergraduate and postgraduate education and in research. There is also scope for dialogue between optometry and ergonomics professional associations. A multidisciplinary approach offers the opportunity to solve vision related computer issues in a cohesive, rather than fragmented way. Further exploration is required to understand the barriers to these professional relationships. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.
Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.
Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills.
Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krisztina Barczi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
Does social problem solving differ from other types of problem solving during the adult years?
Heidrich, S M; Denney, N W
1994-01-01
One hundred thirteen individuals, ages 18-81, were presented with a test of social problem solving, a test of practical problem solving, the Twenty Questions task (a test of traditional problem solving), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised Vocabulary subtest (a measure of crystallized intelligence), and Raven's Progressive Matrices (a measure of fluid intelligence). The effects of age, sex, education, and intellectual abilities on problem-solving performance were examined. Social problem solving was positively related to higher education and higher Vocabulary scores, but it was not related to age. Social problem solving and practical problem solving were significantly related to each other and to scores on the Vocabulary subtest, whereas traditional problem solving was significantly related to scores on Raven's Progressive Matrices. These results suggest that different types of problem solving are differentially related to other intellectual abilities and to age.
Mindless Intelligence Method for Solving the Tower of Hanoi Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TSAU Minhe; KAO Weiwen; CHANG Albert
2009-01-01
Over the past years, more and more attention has been paid to artificial life research. The main object of artificial life research is to explore how to control the enviromnents in which the digital organisms imitating natural life, under complicated competition and evolutionary conditions, develop their own wisdom, which can then be used to solve the problems in the real world. While most of the current researches applied one or another artificial life method to solve real problems, the fundamental mechanism of the emerging process of artificial life is seldom addressed. The research works on genetic algorithms, although bearing fruitful results, could only be deemed as constituting a basic stage in the process of artificial life development. This study proposes a new method of employing artificial life, to complement the contents of the research of mindless intelligence, which is regarded as a bridge linking genetic algorithms to general artificial life. And two important concepts, key manipulating parameters and contribution function in its context, are proposed to expand the mindless intelligence applications, in order to pave the way for the optimal design of an artificial life method, in an attempt to fill the conceptual gap between genetic algorithms and artificial life, and consequently clarifying the artificial life mechanism. As a case study we applied these innovative methods to solve an open problem: the Tower of Hanoi, to attest to the feasibility of our approach, and we have achieved satisfactory results.
The Development of Potential Problem Solving of Students, Mahasarakham University
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amorn Suwannimitr
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The problem is a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved. It is involve in daily life of everyone including the students who study in University. Basically, they have to face with the physiological and psychological change; the significant problems also exactly affected to them. These situations led them to be the risk group in which they would have inappropriate behaviors. Consequently, the quality of life of the students, their families and society would impact eventually. Approach: To (1 describe the potential of problem solving of the students of Mahasarakham University, (2 compare the potential of problem solving between the group of students, (3 purpose the strategies to improve problem solving potential. This descriptive research using cluster random sampling, to define the sample, which consisted of 355 students, separated by 3 group. They were: (1 Human-Social Science, (2 Science and Technology and (3 Health Science. The research instrument was the problem solving inventory which comprised of three components; (1 problem solving confidence (2 approach-avoidance style and (3 personal control. Descriptive statistic and inferential statistic (t-test, F-test was applied. Results: The majority of the subjects were female (77.2% the mean age of 18.66 and more than 55.8% were over 19 years old. Most of them were studied in the area of Human and Social Science (69.3 %. The problem solving potential level of these students in overall were in moderate level with the mean scores of 102.95. To divided by group, their mean score were: (1 the Human-Social Science group = 104.85 (2; the Health Science group = 94.86 and (3 the Science and Technology = 105.32. Most of students who able to solve the problem quite well were coping with the positive approach by did not avoiding the problem. In addition, they played attention with problem analysis, using emotional control and using the process of decision making. In contrast, the
Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu
2012-01-01
Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…
Herak, Patrick James
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a problem-solving instrument that could easily be used by a classroom teacher. The research questions were (1) can the Problem-Solving Skills Assessments (PSSAs) differentiate between students with varying levels of selected problem-solving skills? (2) Can the PSSAs measure student growth due to…
Morin, Lisa L.; Watson, Silvana M. R.; Hester, Peggy; Raver, Sharon
2017-01-01
For students with mathematics difficulties (MD), math word problem solving is especially challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a problem-solving strategy, bar model drawing, on the mathematical problem-solving skills of students with MD. The study extended previous research that suggested that schematic-based…
Montague, Marjorie; Krawec, Jennifer; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha
2014-01-01
The effects of a mathematical problem-solving intervention on students' problem-solving performance and math achievement were measured in a randomized control trial with 1,059 7th-grade students. The intervention, "Solve It!," is a research-based cognitive strategy instructional intervention that was shown to improve the problem-solving…
Herak, Patrick James
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a problem-solving instrument that could easily be used by a classroom teacher. The research questions were (1) can the Problem-Solving Skills Assessments (PSSAs) differentiate between students with varying levels of selected problem-solving skills? (2) Can the PSSAs measure student growth due to…
Education for complex problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh
The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental re...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....
Oilsand tailings : solving the issues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granson, E.
2008-11-15
Oilsands tailings management is an integral part of oil sands research and development. Studies to decrease land disturbance and to resolve environmental and safety issues are underway at several government agencies and industry groups, including the Alberta Energy Research Institute, the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility and Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies division. Fresh tailings that come from the bitumen extraction process are composed of 85 to 90 per cent water and 10 to 15 per cent solids having the consistency of muddy water. The 3 zones that develop following discharge into the tailings ponds are 3 metres of clear water; residual hydrocarbons that float on the surface; and, a 1 metre zone of water and settling clay particles known as mature fine tailings (MFT) which comprise about 90 per cent of the volume of the tailings pond. The tailings ponds must be built in areas where there is no bitumen suitable for surface mining. The impounded area is surrounded by tailings dykes built from local overburden materials. As such, tailings ponds are managed as dams according to Alberta Dam Safety regulation requirements. Dam stability is increased by the installation of internal seepage control measures. This article described the key guidelines and objectives for the construction of tailings ponds. It also described the 3 primary types of reclamation settings, namely aquatic reclamation, wetland reclamation and terrestrial reclamation. Water removed from the MFT can be recycled back to the plant to reduce the amount of water used from the river. Although this contributes to lower energy costs, there are challenges regarding salt levels that builds up in piping and equipment. The presence of water in the tailings also prevents tailings reclamation. In addition to mechanical systems to remove water, researchers are also considering the use of chemicals and natural processes. In the consolidated tailings (CT) process, the
Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving
Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Piet
2008-01-01
The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit problem-so
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715947
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each
Emotion dysregulation, problem-solving, and hopelessness.
Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David; Gunn, John F
2014-04-01
A sample of 87 Turkish undergraduate students was administered scales to measure hopelessness, problem-solving skills, emotion dysregulation, and psychiatric symptoms. All of the scores from these scales were strongly associated. In a multiple regression, hopelessness scores were predicted by poor problem-solving skills and emotion dysregulation.
Computer-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
Baker, E. L.; Mayer, R. E.
1999-01-01
Examines the components required to assess student problem solving in technology environments. Discusses the purposes of testing, provides an example demonstrating the difference between retention and transfer, defines and analyzes problem solving, and explores techniques and standards for measuring the quality of student understanding. Contains…
Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving
Ollerton, Mike
2007-01-01
In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed…
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Problem-solving and Cognitive Style.
Garrett, Roger M.
1989-01-01
Reviewed are 15 studies on cognitive style and problem solving in science education. The effects of problem context, problem type, and three kinds of cognitive style on subjects' abilities to encounter and solve problems are investigated. Three protocols of the subjects' encountering activities are provided. (YP)
Numerical method for solving fuzzy wave equation
Kermani, M. Afshar
2013-10-01
In this study a numerical method for solving "fuzzy partial differential equation" (FPDE) is considered. We present difference method to solve the FPDEs such as fuzzy hyperbolic equation, then see if stability of this method exist, and conditions for stability are given.
ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING EXTREME SCHEDULING PROBLEMS
Gennady A. Berketov
2015-01-01
The article considers the original algorithmfor solving the generalized problem ofscheduling theory, based on the branch and bound method. Task schedulingperform works (operations) and restrictions on resources used often occur with scheduling discrete manufacturing operations, optimizing network implementationschedules of scientific, economic or technical projects. Tools to solve suchproblems are included in the decisionsupport system ACS in many businesses.The effectiveness of the proposed ...
Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving.
Jonassen, David H.
2000-01-01
Proposes a metatheory of problem solving. Describes differences among problems in terms of their structured ness, domain specificity (abstractness), and complexity; describes individual differences that affect problem solving; and presents a typology of problems, each of which engages different cognitive, affective, and conative process and…
Some Applications of Algebraic System Solving
Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio
2011-01-01
Technology and, in particular, computer algebra systems, allows us to change both the way we teach mathematics and the mathematical curriculum. Curiously enough, unlike what happens with linear system solving, algebraic system solving is not widely known. The aim of this paper is to show that, although the theory lying behind the "exact…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A.
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each corre
Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving
Yee, Sean P.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…
Solving Cubic Equations by Polynomial Decomposition
Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.
2011-01-01
Several mathematicians struggled to solve cubic equations, and in 1515 Scipione del Ferro reportedly solved the cubic while participating in a local mathematical contest, but did not bother to publish his method. Then it was Cardano (1539) who first published the solution to the general cubic equation in his book "The Great Art, or, The Rules of…
Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving
Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold
2011-01-01
Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…
The Functions of Pictures in Problem Solving
Elia, Iliada; Philippou, George
2004-01-01
In the present study, we assert that pictures serve four functions in problem solving: decorative, representational, organizational and informational. We, therefore, investigate the effects of pictures based on their functions in mathematical problem solving (MPS), by high achievement students of Grade 6 in Cyprus, in a communication setting. A…
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A sequential mixed-methods research design was chosen. This research ... development of the questionnaire used in the second phase of the survey. Quantitative data ... Microsoft Office Excel 2010 spreadsheet, descriptive data analysis was applied .... undergraduate curriculum, and implementation and evaluation thereof,.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ebutamanya
2015-03-02
Mar 2, 2015 ... Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research ... organizations[1-9]. ... facilitate research career paths, but few career models exist in Africa ..... international and local resources to clinical studies locally. The ability of ... investigators were seen as an important asset for the transfer of.
Zhang, Yin; Chu, Samuel K. W.
2016-01-01
In recent years, a number of models concerning problem solving systems have been put forward. However, many of them stress on technology and neglect the research of problem solving itself, especially the learning mechanism related to problem solving. In this paper, we analyze the learning mechanism of problem solving, and propose that when…
Solve the Dilemma of Over-Simplification
Schmitt, Gerhard
Complexity science can help to understand the functioning and the interaction of the components of a city. In 1965, Christopher Alexander gave in his book A city is not a tree a description of the complex nature of urban organization. At this time, neither high-speed computers nor urban big data existed. Today, Luis Bettencourt et al. use complexity science to analyze data for countries, regions, or cities. The results can be used globally in other cities. Objectives of complexity science with regard to future cities are the observation and identification of tendencies and regularities in behavioral patterns, and to find correlations between them and spatial configurations. Complex urban systems cannot be understood in total yet. But research focuses on describing the system by finding some simple, preferably general and emerging patterns and rules that can be used for urban planning. It is important that the influencing factors are not just geo-spatial patterns but also consider variables which are important for the design quality. Complexity science is a way to solve the dilemma of oversimplification of insights from existing cities and their applications to new cities. An example: The effects of streets, public places and city structures on citizens and their behavior depend on how they are perceived. To describe this perception, it is not sufficient to consider only particular characteristics of the urban environment. Different aspects play a role and influence each other. Complexity science could take this fact into consideration and handle the non-linearity of the system...
Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berorientasi Open-ended Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ni Nyoman Parwati
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Developing Mathematics Learning Materials Oriented to Open-ended Problem Solving. Mathematics learning should develop students' critical and creative thinking competences, which can be done through open-ended problem-solving activities. This study aims at developing mathematics learning materials for the fifth grade of elementary schools which can facilitate such activities. The development process employed a four-D model (define, design, develop, and disseminate. At the define and design stages, the researcher produced the drafts of student's book, student's worksheet, and teacher's manual accompanied with the lesson plans. At the develop and disseminate stages, the mathematics learning materials oriented to open-ended problem solving for the fifth-grade elementary school students were found to be valid, effective, and feasible. Abstrak: Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Matematika Berorientasi Open-ended Problem Solving. Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif sangat diperlukan dalam memecahkan masalah yang merupakan tujuan pokok dari pembelajaran matematika. Penyajian masalah matematika terbuka merupakan alternatif untuk menumbuhkembangkan kemampuan berpikir siswa. Agar proses pembelajaran berlangsung efektif, perlu didukung dengan perangkat pembelajaran yang relevan. Tujuan penelitian pengembangan ini adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran matematika SD berorientasi open-ended problem solving. Pengembangan prototipe perangkat pembelajaran tersebut, menggunakan four-D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate. Penelitian dilakukan pada SD di kota Singaraja, Bali. Tahap define dan design menghasilkan draf perangkat pembelajaran berupa buku siswa beserta LKS, dan buku petunjuk guru beserta rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP. Berikutnya, dilaksanakan tahap develop dan disseminate. Perangat pembelajaran matematika SD kelas V berorientasi open-ended problem solving yang dikembangkan terbukti valid, efektif, dan layak pakai.
Learning Analysis of K-12 Students' Online Problem Solving: A Three-Stage Assessment Approach
Hu, Yiling; Wu, Bian; Gu, Xiaoqing
2017-01-01
Problem solving is considered a fundamental human skill. However, large-scale assessment of problem solving in K-12 education remains a challenging task. Researchers have argued for the development of an enhanced assessment approach through joint effort from multiple disciplines. In this study, a three-stage approach based on an evidence-centered…
Completion strategy or emphasis manipulation? Task support for teaching information problem solving
Frerejean, Jimmy; Van Strien, Johan; Kirschner, Paul A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
2016-01-01
While most students seem to solve information problems effortlessly, research shows that the cognitive skills for effective information problem solving are often underdeveloped. Students manage to find information and formulate solutions, but the quality of their process and product is questionable.
Structuring an Adult Learning Environment. Part IV: Establishing an Environment for Problem Solving.
Frankel, Alan; Brennan, James
Through the years, many researchers have advanced theories of problem solving. Probably the best definition of problem solving to apply to adult learning programs is Wallas' (1926) four-stage theory. The stages are (1) a preparation, (2) an incubation period, (3) a moment of illumination, and (4) final application or verification of the solution.…
Reddy, M. Vijaya Bhaskara; Panacharoensawad, Buncha
2017-01-01
In twenty first century, abundant innovative tools have been identified by the researchers to evaluate the conceptual understandings, problem solving, beliefs and attitudes about physics. Nevertheless, lacking of wide variety of evaluation instruments with respect to problem solving in physics. It indicates that the complexity of the domain fields…
Completion strategy or emphasis manipulation? Task support for teaching information problem solving
Frerejean, Jimmy; Van Strien, Johan; Kirschner, Paul A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
2016-01-01
While most students seem to solve information problems effortlessly, research shows that the cognitive skills for effective information problem solving are often underdeveloped. Students manage to find information and formulate solutions, but the quality of their process and product is questionable.
Mills, Kathy A.; Chandra, Vinesh; Park, Ji Yong
2013-01-01
This paper demonstrates, following Vygotsky, that language and tool use has a critical role in the collaborative problem-solving behaviour of school-age children. It reports original ethnographic classroom research examining the convergence of speech and practical activity in children's collaborative problem solving with robotics programming…
Tallman, Irving; Miller, Gary
1974-01-01
Reports on a study which used propositions drawn from small group problem-solving research, combined and modified, to explain social class differences in family problem solving with externally generated, rule-bound, conjunctive, puzzle-like problems. (Author/SF)
Fitzjarrell, Shauna L.
2011-01-01
Recent research has indicated that when individuals recognize and gain understanding of their own problem-solving style preferences, personal learning and group performance can be enhanced (Treffinger, Selby, Isaksen, & Crumel, 2007, "An Introduction to Problem-Solving Style"). Further, adult learning theory suggests adults prefer a…
Collective Problem-Solving: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Skill, and Prior Knowledge
Geifman, Dorit; Raban, Daphne R.
2015-01-01
Self-efficacy is essential to learning but what happens when learning is done as a result of a collective process? What is the role of individual self-efficacy in collective problem solving? This research examines the manifestation of self-efficacy in prediction markets that are configured as collective problem-solving platforms and whether…
Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement
Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.
2014-01-01
This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…
Problem-Solving in Technology Education as an Approach to Education for Sustainable Development
Middleton, Howard
2009-01-01
This paper explores the issue of how students might learn about sustainability in technology--education classrooms and the relevance of problem-solving in that learning. One of the emerging issues in technology education research is the nature of problem-solving specified in curriculum documents and the kinds of learning activities undertaken by…
Problem Solving and Creativity in Public Policy Courses: Promoting Interest and Civic Engagement
Wukich, Clayton; Siciliano, Michael D.
2014-01-01
This article examines the impact of problem-solving and creativity exercises on student interest in public policy making and behavior related to civic engagement. Researchers have long described policy making as a function of problem solving. Creativity has also been identified as an important component of the process. While these skills are…
Associations of Students' Beliefs with Self-Regulated Problem Solving in College Algebra
Cifarelli, Victor; Goodson-Espy, Tracy; Chae, Jeong-Lim
2010-01-01
This paper reports results from a study of self-regulated problem solving actions of students enrolled in College Algebra (N = 139). The study examined the associations between the expressed mathematical beliefs of students and the students' self-regulated actions in solving mathematics problems. The research questions are: (a) What are some…
The Self-Organization of Insight: Entropy and Power Laws in Problem Solving
Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.
2008-01-01
Explaining emergent structure remains a challenge for all areas of cognitive science, and problem solving is no exception. The modern study of insight has drawn attention to the issue of emergent cognitive structure in problem solving research. We propose that the explanation of insight is beyond the scope of conventional approaches to cognitive…
Rasiman
2015-01-01
This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…
Surya, Edy; Sabandar, Jozua; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim
2013-01-01
The students' difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal mathematical understanding, and mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was…
A Descriptive Study of a Building-Based Team Problem-Solving Process
Brewer, Alexander B.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate Building-Based Teams for General Education Intervention or BBT for GEI. BBT for GEI is a team problem-solving process designed to assist schools in conducting research-based interventions in the general education setting. Problem-solving teams are part of general education and provide support…
Creating a Brighter Future: An Update on the Future Problem Solving Program.
Crabbe, Anne Borland
1982-01-01
The Future Problem Solving Program is intended to help gifted students (grades 4 through 12) develop richer images of the future and increase creativity, communication, teamwork, research, and problem-solving skills. Procedures for participating in the program and securing materials are explained. (CL)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
欧阳林静; 王斌; 赵小玲; 马静敏; 林莉萍
2011-01-01
目的 探讨广东省佛山市3~7岁支气管哮喘患儿与其气质的关系.方法 对66例支气管哮喘患儿(哮喘组)和113例健康儿童(正常对照组)采用Carry 3～7岁儿童气质问卷(behavioral style questionnaire,BSQ)进行气质维度评分,并根据各气质维度的得分情况对2组进行气质类型测评.结果 哮喘组在气质维度中的趋避性、适应性、反应强度、情绪本质、坚持性、注意分散度评分值与正常对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(均P＜0.05);哮喘组患儿ID型、D型、S型所占比例较高,IE型和E型所占比例较低,与正常对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(均P＜0.05).结论 支气管哮喘患儿的气质类型分布和气质部分维度与正常儿童有明显差异,治疗儿童支气管哮喘时应考虑其个体气质特征,并给予适当的干预.%Objective To explore the relationship between bronchial asthma and temperament in children aged 3-7 year's in Foshan city of Guangdong province. Methods Temperament dimensions were investigated with carry 3-7 year's childred behavioral style questionnaire(BSQ)and temperamental types were measured in 66 children with bronchial asthma (asthma group) and 113 normal children(normal control group). Results There were significant differences in the scores of phohotaxis, adaptability, response intensity, emotional nature, persistence and attention dispersity between asthma group and normal control group(all P＜0.05). Compared with the normal control, the proportions of intermediate-difficult type, difficult type and slow-to-warm-up type increased and the proportions of intermediate easy type and easy type decreased in asthma group (all P＜0.05). Conclusion There were significant differences in the distribution of temperament types and partial dimensions of temperament between children with bronchial asthma and normal children. Appropriate intervention should be given according to individual temperament characteristics in treatment of children with bronchial asthma.
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
African Journals Online (AJOL)
raoul
2012-02-17
Feb 17, 2012 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ..... However, this system has great potential to negatively affect access to ... Dr. Samuel Yaw Opoku: Defining the Concept and Research Design; ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2016-04-26
Apr 26, 2016 ... Management of biomedical waste in two medical laboratories in Bangui, Central ... Research .... Central African Republic Ministry of Health and corresponding ethics ..... In CAR, the management of BW remains embryonic. It is.
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ebutamanya
2015-08-28
Aug 28, 2015 ... Ethiopia, 2Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department ... of Public Health, 4Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious .... active ingredient x 10,000 dilution rate of product): 0.1%.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
raoul
2011-03-11
Mar 11, 2011 ... ... to General Organization of Teaching Hospitals and Institutes, Egypt, 2Department of .... Ethiopia at Max-Burger Research Institute, Leipzig, Germany ... [22] than Croatia (50%), Australia (53%), Thailand (41%), Italy (32.6%), ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
7, No. 1 AJHPE. Research. A comprehensive approach to curriculum evaluation is deemed ... While evaluators are guided by the experiences of using different methods, ..... provided a follow-up in-depth exploration of the quantitative results.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... community in the design, conduct and/or evaluation of these activities. ... During Phase I of the mixed-methods research design, data were collected by ... A questionnaire survey was administered to all students registered for ... Data analysis.
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ebutamanya
2016-02-03
Feb 3, 2016 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net) .... What is known about this topic ... India Co-ordinated Research Project. Ministry .... African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005 ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
raoul
2011-12-06
Dec 6, 2011 ... Asia indicate a high incidence of Kikuchi lymphadenitis [6]. However ... It is believed that information derived from this study will be of immense value to the attending physician and also form a baseline data for future research.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual ... [5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined ... to evidence-based practice in final-year undergraduate physiotherapy students.
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curricula to address health systems changes and challenges .... Likert scale questions were used, along with open-ended qualitative questions. ... Clear communicator: Able to communicate important aspects of theory, research findings clearly ...
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levels who is fluent in only Afrikaans and English. Differences in race .... The lack of knowledge of a particular vernacular often places a researcher firmly as an ..... discourse of African American women', Black women in the academy. Promises.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2014-05-06
May 6, 2014 ... Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, ... This design is useful to explore a topic, using qualitative ... interview a Delphi questionnaire was used to gather additional quantitative.
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Research. Clinical teaching is a technique used in the education of nurses. It ... learnt in a contextualised learning environment, which should support them in their ..... development of continuing professional development strategies. This study ...
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ebutamanya
2016-03-03
Mar 3, 2016 ... radiation therapy [9, 10]. The signs of obstructive ... year's undergraduate medical student: socio-demographic including age (in years), sex. .... awareness and enhance further research in this domain. Conclusion. Patients ...
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abp
2016-04-29
Apr 29, 2016 ... performance hence workplace training is tied to achieving organizational aims and objectives. .... Ethical consideration: Permission to conduct research was sought from the County ..... Everybody Business: Strengthening.
Modelling human problem solving with data from an online game.
Rach, Tim; Kirsch, Alexandra
2016-11-01
Since the beginning of cognitive science, researchers have tried to understand human strategies in order to develop efficient and adequate computational methods. In the domain of problem solving, the travelling salesperson problem has been used for the investigation and modelling of human solutions. We propose to extend this effort with an online game, in which instances of the travelling salesperson problem have to be solved in the context of a game experience. We report on our effort to design and run such a game, present the data contained in the resulting openly available data set and provide an outlook on the use of games in general for cognitive science research. In addition, we present three geometrical models mapping the starting point preferences in the problems presented in the game as the result of an evaluation of the data set.
Human and machine diagnosis of scientific problem-solving abilities
Good, Ron; Kromhout, Robert; Bandler, Wyllis
Diagnosis of the problem-solving state of a novice student in science, by an accomplished teacher, is studied in order to build a computer system that will simulate the process. Although such expert systems have been successfully developed in medicine (MYCIN, INTERNIST/CADUCEUS), very little has been accomplished in science education, even though there is a reasonably close parallel between expert medical diagnosis of patients with physiological problems and expert instructional diagnosis of students with learning problems. The system described in this paper, DIPS: Diagnosis for Instruction in Problem Solving, involves a new line of research for science educators interested in interdisciplinary efforts and ways in which computer technology might be used to better understand how to improve science learning. The basic architecture of the DIPS system is outlined and explained in terms of instruction and research implications, and the role of such intelligent computer systems in science education of the future is considered.
Exploring Primary Student’s Problem-Solving Ability by Doing Tasks Like PISA's Question
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rita Novita
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Problem solving plays an important role in mathematics and should have a prominent role in the mathematics education. The term “problem solving” refers to mathematics tasks that have the potential to provide intellectual challenges for enhancing students’ mathematical understanding and development. In addition, the contextual problem that requires students to connect their mathematical knowledge in solving mathematical situational problem is believed to be an impact on the development students’ problem-solving ability. The tasks that have been developed by PISA meet both of these criteria. As stated by the NCTM, that problem-solving skill and ability should be developed to students when they were in primary school (K5-8, therefore, it is important to do an effort to guide students in developing problem-solving ability from primary school such as accustom students to do some mathematical solving-problem tasks. Thus, in this research we tried to investigate how to develop mathematical problem-solving tasks like PISA’s question that have potential effect toward students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities?. We used a formative evaluation type of development research as an mean to achieve this research goal. This type of research is conducted in two steps, namely preliminary stage and formative evaluation stage covering self evaluation, prototyping (expert reviews, one-to-one, and small group, and field test. This research involve four primary schools in Palembang, there are SD Muhammadiyah 6 Palembang, MIN 1 & MIN 2 Palembang, and SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this research showed that the mathematical problem-solving tasks that have been developed have potential effect in exploring mathematical problem-solving ability of the primary school students. It is shown from their work in solving problem where all of the indicators of problem solving competency have emerged quite well category. In addition, based on interview
Solving the Policy Implementation Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregg A. Garn
1999-08-01
Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease.
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.
SOLVING TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS USING THE BEST CANDIDATES METHOD
Sadhak Gautam*, Mridul Jaggi, Santosh Anand
2016-01-01
Problem statement: The optimization processes in mathematics, computer science and economics are solving effectively by choosing the best element from set of available alternatives elements. The most important and successful applications in the optimization refers to transportation problem (TP), that is a special class of the linear programming (LP) in the operation research (OR). Approach: The main objective of transportation problem solution methods is to minimize the cost or the ...
Video games and problem solving effectiveness of primary school children
Jakoš, Andrej
2012-01-01
The purpose is to find out whether video games can have positive effects on children and whether we can use those effects for educational purposes at school. The thesis contains theories of the leading authors of developmental psychology in the field of cognitive development as well as an insight into the processes of learning and using problem solving skills. In the second half of the theoretical part, the essential information on video games, their effects researched until now and the means...
SOLVING CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS: A STUDY OF MULTIPLE COMMERCIAL SETTINGS
Gurau Calin
2012-01-01
Theme: Many reports stress the importance of solving customer complaints in order to maintain customer satisfaction, but also to learn from mistakes and further improve the customer service. However, relatively few empirical studies have been conducted regarding the effect of complains handling activities on customer satisfaction and on company-customer relationships. Objectives of research: This paper attempts to identify the main elements of the complaints handling strategy that are conside...
Solving the Schroedinger equation using Smolyak interpolants.
Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker
2013-10-07
In this paper, we present a new collocation method for solving the Schroedinger equation. Collocation has the advantage that it obviates integrals. All previous collocation methods have, however, the crucial disadvantage that they require solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. By combining Lagrange-like functions with a Smolyak interpolant, we device a collocation method that does not require solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. We exploit the structure of the grid to develop an efficient algorithm for evaluating the matrix-vector products required to compute energy levels and wavefunctions. Energies systematically converge as the number of points and basis functions are increased.
Stochastic Optimization Approaches for Solving Sudoku
Perez, Meir
2008-01-01
In this paper the Sudoku problem is solved using stochastic search techniques and these are: Cultural Genetic Algorithm (CGA), Repulsive Particle Swarm Optimization (RPSO), Quantum Simulated Annealing (QSA) and the Hybrid method that combines Genetic Algorithm with Simulated Annealing (HGASA). The results obtained show that the CGA, QSA and HGASA are able to solve the Sudoku puzzle with CGA finding a solution in 28 seconds, while QSA finding a solution in 65 seconds and HGASA in 1.447 seconds. This is mainly because HGASA combines the parallel searching of GA with the flexibility of SA. The RPSO was found to be unable to solve the puzzle.
PSQP: Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming.
Andalo, Fernanda A; Taubin, Gabriel; Goldenstein, Siome
2017-02-01
In this article we present the first effective method based on global optimization for the reconstruction of image puzzles comprising rectangle pieces-Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming (PSQP). The proposed novel mathematical formulation reduces the problem to the maximization of a constrained quadratic function, which is solved via a gradient ascent approach. The proposed method is deterministic and can deal with arbitrary identical rectangular pieces. We provide experimental results showing its effectiveness when compared to state-of-the-art approaches. Although the method was developed to solve image puzzles, we also show how to apply it to the reconstruction of simulated strip-shredded documents, broadening its applicability.
Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa
1997-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebru Olcay KARABULUT
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this survey is; students’ studying in Physical Education and Sport Department of AEÜ and GÜ through problem solving test and to specify whether students differentiate according to independent variables obtained from personal variables and to reveal relation between students’ ability of problem solving. Totally, 304 students, whom were selected randomly among the students studying in Physical Education and Sport Department of AEÜ and GÜ voluntarily participated in this survey. In this survey, Personal Data Form and Problem Solving Inventory (PÇE were used as a means of data collection. The research indicated that the skills of problem solving and approaches of problem solving generally the university students is medium level. The average point of the sub-dimensions and its total of the skill of problem solving didn’t change in a meaningful level accordingly class and national but it changed in a meaningful level depending on the university, sex, branches of sports.
Social Problem Solving Skill Research and Social-Skill Training
一前, 春子
1996-01-01
Reseach on the relation between social information-processing and social adjustment in childhood is reviewed and interpreted within the framework of social informationprocessing model and INS model.The review suggests that two models have different useful aspects. Then, efforts of social-skill training and their effects on children are examined.Results of social-skill training indicates that both children with problems and normal children receive benefit.
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Information problem solving and mental effort
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy
2012-01-01
Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvig, Susanne C
1999-01-01
This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri......This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods....... The described work is part of a project that aims at establishing a coherent framework for future development of integrated design tools....
An Open Environment for Cooperative Equational Solving
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
We describe a system called CFLP which aims at the integration ofthe best featu res of functional logic programming (FLP), cooperative constraint solving (CCS), and distributed computing. FLP provides support for defining one's own abstract ions over a constraint domain in an easy and comfortable way, whereas CCS is emp loyed to solve systems of mixed constraints by iterating specialized constraint solving methods in accordance with a well defined strategy. The system is a di s tributed implementation of a cooperative constraint functional logic programming scheme that combines higher-order lazy narrowing with cooperative constraint s o lving. The model takes advantage of the existence of several constraint solving resources located in a distributed environment (e.g., a network of computers), w hich communicate asynchronously via message passing. To increase the openness of the system, we are redesigning CFLP based on CORBA. We discuss some design and implementation issues of the system.
Productive Dialog During Collaborative Problem Solving
Hausmann, Robert G M; van de Sande, Carla; VanLehn, Kurt
2008-01-01
Collaboration is an important problem-solving skill; however, novice collaboration generally benefits from some kind of support. One possibility for supporting productive conversations between collaborators is to encourage pairs of students to provide explanations for their problem-solving steps. To test this possibility, we contrasted individuals who were instructed to self-explain problem-solving steps with dyads who were instructed to jointly explain problem-solving steps in the context of an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The results suggest that collaboratively developed explanations prompted students to remediate their errors in dialog, as opposed to relying on the ITS for assistance, which is provided in the form of on-demand hints. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for combining proven learning interventions.
How to solve applied mathematics problems
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2011-01-01
This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.
Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
2006-01-01
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Problem solving using soft systems methodology.
Land, L
This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.
Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution
Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.
2015-04-01
Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.
THINK ALOUD PAIR PROBLEM SOLVING (TAPPS STRATEGY IN TEACHING READING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Zuhri Dj
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This research is aim to know what extent the achievement of students’ reading comprehension by using Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS strategy at the tenth grade students of SMKN 3 Watampone. the objectives of the research is to know what extent the achievement of student’s reading comprehension by using Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS strategy. The population of this research is the tenth grade students of SMKN 3 Watampone which has 149 students. The writers applied random sampling, because the school has students more than 100 students. The X Multimedia Class is taken as the sample, because it has many students who have low values in English subject based on their teacher report. This research employs an instrument based on the problem statements investigated, It is Reading comprehension test. After several meetings, this research finds out the achievement of students’ reading comprehension significantly effective to improve the student’s reading comprehension. The result of this research shows that the mean score obtained by the students through pretest was 46.545 and posttest was 88.364; the t-test value was higher than the t-table (49.385 > 2.080. It means that there is a significant difference between the result of the students’ pretest and posttest
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2013-02-25
Feb 25, 2013 ... Of these 56 eyes, the visual acuity in 49 eyes (87.5%) improved with pinhole. Twenty seven pupils had ... (www.afenet.net). Research ... primary basic 1 to 6 and aged 5 to 15 years were included in the study. The United ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
collaboration, but also in less tangible ways affecting quality of research.[5] ... Methods. A 40-hour workshop in biostatistical reasoning was conducted ... test median score was 68% (IQR 62 - 76%), with p<0.0001 for the overall comparison of pre- v. post-scores. ... limitations of a traditional lecture-based mode of instruction.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2014-03-13
Mar 13, 2014 ... &Corresponding author: Dr. Oliver Ezechi, Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, ... with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. ... Whether or not HCV directly impacts HIV disease ..... natural history, fibrosis, and impact of antiretroviral treatment:.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
understood in the profession, evolved from therapeutic activity (within a medi- cal model ... facilitate students' ability to examine institutional systems that hinder ..... don't have connections with each other … we went to the schools and were told ... for change or conduct action research projects that deal with occupational.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2015-12-11
Dec 11, 2015 ... ... Dschang, Cameroon, 2Division of Health Operations Research, Ministry of Public ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... not yet been investigated but may can be explained by weakness of .... Cameroonian market and why not apply for surveillance of.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
by teaching them skills on how to acquire and appraise knowledge for a particular ... [3] Similarities have been noted in the roles of lecturers that facilitate learning rather than ..... Student feedback related to facilitators of and barriers to learning. Facilitators of ... 'Sometimes time (clinical, research, social, sport) was limited.'.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
raoul
2011-08-25
Aug 25, 2011 ... completely replaced animals with computer modeling, manikins and ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... developed internal guidelines on the use of animals in research in 2004 [13]. ... Only one institution used human cell cultures as a replacement to live animal use.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2013-08-05
Aug 5, 2013 ... In 2007, The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended ... are taken nearer to the community through clinical outreach ... Sample size and Sampling procedure ... researchers shared and debated the way each of them understood .... this may involve selling off assets to get the money for transport.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ebutamanya
2016-04-20
Apr 20, 2016 ... ... Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ... diabetes mellitus, obesity, family history of premature CHD in a first ... was reviewed and approved by the Hospital's Research and Ethics .... apoptosis of peripheral adipocytes, decreased pre-adipocyte.
Solving recurrence relations supported by Wolfram Mathematica
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrique Vílchez-Quesada
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces some algorithms for solving linear relationships, homogeneous and non-homogeneous recurrence with constant and non-constant coefficients, using software as the main resource in solving processes. The Mathematica commercial application has provided the technical support necessary for the implementation of the methods used. It also presents other examples of recurrence relations, showing the effectiveness and limitations of the algorithms created by the author and programmed in Mathematica environment that provides.
Solving traveling salesman problems by genetic algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The gene section ordering on solving traveling salesman problems is analyzed by numerical experiments. Some improved crossover operations are presented. Several combinations of genetic operations are examined and the functions of these operations are analyzed. The essentiality of the ordering of the gene section and the significance of the evolutionary inversion operation are discussed. Some results and conclusions are obtained and given, which provide useful information for the implementation of the genetic operations for solving the traveling salesman problem.
Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal; Lauritzen, Niels;
2012-01-01
Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games.......Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games....
An Algorithm for Solving Quadratic Programming Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Moraru
1997-08-01
Full Text Available Herein is investigated the method of solution of quadratic programming problems. The algorithm is based on the effective selection of constraints. Quadratic programming with constraints-equalities are solved with the help of an algorithm, so that matrix inversion is avoided, because of the more convenient organization of the Calculus. Optimal solution is determined in a finite number of iterations. It is discussed the extension of the algorithm over solving quadratic non-convex programming problems.
Zhang, Songchuan; Xia, Youshen
2016-12-28
Much research has been devoted to complex-variable optimization problems due to their engineering applications. However, the complex-valued optimization method for solving complex-variable optimization problems is still an active research area. This paper proposes two efficient complex-valued optimization methods for solving constrained nonlinear optimization problems of real functions in complex variables, respectively. One solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with linear equality constraints. Another solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with both linear equality constraints and an ℓ₁-norm constraint. Theoretically, we prove the global convergence of the proposed two complex-valued optimization algorithms under mild conditions. The proposed two algorithms can solve the complex-valued optimization problem completely in the complex domain and significantly extend existing complex-valued optimization algorithms. Numerical results further show that the proposed two algorithms have a faster speed than several conventional real-valued optimization algorithms.
Balance Roles of School Principals in the Light of Their Tasks-Related Problem Solving Stories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nail YILDIRIM
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to elicit problem solving stories of school principals about the balance which they had to maintain and present these stories as case studies to other school principals at practice. This is a qualitative research aiming at analyzing school principals’ problem solving stories about the problems they encountered in the past. The research employs the case study method. Twenty-two school principals working in the center, districts, and villages of Tokat, Turkey constitute the sample of the research. In the research, snowball or chain sampling approaches, which are appropriate for qualitative research tradition, were used to form the sample. Interview technique was employed as the data collection method. Data were analyzed by “content analysis” method. As a result of the research, it is observed that school principals are confronted with a lot of problems. It is observed that initially the balance between the parts that make up the system is lost when school principals are solving the problems. This situation is in fact, reinstating the balance. The balance is reinstated while school principal is solving the problems. It is detected that school principals also look after several balances while solving these problems. It is concluded that school principals use innovative balance when solving the problems they encounter. In the light of the findings of this study, school principals can be given in-service training seminars about innovative balance roles.
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Collection of solved problems in physics
Koupilová, ZdeÅka; Mandíková, Dana; Snětinová, Marie
2017-01-01
To solve physics problems is a key ability which students should reach during their physics education. Ten years ago we started to develop a Collection of fully solved problems. The structure of problems' solutions is specially designed to substitute tutor's help during lesson and encourage students to solve at least some parts of a problem independently. Nowadays the database contains about 770 fully solved problems in physics in Czech, more than 100 problems in Polish and more than 140 problems in English. Other problems are still being translated. Except for physics problems, the Collection has also a mathematical part, which contains more than 300 fully solved problems in mathematics. This paper follows the presentation of the Collection of solved problems from previous years and introduces a new interface of the Collection, its enhanced functionality, new topics, newly created interface for teachers, user feedback and plans for future development. The database is placed at the website of the Department of Physics Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, the links are: http://reseneulohy.cz/fyzika (Czech version); http://www.physicstasks.eu/ (English version).
Trading a Problem-solving Task
Matsubara, Shigeo
This paper focuses on a task allocation problem, especially cases where the task is to find a solution in a search problem or a constraint satisfaction problem. If the search problem is hard to solve, a contractor may fail to find a solution. Here, the more computational resources such as the CPU time the contractor invests in solving the search problem, the more a solution is likely to be found. This brings about a new problem that a contractee has to find an appropriate level of the quality in a task achievement as well as to find an efficient allocation of a task among contractors. For example, if the contractee asks the contractor to find a solution with certainty, the payment from the contractee to the contractor may exceed the contractee's benefit from obtaining a solution, which discourages the contractee from trading a task. However, solving this problem is difficult because the contractee cannot ascertain the contractor's problem-solving ability such as the amount of available resources and knowledge (e.g. algorithms, heuristics) or monitor what amount of resources are actually invested in solving the allocated task. To solve this problem, we propose a task allocation mechanism that is able to choose an appropriate level of the quality in a task achievement and prove that this mechanism guarantees that each contractor reveals its true information. Moreover, we show that our mechanism can increase the contractee's utility compared with a simple auction mechanism by using computer simulation.
MULTILEVEL AUGMENTATION METHODS FOR SOLVING OPERATOR EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Zhongying; Wu Bin; Xu Yuesheng
2005-01-01
We introduce multilevel augmentation methods for solving operator equations based on direct sum decompositions of the range space of the operator and the solution space of the operator equation and a matrix splitting scheme. We establish a general setting for the analysis of these methods, showing that the methods yield approximate solutions of the same convergence order as the best approximation from the subspace. These augmentation methods allow us to develop fast, accurate and stable nonconventional numerical algorithms for solving operator equations. In particular, for second kind equations, special splitting techniques are proposed to develop such algorithms. These algorithms are then applied to solve the linear systems resulting from matrix compression schemes using wavelet-like functions for solving Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. For this special case, a complete analysis for computational complexity and convergence order is presented. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the methods. In these examples we use the proposed augmentation method to solve large scale linear systems resulting from the recently developed wavelet Galerkin methods and fast collocation methods applied to integral equations of the secondkind. Our numerical results confirm that this augmentation method is particularly efficient for solving large scale linear systems induced from wavelet compression schemes.
Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills: Effects of Worked Examples and Learner Support
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2013-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, August). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills: Effects of Worked Examples and Learner Support. Paper presented at the biennial EARLI Conference for Research in Learning and Instruction, Münich, Germany.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Somayeh Sadeghian; Hassan Toozandehjani
2016-01-01
This research was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with a nonequivalent control group, which was conducted with the aim of investigating the effectiveness of problem-solving skills...
The Expansion of Dynamic Solving Process About a Class of Non-linear Programming Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZANG Zhen-chun
2001-01-01
In this paper, we research non-linear programming problems which have a given specialstructure, some simple forms of this kind structure have been solved in some papers, here we focus on othercomplex ones.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eny Susiana
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This research is classified as the developmental research. It develops learning materials using IDEAL problem solving strategy supported by Puzzquare for quadrilateral area for grade VII. The goals of this research are the development of learning materials using IDEAL problem solving strategy supported by Puzzquare is valid and learning process using that materials is effective. The development of learning materials on this research used 4-D model (Thiagarajan, Semmel and Semmel: (1 Define, (2 Design, (3 Develop, and (4 Disseminate. The developed learning-materials are (1 syllabus (2 lesson plan, (3 handbook, (4 student activity sheet, and (5 problem solving ability test. Keyword: The Development of Learning Material, IDEAL Problem Solving, Puzzquare
Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
We discuss the development of interactive video tutorial-based problems to help introductory physics students learn effective problem solving heuristics. The video tutorials present problem solving strategies using concrete examples in an interactive environment. They force students to follow a systematic approach to problem solving and students are required to solve sub-problems (research-guided multiple choice questions) to show their level of understanding at every stage of prob lem solving. The tutorials are designed to provide scaffolding support at every stage of problem solving as needed and help students view the problem solving process as an opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition rather than a "plug and chug" chore. A focus on helping students learn first to analyse a problem qualitatively, and then to plan a solution in terms of the relevant physics principles, can be useful for developing their reasoning skills. The reflection stage of problem solving can help students develop meta-cogniti...
4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya
2015-01-01
This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.
6th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Bansal, Jagdish; Das, Kedar; Lal, Arvind; Garg, Harish; Nagar, Atulya; Pant, Millie
2017-01-01
This two-volume book gathers the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2016), offering a collection of research papers presented during the conference at Thapar University, Patiala, India. Providing a veritable treasure trove for scientists and researchers working in the field of soft computing, it highlights the latest developments in the broad area of “Computational Intelligence” and explores both theoretical and practical aspects using fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, soft computing, computational intelligence, etc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilhan KARATAS
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educatingstudents as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum. Students’ gaining of that skill in school mathematics is closely related with the learning environment to beformed and the roles given to the students. The aim of this study is to create a problem solving based learning environment to enhance the students’ problem solving skill. Within this scope, students’practiced activities and problems that provide them to proceed in Polya (1945’s problem solving phases and throughout the study, students’ success in problem solving have been evaluated. While experimental group students received problem solving based learning environment performed, control group students have continued their present program in this quise1experimental study. Eleven problem solving activities were given to the students at the beginning, middle and end of the study and the students’ performances wereanalyzed based on problem solving phases. The findings illustrated that the experimental group students’ success in problem solving activities has increased while the control group students’ success has not changed significantly.
Knowledge Management and Problem Solving in Real Time: The Role of Swarm Intelligence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris W Callaghan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Knowledge management research applied to the development of real-time research capability, or capability to solve societal problems in hours and days instead of years and decades, is perhaps increasingly important, given persistent global problems such as the Zika virus and rapidly developing antibiotic resistance. Drawing on swarm intelligence theory, this paper presents an approach to real-time research problem-solving in the form of a framework for understanding the complexity of real-time research and the challenges associated with maximizing collaboration. The objective of this research is to make explicit certain theoretical, methodological, and practical implications deriving from new literature on emerging technologies and new forms of problem solving and to offer a model of real-time problem solving based on a synthesis of the literature. Drawing from ant colony, bee colony, and particle swarm optimization, as well as other population-based metaheuristics, swarm intelligence principles are derived in support of improved effectiveness and efficiency for multidisciplinary human swarm problem-solving. This synthesis seeks to offer useful insights into the research process, by offering a perspective of what maximized collaboration, as a system, implies for real-time problem solving.
The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems
Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred
2017-01-01
Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way. PMID:28848467
Factors Influencing Mathematic Problem-Solving Ability of Sixth Grade Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakorn Pimta
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to investigate factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students. One thousand and twenty eight of sixth grade students, studying in the second semester of academic year 2007 were sampled by stratified random sampling technique. Approach: The research instruments used in the study included mathematic problem-solving ability test and questionnaires. Data was analyzed by Path Analysis. Results: Factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were represented as following: (1 direct factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were described that direct and indirect factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were attitude towards mathematics, self-esteem and teachers teaching behavior. Indirect factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were motivation and self-efficacy (2 factor models influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students was associated with visual data (3 The developed model could describe variance of skill in mathematic problem-solving at 63.00 % (R2 = 0.63. Conclusion: Teachers behaviors took both direct and indirect effects on the students mathematic problem solving. The teachers are supposed to study the methods to develop this ability deeply and then bring them to manage the activities in class that encourage students to be enthusiastic to learn and have good attitude toward mathematic learning or to get students concentration.
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.
Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Researchers claim that the development of strategic knowledge (analyze, explore, plan, implement, verify) is just as necessary for solving problems as the development of content knowledge. In order to improve these
Applying natural evolution for solving computational problems - Lecture 1
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Darwin’s natural evolution theory has inspired computer scientists for solving computational problems. In a similar way to how humans and animals have evolved along millions of years, computational problems can be solved by evolving a population of solutions through generations until a good solution is found. In the first lecture, the fundaments of evolutionary computing (EC) will be described, covering the different phases that the evolutionary process implies. ECJ, a framework for researching in such field, will be also explained. In the second lecture, genetic programming (GP) will be covered. GP is a sub-field of EC where solutions are actual computational programs represented by trees. Bloat control and distributed evaluation will be introduced.
Applying natural evolution for solving computational problems - Lecture 2
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Darwin’s natural evolution theory has inspired computer scientists for solving computational problems. In a similar way to how humans and animals have evolved along millions of years, computational problems can be solved by evolving a population of solutions through generations until a good solution is found. In the first lecture, the fundaments of evolutionary computing (EC) will be described, covering the different phases that the evolutionary process implies. ECJ, a framework for researching in such field, will be also explained. In the second lecture, genetic programming (GP) will be covered. GP is a sub-field of EC where solutions are actual computational programs represented by trees. Bloat control and distributed evaluation will be introduced.
Digital literacy and problem solving in technology-rich environments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vesna Dolničar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Rapid development and progress, as well as the growing presence of information and communications technologies dictate the need for more highly developed digital skills in individuals. The paper focuses on the concepts of digital skills and problem solving in technology-rich environments. It examines these on the basis of empirical data obtained in the international study PIAAC. The introductory part presents an overview of the literature and the results of previous research in the field of measurement of digital skills, and data on the use of information society services among the EU Member States. The second part of the article refers to the results obtained in the study PIAAC. The results, confirmed by the results of other studies, showed the impact of age and education level on the problem solving in technology-rich environments. Article concludes with suggestions for improving the current state of integration of all population groups in training programs in the field of digital skills.
Function of hippocampus in "insight" of problem solving.
Luo, Jing; Niki, Kazuhisa
2003-01-01
Since the work of Wolfgang Kohler, the process of "insight" in problem solving has been the subject of considerable investigation. Yet, the neural correlates of "insight" remain unknown. Theoretically, "insight" means the reorientation of one's thinking, including breaking of the unwarranted "fixation" and forming of novel, task-related associations among the old nodes of concepts or cognitive skills. Processes closely related to these aspects have been implicated in the hippocampus. In this research, the neural correlates of "insight" were investigated using Japanese riddles, by imaging the answer presentation and comprehension events, just after participants failed to resolve them. The results of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis demonstrated that the right hippocampus was critically highlighted and that a wide cerebral cortex was also involved in this "insight" event. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first neuroimaging study to have investigated the neural correlates of "insight" in problem solving.
Transfer Between Analogies: How Solving One Analogy Problem Helps to Solve Another
Keane, Mark T.
1995-01-01
This paper deals with transfer between analogies; with what people acquire from one analogy problem-solving episode that can be re-applied to a subsequent analogy, problem-solving episode. This issue must be resolved if we are to understand the nature of expertise and the appropriate use of analogy in education. There are two main explanations of what subjects acquire from an analogy problem-solving episode. The schema-induction hypothesis maintains that subjects acquire an abs...
Exploring the cognitive components of solving non-trivial physics problems
Korsunsky, Boris Mikhaylovich
This study explores the cognitive mechanisms of problem solving in physics and the students' problem-solving strategies. Based on the review of prior research and on the author's own experience, a theory of problem-solving skills is proposed. This theory suggests the existence of a meaningful dichotomy between the students' rigid knowledge and their bisociation skills. The goals of the study are to test the proposed theory and to gain further insight into the nature of students' difficulties and the strategies that help successful solvers to overcome those difficulties. To conduct the study, a large group of AP Physics C students was given several physics tasks to solve. The participants' interactions with the tasks were observed and recorded in several different ways. The data collected are analyzed in conjunction with the background information provided by the students. Correlation statistics and linear regression models are used to determine the factors relevant to individuals' success in problem solving. The written comments and the protocols of student interviews are analyzed qualitatively, using the narrative summary and the cluster methods. The results support the idea of rigid knowledge and bisociation being two distinct sets of skills essential to problem solving; the notion of bisociation as the main factor limiting one's problem-solving success is also supported. In addition, specific behaviors associated with both successful and unsuccessful problem-solving processes were identified and analyzed. Based on the findings of the study, new approaches to teacher training, curriculum development, educational research and classroom practice are proposed.
Step by Step: Biology Undergraduates’ Problem-Solving Procedures during Multiple-Choice Assessment
Prevost, Luanna B.; Lemons, Paula P.
2016-01-01
This study uses the theoretical framework of domain-specific problem solving to explore the procedures students use to solve multiple-choice problems about biology concepts. We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. We identified a range of procedures and organized them as domain general, domain specific, or hybrid. We also identified domain-general and domain-specific errors made by students during problem solving. We found that students use domain-general and hybrid procedures more frequently when solving lower-order problems than higher-order problems, while they use domain-specific procedures more frequently when solving higher-order problems. Additionally, the more domain-specific procedures students used, the higher the likelihood that they would answer the problem correctly, up to five procedures. However, if students used just one domain-general procedure, they were as likely to answer the problem correctly as if they had used two to five domain-general procedures. Our findings provide a categorization scheme and framework for additional research on biology problem solving and suggest several important implications for researchers and instructors. PMID:27909021
Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide
Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.
2014-01-01
Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the
Schacter, J.; Herl, H. E.; Chung, G. K. W. K.; Dennis, R. A.; O'Neil, H. F., Jr.
1999-01-01
Discussion of performance assessments that test for higher-order thinking and problem solving focuses on research by the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) that assessed student problem solving using networked computers and the Web, where both performance and process data could be reported back to…
Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems
Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho
2014-09-01
This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.
Math Learning Model That Accommodates Cognitive Style to Build Problem-Solving Skills
Warli; Fadiana, Mu'jizatin
2015-01-01
The purpose of this research is to develop mathematical learning models that accommodate the cognitive styles reflective vs. impulsive students to build problem-solving skills, quality (valid, practical, and effective). To achieve the target would do research development (development research) and method development that consists of five stages,…
Kim, Mijung
2016-01-01
Research on young children's reasoning show the complex relationships of knowledge, theories, and evidence in their decision-making and problem solving. Most of the research on children's reasoning skills has been done in individualized and formal research settings, not collective classroom environments where children often engage in learning and…
Kim, Mijung
2016-01-01
Research on young children's reasoning show the complex relationships of knowledge, theories, and evidence in their decision-making and problem solving. Most of the research on children's reasoning skills has been done in individualized and formal research settings, not collective classroom environments where children often engage in learning and reasoning together to solve classroom problems. This study posits children's reasoning as a collective social activity that can occur in science classrooms. The study examined how children process their reasoning within the context of Grade 2/3 science classrooms and how the process of collectivity emerges from classroom interactions and dialogue between children as they attempt to solve their classroom problems. The study findings suggest that children's reasoning involves active evaluation of theories and evidence through collective problem solving, with consensus being developed through dialogical reasoning.
Methods of solving sequence and series problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2016-01-01
This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...
Solving jigsaw puzzles using image features
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ture R.; Drewsen, Peter; Hansen, Klaus
2008-01-01
algorithm which exploits the divide and conquer paradigm to reduce the combinatorially complex problem by classifying the puzzle pieces and comparing pieces drawn from the same group. The paper includes a brief preliminary investigation of some image features used in the classification.......In this article, we describe a method for automatic solving of the jigsaw puzzle problem based on using image features instead of the shape of the pieces. The image features are used for obtaining an accurate measure for edge similarity to be used in a new edge matching algorithm. The algorithm...... is used in a general puzzle solving method which is based on a greedy algorithm previously proved successful. We have been able to solve computer generated puzzles of 320 pieces as well as a real puzzle of 54 pieces by exclusively using image information. Additionally, we investigate a new scalable...
Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver Friedmann
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may cover only a fractional part of the entire game graph. We present a local strategy improvement algorithm which explores the game graph on-the-fly whilst performing the improvement steps. We also compare it empirically with existing global strategy improvement algorithms and the currently only other local algorithm for solving parity games. It turns out that local strategy improvement can outperform these others by several orders of magnitude.
Transform methods for solving partial differential equations
Duffy, Dean G
2004-01-01
Transform methods provide a bridge between the commonly used method of separation of variables and numerical techniques for solving linear partial differential equations. While in some ways similar to separation of variables, transform methods can be effective for a wider class of problems. Even when the inverse of the transform cannot be found analytically, numeric and asymptotic techniques now exist for their inversion, and because the problem retains some of its analytic aspect, one can gain greater physical insight than typically obtained from a purely numerical approach. Transform Methods for Solving Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition illustrates the use of Laplace, Fourier, and Hankel transforms to solve partial differential equations encountered in science and engineering. The author has expanded the second edition to provide a broader perspective on the applicability and use of transform methods and incorporated a number of significant refinements: New in the Second Edition: ·...
SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai
2011-01-01
new solutions that would help solve the global problem of sanitation. Lack of sanitation is a problem for 42% of the world’s population but it is also a taboo topic that only very few people will engage in. In the one-day workshop participants from very different areas came together and brought...... forward proposed solutions for how to design, brand and make business models for how to solve aspects of the sanitation problem. The workshop showed that it was possible to work freely with such a taboo topic and that in particular the use of visualisation tools, i.e. drawing posters and building simple...
Vacuum engineering, calculations, formulas, and solved exercises
Berman, Armand
1992-01-01
This book was written with two main objectives in mind-to summarize and organize the vast material of vacuum technology in sets of useful formulas, and to provide a collection of worked out exercises showing how to use these formulas for solving technological problems. It is an ideal reference source for those with little time to devote to a full mathematical treatment of the many problems issued in vacuum practice, but who have a working knowledge of the essentials of vacuum technology, elementary physics, and mathematics. This time saving book employs a problem-solving approach throughout, p
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each correct answer. If a question is not answered or the answer is wrong, one point is subtracted from your score. The quiz contains 10 questions. Tina received 8 points in total. How many questions did Tin...
A Novel Approach for Solving Semidefinite Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong-Wei Jiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel linearizing alternating direction augmented Lagrangian approach is proposed for effectively solving semidefinite programs (SDP. For every iteration, by fixing the other variables, the proposed approach alternatively optimizes the dual variables and the dual slack variables; then the primal variables, that is, Lagrange multipliers, are updated. In addition, the proposed approach renews all the variables in closed forms without solving any system of linear equations. Global convergence of the proposed approach is proved under mild conditions, and two numerical problems are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.
Solve the Master Equation in Python
Fan, Wei; Chen, Bing; Ye, Qianqian
2011-01-01
A brief introduction to the Python computing environment is given. By solving the master equation encountered in quantum transport, we give an example of how to solve the ODE problems in Python. The ODE solvers used are the ZVODE routine in Scipy and the bsimp solver in GSL. For the former, the equation can be in its complex-valued form, while for the latter, it has to be rewritten to a real-valued form. The focus is on the detailed workflow of the implementation process, rather than on the syntax of the python language, with the hope to help readers simulate their own models in Python.
Leprosy: a problem solved by 2000?
Stearns, A T
2002-09-01
It is now the year 2001, and in many endemic regions leprosy remains a public health problem by any definition. It is clear that defining leprosy purely by prevalence side-steps some of the real issues. There is still much to do to solve the problem of leprosy. Control programmes require better tests for early diagnosis if leprosy is to be reduced much further. Treatment of the infection and of reactions is still far from ideal, whilst an effective vaccine would be valuable in high-risk regions. Research into the true incidence in each endemic area is essential, and control programs of the future will need a more detailed understanding of the transmission of M. leprae to permit new logical interventions. Leprosy remains a devastating disease. Much of the damage that it inflicts is irreversible, and leads to disability and stigmatization. This is perhaps the greatest problem posed. It is easy to dwell on the successes of the elimination campaign, so diverting attention from those populations of 'cured' patients who still suffer from the consequences of infection. Leprosy should be regarded as a problem unsolved so long as patients continue to present with disabilities. WHO has carried out a highly successful campaign in reducing the prevalence of leprosy, and this needs to be acknowledged, but what is happening to the incidence in core endemic areas? Maintaining this success, however, may be an even greater struggle if funding is withdrawn and vertical programmes are absorbed into national health structures. We must take heed of the historian George Santayana, 'those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it'. We should take the example of tuberculosis as a warning of the dangers of ignoring a disease before it has been fully controlled, and strive to continue the leprosy elimination programmes until there are no new cases presenting with disability. The World Health Organisation has shown that leprosy is an eminently treatable disease, and has
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Kuzle
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I report on preservice teachers’ reflections and perceptions on theirproblem-solving process in a technological context. The purpose of the study was to to investigatehow preservice teachers experience working individually in a dynamic geometry environment andhow these experiences affect their own mathematical activity when integrating content (nonroutineproblems and context (technology environment. Careful analysis of participants’ perceptionsregarding their thinking while engaged in problem solving, provided an opportunity to explorehow they explain the emergence of problem solving when working in a dynamic geometryenvironment. The two participants communicated their experience both through the lenses ofthemselves as problem solvers and as future mathematics educators. Moreover, the results of thestudy indicated that problem solving in a technology environment does not necessarily allow focuson decision-making, reflection, and problem solving processes as reported by previous research.
Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.
2013-01-01
The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
2016-01-01
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
Writing about the Problem-Solving Process To Improve Problem-Solving Performance.
Williams, Kenneth M.
2003-01-01
Concludes that writing about the executive processes of problem solving, difficulties encountered, alternative strategies that might have been used, and the problem solving process in general helped students in the treatment group learn to use executive processes more quickly and more effectively than students in the control group. (Author/NB)
Analysis of the Impact on Creative Problem Solving in an Organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jasmina Žnideršič
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What affects creative problem solving in anorganization?Purpose: The aim is to obtain a better picture by using statisticalanalysis on the effects of workers' creativity in problem solving inan organizationMethod: The data was obtained by interviewing employees and usingnonparametric tests (χ2 test, Fisher test and χ2 test with Yates correction for data analysis. Results: The research results showed that fear of failure does not affect creative problem solving nor do creativity test encourageworkers towards greater creativity, but prior knowledge and experience do influence workers' creative problem-solving.Organization: Results of this research study will provide managers inan organization a clearer picture of employees’ views, whether there is dominance of routine work, poor stimulated creativity and other factors that affect their creativity.Society: Opinion of workers in an organization can encourage other organizations to explore the impact on creativity of their employees.Originality: Because the data were obtained from a small organization, the results of this research study can only refer tothe setting it researched.Limitations/Future Research: To obtain a wider picture of the effectson creativity, a greater number of employees would need to be included as well as other factors would need to be analysed.This research study took place in an organization where creativityand problem solving are not required.
Jitendra, Asha K; Harwell, Michael R; Dupuis, Danielle N; Karl, Stacy R
This article reports results from a study investigating the efficacy of a proportional problem-solving intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), in seventh grade. Participants included 806 students with mathematical difficulties in problem solving (MD-PS) from an initial pool of 1,999 seventh grade students in a larger study. Teachers and their students in the larger study were randomly assigned to an SBI or control condition and teachers in both conditions then provided instruction on the topics of ratio, proportion, and percent. We found that students with MD-PS in SBI classrooms scored on average higher than their counterparts in control classrooms on a posttest and delayed posttest administered 9 weeks later. Given students' difficulties with proportional problem-solving and the consequences of these difficulties, an important contribution of this research is the finding that when provided with appropriate instruction, students with MD-PS are capable of enhanced proportional problem-solving performance.
Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving
Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz
2009-01-01
In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…
Newton type methods for solving nonsmooth equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Yan
2005-01-01
Numerical methods for the solution of nonsmooth equations are studied. A new subdifferential for a locally Lipschitzian function is proposed. Based on this subdifferential, Newton methods for solving nonsmooth equations are developed and their convergence is shown. Since this subdifferential is easy to be computed, the present Newton methods can be executed easily in some applications.
The art and science of problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group proble...
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"
Benson, Dave
2011-01-01
Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…
Euler's Amazing Way to Solve Equations.
Flusser, Peter
1992-01-01
Presented is a series of examples that illustrate a method of solving equations developed by Leonhard Euler based on an unsubstantiated assumption. The method integrates aspects of recursion relations and sequences of converging ratios and can be extended to polynomial equation with infinite exponents. (MDH)
A program to solve rotating plasma problems
Bakker, M.; Berg, M.S. van den
1980-01-01
It is shown that the solution of a rotating plasma problem minimizes a quitably chosen funtional. This variational problem is solved by the Ritz-Galerkin methud using piecewise bilinear functions and applying some Newton-Côtes-like quadrature. The resulting linear system with a sparse nonegative def
Why Some Communities Can Solve Their Problems.
Mathews, David
1989-01-01
Effective communities are well-educated about themselves, have a better understanding of public information, talk through public issues to generate shared knowledge, appreciate the difference between public opinion and public judgment, and believe in public leadership as the key to using public power to solve community problems. (SK)
Latest Trends in Problem Solving Assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Karyotaki
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is the skill that coordinates all the cognitive, metacognitive and behavioral processes taking place when individuals encounter a previously unprecedented situation or difficulty. Metacognitive processes seem to play the most important role for resolving a problematic situation as individuals reflect on their acquired knowledge, skills and experiences, thus become aware of their capabilities and how to regulate them. Therefore, metacognitive awareness is the competence that mostly assists individuals in their attempt to construct new knowledge and reach their goals. Furthermore, individuals’ self-assessment and peer-assessment processes could reveal their level of metacognitive awareness and therefore, by far, their problem solving competency. Consequently, ICTs could capture individuals’ problem solving skills through tracking down and analyzing the latters’ cognitive and metacognitive processes as well as their behavioral patterns. The aforementioned computer-based assessment could consist of a fuzzy expert system with domain knowledge from an automated task-based test with particular solution strategies in combination with log data for identifying and classifying one’s level of problem solving ability according to specific criteria.
Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.
Forgan, James W.
2002-01-01
This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…
Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen
The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…
Solvægge i simuleringsprogrammer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wittchen, K.B.
Rapporten beskriver hvordan solvægge kan implementeres i programmer til beregning af bygningers energi- og temperaturforhold, med tsbi3 (edb-program til termisk simulering af bygninger og installationer) som et konkret eksempel. Der opstilles løsninger for nogle af de processer, som har størst be...
New Ways to Solve the Schroedinger Equation
Friedberg, R
2004-01-01
We discuss a new approach to solve the low lying states of the Schroedinger equation. For a fairly large class of problems, this new approach leads to convergent iterative solutions, in contrast to perturbative series expansions. These convergent solutions include the long standing difficult problem of a quartic potential with either symmetric or asymmetric minima.
Solving Problems of Practice in Education.
Boyd, Robert D.; Menlo, Allen
1984-01-01
Discusses the many complexities involved in the translation of scientific information in the social sciences into forms usable for solving problems of practice in education. Prescribes a series of stages to be followed from the advent of a practitioner's situational problem to the design of a response to it. (Author/JN)
GIS Live and Web Problem Solving
Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.
2007-01-01
GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…
Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?
Watras, Joseph
2011-01-01
In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
A reflexive perspective in problem solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chio, José Angel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.
Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.
Middleton, Howard
2002-01-01
Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)
Emerging representation technologies for problem solving
Jong, de Ton; Spector, J. Michael; Merrill, M. David; Elen, Jan; Bishop, M.J.
2014-01-01
When learners solve problems they often create an external representation to organize the information given in the problem statement, to translate this problem description into underlying domain terms, and to complete this with knowledge they already have. This representation is subsequently used to
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Facilitating Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
1983-01-01
Investigated superiority of instructional strategies (factor-label method, proportionality, use of analogies, use of diagrams) in teaching problem-solving related to mole concept, gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Also investigated effectiveness of strategies for students (N=609) with different verbal-visual preferences, proportional…
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preston Foerder
Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Solving Nonlinear Wave Equations by Elliptic Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da; LIU Shi-Kuo
2003-01-01
The elliptic equation is taken as a transformation and applied to solve nonlinear wave equations. It is shown that this method is more powerful to give more kinds of solutions, such as rational solutions, solitary wave solutions,periodic wave solutions and so on, so it can be taken as a generalized method.
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.
Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting
Szeberényi, József
2014-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…
Tree Searching and Student Problem Solving
Alderman, Donald L.
1978-01-01
Tree searching was applied as a computer model of simple addition sentences. Results indicated that the number of problem reductions performed in tree searching accounted for most of the variance across problems in student error rate and solution time. The technique constitutes a computer test for the adequacy of a problem solving prescription.…
Local and global behavior for algorithms of solving equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The theory of "point estimate" and the concept of "general convergence",which were put forward by Smale in order to investigate the complexity of algorithms for solving equations,have been producing a deep impact on the research about the local behavior,the semi-local behavior and the global behavior of iteration methods. The criterion of point estimate introduced by him not only provides a tool for quantitative analysis of the local behavior but also moti-vates the establishing of the unified determination for the semi-local behavior. Studying the global behavior in the view of discrete dynamical system will lead to many profound research subjects and open up a rich and colorful prospect. In this review,we will make a summarization about the re-search progress and some applications in nonsmooth optimi-zations.
Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.
Lau, Ying
2014-01-01
The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pedagogy and/or technology: Making difference in improving students' problem solving skills
Hrepic, Zdeslav; Lodder, Katherine; Shaw, Kimberly A.
2013-01-01
Pen input computers combined with interactive software may have substantial potential for promoting active instructional methodologies and for facilitating students' problem solving ability. An excellent example is a study in which introductory physics students improved retention, conceptual understanding and problem solving abilities when one of three weekly lectures was replaced with group problem solving sessions facilitated with Tablet PCs and DyKnow software [1,2]. The research goal of the present study was to isolate the effect of the methodology itself (using additional time to teach problem solving) from that of the involved technology. In Fall 2011 we compared the performance of students taking the same introductory physics lecture course while enrolled in two separate problem-solving sections. One section used pen-based computing to facilitate group problem solving while the other section used low-tech methods for one third of the semester (covering Kinematics), and then traded technologies for the middle third of the term (covering Dynamics). Analysis of quiz, exam and standardized pre-post test results indicated no significant difference in scores of the two groups. Combining this result with those of previous studies implies primacy of pedagogy (collaborative problem solving itself) over technology for student learning in problem solving recitations.
Developing a Model to Support Students in Solving Subtraction
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Nila Mareta Murdiyani
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Subtraction has two meanings and each meaning leads to the differentstrategies. The meaning of “taking away something” suggests a directsubtraction, while the meaning of “determining the difference betweentwo numbers” is more likely to be modeled as indirect addition. Manyprior researches found that the second meaning and second strategy rarely appeared in the mathematical textbooks and teacher explanations, including in Indonesia. Therefore, this study was conducted to contribute to the development of a local instruction theory for subtraction by designing instructional activities that can facilitate first grade of primary school students to develop a model in solving two digit numbers subtraction. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate approach for achieving the research aim and Realistic Mathematics Education (RME was used as a guide to design the lesson. This study involved 6 students in the pilot experiment, 31 students in the teaching experiment, and a first grade teacher of SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this study shows that the beads string could bridge students from the contextual problems (taking ginger candies and making grains bracelets to the use of the empty number line. It also shows that the empty number line could promote students to use different strategies (direct subtraction, indirect addition, and indirect subtraction in solving subtraction problems. Based on these findings, it is recommended to apply RME in the teaching learning process to make it more meaningful for students.
LEVELING STUDENTS’ CREATIVE THINKING IN SOLVING AND POSING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM
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Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree ofcreativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has beendiscussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinkingrefers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is basedon intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focusedon flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving andproblem posing. As students have various backgrounds and differentabilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns,imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have differentlevels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order todevelop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking inmathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe thecharacteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviewswere conducted to collect data with ten 8thgrade junior secondary schoolstudents. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking,namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level.These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty inmathematical problem solving and problem posing.Keywords: student’s creative thinking, problem posing, flexibility,fluency, novelty DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.794.17-40
The Role of Molam in Solving Social Problems
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Sitthisak Champadaeng
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Mo-lam is the most popular Isan Local Song. Its rhythm and message influenced peoples feeling and thought. The objectives of this research were to study: (1 the moving force in using the media of Mo-lam for solving social problem, (2 the role of Mo-lam and social problem solving, and (3 the effect of campaign with the sharing in approach and behavior of receiver in Klon-lam media. Approach: The research area in Isan Region included Maha Sarakam Province, Roi-Ed Province, Ubon Rachatani Province, Khon Kaen Province, Chiaypume Province, Udon Tani Province, Nakon Phanom Province, an Mookdahan Province. The samples providing information were 105 persons selected by interviewing and Participant Observation. Data were analyzed in characteristic. Then, the findings were presented in descriptive analysis. Results: The research findings found that: (1 the moving force for Mo-lam Media Use, was caused by the rapid Isan Social and Cultural Changes after the Second World War owing to the economic developmental policy as specified by the public sector As a result, Isan society faced trouble in social, economic, and political aspects. There were migration and moving to work in big sized cities, lack of educational management as well as basic public health service, (2 the roles of Mo-lam in solving social problems were as follows: Klon-lam campaigning in the enhancement for national security, was composed, lam against the communist doctrine and enhancing the democracy, campaigning for people to be interested in Education as well as controlling the population number, infectious disease, and supporting the exercise. In solving the environmental problems, the natural resources were campaigned, and the waste in community was got rid of, the prevention and treatment for drug addiction problem was campaigned, (3 the effect of campaign and changes in viewpoint and behavior of Klon Lam Receivers, in political and governmental security as a part of
A neuro approach to solve fuzzy Riccati differential equations
Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri; Kumaresan, N.; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, Kurunathan
2015-10-01
There are many applications of optimal control theory especially in the area of control systems in engineering. In this paper, fuzzy quadratic Riccati differential equation is estimated using neural networks (NN). Previous works have shown reliable results using Runge-Kutta 4th order (RK4). The solution can be achieved by solving the 1st Order Non-linear Differential Equation (ODE) that is found commonly in Riccati differential equation. Research has shown improved results relatively to the RK4 method. It can be said that NN approach shows promising results with the advantage of continuous estimation and improved accuracy that can be produced over RK4.
Organization and Management Problem Solving A Systems and Consulting Approach
Ziegenfuss, Dr James T
2001-01-01
Based on a broad range of case studies, Organization and Management Problem Solving is an insightful text designed to improve the application of organization theory and systems thinking in teaching and practice. This book illustrates the five key themes in the nature of organization and management-technical, structural, psychosocial, managerial, and cultural-through the analysis of measured incidents tested by students. This book is relevant to consultants, academics, and professional managers in a number of settings (academic, military, business organizations, and research institutes) an
An Algorithm to Solve Separable Nonlinear Least Square Problem
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Wajeb Gharibi
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Separable Nonlinear Least Squares (SNLS problem is a special class of Nonlinear Least Squares (NLS problems, whose objective function is a mixture of linear and nonlinear functions. SNLS has many applications in several areas, especially in the field of Operations Research and Computer Science. Problems related to the class of NLS are hard to resolve having infinite-norm metric. This paper gives a brief explanation about SNLS problem and offers a Lagrangian based algorithm for solving mixed linear-nonlinear minimization problem
Variable order variable stepsize algorithm for solving nonlinear Duffing oscillator
Fadly Nurullah Rasedee, Ahmad; Ishak, Norizarina; Raihana Hamzah, Siti; Ijam, Hazizah Mohd; Suleiman, Mohamed; Bibi Ibrahim, Zarina; Sathar, Mohammad Hasan Abdul; Ainna Ramli, Nur; Shuhada Kamaruddin, Nur
2017-09-01
Nonlinear phenomena in science and engineering such as a periodically forced oscillator with nonlinear elasticity are often modeled by the Duffing oscillator (Duffing equation). The Duffling oscillator is a type of nonlinear higher order differential equation. In this research, a numerical approximation for solving the Duffing oscillator directly is introduced using a variable order stepsize (VOS) algorithm coupled with a backward difference formulation. By selecting the appropriate restrictions, the VOS algorithm provides a cost efficient computational code without affecting its accuracy. Numerical results have demonstrated the advantages of a variable order stepsize algorithm over conventional methods in terms of total steps and accuracy.
FreeFem++, a tool to solve PDEs numerically
Sadaka, Georges
2012-01-01
FreeFem++ is an open source platform to solve partial differential equations numerically, based on finite element methods. It was developed at the Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Universit ́e Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris by Fr ́ed ́eric Hecht in collaboration with Olivier Pironneau, Jacques Morice, Antoine Le Hyaric and Kohji Ohtsuka. The FreeFem++ platform has been developed to facilitate teaching and basic research through prototyping. FreeFem++ has an advanced automatic mesh generator, ca...
A neuro approach to solve fuzzy Riccati differential equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri, E-mail: mshazri@gmail.com [InstitutSainsMatematik, Universiti Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Telekom Malaysia, R& D TM Innovation Centre, LingkaranTeknokrat Timur, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Kumaresan, N., E-mail: drnk2008@gmail.com; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, Kurunathan [InstitutSainsMatematik, Universiti Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-10-22
There are many applications of optimal control theory especially in the area of control systems in engineering. In this paper, fuzzy quadratic Riccati differential equation is estimated using neural networks (NN). Previous works have shown reliable results using Runge-Kutta 4th order (RK4). The solution can be achieved by solving the 1st Order Non-linear Differential Equation (ODE) that is found commonly in Riccati differential equation. Research has shown improved results relatively to the RK4 method. It can be said that NN approach shows promising results with the advantage of continuous estimation and improved accuracy that can be produced over RK4.
The development of problem solving in young children: a critical cognitive skill.
Keen, Rachel
2011-01-01
Problem solving is a signature attribute of adult humans, but we need to understand how this develops in children. Tool use is proposed as an ideal way to study problem solving in children less than 3 years of age because overt manual action can reveal how the child plans to achieve a goal. Motor errors are as informative as successful actions. Research is reviewed on intentional actions, beginning with block play and progressing to picking up a spoon in different orientations, and finally retrieving objects with rakes and from inside tubes. Behavioral and kinematic measures of motor action are combined to show different facets of skill acquisition and mastery. We need to design environments that encourage and enhance problem solving from a young age. One goal of this review is to excite interest and spur new research on the beginnings of problem solving and its elaboration during development.
Developing Creative Problem Solving and Professional Identity through ICT in Higher Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Horn, Line Helverskov; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin
2016-01-01
This chapter regards creative problem solving as a professional identity skill that can be fostered by creative learning environments supported by ICT. A systematic literature review is provided in order to build relationships between creative problem solving, creative learning environments, ICT......, and professional identity in higher education. The literature review will focus on the following research questions: How do ICTs support a creative learning environment in fostering creative problem solving skills? How do ICTs relate to or affect the characteristics of professional identity in the context...
Complex Problem Solving: What It Is and What It Is Not
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Dietrich Dörner
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Computer-simulated scenarios have been part of psychological research on problem solving for more than 40 years. The shift in emphasis from simple toy problems to complex, more real-life oriented problems has been accompanied by discussions about the best ways to assess the process of solving complex problems. Psychometric issues such as reliable assessments and addressing correlations with other instruments have been in the foreground of these discussions and have left the content validity of complex problem solving in the background. In this paper, we return the focus to content issues and address the important features that define complex problems.
A New Method for Solving Fuzzy Linear Programs with Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers
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Jagdeep Kaur
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Ganesan and Veeramani [Fuzzy linear programs with trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, Annals of Operations Research 143 (2006 305-315.] proposed a new method for solving a special type of fuzzy linear programming problems. In this paper a new method, named as Mehar's method, is proposed for solving the same type of fuzzy linear programming problems and it is shown that it is easy to apply the Mehar's method as compared to the existing method for solving the same type of fuzzy linear programming problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez Soto, Jose Manuel [Unidad Academica de Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad entronque Paseo a la Bufa, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Fuks, Henryk, E-mail: jmgomezgoo@gmail.com, E-mail: hfuks@brocku.ca [Department of Mathematics, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON (Canada)
2011-11-04
The density classification problem (DCP) is one of the most widely studied problems in the theory of cellular automata. After it was shown that the DCP cannot be solved perfectly, the research in this area has been focused on finding better rules that could solve the DCP approximately. In this paper, we argue that the majority voting rule in high dimensions can achieve high performance in solving the DCP, and that its performance increases with dimension. We support this conjecture with arguments based on the mean-field approximation and direct computer simulations. (paper)
Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh
2015-01-01
Background: Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students’ problem solving skills. Methods: The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. T...
Performance of parallel computation using CUDA for solving the one-dimensional elasticity equations
Darmawan, J. B. B.; Mungkasi, S.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the performance of parallel computation in solving the one-dimensional elasticity equations. Elasticity equations are usually implemented in engineering science. Solving these equations fast and efficiently is desired. Therefore, we propose the use of parallel computation. Our parallel computation uses CUDA of the NVIDIA. Our research results show that parallel computation using CUDA has a great advantage and is powerful when the computation is of large scale.
A Comparison of Approaches for Solving Hard Graph-Theoretic Problems
2015-05-01
A Comparison of Approaches for Solving Hard Graph- Theoretic Problems Victoria Horan ∗ Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate Steve...Comparison of Approaches for Solving Hard Graph- Theoretic Problems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Minimizing the Size of an Identifying or Locating-Dominating Code in a Graph is NP- Hard ”, Theoret . Comput. Sci., 290 (2003) no. 3, 2109-2120. [4] M.G
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siofra Petra Peeren
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Clinical depression affects approximately a fifth of older adults. It is important to assess the efficacy of psychological interventions in older adults because extant research indicates that treating depression with medication becomes complicated in later life. The current study evaluates the efficacy and long term effects of problem solving therapy (PST by systematically reviewing randomized trials of PST. A systematic search was undertaken of three computerised databases and six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies indicated that PST was more effective than control conditions. However, the direct and long term effect of PST on depressive symptoms remains difficult to establish due to methodological issues.
Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk; Williams, J. Mark G.; Demyttenaere, Koen; Sabbe, Bernard; Pieters, Guido; Eelen, Paul
2005-01-01
BACKGROUND: Depressed individuals display a deficit in effectively solving social problem situations (e.g., []). Recent research suggests that rumination may interfere with such effective problem-solving (e.g., []). However, little is known, as yet, about the mechanisms that are underlying this relation between rumination and poor problem-solving. The present study investigated the role of reduced specificity of autobiographical memories as a mediator of this relationship. METHODS: 24 depress...
Examining problem solving skills of physical education and sport students from several factors.
Tasgin, Ozden
2011-06-01
In this research, problem solving skills of university students are examined in the factors of sex and class. In this research problem solving inventory that is improved by Heppner and Petersen (1982) is applied to the students that are training 1. and 4. class 58 female 86 male at Selcuk University Konya, Turkey Physical Education and Sport Collage. In statistical analysis of research for the factors sex and class, variance analysis and t test are used. In the research while meaningful difference is found in the above dimension of the factors sex and there is not found meaningful difference in the factors of class. In conclusion, female students have more positive problem solving skills than male students.
A broad look at the literature on math word problem-solving interventions for third graders
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Sheri Kingsdorf
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Though research on effective instruction in math word problem solving is prominent at the middle and secondary levels, much less work has been done in elementary grades. In this article, we review the research on varied problem-solving instructional interventions at the third-grade level for students across ability levels. Third grade was chosen as the focus due to the fact that word problem-solving requirements are first introduced into the curriculum and standardized assessment at this point in time. Drawing on quantitative studies using single subject, quasi-experimental, and randomized controlled trial designs, we examine the instructional components and instructional content identified as effective across the 13 studies that met search criteria. Conclusions focus on current understanding of best practices, limitations of the existing research, and important considerations for future research.
A Problem Solving Environment Based on CORBA
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David Lancaster
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We have investigated aspects of the design of Problem Solving Environments (PSE by constructing a prototype using CORBA as middleware. The two issues we are mainly concerned with are the use of non-trivial (containing more than just a start method CORBA interfaces for the computational components, and the provision of interactivity using the same mechanisms used for flow control. After describing the design decisions that allow us to investigate these issues, and contrasting them with alternatives, we describe the architecture of the prototype and its use in the context of a study of photonic materials. We argue that having several methods on a component interface can be used to mitigate performance problems that may arise when trying to solve problems in PSE's based on small components. We describe how our mechanism allows a high degree of computational steering over all components.
Learning Matlab a problem solving approach
Gander, Walter
2015-01-01
This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014. Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.
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Masahiro Nakamura
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the following sliding puzzle called torus puzzle. In an m by n board, there are mn pieces numbered from 1 to mn. Initially, the pieces are placed in ascending order. Then they are scrambled by rotating the rows and columns without the player’s knowledge. The objective of the torus puzzle is to rearrange the pieces in ascending order by rotating the rows and columns. We provide a solution to this puzzle. In addition, we provide lower and upper bounds on the number of steps for solving the puzzle. Moreover, we consider a variant of the torus puzzle in which each piece is colored either black or white, and we present a hardness result for solving it.
A Heuristic Approach to Innovative Problem Solving
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Bertil Hök
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A methodic approach to innovative problem solving is suggested. First, Bayesian techniques are analyzed for quantifying, monitoring and predicting the process. The symmetry of Bayes‟ theorem implicates that the chances of success offrail ideas with small base rates can be boosted by highly accurate tests built on solid scientific ground. Second, a hypothesis is presented in which five methodic elements – connection, selection, transformation, balance and finish - are deemed to be necessary and sufficient to explain innovative solutions to complex problems. The hypothesis is supported by the analysis of disruptive innovations in several fields, and by emulation of a data base including 40,000 inventions.The reported findings may become useful in the further methodic development of innovative problem solving, especially in the risky and lengthy preconceptual phases
Hardness and Methods to Solve CLIQUE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Daming; LUAN Junfeng; MA Shaohan
2001-01-01
The paper briefly reviews NP-hard optimization problems and their inapproximability. The hardness of solving CLIQUE problem is specifically discussed. A dynamic-programming algorithm and its improved version for CLIQUE are reviewed and some additional analysis is presented. The analysis implies that the improved algorithm, HEWN (hierarchical edge-weighted network), only provides a heuristic or useful method, but cannot be called a polynomial algorithm.
Solving the paradox of monetary profits
2010-01-01
Bruun and Heyn-Johnsen (2009) state the paradox that economics has failed to provide a satisfactory explanation of how monetary profits are generated, even though the generation of a physical surplus is an established aspect of non-neoclassical economics. They emphasise that our ability to explain phenomena like the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) will be limited while ever we are still unable to explain this fundamental aspect of capitalism. In fact this paradox can be solved very simply, usin...
Multiscale empirical interpolation for solving nonlinear PDEs
Calo, Victor M.
2014-12-01
In this paper, we propose a multiscale empirical interpolation method for solving nonlinear multiscale partial differential equations. The proposed method combines empirical interpolation techniques and local multiscale methods, such as the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM). To solve nonlinear equations, the GMsFEM is used to represent the solution on a coarse grid with multiscale basis functions computed offline. Computing the GMsFEM solution involves calculating the system residuals and Jacobians on the fine grid. We use empirical interpolation concepts to evaluate these residuals and Jacobians of the multiscale system with a computational cost which is proportional to the size of the coarse-scale problem rather than the fully-resolved fine scale one. The empirical interpolation method uses basis functions which are built by sampling the nonlinear function we want to approximate a limited number of times. The coefficients needed for this approximation are computed in the offline stage by inverting an inexpensive linear system. The proposed multiscale empirical interpolation techniques: (1) divide computing the nonlinear function into coarse regions; (2) evaluate contributions of nonlinear functions in each coarse region taking advantage of a reduced-order representation of the solution; and (3) introduce multiscale proper-orthogonal-decomposition techniques to find appropriate interpolation vectors. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on several nonlinear multiscale PDEs that are solved with Newton\\'s methods and fully-implicit time marching schemes. Our numerical results show that the proposed methods provide a robust framework for solving nonlinear multiscale PDEs on a coarse grid with bounded error and significant computational cost reduction.
Solving the factorization problem with P systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Alberto Leporati; Claudio Zandron; Giancarlo Mauri
2007-01-01
P systems have been used many times to face with computationally difficult problems, such as NP-complete decision problems and NP-hard optimization problems. In this paper we focus our attention on another computationally intractable problem: factorization. In particular, we first propose a simple method to encode binary numbers using multisets. Then, we describe three families of P systems: the first two allow to add and to multiply two binary encoded numbers, respectively, and the third solves the factorization problem.
Solving Integer Programming by Evolutionary Soft Agent
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yin Jian
2003-01-01
Many practical problems in commerce and industry involve finding the best way to allocate scarce resources a mong competing activities. This paper focuses on the problem of integer programming, and describes an evolutionary soft agent model to solve it. In proposed model, agent is composed of three components: goal, environment and behavior. Experirnental shows thne model has the characters of parallel computing and goal driving.
Fostering interpersonal problem solving skills in children
Luciana Carla dos Santos Elias; Edna Maria Marturano
2016-01-01
Interpersonal problem solving skills - IPSS are important for psychosocial adaptation of people. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a program for the development ofHSPI, applied by teachers. Participants were 203 students from a public elementary school, aged between six and ten years, and their teachers. The children were allocated in two groups - intervention and comparison. The groups were evaluated before and after intervention as their social skills, IPSS, beha...
Logic training through algorithmic problem solving
Ferreira, João Fernando; Mendes, Alexandra; Cunha, Alcino; Baquero, Carlos; Silva, Paulo; L. S. Barbosa; Oliveira, José Nuno Fonseca
2011-01-01
Available for individual study only. Although much of mathematics is algorithmic in nature, the skills needed to formulate and solve algorithmic problems do not form an integral part of mathematics education. In particular, logic, which is central to algorithm development, is rarely taught explicitly at preuniversity level, under the justification that it is implicit in mathematics and therefore does not need to be taught as an independent topic. This paper argues in the opposite direction...