External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Hossein Zare
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.
A Case of Male Osteoporosis: A 37-Year-Old Man with Multiple Vertebral Compression Fractures
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Suhaib Radi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available While the contributing role of testosterone to bone health is rather modest compared to other factors such as estradiol levels, male hypogonadism is associated with low bone mass and fragility fractures. Along with stimulating physical puberty by achieving virilization and a normal muscle mass and improving psychosocial wellbeing, the goals of testosterone replacement therapy in male hypogonadism also include attainment of age-specific bone mineral density. We report on a 37-year-old man who presented with multiple vertebral compression fractures several years following termination of testosterone replacement therapy for presumed constitutional delay in growth and puberty. Here, we discuss the management of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with hyposmia (Kallmann syndrome, with which the patient was ultimately diagnosed, the role of androgens in the acquisition of bone mass during puberty and its maintenance thereafter, and outline specific management strategies for patients with hypogonadism and high risk for fragility fractures.
A 37-year-old man trying to choose a high-quality hospital: review of hospital quality indicators.
Howell, Michael D
2009-12-02
Mr A, a previously healthy 37-year-old man, was diagnosed as having Prinzmetal angina and a hypercoagulable state 3 years ago after an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Now, his cardiologist is moving and Mr A must select a new physician and health system. Geographic relocation, insurance changes, and other events force millions in the United States to change physicians and hospitals every year. Mr A should begin by choosing a primary care physician, since continuity and coordination of care improves outcomes. Evidence for evaluating specific physicians is less robust, though a variety of sources are available. A broad range of detailed quality information, such as Medicare's Hospital Compare (http://www.hospitalcompare.hhs.gov/), is available for selecting a hospital. However, the relationship of these metrics to patient outcomes is variable, and different Web sites provide meaningfully different rankings and data interpretations. For Mr A in particular, a warfarin management team, the hospital's location, and a cardiologist with whom he feels comfortable and who can communicate with his primary care physician are important factors. Nevertheless, hospital quality information and metrics are an important component of the strategy Mr A should take to solve this challenging problem.
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Ayanniyi Abdulkabir A
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Combination antituberculosis drug therapy remains the mainstay of treating tuberculosis. Unfortunately, antituberculosis drugs produce side effects including (toxic impaired visual function, which may be irreversible. We report a case of antituberculosis-drug-induced impaired visual function that was reversed following early detection and attention. Case presentation A 37-year-old Yoruba woman, weighing 48 kg, presented to our facility with impaired visual functions and mild sensory polyneuropathy in about the fourth month of antituberculosis treatment. Her therapy comprised ethambutol 825 mg, isoniazid 225 mg, rifampicin 450 mg, and pyrazinamide 1200 mg. Her visual acuity was 6/60 in her right eye and 1/60 in her left eye. She had sluggish pupils, red-green dyschromatopsia, hyperemic optic discs and central visual field defects. Her intraocular pressure was 14 mmHg. Her liver and kidney functions were essentially normal. Screening for human immunodeficiency virus was not reactive. Her impaired visual function improved following prompt diagnosis and attention, including the discontinuation of medication. Conclusions The ethambutol and isoniazid in antituberculosis medication are notorious for causing impaired visual function. The diagnosis of ocular toxicity from antituberculosis drugs should never be delayed, and should be possible with the patient's history and simple but basic eye examinations and tests. Tight weight-based antituberculosis therapy, routine peri-therapy visual function monitoring towards early detection of impaired function, and prompt attention will reduce avoidable ocular morbidity.
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Motlagh Mehdi Ghandehari
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental environment is a stressful place for children. In many cases, parents transmit their anxiety to their children in the first dental visit. Mothers as the closest person to the children may have important influence on their children’s behavior in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational pamphlet for mothers on children’s behavior in the first dental visit. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 238 mothers who had 3-7 years old children undergoing dental treatment for the first time. The participants were divided into interventional and control group randomly. Behavior of children was assessed by questionnaire according to 4 point scale of Frankle. The questionnaire contained 5 parts: separation of child from the mother, entering the dental room, opening the mouth, communicating with dentist, getting the prize. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The educational pamphlet was effective on the separation of child from the mother, the cooperation of children in interventional group was better than the control group (P=0.006. In interventional group 96.2% of and in the control group 90.8% of children had good and very good behavior but the difference was not significant (P=0.11. Conclusion: Although the educational pamphlet was effective on the separation of child from mother. No significant difference in behavior of 3-7 year-old children between interventional and control group was found.
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Barriuso Clemente
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract We report about a 37 year old male patient with a pectus excavatum. The patient was in NYHA functional class III. After performed computed tomography the symptoms were thought to be related to the severity of chest deformation. A Ravitch-procedure had been accomplished in a district hospital in 2009. The crack of a metal bar led to a reevaluation 2010, in which surprisingly the presence of an annuloaortic ectasia (root 73 × 74 mm in direct neighborhood of the formerly implanted metal-bars was diagnosed. Echocardiography revealed a severe aortic valve regurgitation, the left ventricle was massively dilated presenting a reduced ejection fraction of 45%. A marfan syndrome was suspected and the patient underwent a valve sparing aortic root replacement (David procedure in our institution with an uneventful postoperative course. A review of the literature in combination with discussion of our case suggests the application of stronger recommendations towards preoperative cardiovascular assessment in patients with pectus excavatum.
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Andrzej Wincewicz
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Here we review prognostic and predictive aspects of mutated TP53 in Wilms’ tumor biology on the basis of the morphological report and molecular analysis of adult nephroblastoma (diffuse blastemal pattern of a 37-year-old man. Among quite different proteins, TP53 affects expression of several genes such as hypoxia inducible proteins GLUT1 and EPO as well as multidrug resistance (MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein (Pgp/MDR1 and multidrug-resistant related protein (MRP1, with certain clinical implications. TP53 mutation was found both in our primary tumor (c.746G>T p.R249M frequency 92% and in nodal metastasis (c.746G>T p.R249M frequency 90%, and the common polymorphism p.P72R in the same gene was revealed with frequency of about 97% in both primary tumor and metastatic disease with appliance of NGS technology (IonTorrent – LifeTechnology using Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2.
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.
Jung, Charles; And Others
This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.
Jung, Charles; And Others
This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Participant Materials.
Jung, Charles; And Others
These materials are the handouts for school administrators participating in RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops. The purposes of the workshops are to develop skills for improving schools and to increase teamwork skills. The handouts correspond to the 16 subsets that make up the five-day workshop: (1) orientation; (2) identifying…
Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies
Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya
2016-01-01
The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…
Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research
Parr, Michelann
2010-01-01
This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…
Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding
Maiden, N.; Jones, S.; Karlsen, I. K.; Neill, R.; Zachos, K.; Milne, A.
2010-01-01
This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then maps established requirements activities onto one of the longest-esta...
National Education Association, Washington, DC. Project on Utilization of Inservice Education R & D Outcomes.
The workshop instructional materials described here are designed to try out a systematic problem solving process as a way of working toward improvements in the school setting. Topics include diagnosis using force field technique, small group dynamics, planning for action, and planning a RUPS (Research Using Problem Solving) project. This…
Solving the sulphur situation : research assesses viability of burying sulphur
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proce, B.
2006-01-01
Oil sands mining companies are looking for ways to manage growing levels of sulphur production from the Athabasca region. Infrastructure is not in place to economically transport the sulphur even though there is a global market for it. Sulphur cannot be stockpiled indefinitely as it can react with air to produce sulphur dioxide. Although above-ground sulphur storage has been regulated for more than 30 years, the underground storage of sulphur is still in a research and development phase. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd. is currently conducting an ongoing experiment in which 100 tonne test blocks have been buried above and below the water table so that surrounding areas could be monitored over a period of years. A series of tests is being conducted to examine changes in pH in water and sulphate levels. A multi-layered engineering casing to contain the sulphur and prevent seepage is also being investigated. Once stored underground, operators also have to consider how the sulphur will be accessed in the future, as it is subject to government royalties. The storage of sulphur may have economic benefits as the product can be sold when prices are high. Most sulphur produced in Alberta is sold as an export product in the United States for use in products such as fertilizer. Shell Canada penetrated the Chinese market in 2001 and has since become one of Canada's largest sulphur exporters. Shell has also introduced a number of products using sulphur, including fertilizers, enhanced asphalt, and concrete. It was concluded that companies must take action now to mitigate future losses and to utilize current markets in order to remain competitive. 3 figs
Triage: Making a Political Decision to Solve an Environmental Science Problem Through Research
Ridolfi, Thomas
1974-01-01
A description is given of a class project concerned with examining a population problem and making some political decisions to solve it. A list of topics for the students to research as a basis for their decisions is provided. (DT)
Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
-solving. This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education. The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher...... education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers......Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem...
The behavior modification through the play of children aged 3-7 years old
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Flora Lamcja (Zeqaj
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The integration of theory, technique and common factors in psychotherapy has gained prominence since the 1990s. Previously, it was called eclecticism, but integration has become the preferred term to describe the blending of theory, technique and common factors (Norcross, 2005. In the past, eclecticism meant to choose from various theories and techniques a therapeutic strategy that appears best for a particular client (Schaefer, 2003, .308. However, Norcross (1987 explains eclecticism as a further integration through which various theories are applied on interactive and coordinated explanations of the therapy. Psychological disorders, especially in complex children and adolescents a multifaceted treatment approach is needed (Schaefer 2003. Indeed, many clients do not come with a clearly defined diagnosis, but rather several overlapping problems due to the co morbidity of issues (such as in the cases of complex trauma resulting in overlapping attention problems, along with phobias and sexualized behaviors. The clinicians trained in one theoretical and treatment approach are finding the “one size” cannot fit in all the presenting problems that are being faced today. Due to this multidimensional aspect the play child/play therapy calls for the unique demand that the therapist should wear a lot of different hats and should be skillful in changing from one therapeutic stance to another, in order to meet the needs of the child and of the various members in the child’s life (Coonerty, 1993. In one moment, the play therapist is intensively involved in deeply evocative and conflicted play therapy the child client. At that moment, the therapist needs to deal with the child’s internal struggles, setting limits and being an educator or mediator with the child, while in the next moment the therapist should be engaged with the role of a parent, or school psychologist, or classroom teacher to assess the child’s functioning
A 37-year-old Woman with Altered Mental Status and Urinary Frequency
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Deepa Ravikumar
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We present a case report of a patient who initially presented with altered mental status andsignificant urinary frequency. Over the course of her emergency department stay, she thendeveloped tachycardia out of proportion to a new fever along with a respiratory alkalosis. Althougheach objective finding has a broad differential diagnosis, thyroid storm was the only unifyingdiagnosis when all findings were present.
Research Projects in Physics: A Mechanism for Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving
Milbourne, Jeff; Bennett, Jonathan
2017-10-01
Physics education research has a tradition of studying problem solving, exploring themes such as physical intuition and differences between expert and novice problem solvers. However, most of this work has focused on traditional, or well-structured, problems, similar to what might appear in a textbook. Less work has been done with open-ended, or ill-structured, problems, similar to the types of problems students might face in their professional lives. Given the national discourse on educational system reform aligned with 21st century skills, including problem solving, it is critical to provide educational experiences that help students learn to solve all types of problems, including ill-structured problems.
Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research
Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris
2017-12-01
Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging). Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting), while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options). In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations) and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation). Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver's perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems graduate students
Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne E. Leak
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging. Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting, while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options. In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation. Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver’s perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems
Research Projects in Physics: A Mechanism for Teaching Ill-Structured Problem Solving
Milbourne, Jeff; Bennett, Jonathan
2017-01-01
Physics education research has a tradition of studying problem solving, exploring themes such as physical intuition and differences between expert and novice problem solvers. However, most of this work has focused on traditional, or well-structured, problems, similar to what might appear in a textbook. Less work has been done with open-ended, or…
Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid
2013-03-01
Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.
Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research
Chen, Hongwei
2010-01-01
Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.
Jitendra, Asha K.; Harwell, Michael R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Karl, Stacy R.; Lein, Amy E.; Simonson, Gregory; Slater, Susan C.
2015-01-01
This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of a research-based intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), on students' proportional problem solving. SBI emphasizes the underlying mathematical structure of problems, uses schematic diagrams to represent information in the problem text, provides explicit problem-solving and metacognitive…
Dubow, Eric F; Aber, J Lawrence; Betancourt, Theresa S; Cummings, E Mark; Huesmann, L Rowell
2017-02-01
The reader might get the impression that the four projects described in this Special Section proceeded in a systematic and predictable way. Of course, those of us engaged in each research project encountered pitfalls and challenges along the way. A main goal of this Special Section is to provide pathways and encouragement for those who may be interested in advancing high-quality research on this topic. In this paper, we describe a set of practical and ethical challenges that we encountered in conducting our longitudinal, process-oriented, and translational research with conflict-affected youth, and we illustrate how problems can be solved with the goal of maintaining the internal and external validity of the research designs. We are hopeful that by describing the challenges of our work, and how we overcame them, which are seldom treated in this or any other literature on research on child development in high-risk contexts, we can offer a realistic and encouraging picture of conducting methodologically sound research in conflict-affected contexts.
Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a modified cognitive strategy instructional intervention originally developed to improve the mathematical problem solving of middle and high school students with learning disabilities (LD). Fifth and sixth grade general education mathematics teachers and their students of varying ability (i.e., average-achieving [AA] students, low-achieving [LA] students, and students with LD) participated in the research study. Several features of the intervention were modified, including (a) explicitness of instruction, (b) emphasis on meta-cognition, (c) focus on problem-solving prerequisites, (d) extended duration of initial intervention, and (e) addition of visual supports. General education math teachers taught all instructional sessions to their inclusive classrooms. Curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of math problem solving were administered five times over the course of the year. A multilevel model (repeated measures nested within students and students nested within schools) was used to analyze student progress on CBMs. Though CBM scores in the intervention group were initially lower than that of the comparison group, intervention students improved significantly more in the first phase, with no differences in the second phase. Implications for instruction are discussed as well as directions for future research.
Tohir, M.; Abidin, Z.; Dafik; Hobri
2018-04-01
Arithmetics is one of the topics in Mathematics, which deals with logic and detailed process upon generalizing formula. Creativity and flexibility are needed in generalizing formula of arithmetics series. This research aimed at analyzing students creative thinking skills in generalizing arithmetic series. The triangulation method and research-based learning was used in this research. The subjects were students of the Master Program of Mathematics Education in Faculty of Teacher Training and Education at Jember University. The data was collected by giving assignments to the students. The data collection was done by giving open problem-solving task and documentation study to the students to arrange generalization pattern based on the dependent function formula i and the function depend on i and j. Then, the students finished the next problem-solving task to construct arithmetic generalization patterns based on the function formula which depends on i and i + n and the sum formula of functions dependent on i and j of the arithmetic compiled. The data analysis techniques operative in this study was Miles and Huberman analysis model. Based on the result of data analysis on task 1, the levels of students creative thinking skill were classified as follows; 22,22% of the students categorized as “not creative” 38.89% of the students categorized as “less creative” category; 22.22% of the students categorized as “sufficiently creative” and 16.67% of the students categorized as “creative”. By contrast, the results of data analysis on task 2 found that the levels of students creative thinking skills were classified as follows; 22.22% of the students categorized as “sufficiently creative”, 44.44% of the students categorized as “creative” and 33.33% of the students categorized as “very creative”. This analysis result can set the basis for teaching references and actualizing a better teaching model in order to increase students creative thinking skills.
Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal
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Maria Helena Fávero
2001-05-01
Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.
Hoskinson, A.-M.; Caballero, M. D.; Knight, J. K.
2013-01-01
If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research. PMID:23737623
Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K
2013-06-01
If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.
Eyisi, Daniel
2016-01-01
Research in science education is to discover the truth which involves the combination of reasoning and experiences. In order to find out appropriate teaching methods that are necessary for teaching science students problem-solving skills, different research approaches are used by educational researchers based on the data collection and analysis…
Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research
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A.V. Zhilinskaya,
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.
Mahoney, Kevin
2012-01-01
This research investigation examined the effects of Singapore's Model Method, also known as "model drawing" or "bar modeling" on the word problem-solving performance of American third and fourth grade students. Employing a single-case design, a researcher-designed teaching intervention was delivered to a child in third…
Lasker, Roz D; Weiss, Elisa S
2003-03-01
Over the last 40 years, thousands of communities-in the United States and internationally-have been working to broaden the involvement of people and organizations in addressing community-level problems related to health and other areas. Yet, in spite of this experience, many communities are having substantial difficulty achieving their collaborative objective, and many funders of community partnerships and participation initiatives are looking for ways to get more out of their investment. One of the reasons we are in this predicament is that the practitioners and researchers who are interested in community collaboration come from a variety of contexts, initiatives, and academic disciplines, and few of them have integrated their work with experiences or literatures beyond their own domain. In this article, we seek to overcome some of this fragmentation of effort by presenting a multidisciplinary model that lays out the pathways by which broadly participatory processes lead to more effective community problem solving and to improvements in community health. The model, which builds on a broad array of practical experience as well as conceptual and empirical work in multiple fields, is an outgrowth of a joint-learning work group that was organized to support nine communities in the Turning Point initiative. Following a detailed explication of the model, the article focuses on the implications of the model for research, practice, and policy. It describes how the model can help researchers answer the fundamental effectiveness and "how-to" questions related to community collaboration. In addition, the article explores differences between the model and current practice, suggesting strategies that can help the participants in, and funders of, community collaborations strengthen their efforts.
Research on problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of some variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eroğlu Başak
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of different variables. 157 male and 43 female orienteering athletes, making a total of 200 athletes that joined the 3rd Level of Turkey Championship in 2015 have participated in this study which is in a survey model. The data collection tools were the Problem Solving Inventory and Personal Information Form that were formed by Heppner & Peterson (1982 and adapted into Turkish by Şahin, Şahin & Heppner (1993. In the data analysis, descriptive statics, anova, t test and Tukey test have been utilized. In the line with the findings, it has been determined that the difference between the total mean values (85.55+20.45 that the orienteering athletes got from the problem solving inventory and their age, marital status, sports age, the years of practice in orienteering sports, and the status of being national player is significant (p<0.05. It has been found that male orienteering athletes perform higher evaluating approach compared to the female athletes, and that as the age levels increase, the problem solving skill is affected more positively. Furthermore, it has been determined that the perceptions of the participants that have more experience and sports age in orienteering sports and that do orienteering sports at a national level are more positive in the matter of problem solving skills.
Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin Scott
2018-06-01
We present an instructional framework that allowed a first time physics instructor to improve students quantitative problem solving abilities by more than a letter grade over what was achieved by students in an experienced instructor’s course. This instructional framework uses a Think-Pair-Share approach to foster collaborative quantitative problem solving during the lecture portion of a large enrollment introductory calculus-based mechanics course. Through the development of carefully crafted and sequenced TPS questions, we engage students in rich discussions on key problem solving issues that we typically only hear about when a student comes for help during office hours. Current work in the sophomore E&M course illustrates that this framework is generalizable to classes beyond the introductory level and for topics beyond mechanics.
Sánchez García, Raúl; Sebastián, Miguel Ángel
2015-01-01
This article states that research in skill acquisition and execution has underestimated the relevance of some features of attention. We present and theoretically discuss two essential features of attention that have been systematically overlooked in the research of skill acquisition and execution. First, attention alters the appearance of the perceived stimuli in an essential way; and second, attention plays a fundamental role in action, being crucial for solving the so called ’ma...
Information problem solving instruction: An overview of 21st century research
Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Testers, Laurent; Van Strien, Johan; Walhout, Jaap; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
2015-01-01
Information problem solving (IPS) is the process of locating, selecting, evaluating, and integrating information from various sources to fulfill an information need (Brand-Gruwel, Wopereis, & Vermetten, 2005). It is regarded an important contemporary skill, at times categorized as twenty-first
Agent-Based Modeling of Collaborative Problem Solving. Research Report. ETS RR-16-27
Bergner, Yoav; Andrews, Jessica J.; Zhu, Mengxiao; Gonzales, Joseph E.
2016-01-01
Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is a critical competency in a variety of contexts, including the workplace, school, and home. However, only recently have assessment and curriculum reformers begun to focus to a greater extent on the acquisition and development of CPS skill. One of the major challenges in psychometric modeling of CPS is…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joan C. Durrance
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.
2016-01-01
This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .
Day, Jasmine; Bianucci, Raffaella
2015-01-01
Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification). Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry), although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts. PMID:26345295
Bassuk, James A; Washington, Ida M
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up) was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner consistent with high
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James A Bassuk
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation. The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Bihong; Shuang Na; Liu Qingcheng
2006-01-01
The principle of finite difference method is introduced, and the radon field distribution over sandstone-type uranium deposit is narrated. The radon field distribution theory equation is established. To solve radon field distribution equation using finite difference algorithm is to provide the value computational method for forward calculation about radon field over sandstone-type uranium mine. Study on 2-D finite difference method on the center of either high anomaly radon fields in view of the character of radon field over sandstone-type uranium provide an algorithm for further research. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.M. Chapman
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In a human-altered world where biodiversity is in decline and conservation problems abound, there is a dire need to ensure that the next generation of conservation scientists have the knowledge, skills, and training to address these problems. So called “early career researchers” (ECRs in conservation science have many challenges before them and it is clear that the status quo must change to bridge the knowledge–action divide. Here we identify thirteen practical strategies that ECRs can employ to become more relevant. In this context, “relevance” refers to the ability to contribute to solving conservation problems through engagement with practitioners, policy makers, and stakeholders. Conservation and career strategies outlined in this article include the following: thinking ‘big picture’ during conservation projects; embracing various forms of knowledge; maintaining positive relationships with locals familiar with the conservation issue; accepting failure as a viable (and potentially valuable outcome; daring to be creative; embracing citizen science; incorporating interdisciplinarity; promoting and practicing pro-environmental behaviours; understanding financial aspects of conservation; forming collaboration from the onset of a project; accepting the limits of technology; ongoing and effective networking; and finally, maintaining a positive outlook by focusing on and sharing conservation success stories. These strategies move beyond the generic and highlight the importance of continuing to have an open mind throughout the entire conservation process, from establishing one’s self as an asset to embracing collaboration and interdisciplinary work, and striving to push for professional and personal connections that strengthen personal career objectives.
Puzzle-solving in psychology : The neo-Galtonian vs. nomothetic research focuses
Vautier, Stephane; Lacot, Emilie; Veldhuis, Michiel
We compare the neo-Galtonian and nomothetic approaches of psychological research. While the former focuses on summarized statistics that depict average subjects, the latter focuses on general facts of form 'if conditions then restricted outcomes'. The nomothetic approach does not require
Solving Research Tasks Using Desk top Scanning Electron Microscope Phenom ProX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vertsanova, O.V.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Phenom ProX — morden effective universal desktop Scanning Electron Microscope with integrated EDS system. Phenom-World helps customers to stay competitive in a world where critical dimensions are continuously getting smaller. All Phenom desktop systems give direct access to the high resolution and high-quality imaging and analysis required in a large variety of applications. They are affordable, flexible and a fast tool enabling engineers, technicians, researchers and educational professionals to investigate micron and submicron structures.
Business research as an educational problem-solving heuristic - the case of Porter's diamond
O'Connell, Laurence; Clancy, Paula; Van Egeraat, Chris
1999-01-01
Explores the link between research practice and business education. The work of Michael Porter has a long association with the field of marketing. Focuses on the Porter's diamond model of national competitive advantage (1990). Draws on recent experiences from an empirical investigation into sources of competitive advantage and suggests that the model is useful as a conceptual framework for practitioner-orientated discourse concerning developmental issues. Outlines the process o...
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Earth Rotation : Solved and Unsolved Problems
1986-01-01
The idea for organl.zl.ng an Advanced Research Workshop entirely devoted to the Earth rotation was born in 1983 when Professor Raymond Hide suggested this topic to the special NATO panel of global transport mechanism in the Geosciences. Such a specialized meeting did not take place since the GEOP research conference on the rotation of the Earth and polar motion which was held at the Ohio State University (USA) in 1973. In the last ten years, highly precise measurements of the Earth's rotation parameters and new global geophysical data have become available allowing major advance to be made in the under standing of the various irregularities affecting the Earth's rotation. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists who have made important contributions in this field during the last decade both at the observational and geophysical interpretation levels. The confe rence was divided into four main topics. The first session was dedicated to the definition, implementation and maintenance of the te...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chin, George
1999-01-11
A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashita, M.; Uchida, H.
2002-01-01
A rust layer, so called 'protective' rust layer, on a weathering low-alloy steel has strong protective ability for atmospheric corrosion of the steel. We have recently found through a large number of spectroscopic studies including Moessbauer spectroscopy that the protective rust layer forms after long-term phase transformation. The phase and structure of the rust definitely control the protective ability of the rust layer. From this recent knowledge, some new technologies have been developed. One is the surface-treatment technique that provides a possibility for obtaining the protective rust layer in a relatively short period even in the severe environments such as in marine and chloride (de-icing salts) containing environments. Others are based on selection of effective alloying elements for steel materials. These are particularly important for application in areas where protective rust layer formation may be hindered or prevented. In this paper, we mention recent progress in research and development on rusting protection by rust for atmospheric corrosion of steels in Japan.
Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework
Roesler, Rebecca A.
2016-01-01
Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…
Dunbar, Krista; Monson, Robert J.
2011-01-01
Much has been written about the disconnect between education research produced in graduate schools of education and the practice of school leaders. In this article, the authors share one story of an external partnership that promotes the development of a principal's capacity for complex problem solving and the early research that suggests this…
The Mosquito and Fly Research Unit of the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology located in Gainesville Florida is the largest Federal laboratory devoted to specifically solving operational mosquito and fly surveillance and control challenges in the U.S. and internationa...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Wenjun; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Xu Zhou; Li Ming; Yang Xingfan; Chen Yanan; Liu Jie; Jin Xiao; Lin Yuzheng
2008-01-01
In this paper, a time-domain equivalent circuit method is applied to solve dispersion of coupled-cavity travelling-wave tube (CCTWT). First, the time-domain circuit equations of CCTWT coupled-cavity chain are deduced from the equivalent circuit model. Then, the equations are solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a program CTTDCP is developed using MATLAB. Last, a L-band CCTWT is calculated using CTTDCP and the cavity pass-band of this tube is computed to be 1.08-1.48 GHz, which is consistent with the experimental results and the simulation results of electromagnetic code and demonstrates the validity of the time-domain equivalent circuit method. In addition, a new design method which uses the equivalent circuit method and electromagnetic simulation together to optimize the cold cavity characteristics of CCTWT is proposed. (authors)
Introspection in Problem Solving
Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell
2013-01-01
Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…
Singh, Chandralekha
2009-07-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2015
2015-01-01
The Social Spending Innovation Research (SSIR) proposal seeks to replicate, in social spending, the great success of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in technology development. The SBIR program funds technology development by entrepreneurial small companies. The program has spawned breakthrough technologies in diverse areas…
2003-01-01
The National Center for Microgravity Research (NCMR) is a vital and successful operation, effectively supporting NASA's program in many ways beyond technical monitoring. NCMR is supplying leadership for certain new initiatives important to NASA's future. NASA might regard NCMR as kind of a small laboratory of innovative research management, and should support it generously.
Solving Environmental Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph
2017-01-01
for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect...... dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...
Creativity and Problem Solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
Creativity and problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Victor Valqui Vidal
2004-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.
Abdullah, Jafri Malin
2013-05-01
President Obama of the United States of America announced this April the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN for short) investment, while Professor Henry Markram's team based in the European Union will spend over a billion euros on the Human Brain Project, breaking through the unknowns in the fifth science of the decade: Neuroscience. Malaysia's growth in the same field needs to be augmented, and thus the Universiti Sains Malaysia's vision is to excel in the field of clinical brain sciences, mind sciences and neurosciences. This will naturally bring up the level of research in the country simultaneously. Thus, a center was recently established to coordinate this venture. The four-year Integrated Neuroscience Program established recently will be a sustainable source of neuroscientists for the country. We hope to establish ourselves by 2020 as a global university with neurosciences research as an important flagship.
von Davier, Alina A.; Halpin, Peter F.
2013-01-01
Collaboration is generally recognized as a core competency of today's knowledge economy and has taken a central role in recent theoretical and technological developments in education research. Yet, the methodology for assessing the learning benefits of collaboration continues to rely on educational tests designed for isolated individuals. Thus,…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, David
2012-01-01
Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...
Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework
Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam
2012-01-01
Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…
Nearing, Kathryn A; Hunt, Cerise; Presley, Jessica H; Nuechterlein, Bridget M; Moss, Marc; Manson, Spero M
2015-10-01
This paper is the first in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline and presents strategies to support recruitment and retention to create diverse pathways into clinical and translational research (CTR). The strategies address multiple levels or contexts of persistence decisions and include: (1) creating a seamless pipeline by forming strategic partnerships to achieve continuity of support for scholars and collective impact; (2) providing meaningful research opportunities to support identity formation as a scientist and sustain motivation to pursue and persist in CTR careers; (3) fostering an environment for effective mentorship and peer support to promote academic and social integration; (4) advocating for institutional policies to alleviate environmental pull factors; and, (5) supporting program evaluation-particularly, the examination of longitudinal outcomes. By combining institutional policies that promote a culture and climate for diversity with quality, evidence-based programs and integrated networks of support, we can create the environment necessary for diverse scholars to progress successfully and efficiently through the pipeline to achieve National Institutes of Health's vision of a robust CTR workforce. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul
2010-09-01
The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Oliveri, Maria Elena; Lawless, Rene; Molloy, Hillary
2017-01-01
The literature and the employee and workforce surveys rank collaborative problem solving (CPS) among the top 5 most critical skills necessary for success in college and the workforce. This paper provides a review of the literature on CPS and related terms, including a discussion of their definitions, importance to higher education and workforce…
Problem Solving Strategies among Primary School Teachers
Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng
2017-01-01
The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…
Funke, Joachim
2013-01-01
This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…
Students’ difficulties in probabilistic problem-solving
Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
2018-03-01
There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.
Solving global optimization problems on GPU cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barkalov, Konstantin; Gergel, Victor; Lebedev, Ilya [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue 23, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-06-08
The paper contains the results of investigation of a parallel global optimization algorithm combined with a dimension reduction scheme. This allows solving multidimensional problems by means of reducing to data-independent subproblems with smaller dimension solved in parallel. The new element implemented in the research consists in using several graphic accelerators at different computing nodes. The paper also includes results of solving problems of well-known multiextremal test class GKLS on Lobachevsky supercomputer using tens of thousands of GPU cores.
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
IPSec与NAT冲突问题隧道嵌套解决方案研究%Tunnel Nested Solution Research to Solve IPSec and NAT Conflict
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹炯清
2015-01-01
IPSec与NAT技术在现今计算机网络中都是广泛应用的技术，但IPSec与NAT之间存在着协议冲突问题，文章在分析IPSec与NAT之间冲突的原因后，提出使用GRE隧道嵌套IPSec隧道的方法，并通过实例进行说明，对GRE隧道嵌套IPSec隧道的数据传输效率进行分析，最终实现隧道嵌套解决IPSec与NAT冲突问题。%IPSec and NAT technology in modern computer network is widely applied technology, But there is conflict in protocol between IPSec and NAT, Based on the analysis of conflict reason between IPSec and NAT, This paper proposed to use the tunnel nested technology to solve IPSec and NAT conflict , And then it is explained through an example , Through the data transmission ef iciency analysis , at last to solve IPSec an NAT conflict with tunnel nested technology.
The Process of Solving Complex Problems
Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…
Teaching Creative Problem Solving.
Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren
1992-01-01
Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)
Genetics problem solving and worldview
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennessey, John
2011-01-01
The first speaker in the 2011 EFRC Summit session titled 'Leading Perspectives in Energy Research' was John Hennessey, President of Stanford University. He discussed the important role that the academic world plays as a partner in innovative energy research by presenting a case study involving Stanford and SLAC. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chemi, Tatiana
2016-01-01
This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...
Flexibility in Mathematics Problem Solving Based on Adversity Quotient
Dina, N. A.; Amin, S. M.; Masriyah
2018-01-01
Flexibility is an ability which is needed in problem solving. One of the ways in problem solving is influenced by Adversity Quotient (AQ). AQ is the power of facing difficulties. There are three categories of AQ namely climber, camper, and quitter. This research is a descriptive research using qualitative approach. The aim of this research is to describe flexibility in mathematics problem solving based on Adversity Quotient. The subjects of this research are climber student, camper student, and quitter student. This research was started by giving Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questioner continued by giving problem solving task and interviews. The validity of data measurement was using time triangulation. The results of this research shows that climber student uses two strategies in solving problem and doesn’t have difficulty. The camper student uses two strategies in solving problem but has difficulty to finish the second strategies. The quitter student uses one strategy in solving problem and has difficulty to finish it.
Abdullah, Jafri Malin
2013-01-01
President Obama of the United States of America announced this April the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN for short) investment, while Professor Henry Markram’s team based in the European Union will spend over a billion euros on the Human Brain Project, breaking through the unknowns in the fifth science of the decade: Neuroscience. Malaysia's growth in the same field needs to be augmented, and thus the Universiti Sains Malaysia’s vision is to excel in the field of clinical brain sciences, mind sciences and neurosciences. This will naturally bring up the level of research in the country simultaneously. Thus, a center was recently established to coordinate this venture. The four-year Integrated Neuroscience Program established recently will be a sustainable source of neuroscientists for the country. We hope to establish ourselves by 2020 as a global university with neurosciences research as an important flagship. PMID:23966818
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia
2017-01-01
Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…
Solving Linear Differential Equations
Nguyen, K.A.; Put, M. van der
2010-01-01
The theme of this paper is to 'solve' an absolutely irreducible differential module explicitly in terms of modules of lower dimension and finite extensions of the differential field K. Representations of semi-simple Lie algebras and differential Galo is theory are the main tools. The results extend
Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.
2017-01-01
A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each
Ayrinhac, Simon
2014-01-01
We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…
Transport equation solving methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granjean, P.M.
1984-06-01
This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.
Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Vignoli, Michela; Bruni, Ilaria; Depolo, Marco; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Violante, Francesco Saverio
2013-06-22
Stress evaluation is a field of strong interest and challenging due to several methodological aspects in the evaluation process. The aim of this study is to propose a study protocol to test a new method (i.e., the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit) to assess psychosocial risk factors at work. This method addresses several methodological issues (e.g., subjective vs. objective, qualitative vs quantitative data) by assessing work-related stressors using different kinds of data: i) organisational archival data (organisational indicators sheet); ii) qualitative data (focus group); iii) worker perception (questionnaire); and iv) observational data (observational checklist) using mixed methods research. In addition, it allows positive and negative aspects of work to be considered conjointly, using an approach that considers at the same time job demands and job resources. The integration of these sources of data can reduce the theoretical and methodological bias related to stress research in the work setting, allows researchers and professionals to obtain a reliable description of workers' stress, providing a more articulate vision of psychosocial risks, and allows a large amount of data to be collected. Finally, the implementation of the method ensures in the long term a primary prevention for psychosocial risk management in that it aims to reduce or modify the intensity, frequency or duration of organisational demands.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evelio F Machado Ramírez
2009-08-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como propósito realizar un análisis de diversas definiciones que se han otorgado al concepto investigación para llegar a reformularlo desde una perspectiva aplicable a los propósitos del estudio. Especial énfasis además se presta a la fundamentación de la habilidad solucionar problemas (profesionales como habilidad investigativa compleja de mayor nivel de integración en el ámbito de formación del profesional de la educación superior; y en su primera y externa representación, el modelo y los eslabones que la componen, los cuales se constituyen en el escenario propicio para la dirección del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje en función de su desarrollo.This article analyzes various definitions of research so as to re-express it from a viewpoint related to this study. The foundations of the professional problem solving skill are specially emphasized as a complex research skill of a higher integration level within professional formation in higher education. Herein, we present the model and links of professional problem solving, which promote the development of the teaching-learning process direction.
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake in…
Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."
Pestel, Beverly C.
1993-01-01
Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…
Problem solving and inference mechanisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furukawa, K; Nakajima, R; Yonezawa, A; Goto, S; Aoyama, A
1982-01-01
The heart of the fifth generation computer will be powerful mechanisms for problem solving and inference. A deduction-oriented language is to be designed, which will form the core of the whole computing system. The language is based on predicate logic with the extended features of structuring facilities, meta structures and relational data base interfaces. Parallel computation mechanisms and specialized hardware architectures are being investigated to make possible efficient realization of the language features. The project includes research into an intelligent programming system, a knowledge representation language and system, and a meta inference system to be built on the core. 30 references.
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.
2012-12-01
Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esther T. Kok
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide, rising numbers of deaths and costs associated with this, and the fact that hardly any new antimicrobial drugs have been developed during the last decade have increased the interest in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM therapeutic interventions, if proven safe and effective. Observational studies on clinical CAM practices demonstrate positive effects of treatment of infections with CAM therapies (clinical effects, patient satisfaction in combination with small percentages of antibiotics prescription. However, Cochrane reviews and other studies demonstrate that in most instances the quality of clinical trials on CAM treatment of infections is currently too low to provide sufficient evidence. Therefore a Dutch consortium on (in vitro and clinical scientific research on CAM and antibiotic resistance has been formed. The aim and objective of the consortium is to establish an enduring partnership and to develop expertise to further develop and investigate safe and effective CAM treatments for infectious diseases of humans (and animals. A first ongoing project on the development of safe and effective biobased CAM antimycotics in women with (recurrent vaginal candidiasis infection is introduced.
Student Obstacles in Solving Algebraic Thinking Problems
Andini, W.; Suryadi, D.
2017-09-01
The aim of this research is to analize the student obstacles on solving algebraic thinking problems in low grades elementary school. This research is a preliminary qualitative research, and involved 66 students of grade 3 elementary school. From the analysis student test results, most of student experience difficulty in solving algebraic thinking problems. The main obstacle is the student’s difficulty in understanding the problem of generalizing the pattern because the students are not accustomed to see the rules that exist in generalize the pattern.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2006-01-01
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
1982-10-01
Artificial Intelig ~ence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and’ Edward A.. Feigenbaum)’, The chapter was written B’ Paul Cohen, with contributions... Artificial Intelligence (Vol. III, edited by Paul R. Cohen and EdWard A. Feigenbaum). The chapter was written by Paul R. Cohen, with contributions by Stephen...Wheevoats"EntermdI’ Planning and Problem ’Solving by Paul R. Cohen Chaptb-rXV-of Volumec III’of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence edited by Paul R
Havva ILGIN; Derya ARSLAN
2012-01-01
In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...
Solving Dynamic Battlespace Movement Problems Using Dynamic Distributed Computer Networks
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bradford, Robert
2000-01-01
.... The thesis designs a system using this architecture that invokes operations research network optimization algorithms to solve problems involving movement of people and equipment over dynamic road networks...
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve
In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...
Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve
Soetaert, K.E.R.; Petzoldt, T.; Setzer, R.W.
2010-01-01
In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The
On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erkki Pehkonen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.
Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rolando V. Obiedo
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.
Solved problems in electromagnetics
Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco
2017-01-01
This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .
Solved problems in electrochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piron, D.L.
2004-01-01
This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems
Affect and mathematical problem solving a new perspective
Adams, Verna
1989-01-01
Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving
Herdiana, Yunita; Wahyudin, Sispiyati, Ririn
2017-08-01
This research is aimed to describe the effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving. This research investigate the students' problem solving competency before and after learned by using discovery learning model. The population used in this research was student in grade VII in one of junior high school in West Bandung Regency. From nine classes, class VII B were randomly selected as the sample of experiment class, and class VII C as control class, which consist of 35 students every class. The method in this research was quasi experiment. The instrument in this research is pre-test, worksheet and post-test about problem solving of mathematics. Based on the research, it can be conclude that the qualification of problem solving competency of students who gets discovery learning model on level 80%, including in medium category and it show that discovery learning model effective to improve mathematical problem solving.
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Using Computer Simulations in Chemistry Problem Solving
Avramiotis, Spyridon; Tsaparlis, Georgios
2013-01-01
This study is concerned with the effects of computer simulations of two novel chemistry problems on the problem solving ability of students. A control-experimental group, equalized by pair groups (n[subscript Exp] = n[subscript Ctrl] = 78), research design was used. The students had no previous experience of chemical practical work. Student…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Behaviors of Problem-Solving Groups
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bennis, Warren G
1958-01-01
The results of two studies are contained in this report in summary form. They represent the first parts of a program of research designed to study the effects of change and history on the on the behaviors of problem-solving Groups...
Dreams and creative problem-solving.
Barrett, Deirdre
2017-10-01
Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evelio F Machado Ramírez
2009-12-01
Full Text Available En el presente artículo los autores realizan el tratamiento de otros eslabones de la compleja e integradora habilidad solucionar problemas. Al igual que en los artículos anteriores, se fundamenta la importancia que poseen estos eslabones en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en la educación superior y la posibilidad de formar un egresado competente para enfrentar los retos del nuevo milenio. Se proponen diversos conceptos y categorías que enriquecen el tratamiento didáctico del currículo en este nivel y, como colofón, se argumenta la estrategia didáctica Aprendizaje Basado en la Solución de Tareas Investigativas.In this article, the authors focus on other links of the complex integrative problem solving skill. As in previous articles, we support the important role of these links in the teaching-learning process in higher education and the achievable formation of a competent graduate who can deal with challenges of the new millennium. We propose diverse concepts and categories enhancing the didactic treatment of the curriculum in this level; and, as coda, we support the didactic strategy called Learning Based on Research Tasks Solution.
AI tools in computer based problem solving
Beane, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Analysis of problem solving in terms of cognitive style
Anthycamurty, Rr C. C.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.
2018-03-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze the problem solving based on the type of cognitive style. Subjects used in this study are students of class X SMK located in Purworejo. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. Data collection techniques used in this research is a problem-solving test to determine student problem solving and GEFT to determine the type of cognitive style possessed by students. The result of this research is to determine the mastery of each type in cognitive style, that is Field Independent type and Field Dependent type on problem solving indicator. The impact of this research is the teacher can know the mastery of student problem solving on each type of cognitive style so that teacher can determine the proper way of delivering to student at next meeting.
Understanding adults’ strong problem-solving skills based on PIAAC
Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano
2017-01-01
Purpose Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic, work-related and everyday life factors that are associated with a strong problem-solving performance. Design/methodology/approach The study builds...
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Problem Solving on a Monorail.
Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others
1994-01-01
This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)
Solving complex fisheries management problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist
2011-01-01
A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...
Characteristics of students in comparative problem solving
Irfan, M.; Sudirman; Rahardi, R.
2018-01-01
Often teachers provided examples and exercised to students with regard to comparative problems consisting of one quantity. In this study, the researchers gave the problem of comparison with the two quantities mixed. It was necessary to have a good understanding to solve this problem. This study aimed to determine whether students understand the comparison in depth and be able to solve the problem of non-routine comparison. This study used qualitative explorative methods, with researchers conducting in-depth interviews on subjects to explore the thinking process when solving comparative problems. The subject of this study was three students selected by purposive sampling of 120 students. From this research, researchers found there were three subjects with different characteristics, namely: subject 1, he did the first and second questions with methods of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); subject 2, he did the first question with the concept of comparison although the answer was wrong, and did the second question with the method of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); and subject 3, he did both questions with the concept of comparison. In the first question, he did wrong because he was unable to understand the problem, while on the second he did correctly. From the characteristics of the answers, the researchers divided into 3 groups based on thinking process, namely: blind-proportion, partial-proportion, and proportion thinking.
Is operations research really research?
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Other concepts that are associated with academic research include rigour, .... When a practitioner applies a standard tool, such as linear programming, to solve a ... solving the problem, but he is not adding anything new to the body of OR ...
Problem Solving Model for Science Learning
Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.
2018-04-01
This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.
Problem Solving Frameworks for Mathematics and Software Development
McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley
2012-01-01
In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…
Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instruction.
Swan, Karen; Black, John B.
The research reported in this paper was designed to investigate the hypothesis that computer programming may support the teaching and learning of problem solving, but that to do so, problem solving must be explicitly taught. Three studies involved students in several grades: 4th, 6th, 8th, 11th, and 12th. Findings collectively show that five…
Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students
Budak, Ibrahim
2012-01-01
Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…
The effects of monitoring environment on problem-solving performance.
Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim
2018-01-01
While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.
PROBLEM SOLVING IN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS BASED ON HEURISTIC STRATEGIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NOVOTNÁ, Jarmila
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-term work, in this case only over the period of three months, can result in improvement of pupils’ abilities to solve problems whose solving algorithms are easily accessible. It also answers the question which strategies pupils will prefer and with what results. The experiment shows that even short-term work can bear positive results as far as pupils’ approach to problem solving is concerned.
An Integer Programming Approach to Solving Tantrix on Fixed Boards
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushi Uno
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Tantrix (Tantrix R ⃝ is a registered trademark of Colour of Strategy Ltd. in New Zealand, and of TANTRIX JAPAN in Japan, respectively, under the license of M. McManaway, the inventor. is a puzzle to make a loop by connecting lines drawn on hexagonal tiles, and the objective of this research is to solve it by a computer. For this purpose, we first give a problem setting of solving Tantrix as making a loop on a given fixed board. We then formulate it as an integer program by describing the rules of Tantrix as its constraints, and solve it by a mathematical programming solver to have a solution. As a result, we establish a formulation that can solve Tantrix of moderate size, and even when the solutions are invalid only by elementary constraints, we achieved it by introducing additional constraints and re-solve it. By this approach we succeeded to solve Tantrix of size up to 60.
Mills, Nadia Monrose
2015-01-01
The ability to succeed in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers is contingent on a student's ability to engage in mathematical problem solving. As a result, there has been increased focus on students' ability to think critically by providing them more with problem solving experiences in the classroom. Much research has…
Yakubova, Gulnoza
2013-01-01
Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…
Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark
2016-01-01
We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…
How to solve mathematical problems
Wickelgren, Wayne A
1995-01-01
Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.
Interactive Problem-Solving Interventions
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Frew Demeke Alemu
concerted efforts of unofficial actors to establish unofficial communication ... Frew Demeke Alemu (LLB, LLM in International Human Rights Law from Lund ..... 24 Tamra Pearson d'Estrée (2009), “Problem-Solving Approaches”, (in The SAGE ...
Interference thinking in constructing students’ knowledge to solve mathematical problems
Jayanti, W. E.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
2018-04-01
This research aims to describe interference thinking in constructing students’ knowledge to solve mathematical problems. Interference thinking in solving problems occurs when students have two concepts that interfere with each other’s concept. Construction of problem-solving can be traced using Piaget’s assimilation and accommodation framework, helping to know the students’ thinking structures in solving the problems. The method of this research was a qualitative method with case research strategy. The data in this research involving problem-solving result and transcripts of interviews about students’ errors in solving the problem. The results of this research focus only on the student who experience proactive interference, where student in solving a problem using old information to interfere with the ability to recall new information. The student who experience interference thinking in constructing their knowledge occurs when the students’ thinking structures in the assimilation and accommodation process are incomplete. However, after being given reflection to the student, then the students’ thinking process has reached equilibrium condition even though the result obtained remains wrong.
Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.
Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu
2012-01-01
Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.
van Hoorn, Jelke J.; Nogueira, Agustín; Ojea, Ignacio; Gromicho Dos Santos, Joaquim Antonio
2017-01-01
In [1] an algorithm is proposed for solving the job-shop scheduling problem optimally using a dynamic programming strategy. This is, according to our knowledge, the first exact algorithm for the Job Shop problem which is not based on integer linear programming and branch and bound. Despite the
Branch and bound algorithms to solve semiring constraint satisfaction problems
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Leenen, L
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. Considerable research has been done in solving SCSPs, but limited work has been done in building...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-09-01
Research and development has been performed on a general purpose parallel processing software that can be utilized for value solving methods, such as the finite element method, finite volume method and finite difference method. The achievements of the research and development may be summarized as follows: this parallel platform is parallelized in the concept of the domain division method for the elements (calculation cells), and is applicable to any of the finite element method, finite volume method and finite difference method; a researcher who has developed a program can easily perform the parallelization work to have the parallelizing performance displayed; the platform can be utilized in agreement with several parallel levels that are required by the user; with regard to the parallelization efficiency in large-size problems, it has become possible to execute at an efficiency of higher than 70% for the solver parts by using 32 processors of SR8000 at the computation center of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology; the rigidity matrix preparing part shows an efficiency close to 100%W; and the developed parallel platform is under continued evaluation at the Machine Technology Research Institute and the Material Engineering Research Institute. (NEDO)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2015-05-10
May 10, 2015 ... Strong support exists for professionalism to be considered as an .... comments were too poorly worded for consideration or inappropriate and which changes ... Problem-solving and critical thinking skills are evident when I:.
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning
2012-12-01
Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Problem Solving of Newton's Second Law through a System of Total Mass Motion
Abdullah, Helmi
2014-01-01
Nowadays, many researchers discovered various effective strategies in teaching physics, from traditional to modern strategy. However, research on physics problem solving is still inadequate. Physics problem is an integral part of physics learning and requires strategy to solve it. Besides that, problem solving is the best way to convey principle,…
Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2013-01-01
Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students' problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student's expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value "communication" between the…
Customer-centered problem solving.
Samelson, Q B
1999-11-01
If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Interactive problem solving using LOGO
Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more
Inference rule and problem solving
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goto, S
1982-04-01
Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.
Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.
Logan, Corina J
2016-01-01
Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.
Solved problems in classical electromagnetism
Franklin, Jerrold
2018-01-01
This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.
Error Patterns in Problem Solving.
Babbitt, Beatrice C.
Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…
Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
2015-01-01
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karline Soetaert
2010-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP written as ordinary differential equations (ODE, differential algebraic equations (DAE of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE, the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The differential equations can be represented in R code or as compiled code. In the latter case, R is used as a tool to trigger the integration and post-process the results, which facilitates model development and application, whilst the compiled code significantly increases simulation speed. The methods implemented are efficient, robust, and well documented public-domain Fortran routines. They include four integrators from the ODEPACK package (LSODE, LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, DVODE and DASPK2.0. In addition, a suite of Runge-Kutta integrators and special-purpose solvers to efficiently integrate 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional partial differential equations are available. The routines solve both stiff and non-stiff systems, and include many options, e.g., to deal in an efficient way with the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix, or finding the root of equations. In this article, our objectives are threefold: (1 to demonstrate the potential of using R for dynamic modeling, (2 to highlight typical uses of the different methods implemented and (3 to compare the performance of models specified in R code and in compiled code for a number of test cases. These comparisons demonstrate that, if the use of loops is avoided, R code can efficiently integrate problems comprising several thousands of state variables. Nevertheless, the same problem may be solved from 2 to more than 50 times faster by using compiled code compared to an implementation using only R code. Still, amongst the benefits of R are a more flexible and interactive implementation, better readability of the code, and access to R’s high-level procedures. deSolve is the successor of package odesolve which will be deprecated in
Problem solving skills for schizophrenia.
Xia, J; Li, Chunbo
2007-04-18
The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional
Investigation of Environmental Problem Solving Skills of Preschool Age Children
Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir
2017-01-01
The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…
The Students Decision Making in Solving Discount Problem
Abdillah; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Susanto, Hery; Abadyo
2016-01-01
This research is reviewing students' process of decision making intuitively, analytically, and interactively. The research done by using discount problem which specially created to explore student's intuition, analytically, and interactively. In solving discount problems, researcher exploring student's decision in determining their attitude which…
Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression.
Becker-Weidman, Emily G; Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S
2010-01-01
Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire--Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Motara, YM
2017-09-01
Full Text Available the intersection between the SHA-1 preimage problem, the encoding of that problem for SAT-solving, and SAT-solving. The results demonstrate that SAT-solving is not yet a viable approach to take to solve the preimage problem, and also indicate that some...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2017-03-02
Mar 2, 2017 ... setting to allow for deliberate teaching and learning of clinical skills.[1] Examples of simulation ... responsive functions, with low-fidelity simulation mannequins being static and ... Against a background of slowly improving health outcomes, Lesotho .... problem-solving skills and improving student confidence.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2016-05-26
May 26, 2016 ... the professional and technical management skills, fiscal expertise, planning, problem-solving, organising, and administering are just a few.[2]. These skills and abilities of the envisaged successful dean overlap with the personal qualities that are needed to fulfil the role(s). Roles and personal qualities.
Methods of solving nonstandard problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2015-01-01
This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas. It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions. The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem. Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems. Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...
Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries
2003-08-01
distance. "Our measurements showed that the pulsar is about 950 light-years from Earth, essentially the same distance as the supernova remnant," said Steve Thorsett, of the University of California, Santa Cruz. "That means that the two almost certainly were created by the same supernova blast," he added. With that problem solved. the astronomers then turned to studying the pulsar's neutron star itself. Using a variety of data from different telescopes and armed with the new distance measurement, they determined that the neutron star is between 16 and 25 miles in diameter. In such a small size, it packs a mass roughly equal to that of the Sun. The next result of learning the pulsar's actual distance was to provide a possible answer to a longstanding question about cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are subatomic particles or atomic nuclei accelerated to nearly the speed of light. Shock waves in supernova remnants are thought to be responsible for accelerating many of these particles. Scientists can measure the energy of cosmic rays, and had noted an excess of such rays in a specific energy range. Some researchers had suggested that the excess could come from a single supernova remnant about 1000 light-years away whose supernova explosion was about 100,000 years ago. The principal difficulty with this suggestion was that there was no accepted candidate for such a source. "Our measurement now puts PSR B0656+14 and the Monogem Ring at exactly the right place and at exactly the right age to be the source of this excess of cosmic rays," Brisken said. With the ability of the VLBA, one of the telescopes of the NRAO, to make extremely precise position measurements, the astronomers expect to improve the accuracy of their distance determination even more. "This pulsar is becoming a fascinating laboratory for studying astrophysics and nuclear physics," Thorsett said. In addition to Brisken and Thorsett, the team of astronomers includes Aaron Golden of the National University of Ireland, Robert
An Approach for Solving Linear Fractional Programming Problems
Andrew Oyakhobo Odior
2012-01-01
Linear fractional programming problems are useful tools in production planning, financial and corporate planning, health care and hospital planning and as such have attracted considerable research interest. The paper presents a new approach for solving a fractional linear programming problem in which the objective function is a linear fractional function, while the constraint functions are in the form of linear inequalities. The approach adopted is based mainly upon solving the problem algebr...
An approach to solve replacement problems under intuitionistic fuzzy nature
Balaganesan, M.; Ganesan, K.
2018-04-01
Due to impreciseness to solve the day to day problems the researchers use fuzzy sets in their discussions of the replacement problems. The aim of this paper is to solve the replacement theory problems with triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. An effective methodology based on fuzziness index and location index is proposed to determine the optimal solution of the replacement problem. A numerical example is illustrated to validate the proposed method.
Confluent-Functional solving systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.N. Koval
2001-08-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes a statistical knowledge-acquision approach. The solving systems are considered, which are able to find unknown structural dependences between situational and transforming variables on the basis of statistically analyzed input information. Situational variables describe features, states and relations between environment objects. Transforming variables describe transforming influences, exerted by a goal-oriented system onto an environment. Unknown environment rules are simulated by a structural equations system, associating situational and transforming variables.
Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics
Koleci, Carolann
What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).
Rewarding Multitasking: Negative Effects of an Incentive on Problem Solving under Divided Attention
Wieth, Mareike B.; Burns, Bruce D.
2014-01-01
Research has consistently shown negative effects of multitasking on tasks such as problem solving. This study was designed to investigate the impact of an incentive when solving problems in a multitasking situation. Incentives have generally been shown to increase problem solving (e.g., Wieth & Burns, 2006), however, it is unclear whether an…
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie
2016-01-01
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic…
Cooper, Melanie M.; Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Nammouz, Minory; Case, Edward; Stevens, Ronald
2008-01-01
Improving students' problem-solving skills is a major goal for most science educators. While a large body of research on problem solving exists, assessment of meaningful problem solving is very difficult, particularly for courses with large numbers of students in which one-on-one interactions are not feasible. We have used a suite of software…
Balta, Nuri; Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and…
Examining the Relationship of Scientific Reasoning with Physics Problem Solving
Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen
2015-01-01
Recent research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little research has been done to establish a relationship between scientific reasoning and problem solving abilities by novices. In this exploratory study, we compared scientific reasoning abilities of students enrolled in a college level…
Ulu, Mustafa
2017-01-01
In this study, the effect of fluent reading (speed, reading accuracy percentage, prosodic reading), comprehension (literal comprehension, inferential comprehension) and problem solving strategies on classifying students with high and low problem solving success was researched. The sampling of the research is composed of 279 students at elementary…
A Cognitive Analysis of Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Ability on Geometry
Rusyda, N. A.; Kusnandi, K.; Suhendra, S.
2017-09-01
The purpose of this research is to analyze of mathematical problem solving ability of students in one of secondary school on geometry. This research was conducted by using quantitative approach with descriptive method. Population in this research was all students of that school and the sample was twenty five students that was chosen by purposive sampling technique. Data of mathematical problem solving were collected through essay test. The results showed the percentage of achievement of mathematical problem solving indicators of students were: 1) solve closed mathematical problems with context in math was 50%; 2) solve the closed mathematical problems with the context beyond mathematics was 24%; 3) solving open mathematical problems with contexts in mathematics was 35%; And 4) solving open mathematical problems with contexts outside mathematics was 44%. Based on the percentage, it can be concluded that the level of achievement of mathematical problem solving ability in geometry still low. This is because students are not used to solving problems that measure mathematical problem solving ability, weaknesses remember previous knowledge, and lack of problem solving framework. So the students’ ability of mathematical problems solving need to be improved with implement appropriate learning strategy.
Problem solving through recreational mathematics
Averbach, Bonnie
1999-01-01
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems
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Khoo Jia Sian
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90
Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.
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J David Creswell
Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving
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María F. Ayllón
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.
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Lenny Kurniati
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT The aim of this research to develop a mathematics learning instrument using contextual open ended problem solving with mathematic comic to increase the problem solving skill which valid, practical and effective. The type of research used in this study is development research using modification of Plomp model. Learning instrumen that have been develop are: syllabus, Lesson plan, worksheet, mathematics comic, and problem solving ability test. The results showed: (1 device developed valid; (2 practical learning is characterized by the positive response of students and good teachers ability, (3 Effectiveness characterized by (a problem solving ability score of the experimental class higher than minimum completeness criterion, (b learn interest and problem solving skill, both affected the problem solving ability positively, (c problem solving ability of the experimental class score is higher than the control class, (d problem solving skill of the experimental class is increasing by 31%, the problem solving ability of the experimental class higher than the control class.. Because of the learning instrument develope are valid, practice and effective, it is shows that the research has ben reach out. Keywords: contextual teaching and learning, open ended problem solving, mathematics comic, problem solving.
Scaffolding for solving problem in static fluid: A case study
Koes-H, Supriyono; Muhardjito, Wijaya, Charisma P.
2018-01-01
Problem solving is one of the basic abilities that should be developed from learning physics. However, students still face difficulties in the process of non-routine problem-solving. Efforts are necessary to be taken in order to identify such difficulties and the solutions to solve them. An effort in the form of a diagnosis of students' performance in problem solving can be taken to identify their difficulties, and various instructional scaffolding supports can be utilized to eliminate the difficulties. This case study aimed to describe the students' difficulties in solving static fluid problems and the effort to overcome such difficulties through different scaffolding supports. The research subjects consisted of four 10-grade students of (Public Senior High School) SMAN 4 Malang selected by purposive sampling technique. The data of students' difficulties were collected via think-aloud protocol implemented on students' performance in solving non-routine static fluid problems. Subsequently, combined scaffolding supports were given to the students based on their particular difficulties. The research findings pointed out that there were several conceptual difficulties discovered from the students when solving static fluid problems, i.e. the use of buoyancy force formula, determination of all forces acting on a plane in a fluid, the resultant force on a plane in a fluid, and determination of a plane depth in a fluid. An effort that can be taken to overcome such conceptual difficulties is providing a combination of some appropriate scaffolding supports, namely question prompts with specific domains, simulation, and parallel modeling. The combination can solve students' lack of knowledge and improve their conceptual understanding, as well as help them to find solutions by linking the problems with their prior knowledge. According to the findings, teachers are suggested to diagnose the students' difficulties so that they can provide an appropriate combination of
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋心然
2012-01-01
As a particular right to remedy and a system to resolve disputes in contemporary China, complaint letters and visits involved in a lawsuit are considered as an important way to solve social conflicts. However, owning to the particularity for such letters and ,visits to resolve disputes and provide remedy, it is hard for them to become an effective method to resolve social conflicts. On the contrary, it will probably bring more problems, and drive appeals and visits into a circulation, resulting in conflicts continuing to upgrade.%涉诉信访作为当代中国一项特有的权利救济和纠纷解决机制，被视为化解社会矛盾的重要渠道。但是，涉诉信访处理纠纷和提供救济的特殊性，决定了它很难成为化解矛盾的手段，而极可能成为产生问题的途径，使“诉”与“访”形成循环，导致矛盾不断升级。
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
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Eric D. Johnson
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.
Solving rational expectations models using Excel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Strulik, Holger
2004-01-01
Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved......Problems of discrete time optimal control can be solved using backward iteration and Microsoft Excel. The author explains the method in general and shows how the basic models of neoclassical growth and real business cycles are solved...
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
A case study of analyzing 11th graders’ problem solving ability on heat and temperature topic
Yulianawati, D.; Muslim; Hasanah, L.; Samsudin, A.
2018-05-01
Problem solving ability must be owned by students after the process of physics learning so that the concept of physics becomes meaningful. Consequently, the research aims to describe their problem solving ability. Metacognition is contributed to physics learning to the success of students in solving problems. This research has already been implemented to 37 science students (30 women and 7 men) of eleventh grade from one of the secondary schools in Bandung. The research methods utilized the single case study with embedded research design. The instrument is Heat and Temperature Problem Solving Ability Test (HT-PSAT) which consists of twelve questions from three context problems. The result shows that the average value of the test is 8.27 out of the maximum total value of 36. In conclusion, eleventh graders’ problem-solving ability is still under expected. The implication of the findings is able to create learning situations which are probably developing students to embrace better problem solving ability.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ebutamanya
2015-03-02
Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...
Sleegers, Peter; Wassink, Hartger; van Veen, Klaas; Imants, Jeroen
2009-01-01
In addition to cognitive research on school leaders' problem solving, this study focuses on the situated and personal nature of problem framing by combining insights from cognitive research on problem solving and sense-making theory. The study reports the results of a case study of two school leaders solving problems in their daily context by…
Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems
Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.
2013-01-01
EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941
Solving fault diagnosis problems linear synthesis techniques
Varga, Andreas
2017-01-01
This book addresses fault detection and isolation topics from a computational perspective. Unlike most existing literature, it bridges the gap between the existing well-developed theoretical results and the realm of reliable computational synthesis procedures. The model-based approach to fault detection and diagnosis has been the subject of ongoing research for the past few decades. While the theoretical aspects of fault diagnosis on the basis of linear models are well understood, most of the computational methods proposed for the synthesis of fault detection and isolation filters are not satisfactory from a numerical standpoint. Several features make this book unique in the fault detection literature: Solution of standard synthesis problems in the most general setting, for both continuous- and discrete-time systems, regardless of whether they are proper or not; consequently, the proposed synthesis procedures can solve a specific problem whenever a solution exists Emphasis on the best numerical algorithms to ...
Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems
Zaslavski, Alexander J
2018-01-01
This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...
Second International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh
2014-01-01
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.
[Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools].
Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E
1984-01-01
The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
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Dana Ganor-Stern
Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Seay, Renee Baldi
2007-01-01
Using the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory of Cornelius and Caspi, we examined differences in problem-solving strategy endorsement and effectiveness in two domains of everyday functioning (instrumental or interpersonal, and a mixture of the two domains) and for four strategies (avoidance-denial, passive dependence, planful problem solving, and cognitive analysis). Consistent with past research, our research showed that older adults were more problem focused than young adults in their approach to solving instrumental problems, whereas older adults selected more avoidant-denial strategies than young adults when solving interpersonal problems. Overall, older adults were also more effective than young adults when solving everyday problems, in particular for interpersonal problems.
Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis
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Vergult Anneleen
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter. In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM, the finite element method (FEM and the finite difference method (FDM. In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative
Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning
Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.
2017-09-01
This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.
Problem solving verbal strategies in children with mild intellectual disability
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Gligorović Milica
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a process conditioned by the development and application of efficient strategies. The aim of this research is to determine the level of verbal strategic approach to problem solving in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 93 children with MID, aged between 10 and 14. Intellectual abilities of the examinees are within the defined range for mild intellectual disability (AM=60.45; SD=7.26. The examinees with evident physical, neurological, and emotional disorders were not included in the sample. The closed 20 Questions Test (20Q was used to assess the development and use of verbal strategy, where the examinee is presented with a poster containing 42 different pictures, and instructed to guess the picture selected by the examiner by asking no more than 20 closed questions. Test χ2, and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used in statistical analysis. Research results indicate that most children with MID, aged between 10 and 14, use non-efficient strategy in solving the 20 Questions Test. Although strategic approach to problem solving is present in most children (72%, more than half of the examinees (53.5% use an inadequate strategy. Most children with MID have the ability to categorize concepts, however, they do not use it as a strategy in problem solving.
A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.
Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna
2010-08-01
The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.
The Investigation of Problem Solving Skill of the Mountaineers in Terms of Demographic Variables
Gürer, Burak
2015-01-01
The aim of this research is to investigate problem solving skills of the individuals involved in mountaineering. 315 volunteers participated in the study. The research data were collected by problem solving scale developed by Heppner and Peterson and the Turkish version of which was conducted by Sahin et al. There are totally 35 items and only 3…
African Journals Online (AJOL)
research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.
Teaching science problem solving: an overview of experimental work
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M.G.M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-01-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the
Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the relative effectiveness of problem-solving, guideddiscovery, and expository methods of instruction on students performance in redox reaction, considering their mathematics ability. It was a quasiexperimental research using non-randomized-pre-test post-test control group design with expository ...
Computer as a Medium for Overcoming Misconceptions in Solving Inequalities
Abramovich, Sergei; Ehrlich, Amos
2007-01-01
Inequalities are considered among the most useful tools of investigation in pure and applied mathematics; yet their didactical aspects have not received much attention in mathematics education research until recently. An important aspect of teaching problem solving at the secondary level deals with the notion of equivalence of algebraic…
Team Self-Assessment: Problem Solving for Small Workgroups.
LoBue, Robert
2002-01-01
Describes team self-assessment, a task force approach involving frontline workers/supervisors in solving problems or improving performance. Provides examples and discusses its theoretical bases: control self-assessment, Belbin's team roles research, and the team climate inventory. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Creative and Participative Problem Solving - The Art and the Science
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
This book collects my experiences as a facilitator for many different communities and organizations and as a teacher at the Technical University of Denmark for the courses Creativity and Problem Solving and Systemic Operational Research. Several of the chapters has been used in my lecturing activ...
Algorithmic Puzzles: History, Taxonomies, and Applications in Human Problem Solving
Levitin, Anany
2017-01-01
The paper concerns an important but underappreciated genre of algorithmic puzzles, explaining what these puzzles are, reviewing milestones in their long history, and giving two different ways to classify them. Also covered are major applications of algorithmic puzzles in cognitive science research, with an emphasis on insight problem solving, and…
Human Performance on Insight Problem Solving: A Review
Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.
2011-01-01
The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…
Towards efficient measurement of metacognition in mathematical problem solving
Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.
Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols.
Clark, Kathleen; James, Alex; Montelle, Clemency
2014-01-01
The ability to address and solve problems in minimally familiar contexts is the core business of research mathematicians. Recent studies have identified key traits and techniques that individuals exhibit while problem solving, and revealed strategies and behaviours that are frequently invoked in the process. We studied advanced calculus students…
IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eny Susiana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make studentâ€™s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polyaâ€™s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.
Mathematics Literacy of Secondary Students in Solving Simultanenous Linear Equations
Sitompul, R. S. I.; Budayasa, I. K.; Masriyah
2018-01-01
This study examines the profile of secondary students’ mathematical literacy in solving simultanenous linear equations problems in terms of cognitive style of visualizer and verbalizer. This research is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The subjects in this research consist of one student with cognitive style of visualizer and one student with cognitive style of verbalizer. The main instrument in this research is the researcher herself and supporting instruments are cognitive style tests, mathematics skills tests, problem-solving tests and interview guidelines. Research was begun by determining the cognitive style test and mathematics skill test. The subjects chosen were given problem-solving test about simultaneous linear equations and continued with interview. To ensure the validity of the data, the researcher conducted data triangulation; the steps of data reduction, data presentation, data interpretation, and conclusion drawing. The results show that there is a similarity of visualizer and verbalizer-cognitive style in identifying and understanding the mathematical structure in the process of formulating. There are differences in how to represent problems in the process of implementing, there are differences in designing strategies and in the process of interpreting, and there are differences in explaining the logical reasons.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Martin
2012-01-01
This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... for real-world problem solving – initial analysis of the problem situation, choice of relevant physical theory (the so-called paradigmatic choice) and mathematization – are not covered by existing models of problem solving in Physics. Finally, the existing research on student difficulties with problem...
Student Analogy Reasons When Solving Area Concepts in Pyramids and Prisms
Mashuri, A.; Sudjadi, I.; Pramudya, I.; Gembong, S.
2017-09-01
The purpose of this study is to describe the reasoning of students’ analogies in solving the broad concept problem in pyramids and prisms. This research method using descriptive qualitative. Data collection uses analogous reasoning tests and interviews. After that tested to 32 students of Junior High School. Based on the results of the analysis can be concluded that (1) 16% of students solve the problem of source and target problem correctly. (2) 29% of students correctly solve source problems and target problems incorrectly. (3) 55% solve source problems and target problems wrong. This is because students tend to memorize formulas not using analogy reasoning to solve new problems. Finally, the students have difficulties in solving new problems, because students are not accustomed to using the experience they have gained to solve new problems.
Learning problem-solving skills in a distance education physics course
Rampho, G. J.; Ramorola, M. Z.
2017-10-01
In this paper we present the results of a study on the effectiveness of combinations of delivery modes of distance education in learning problem-solving skills in a distance education introductory physics course. A problem-solving instruction with the explicit teaching of a problem-solving strategy and worked-out examples were implemented in the course. The study used the ex post facto research design with stratified sampling to investigate the effect of the learning of a problem-solving strategy on the problem-solving performance. The number of problems attempted and the mean frequency of using a strategy in solving problems in the three course presentation modes were compared. The finding of the study indicated that combining the different course presentation modes had no statistically significant effect in the learning of problem-solving skills in the distance education course.
Problem Solving in Physics: Undergraduates' Framing, Procedures, and Decision Making
Modir, Bahar
In this dissertation I will start with the broad research question of what does problem solving in upper division physics look like? My focus in this study is on students' problem solving in physics theory courses. Some mathematical formalisms are common across all physics core courses such as using the process of separation of variables, doing Taylor series, or using the orthogonality properties of mathematical functions to set terms equal to zero. However, there are slight differences in their use of these mathematical formalisms across different courses, possibly because of how students map different physical systems to these processes. Thus, my first main research question aims to answer how students perform these recurring processes across upper division physics courses. I break this broad question into three particular research questions: What knowledge pieces do students use to make connections between physics and procedural math? How do students use their knowledge pieces coherently to provide reasoning strategies in estimation problems? How do students look ahead into the problem to read the information out of the physical scenario to align their use of math in physics? Building on the previous body of the literature, I will use the theory family of Knowledge in Pieces and provide evidence to expand this theoretical foundation. I will compare my study with previous studies and provide suggestions on how to generalize these theory expansions for future use. My experimental data mostly come from video-based classroom data. Students in groups of 2-4 students solve in-class problems in quantum mechanics and electromagnetic fields 1 courses collaboratively. In addition, I will analyze clinical interviews to demonstrate how a single case study student plays an epistemic game to estimate the total energy in a hurricane. My second research question is more focused on a particular instructional context. How do students frame problem solving in quantum mechanics? I
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...
Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krisztina Barczi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.
An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pisan, Yusuf
1998-01-01
.... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...
Third International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish
2014-01-01
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...
Solving Multiple Timetabling Problems at Danish High Schools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Simon
name; Elective Course Student Sectioning. The problem is solved using ALNS and solutions are proven to be close to optimum. The algorithm has been implemented and made available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. The second Student Sectioning problem presented is the sectioning of each...... high schools. Two types of consultations are presented; the Parental Consultation Timetabling Problem (PCTP) and the Supervisor Consultation Timetabling Problem (SCTP). One mathematical model containing both consultation types has been created and solved using an ALNS approach. The received solutions...... problems as mathematical models and solve them using operational research techniques. Two of the models and the suggested solution methods have resulted in implementations in an actual decision support software, and are hence available for the majority of the high schools in Denmark. These implementations...
Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pina Filippello
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers, which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2014-05-06
May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2017-01-24
Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...
Kuncoro, K. S.; Junaedi, I.; Dwijanto
2018-03-01
This study aimed to reveal the effectiveness of Project Based Learning with Resource Based Learning approach computer-aided program and analyzed problem-solving abilities in terms of problem-solving steps based on Polya stages. The research method used was mixed method with sequential explanatory design. The subject of this research was the students of math semester 4. The results showed that the S-TPS (Strong Top Problem Solving) and W-TPS (Weak Top Problem Solving) had good problem-solving abilities in each problem-solving indicator. The problem-solving ability of S-MPS (Strong Middle Problem Solving) and (Weak Middle Problem Solving) in each indicator was good. The subject of S-BPS (Strong Bottom Problem Solving) had a difficulty in solving the problem with computer program, less precise in writing the final conclusion and could not reflect the problem-solving process using Polya’s step. While the Subject of W-BPS (Weak Bottom Problem Solving) had not been able to meet almost all the indicators of problem-solving. The subject of W-BPS could not precisely made the initial table of completion so that the completion phase with Polya’s step was constrained.
The role of problem solving method on the improvement of mathematical learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeed Mokhtari-Hassanabad
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In history of education, problem solving is one of the important educational goals and teachers or parents have intended that their students have capacity of problem solving. In present research, it is tried that study the problem solving method for mathematical learning. This research is implemented via quasi-experimental method on 49 boy students at high school. The results of Leven test and T-test indicated that problem solving method has more effective on the improvement of mathematical learning than traditional instruction method. Therefore it seems that teachers of mathematics must apply the problem solving method in educational systems till students became self-efficiency in mathematical problem solving.
Metacognition Process of Students with High Mathematics Anxiety in Mathematics Problem-Solving
Patrisius Afrisno Udil; Tri Atmojo Kusmayadi; Riyadi Riyadi
2017-01-01
This study aims to find out students’ metacognition process while solving the mathematics problem. It focuses on analyzing the metacognition process of students with high mathematics anxiety based on Polya’s problem solving phases. This study uses qualitative research with case study strategy. The subjects consist of 8 students of 7th grade selected through purposive sampling. Data in the form of Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) result and recorded interview while solving mathematics problems ...
Jennifer L. Docktor; Jay Dornfeld; Evan Frodermann; Kenneth Heller; Leonardo Hsu; Koblar Alan Jackson; Andrew Mason; Qing X. Ryan; Jie Yang
2016-01-01
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2017-10-25
Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ebutamanya
2015-10-02
Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2016-07-12
Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2016-04-14
Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-01-01
Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.
Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving
Golnabi, Laura
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
Parallel Algorithm Solves Coupled Differential Equations
Hayashi, A.
1987-01-01
Numerical methods adapted to concurrent processing. Algorithm solves set of coupled partial differential equations by numerical integration. Adapted to run on hypercube computer, algorithm separates problem into smaller problems solved concurrently. Increase in computing speed with concurrent processing over that achievable with conventional sequential processing appreciable, especially for large problems.
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-01-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving
Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
2008-01-01
The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit
Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartvig, Susanne C
1999-01-01
This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...
Strategy Keys as Tools for Problem Solving
Herold-Blasius, Raja
2017-01-01
Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…
Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns
Warren, Louis L.
2005-01-01
This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…
Some Applications of Algebraic System Solving
Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio
2011-01-01
Technology and, in particular, computer algebra systems, allows us to change both the way we teach mathematics and the mathematical curriculum. Curiously enough, unlike what happens with linear system solving, algebraic system solving is not widely known. The aim of this paper is to show that, although the theory lying behind the "exact…
Mathematical problem solving in primary school
Kolovou, A.
2011-01-01
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab
Xue, Dingyu
2008-01-01
Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.
Morin, Lisa L.; Watson, Silvana M. R.; Hester, Peggy; Raver, Sharon
2017-01-01
For students with mathematics difficulties (MD), math word problem solving is especially challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a problem-solving strategy, bar model drawing, on the mathematical problem-solving skills of students with MD. The study extended previous research that suggested that schematic-based…
Overton, Tina L.; Potter, Nicholas M.
2011-01-01
Much research has been carried out on how students solve algorithmic and structured problems in chemistry. This study is concerned with how students solve open-ended, ill-defined problems in chemistry. Over 200 undergraduate chemistry students solved a number of open-ended problem in groups and individually. The three cognitive variables of…
Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu
2012-01-01
Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…
Herak, Patrick James
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a problem-solving instrument that could easily be used by a classroom teacher. The research questions were (1) can the Problem-Solving Skills Assessments (PSSAs) differentiate between students with varying levels of selected problem-solving skills? (2) Can the PSSAs measure student growth due to…
Zhang, Yin; Chu, Samuel K. W.
2016-01-01
In recent years, a number of models concerning problem solving systems have been put forward. However, many of them stress on technology and neglect the research of problem solving itself, especially the learning mechanism related to problem solving. In this paper, we analyze the learning mechanism of problem solving, and propose that when…
Students’ Algebraic Reasonsing In Solving Mathematical Problems With Adversity Quotient
Aryani, F.; Amin, S. M.; Sulaiman, R.
2018-01-01
Algebraic reasoning is a process in which students generalize mathematical ideas from a set of particular instances and express them in increasingly formal and age-appropriate ways. Using problem solving approach to develop algebraic reasoning of mathematics may enhace the long-term learning trajectory of the majority students. The purpose of this research was to describe the algebraic reasoning of quitter, camper, and climber junior high school students in solving mathematical problems. This research used qualitative descriptive method. Subjects were determined by purposive sampling. The technique of collecting data was done by task-based interviews.The results showed that the algebraic reasoning of three students in the process of pattern seeking by identifying the things that are known and asked in a similar way. But three students found the elements of pattern recognition in different ways or method. So, they are generalize the problem of pattern formation with different ways. The study of algebraic reasoning and problem solving can be a learning paradigm in the improve students’ knowledge and skills in algebra work. The goal is to help students’ improve academic competence, develop algebraic reasoning in problem solving.
Education for complex problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh
The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
2009-01-01
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman
2016-01-01
This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…
Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
We discuss the development of interactive video tutorial-based problems to help introductory physics students learn effective problem solving heuristics. The video tutorials present problem solving strategies using concrete examples in an interactive environment. They force students to follow a systematic approach to problem solving and students are required to solve sub-problems (research-guided multiple choice questions) to show their level of understanding at every stage of prob lem solvin...
Solve the Dilemma of Over-Simplification
Schmitt, Gerhard
Complexity science can help to understand the functioning and the interaction of the components of a city. In 1965, Christopher Alexander gave in his book A city is not a tree a description of the complex nature of urban organization. At this time, neither high-speed computers nor urban big data existed. Today, Luis Bettencourt et al. use complexity science to analyze data for countries, regions, or cities. The results can be used globally in other cities. Objectives of complexity science with regard to future cities are the observation and identification of tendencies and regularities in behavioral patterns, and to find correlations between them and spatial configurations. Complex urban systems cannot be understood in total yet. But research focuses on describing the system by finding some simple, preferably general and emerging patterns and rules that can be used for urban planning. It is important that the influencing factors are not just geo-spatial patterns but also consider variables which are important for the design quality. Complexity science is a way to solve the dilemma of oversimplification of insights from existing cities and their applications to new cities. An example: The effects of streets, public places and city structures on citizens and their behavior depend on how they are perceived. To describe this perception, it is not sufficient to consider only particular characteristics of the urban environment. Different aspects play a role and influence each other. Complexity science could take this fact into consideration and handle the non-linearity of the system...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2017-05-18
May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...
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abp
15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2017-03-14
Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.
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abp
2017-11-24
Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.
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abp
2014-04-21
Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2016-02-01
Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2015-06-24
Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ebutamanya
2015-06-22
Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2014-01-31
Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2018-03-20
Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2017-09-14
Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
abp
2015-01-19
Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.
maisarera, yunita; diawati, chansyanah; fadiawati, noor
2012-01-01
The aim of this research is to describe the effectiveness of problem solving learning in improving communication and inference skills in colloid system material.Â Subjects in this research were students of XIIPA1 and XI IPA2 classrooms in Persada Junior High School in Bandar Lampung in academic year 2011-2012 where students of both classrooms had the same characteristics. This research used quasi experiment method and pretest-posttest control group design. Effectiveness of problem solving le...
Completion strategy or emphasis manipulation? Task support for teaching information problem solving
Frerejean, Jimmy; Van Strien, Johan; Kirschner, Paul A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
2016-01-01
While most students seem to solve information problems effortlessly, research shows that the cognitive skills for effective information problem solving are often underdeveloped. Students manage to find information and formulate solutions, but the quality of their process and product is questionable.
Relative Effects of Three Questioning Strategies in Ill-Structured, Small Group Problem Solving
Byun, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung; Cerreto, Frank A.
2014-01-01
The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three…
Frerejean, Jimmy; van Strien, J.L.H.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
While most students seem to solve information problems effortlessly, research shows that the cognitive skills for effective information problem solving are often underdeveloped. Students manage to find information and formulate solutions, but the quality of their process and product is questionable.
Using Video Prompting to Teach Mathematical Problem Solving of Real-World Video-Simulation Problems
Saunders, Alicia F.; Spooner, Fred; Ley Davis, Luann
2018-01-01
Mathematical problem solving is necessary in many facets of everyday life, yet little research exists on how to teach students with more severe disabilities higher order mathematics like problem solving. Using a multiple probe across participants design, three middle school students with moderate intellectual disability (ID) were taught to solve…
Internet Addiction Levels and Problem-Solving Skills in the Teaching Profession: An Investigation
Ibili, Emin
2017-01-01
In this research, the relationship between Internet addiction levels among teaching candidates and their problem-solving aptitude and self-efficacy perceptions towards the teaching profession was investigated. In addition, the effects of gender, department, Internet use and sporting habits on the Internet addiction, problem-solving skills and…
The Development of a Culture of Problem Solving with Secondary Students through Heuristic Strategies
Eisenmann, Petr; Novotná, Jarmila; Pribyl, Jirí; Brehovský, Jirí
2015-01-01
The article reports the results of a longitudinal research study conducted in three mathematics classes in Czech schools with 62 pupils aged 12-18 years. The pupils were exposed to the use of selected heuristic strategies in mathematical problem solving for a period of 16 months. This was done through solving problems where the solution was the…
Rasiman
2015-01-01
This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…
Surya, Edy; Sabandar, Jozua; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim
2013-01-01
The students' difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal mathematical understanding, and mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was…
The Creativity of Reflective and Impulsive Selected Students in Solving Geometric Problems
Shoimah, R. N.; Lukito, A.; Siswono, T. Y. E.
2018-01-01
This research purposed to describe the elementary students’ creativity with reflective and impulsive cognitive style in solving geometric problems. This research used qualitative research methods. The data was collected by written tests and task-based interviews. The subjects consisted of two 5th grade students that were measured by MFFT (Matching Familiar Figures Test). The data were analyzed based on the three main components of creativity; that is fluency, flexibility, and novelty. This results showed that subject with reflective cognitive style in solving geometric problems met all components of creativity (fluency; subject generated more than three different right-ideas in solving problems, flexibility; subject generated more than two different ways to get problem solved, and novelty; subject generated new ideas and new ways that original and has never been used before). While subject with impulsive cognitive style in solving geometric problems met two components of creativity (fluency; subject generated more than three different right-ideas in solving problems, flexibility; subject generated two different ways to get problem solved). Thus, it could be concluded that reflective students are more creative in solving geometric problems. The results of this research can also be used as a guideline in the future assessment of creativity based on cognitive style.
Understanding Adults' Strong Problem-Solving Skills Based on PIAAC
Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano
2017-01-01
Purpose: Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic,…
The Motivation of Secondary School Students in Mathematical Word Problem Solving
Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose-Domingo
2014-01-01
Introduction: Motivation is an important factor in the learning of mathematics. Within this area of education, word problem solving is central in most mathematics curricula of Secondary School. The objective of this research is to detect the differences in motivation in terms of the strategies used to solve word problems. Method: It analyzed the…
Randomized Controlled Trial of Problem-Solving Therapy for Minor Depression in Home Care
Gellis, Zvi D.; McGinty, Jean; Tierney, Lynda; Jordan, Cindy; Burton, Jean; Misener, Elizabeth
2008-01-01
Objective: Data are presented from a pilot research program initiated to develop, refine, and test the outcomes of problem-solving therapy that targets the needs of older adults with minor depression in home care settings. Method: A pilot randomized clinical trial compares the impact of problem-solving therapy for home care to treatment as usual…
Using the Wonder of Inequalities between Averages for Mathematics Problems Solving
Shaanan, Rachel Mogilevsky; Gordon, Moshe Stupel
2016-01-01
The study presents an introductory idea of using mathematical averages as a tool for enriching mathematical problem solving. Throughout students' activities, a research was conducted on their ability to solve mathematical problems, and how to cope with a variety of mathematical tasks, in a variety of ways, using the skills, tools and experiences…
Mills, Kathy A.; Chandra, Vinesh; Park, Ji Yong
2013-01-01
This paper demonstrates, following Vygotsky, that language and tool use has a critical role in the collaborative problem-solving behaviour of school-age children. It reports original ethnographic classroom research examining the convergence of speech and practical activity in children's collaborative problem solving with robotics programming…
Backtrack Programming: A Computer-Based Approach to Group Problem Solving.
Scott, Michael D.; Bodaken, Edward M.
Backtrack problem-solving appears to be a viable alternative to current problem-solving methodologies. It appears to have considerable heuristic potential as a conceptual and operational framework for small group communication research, as well as functional utility for the student group in the small group class or the management team in the…
Problem Solving Method Based on E-Learning System for Engineering Education
Khazaal, Hasan F.
2015-01-01
Encouraging engineering students to handle advanced technology with multimedia, as well as motivate them to have the skills of solving the problem, are the missions of the teacher in preparing students for a modern professional career. This research proposes a scenario of problem solving in basic electrical circuits based on an e-learning system…
PSQP: Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming.
Andalo, Fernanda A; Taubin, Gabriel; Goldenstein, Siome
2017-02-01
In this article we present the first effective method based on global optimization for the reconstruction of image puzzles comprising rectangle pieces-Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming (PSQP). The proposed novel mathematical formulation reduces the problem to the maximization of a constrained quadratic function, which is solved via a gradient ascent approach. The proposed method is deterministic and can deal with arbitrary identical rectangular pieces. We provide experimental results showing its effectiveness when compared to state-of-the-art approaches. Although the method was developed to solve image puzzles, we also show how to apply it to the reconstruction of simulated strip-shredded documents, broadening its applicability.
Solving the Schroedinger equation using Smolyak interpolants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker Jr.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present a new collocation method for solving the Schroedinger equation. Collocation has the advantage that it obviates integrals. All previous collocation methods have, however, the crucial disadvantage that they require solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. By combining Lagrange-like functions with a Smolyak interpolant, we device a collocation method that does not require solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. We exploit the structure of the grid to develop an efficient algorithm for evaluating the matrix-vector products required to compute energy levels and wavefunctions. Energies systematically converge as the number of points and basis functions are increased
Exploring Primary Student’s Problem-Solving Ability by Doing Tasks Like PISA's Question
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rita Novita
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Problem solving plays an important role in mathematics and should have a prominent role in the mathematics education. The term “problem solving” refers to mathematics tasks that have the potential to provide intellectual challenges for enhancing students’ mathematical understanding and development. In addition, the contextual problem that requires students to connect their mathematical knowledge in solving mathematical situational problem is believed to be an impact on the development students’ problem-solving ability. The tasks that have been developed by PISA meet both of these criteria. As stated by the NCTM, that problem-solving skill and ability should be developed to students when they were in primary school (K5-8, therefore, it is important to do an effort to guide students in developing problem-solving ability from primary school such as accustom students to do some mathematical solving-problem tasks. Thus, in this research we tried to investigate how to develop mathematical problem-solving tasks like PISA’s question that have potential effect toward students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities?. We used a formative evaluation type of development research as an mean to achieve this research goal. This type of research is conducted in two steps, namely preliminary stage and formative evaluation stage covering self evaluation, prototyping (expert reviews, one-to-one, and small group, and field test. This research involve four primary schools in Palembang, there are SD Muhammadiyah 6 Palembang, MIN 1 & MIN 2 Palembang, and SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this research showed that the mathematical problem-solving tasks that have been developed have potential effect in exploring mathematical problem-solving ability of the primary school students. It is shown from their work in solving problem where all of the indicators of problem solving competency have emerged quite well category. In addition, based on interview
Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2013-06-01
Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students’ problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student’s expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value “communication” between the student’s qualitative description of the physical situation and the student’s formal mathematical descriptions (usually equations) at two points: when initially setting up the equations, and when evaluating the final mathematical answer for meaning and plausibility. We argue that (i) neither the rubrics nor the associated problem-solving strategies explicitly value this kind of communication during mathematical manipulations of the chosen equations, and (ii) such communication is an aspect of problem-solving expertise. To make this argument, we present a case study of two students, Alex and Pat, solving the same kinematics problem in clinical interviews. We argue that Pat’s solution, which connects manipulation of equations to their physical interpretation, is more expertlike than Alex’s solution, which uses equations more algorithmically. We then show that the types of problem-solving rubrics currently available do not discriminate between these two types of solutions. We conclude that problem-solving rubrics should be revised or repurposed to more accurately assess problem-solving expertise.
Nasution, M. L.; Yerizon, Y.; Gusmiyanti, R.
2018-04-01
One of the purpose mathematic learning is to develop problem solving abilities. Problem solving is obtained through experience in questioning non-routine. Improving students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities required an appropriate strategy in learning activities one of them is models problem based learning (PBL). Thus, the purpose of this research is to determine whether the problem solving abilities of mathematical students’ who learn to use PBL better than on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. This research included quasi experiment with static group design and population is students class XI MIA SMAN 1 Lubuk Alung. Class experiment in the class XI MIA 5 and class control in the class XI MIA 6. The instrument of final test students’ mathematical problem solving used essay form. The result of data final test in analyzed with t-test. The result is students’ mathematical problem solving abilities with PBL better then on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. It’s seen from the high percentage achieved by the group of students who learn to use PBL for each indicator of students’ mathematical problem solving.
Researchers solve big mysteries of pebble bed reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shams, Afaque; Roelofs, Ferry; Komen, E.M.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Sgro, Titus [CD-adapco, London (United Kingdom). Technical Marketing
2014-03-15
The PBR is one type of High Temperature Reactors, which allows high temperature work while preventing the fuel from melting (bringing huge safety margins to the reactor) and high electricity efficiency. The design is also highly scalable; a plant could be designed to be as large or small as needed, and can even be made mobile, allowing it to be used onboard a ship. In a PBR, small particles of nuclear fuel, embedded in a moderating graphite pebble, are dropped into the reactor as needed. At the bottom, the pebbles can be removed simply by opening a small hatch and letting gravity pull them down. To cool the reactor and create electricity, helium gas is pumped through the reactor to pull heat out which is then run through generators. One of the most difficult problems to deal with has been the possible appearance of local temperature hotspots within the pebble bed heating to the point of melting the graphite moderators surrounding the fuel. Obviously, constructing a reactor and experimenting to investigate this possibility is out of the question. Instead, nuclear engineers have been attempting to simulate a PBR with various CFD codes. The thermo-dynamic analysis to simulate realistic conditions in a pebble bed are described and the results are shown. (orig.)
Modelling human problem solving with data from an online game.
Rach, Tim; Kirsch, Alexandra
2016-11-01
Since the beginning of cognitive science, researchers have tried to understand human strategies in order to develop efficient and adequate computational methods. In the domain of problem solving, the travelling salesperson problem has been used for the investigation and modelling of human solutions. We propose to extend this effort with an online game, in which instances of the travelling salesperson problem have to be solved in the context of a game experience. We report on our effort to design and run such a game, present the data contained in the resulting openly available data set and provide an outlook on the use of games in general for cognitive science research. In addition, we present three geometrical models mapping the starting point preferences in the problems presented in the game as the result of an evaluation of the data set.
Solving the Policy Implementation Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregg A. Garn
1999-08-01
Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.
Video games and problem solving effectiveness of primary school children
Jakoš, Andrej
2012-01-01
The purpose is to find out whether video games can have positive effects on children and whether we can use those effects for educational purposes at school. The thesis contains theories of the leading authors of developmental psychology in the field of cognitive development as well as an insight into the processes of learning and using problem solving skills. In the second half of the theoretical part, the essential information on video games, their effects researched until now and the means...
Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors
Miller, Alan
1982-11-01
This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.
Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool
Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.
Problem solving using soft systems methodology.
Land, L
This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.
Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal; Lauritzen, Niels
2012-01-01
Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games....
How to solve applied mathematics problems
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2011-01-01
This workbook bridges the gap between lectures and practical applications, offering students of mathematics, engineering, and physics the chance to practice solving problems from a wide variety of fields. 2011 edition.
Physics: Quantum problems solved through games
Maniscalco, Sabrina
2016-04-01
Humans are better than computers at performing certain tasks because of their intuition and superior visual processing. Video games are now being used to channel these abilities to solve problems in quantum physics. See Letter p.210
Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution
Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.
2015-04-01
Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.
Problem-Solving Phase Transitions During Team Collaboration.
Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M
2018-01-01
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Gender differences in algebraic thinking ability to solve mathematics problems
Kusumaningsih, W.; Darhim; Herman, T.; Turmudi
2018-05-01
This study aimed to conduct a gender study on students' algebraic thinking ability in solving a mathematics problem, polyhedron concept, for grade VIII. This research used a qualitative method. The data was collected using: test and interview methods. The subjects in this study were eight male and female students with different level of abilities. It was found that the algebraic thinking skills of male students reached high group of five categories. They were superior in terms of reasoning and quick understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of high-achieving group of female students also met five categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were more diligent, tenacious and thorough in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability of male students in medium category only satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were sufficient in terms of reasoning and understanding in solving problems. Algebraic thinking ability group of female students in medium group also satisfied three categories of algebraic thinking indicators. They were fairly diligent, tenacious and meticulous on working on the problems.
Writing and mathematical problem solving in Grade 3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belinda Petersen
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This article looks at writing tasks as a methodology to support learners’ mathematical problemsolving strategies in the South African Foundation Phase context. It is a qualitative case study and explores the relation between the use of writing in mathematics and development of learners’ problem-solving strategies and conceptual understanding. The research was conducted in a suburban Foundation Phase school in Cape Town with a class of Grade 3 learners involved in a writing and mathematics intervention. Writing tasks were modelled to learners and implemented by them while they were engaged in mathematical problem solving. Data were gathered from a sample of eight learners of different abilities and included written work, interviews, field notes and audio recordings of ability group discussions. The results revealed an improvement in the strategies and explanations learners used when solving mathematical problems compared to before the writing tasks were implemented. Learners were able to reflect critically on their thinking through their written strategies and explanations. The writing tasks appeared to support learners in providing opportunities to construct and apply mathematical knowledge and skills in their development of problem-solving strategies.
Psychosocial dimensions of solving an indoor air problem.
Lahtinen, Marjaana; Huuhtanen, Pekka; Kähkönen, Erkki; Reijula, Kari
2002-03-01
This investigation focuses on the psychological and social dimensions of managing and solving indoor air problems. The data were collected in nine workplaces by interviews (n = 85) and questionnaires (n = 375). Indoor air problems in office environments have traditionally utilized industrial hygiene or technical expertise. However, indoor air problems at workplaces are often more complex issues to solve. Technical questions are inter-related with the dynamics of the work community, and the cooperation and interaction skills of the parties involved in the solving process are also put to the test. In the present study, the interviewees were very critical of the process of solving the indoor air problem. The responsibility for coordinating the problem-managing process was generally considered vague, as were the roles and functions of the various parties. Communication problems occurred and rumors about the indoor air problem circulated widely. Conflicts were common, complicating the process in several ways. The research focused on examining different ways of managing and resolving an indoor air problem. In addition, reference material on the causal factors of the indoor air problem was also acquired. The study supported the hypothesis that psychosocial factors play a significant role in indoor air problems.
LEMBAR KERJA PESERTA DIDIK (LKPD BERBASIS PROBLEM SOLVING POLYA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilis Nurliawaty
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Lack of exact use of teaching materials and does not correspond to the needs of student leads to lack of analytical ability of students to the process of problem solving. Research development worksheets based on Polya problem solving on the heat material aims to develop valid LKPD, practical, and effective. Stages of development using the 4D model was modified into 3D, namely define (definition, Design (planning, and Development (development The results of the validity of the learning device in the category valid, obtained from the calculation of CVI are in the range 0-1 and said in category reliably with r11 value greater than rtabel (rcount > rtabel. The results of the analysis of questionnaire responses of students obtained an average percentage of 87.9% on the analysis. The analysis result of sheets assessment of learning physics used LKPD-based Polya problem solving obtained average percentage analysis results in the first meeting is 77.33% with good category, the average percentage of the results of the analysis at the second meeting is 81.11% with a very good category and average of results percentage analysis at the third meeting is 78.89% with good category. So it can say that LKPD-based Polya problem solving developed valid, practical and effective to use.
The art and science of problem solving
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2005-01-01
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....
Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving
Friedmann, Oliver; Lange, Martin
2010-01-01
The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may...
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.
Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R
2017-06-01
The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer L. Docktor
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Mushlihuddin, R.; Nurafifah; Irvan
2018-01-01
The student’s low ability in mathematics problem solving proved to the less effective of a learning process in the classroom. Effective learning was a learning that affects student’s math skills, one of which is problem-solving abilities. Problem-solving capability consisted of several stages: understanding the problem, planning the settlement, solving the problem as planned, re-examining the procedure and the outcome. The purpose of this research was to know: (1) was there any influence of PBL model in improving ability Problem solving of student math in a subject of vector analysis?; (2) was the PBL model effective in improving students’ mathematical problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses? This research was a quasi-experiment research. The data analysis techniques performed from the test stages of data description, a prerequisite test is the normality test, and hypothesis test using the ANCOVA test and Gain test. The results showed that: (1) there was an influence of PBL model in improving students’ math problem-solving abilities in vector analysis courses; (2) the PBL model was effective in improving students’ problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses with a medium category.
Reich, Catherine M; Blackwell, Náthali; Simmons, Catherine A; Beck, J Gayle
2015-05-01
Social factors are often associated with the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of interpersonal traumas. However, social problem solving strategies have received little attention. The current study explored the role of social problem solving styles (i.e., rational approaches, impulsive/careless strategies, or avoidance strategies) as intermediary variables between abuse exposure and PTSD severity among intimate partner violence survivors. Avoidance problem solving served as an intermediating variable for the relationship between three types of abuse and PTSD severity. Rational and impulsive/careless strategies were not associated with abuse exposure. These findings extend the current understanding of social problem solving among interpersonal trauma survivors and are consistent with more general avoidance coping research. Future research might examine whether avoidance problem solving tends to evolve in the aftermath of trauma or whether it represents a longstanding risk factor for PTSD development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills: Effects of Worked Examples and Learner Support
Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.
2013-01-01
Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, August). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills: Effects of Worked Examples and Learner Support. Paper presented at the biennial EARLI Conference for Research in Learning and Instruction, Münich, Germany.
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved
THINK ALOUD PAIR PROBLEM SOLVING (TAPPS STRATEGY IN TEACHING READING
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Muhammad Zuhri Dj
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This research is aim to know what extent the achievement of students’ reading comprehension by using Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS strategy at the tenth grade students of SMKN 3 Watampone. the objectives of the research is to know what extent the achievement of student’s reading comprehension by using Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS strategy. The population of this research is the tenth grade students of SMKN 3 Watampone which has 149 students. The writers applied random sampling, because the school has students more than 100 students. The X Multimedia Class is taken as the sample, because it has many students who have low values in English subject based on their teacher report. This research employs an instrument based on the problem statements investigated, It is Reading comprehension test. After several meetings, this research finds out the achievement of students’ reading comprehension significantly effective to improve the student’s reading comprehension. The result of this research shows that the mean score obtained by the students through pretest was 46.545 and posttest was 88.364; the t-test value was higher than the t-table (49.385 > 2.080. It means that there is a significant difference between the result of the students’ pretest and posttest
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuning Melianingsih
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan keefektifan dan perbandingan keefektifan dari pendekatan open-ended dan problem solving pada pembelajaran bangun ruang sisi datar ditinjau dari pencapaian kemampuan penalaran, pemecahan masalah, dan komunikasi matematis. Penelitian ini adalah quasi experiment dengan desain pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. Populasi penelitian mencakup seluruh siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Pandak, Bantul, Yogyakarta. Selanjutnya dengan memilih secara acak dari keseluruhan kelas tersebut, terpilih kelas VIII F dan VIII G sebagai sampel penelitian. Untuk menguji keefektifan masing-masing pendekatan pembelajaran digunakan uji one sample t-test. Untuk menguji bahwa pendekatan open-ended lebih efektif daripada pendekatan problem solving, data dianalisis menggunakan MANOVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji t-Bonferroni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kedua pendekatan pembelajaran efektif ditinjau dari masing-masing aspek, dan pendekatan open-ended lebih efektif daripada pendekatan problem solving pada pembelajaran bangun ruang sisi datar ditinjau dari pencapaian kemampuan penalaran, pemecahan masalah, dan komunikasi matematis di SMP. Kata Kunci: pendekatan open-ended, pendekatan problem solving, kemampuan penalaran, kemampuan pemecahan masalah, kemampuan komunikasi matematis THE EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN-ENDED AND PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH IN MATTER OF FLAT SIDE CONSTRUCT IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Abstract The aims of this research are to decide the effectiveness and the comparison of the effectiveness of open-ended and problem solving approach toward matter of flat side construct lesson viewed from achivement of reasoning ability, problem solving and mathematics communication. This study was a quasi experimental study using the pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. The research population covered the entire VIII class students’ of SMP Negeri 1 Pandak, Bantul, Yogyakarta. From the population, classes of VIII F and
The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems
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Martine Baars
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Self-regulated learning (SRL skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation, mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels. In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.
Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh
2015-05-17
Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students' problem solving skills. The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. They were selected through convenience sampling technique and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught through metacognitive instruction during ten two-hour sessions and for the control group, problem solving skills were taught via conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection included problem solving inventory (Heppner, 1988), which was administered before and after instruction. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been previously confirmed. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested by t-test and ANCOVA. The findings of the posttest showed that the total mean scores of problem solving skills in the experimental and control groups were 151.90 and 101.65, respectively, indicating a significant difference between them (pproblem solving skills and its components, including problem solving confidence, orientation-avoidance coping style and personal control (pproblem solving skills and is required to enhance academic achievement, metacognitive strategies are recommended to be taught to the students.
The Association between Motivation, Affect, and Self-regulated Learning When Solving Problems.
Baars, Martine; Wijnia, Lisette; Paas, Fred
2017-01-01
Self-regulated learning (SRL) skills are essential for learning during school years, particularly in complex problem-solving domains, such as biology and math. Although a lot of studies have focused on the cognitive resources that are needed for learning to solve problems in a self-regulated way, affective and motivational resources have received much less research attention. The current study investigated the relation between affect (i.e., Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale), motivation (i.e., autonomous and controlled motivation), mental effort, SRL skills, and problem-solving performance when learning to solve biology problems in a self-regulated online learning environment. In the learning phase, secondary education students studied video-modeling examples of how to solve hereditary problems, solved hereditary problems which they chose themselves from a set of problems with different complexity levels (i.e., five levels). In the posttest, students solved hereditary problems, self-assessed their performance, and chose a next problem from the set of problems but did not solve these problems. The results from this study showed that negative affect, inaccurate self-assessments during the posttest, and higher perceptions of mental effort during the posttest were negatively associated with problem-solving performance after learning in a self-regulated way.
4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya
2015-01-01
This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.
6th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Bansal, Jagdish; Das, Kedar; Lal, Arvind; Garg, Harish; Nagar, Atulya; Pant, Millie
2017-01-01
This two-volume book gathers the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2016), offering a collection of research papers presented during the conference at Thapar University, Patiala, India. Providing a veritable treasure trove for scientists and researchers working in the field of soft computing, it highlights the latest developments in the broad area of “Computational Intelligence” and explores both theoretical and practical aspects using fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, soft computing, computational intelligence, etc.
The Improvement of Basic Support and Advance Clarification Skill with Problem Solving
Safira, Novi Ayu; Diawati, Chansyanah; Rosilawati, Ila
2013-01-01
The low-creative critical thinking skill of the student is because many schools use low-level abilities in learning. The use of problem solving model in the learning is one of the efforts for practice the critical thinking skill students. This research aimed to describe the problem solving model that are effective in improving the basic support and advance clarification skill. This research using a quasi-experimental methods with Non Equivalent Control Group Design. The sampling technique use...
Anggraini, Agita Dzulhajh; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah
2012-01-01
Accuracy educators in selecting and implementing learning models influence students' science process skills. Models of learning that can be applied to improve science process skills and tend constructivist among athers learning model of problem solving. This research was conducted to describe the effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in improving communication skills and prediction skills. Subjects in this research were students of high school YP Unila Bandar Lampung Even ...
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.
2012-01-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
Step by Step: Biology Undergraduates’ Problem-Solving Procedures during Multiple-Choice Assessment
Prevost, Luanna B.; Lemons, Paula P.
2016-01-01
This study uses the theoretical framework of domain-specific problem solving to explore the procedures students use to solve multiple-choice problems about biology concepts. We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. We identified a range of procedures and organized them as domain general, domain specific, or hybrid. We also identified domain-general and domain-specific errors made by students during problem solving. We found that students use domain-general and hybrid procedures more frequently when solving lower-order problems than higher-order problems, while they use domain-specific procedures more frequently when solving higher-order problems. Additionally, the more domain-specific procedures students used, the higher the likelihood that they would answer the problem correctly, up to five procedures. However, if students used just one domain-general procedure, they were as likely to answer the problem correctly as if they had used two to five domain-general procedures. Our findings provide a categorization scheme and framework for additional research on biology problem solving and suggest several important implications for researchers and instructors. PMID:27909021
Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide
Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.
2014-01-01
Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the
Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali
2012-01-01
Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem...... solving models from other design domains is of interest to the engineering design community. For this paper an observational study of two software design sessions performed for the workshop on “Studying professional Software Design” is compared to analysis from engineering design. These findings provide...... useful insights of how software designers move from a problem domain to a solution domain and the commonalities between software designers’ and engineering designers’ design activities. The software designers were found to move quickly to a detailed design phase, employ co-.evolution and adopt...
Applying natural evolution for solving computational problems - Lecture 1
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Darwin’s natural evolution theory has inspired computer scientists for solving computational problems. In a similar way to how humans and animals have evolved along millions of years, computational problems can be solved by evolving a population of solutions through generations until a good solution is found. In the first lecture, the fundaments of evolutionary computing (EC) will be described, covering the different phases that the evolutionary process implies. ECJ, a framework for researching in such field, will be also explained. In the second lecture, genetic programming (GP) will be covered. GP is a sub-field of EC where solutions are actual computational programs represented by trees. Bloat control and distributed evaluation will be introduced.
Applying natural evolution for solving computational problems - Lecture 2
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Darwin’s natural evolution theory has inspired computer scientists for solving computational problems. In a similar way to how humans and animals have evolved along millions of years, computational problems can be solved by evolving a population of solutions through generations until a good solution is found. In the first lecture, the fundaments of evolutionary computing (EC) will be described, covering the different phases that the evolutionary process implies. ECJ, a framework for researching in such field, will be also explained. In the second lecture, genetic programming (GP) will be covered. GP is a sub-field of EC where solutions are actual computational programs represented by trees. Bloat control and distributed evaluation will be introduced.
Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali
2012-01-01
solving models from other design domains is of interest to the engineering design community. For this paper an observational study of two software design sessions performed for the workshop on “Studying professional Software Design” is compared to analysis from engineering design. These findings provide......Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem...... useful insights of how software designers move from a problem domain to a solution domain and the commonalities between software designers’ and engineering designers’ design activities. The software designers were found to move quickly to a detailed design phase, employ co-.evolution and adopt...
Comparison of problem solving tools in lean organizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iuga Maria Virginia
2017-01-01
Full Text Available As global market competition is getting fiercer, and companies are looking at ways to stay on top, more and more organizations are looking at Lean Manufacturing and lean tools to support them in achieving their goals. Especially within the automotive industry, lean practices are very well received. The speed at which the automotive industry is evolving, especially but not only, in countries like Romania, leads to the need to carefully analyze lean manufacturing concepts, examine them against local production conditions, and to develop and standardize them. One of the most important things to take into consideration here is the application of an adequate problem solving technique to avoid waste. The objective of this research paper lies in analyzing and comparing the problem-solving methods recommended by the Toyota Production System, and to propose their appropriate application at shop floor, in relation to the specific problem type.
Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
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Wenping Zou
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization has been a difficult problem and focus for research in fields of science and engineering. This paper presents a novel algorithm based on artificial bee colony (ABC to deal with multi-objective optimization problems. ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. It uses less control parameters, and it can be efficiently used for solving multimodal and multidimensional optimization problems. Our algorithm uses the concept of Pareto dominance to determine the flight direction of a bee, and it maintains nondominated solution vectors which have been found in an external archive. The proposed algorithm is validated using the standard test problems, and simulation results show that the proposed approach is highly competitive and can be considered a viable alternative to solve multi-objective optimization problems.
Digital literacy and problem solving in technology-rich environments
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Vesna Dolničar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Rapid development and progress, as well as the growing presence of information and communications technologies dictate the need for more highly developed digital skills in individuals. The paper focuses on the concepts of digital skills and problem solving in technology-rich environments. It examines these on the basis of empirical data obtained in the international study PIAAC. The introductory part presents an overview of the literature and the results of previous research in the field of measurement of digital skills, and data on the use of information society services among the EU Member States. The second part of the article refers to the results obtained in the study PIAAC. The results, confirmed by the results of other studies, showed the impact of age and education level on the problem solving in technology-rich environments. Article concludes with suggestions for improving the current state of integration of all population groups in training programs in the field of digital skills.
Knowledge Management and Problem Solving in Real Time: The Role of Swarm Intelligence
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Chris W Callaghan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Knowledge management research applied to the development of real-time research capability, or capability to solve societal problems in hours and days instead of years and decades, is perhaps increasingly important, given persistent global problems such as the Zika virus and rapidly developing antibiotic resistance. Drawing on swarm intelligence theory, this paper presents an approach to real-time research problem-solving in the form of a framework for understanding the complexity of real-time research and the challenges associated with maximizing collaboration. The objective of this research is to make explicit certain theoretical, methodological, and practical implications deriving from new literature on emerging technologies and new forms of problem solving and to offer a model of real-time problem solving based on a synthesis of the literature. Drawing from ant colony, bee colony, and particle swarm optimization, as well as other population-based metaheuristics, swarm intelligence principles are derived in support of improved effectiveness and efficiency for multidisciplinary human swarm problem-solving. This synthesis seeks to offer useful insights into the research process, by offering a perspective of what maximized collaboration, as a system, implies for real-time problem solving.
Methods of solving sequence and series problems
Grigorieva, Ellina
2016-01-01
This book aims to dispel the mystery and fear experienced by students surrounding sequences, series, convergence, and their applications. The author, an accomplished female mathematician, achieves this by taking a problem solving approach, starting with fascinating problems and solving them step by step with clear explanations and illuminating diagrams. The reader will find the problems interesting, unusual, and fun, yet solved with the rigor expected in a competition. Some problems are taken directly from mathematics competitions, with the name and year of the exam provided for reference. Proof techniques are emphasized, with a variety of methods presented. The text aims to expand the mind of the reader by often presenting multiple ways to attack the same problem, as well as drawing connections with different fields of mathematics. Intuitive and visual arguments are presented alongside technical proofs to provide a well-rounded methodology. With nearly 300 problems including hints, answers, and solutions,Met...
Solving the SAT problem using Genetic Algorithm
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Arunava Bhattacharjee
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose our genetic algorithm for solving the SAT problem. We introduce various crossover and mutation techniques and then make a comparative analysis between them in order to find out which techniques are the best suited for solving a SAT instance. Before the genetic algorithm is applied to an instance it is better to seek for unit and pure literals in the given formula and then try to eradicate them. This can considerably reduce the search space, and to demonstrate this we tested our algorithm on some random SAT instances. However, to analyse the various crossover and mutation techniques and also to evaluate the optimality of our algorithm we performed extensive experiments on benchmark instances of the SAT problem. We also estimated the ideal crossover length that would maximise the chances to solve a given SAT instance.
Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving
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Oliver Friedmann
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may cover only a fractional part of the entire game graph. We present a local strategy improvement algorithm which explores the game graph on-the-fly whilst performing the improvement steps. We also compare it empirically with existing global strategy improvement algorithms and the currently only other local algorithm for solving parity games. It turns out that local strategy improvement can outperform these others by several orders of magnitude.
New method for solving multidimensional scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melezhik, V.S.
1991-01-01
A new method is developed for solving the quantum mechanical problem of scattering of a particle with internal structure. The multichannel scattering problem is formulated as a system of nonlinear functional equations for the wave function and reaction matrix. The method is successfully tested for the scattering from a nonspherical potential well and a long-range nonspherical scatterer. The method is also applicable to solving the multidimensional Schroedinger equation with a discrete spectrum. As an example the known problem of a hydrogen atom in a homogeneous magnetic field is analyzed
Vacuum engineering, calculations, formulas, and solved exercises
Berman, Armand
1992-01-01
This book was written with two main objectives in mind-to summarize and organize the vast material of vacuum technology in sets of useful formulas, and to provide a collection of worked out exercises showing how to use these formulas for solving technological problems. It is an ideal reference source for those with little time to devote to a full mathematical treatment of the many problems issued in vacuum practice, but who have a working knowledge of the essentials of vacuum technology, elementary physics, and mathematics. This time saving book employs a problem-solving approach throughout, p
Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer
Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.
A Novel Approach for Solving Semidefinite Programs
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Hong-Wei Jiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel linearizing alternating direction augmented Lagrangian approach is proposed for effectively solving semidefinite programs (SDP. For every iteration, by fixing the other variables, the proposed approach alternatively optimizes the dual variables and the dual slack variables; then the primal variables, that is, Lagrange multipliers, are updated. In addition, the proposed approach renews all the variables in closed forms without solving any system of linear equations. Global convergence of the proposed approach is proved under mild conditions, and two numerical problems are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Fasni, N.; Turmudi, T.; Kusnandi, K.
2017-09-01
This research background of this research is the importance of student problem solving abilities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether there are differences in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who have learned mathematics using Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction (AFFMMI) and students who have learned using scientific approach (SA). The method used in this research is a quasi-experimental method with pretest-postest control group design. Data analysis of mathematical problem solving ability using Indepent Sample Test. The results showed that there was a difference in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who received learning with Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction and students who received learning with a scientific approach. AFFMMI focuses on mathematical modeling. This modeling allows students to solve problems. The use of AFFMMI is able to improve the solving ability.
Jua, S. K.; Sarwanto; Sukarmin
2018-05-01
Problem-solving skills are important skills in physics. However, according to some researchers, the problem-solving skill of Indonesian students’ problem in physics learning is categorized still low. The purpose of this study was to identify the profile of problem-solving skills of students who follow the across the interests program of physics. The subjects of the study were high school students of Social Sciences, grade X. The type of this research was descriptive research. The data which used to analyze the problem-solving skills were obtained through student questionnaires and the test results with impulse materials and collision. From the descriptive analysis results, the percentage of students’ problem-solving skill based on the test was 52.93% and indicators respectively. These results indicated that students’ problem-solving skill is categorized low.
Hobri; Suharto; Rifqi Naja, Ahmad
2018-04-01
This research aims to determine students’ creative thinking level in problem solving based on NCTM in function subject. The research type is descriptive with qualitative approach. Data collection methods which were used are test and interview. Creative thinking level in problem solving based on NCTM indicators consists of (1) Make mathematical model from a contextual problem and solve the problem, (2) Solve problem using various possible alternatives, (3) Find new alternative(s) to solve the problem, (4) Determine the most efficient and effective alternative for that problem, (5) Review and correct mistake(s) on the process of problem solving. Result of the research showed that 10 students categorized in very satisfying level, 23 students categorized in satisfying level and 1 students categorized in less satisfying level. Students in very satisfying level meet all indicators, students in satisfying level meet first, second, fourth, and fifth indicator, while students in less satisfying level only meet first and fifth indicator.
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
2016-01-01
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Kuzle
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I report on preservice teachers’ reflections and perceptions on theirproblem-solving process in a technological context. The purpose of the study was to to investigatehow preservice teachers experience working individually in a dynamic geometry environment andhow these experiences affect their own mathematical activity when integrating content (nonroutineproblems and context (technology environment. Careful analysis of participants’ perceptionsregarding their thinking while engaged in problem solving, provided an opportunity to explorehow they explain the emergence of problem solving when working in a dynamic geometryenvironment. The two participants communicated their experience both through the lenses ofthemselves as problem solvers and as future mathematics educators. Moreover, the results of thestudy indicated that problem solving in a technology environment does not necessarily allow focuson decision-making, reflection, and problem solving processes as reported by previous research.
Sari, D. P.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
2018-04-01
This research aims to describe metacognitive experience of mathematics education students with strong, average, and weak intrapersonal intelligence in open start problem solving. Type of this research was qualitative research. The research subject was mathematics education students in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta in academic year 2017/2018. The selected students consisted of 6 students with details of two students in each intrapersonal intelligence category. The research instruments were questionnaire, open start problem solving task, and interview guidelines. Data validity used time triangulation. Data analyses were done through data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusion. Based on findings, subjects with strong intrapersonal intelligence had high self confidence that they were able to solve problem correctly, able to do planning steps and able to solve the problem appropriately. Subjects with average intrapersonal intelligence had high self-assessment that they were able to solve the problem, able to do planning steps appropriately but they had not maximized in carrying out the plan so that it resulted incorrectness answer. Subjects with weak intrapersonal intelligence had high self confidence in capability of solving math problem, lack of precision in taking plans so their task results incorrectness answer.
Student’s thinking process in solving word problems in geometry
Khasanah, V. N.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
2018-05-01
This research aims to find out the thinking process of seventh grade of Junior High School in solve word problem solving of geometry. This research was descriptive qualitative research. The subject of the research was selected based on sex and differences in mathematical ability. Data collection was done based on student’s work test, interview, and observation. The result of the research showed that there was no difference of thinking process between male and female with high mathematical ability, and there were differences of thinking process between male and female with moderate and low mathematical ability. Also, it was found that male with moderate mathematical ability took a long time in the step of making problem solving plans. While female with moderate mathematical ability took a long time in the step of understanding the problems. The importance of knowing the thinking process of students in solving word problem solving were that the teacher knows the difficulties faced by students and to minimize the occurrence of the same error in problem solving. Teacher could prepare the right learning strategies which more appropriate with student’s thinking process.
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
A Microgenetic Study of Insightful Problem Solving
Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven
2008-01-01
An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…
Perceptual Salience and Children's Multidimensional Problem Solving
Odom, Richard D.; Corbin, David W.
1973-01-01
Uni- and multidimensional processing of 6- to 9-year olds was studied using recall tasks in which an array of stimuli was reconstructed to match a model array. Results indicated that both age groups were able to solve multidimensional problems, but that solution rate was retarded by the unidimensional processing of highly salient dimensions.…
Problem Solving in the Early Years
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2018-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…
Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving
Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette
2016-01-01
This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…
Solving Mathematical Problems A Personal Perspective
Tao, Terence
2006-01-01
Authored by a leading name in mathematics, this engaging and clearly presented text leads the reader through the tactics involved in solving mathematical problems at the Mathematical Olympiad level. With numerous exercises and assuming only basic mathematics, this text is ideal for students of 14 years and above in pure mathematics.
Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.
McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…
Stuttering mostly speeds up solving parity games
Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.; Bobaru, M.; Havelund, K.; Holzmann, G.J.; Joshi, R.
2011-01-01
We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering
Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving
Li, Daoquan
2012-01-01
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
Problem-Solving: Scaling the "Brick Wall"
Benson, Dave
2011-01-01
Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Modeling visual problem solving as analogical reasoning.
Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth
2017-01-01
We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons. When images fail to align, the model dynamically rerepresents them to facilitate the comparison. In our analysis, we find that the model matches adult human performance on the Standard Progressive Matrices test, and that problems which are difficult for the model are also difficult for people. Furthermore, we show that model operations involving abstraction and rerepresentation are particularly difficult for people, suggesting that these operations may be critical for performing visual problem solving, and reasoning more generally, at the highest level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preston Foerder
Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Supporting Organizational Problem Solving with a Workstation.
1982-07-01
G. [., and Sussman, G. J. AMORD: Explicit Control or Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Artificial Intellignece and Programming Languagues...0505 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA& WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545...extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (A), we describ office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Problem solving environment for distributed interactive applications
Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.
2008-01-01
Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE
Solving jigsaw puzzles using image features
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ture R.; Drewsen, Peter; Hansen, Klaus
2008-01-01
In this article, we describe a method for automatic solving of the jigsaw puzzle problem based on using image features instead of the shape of the pieces. The image features are used for obtaining an accurate measure for edge similarity to be used in a new edge matching algorithm. The algorithm i...
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Quickfire Challenges to Inspire Problem Solving
Harper, Suzanne R.; Cox, Dana C.
2017-01-01
In the authors' attempts to incorporate problem solving into their mathematics courses, they have found that student ambition and creativity are often hampered by feelings of risk, as many students are conditioned to value a produced solution over the actual process of building one. Eliminating risk is neither possible nor desired. The challenge,…
A method for solving neutron transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimitrijevic, Z.
1993-01-01
The procedure for solving the transport equation by directly integrating for case one-dimensional uniform multigroup medium is shown. The solution is expressed in terms of linear combination of function H n (x,μ), and the coefficient is determined from given conditions. The solution is applied for homogeneous slab of critical thickness. (author)
Discovering Steiner Triple Systems through Problem Solving
Sriraman, Bharath
2004-01-01
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
[Problem-solving strategies and marital satisfaction].
Kriegelewicz, Olga
2006-01-01
This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.
Three-M in Word Problem Solving
Hajra, Sayonita Ghosh; Kofman, Victoria
2018-01-01
We describe three activities that help undergraduates (pre-service teachers) to develop scientific vocabulary on measurable attributes and units of measurement. Measurable attributes are important features in understanding a word problem and solving the problem. These activities help students comprehend word problems better by identifying…
Neural Network to Solve Concave Games
Liu, Zixin; Wang, Nengfa
2014-01-01
The issue on neural network method to solve concave games is concerned. Combined with variational inequality, Ky Fan inequality, and projection equation, concave games are transformed into a neural network model. On the basis of the Lyapunov stable theory, some stability results are also given. Finally, two classic games’ simulation results are given to illustrate the theoretical results.
Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically
Shiyuan, Wei
2005-01-01
The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.
Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana
2011-01-01
The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
The Use of Transformations in Solving Equations
Libeskind, Shlomo
2010-01-01
Many workshops and meetings with the US high school mathematics teachers revealed a lack of familiarity with the use of transformations in solving equations and problems related to the roots of polynomials. This note describes two transformational approaches to the derivation of the quadratic formula as well as transformational approaches to…
Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF.MIREKU
10, 2012. 39. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts. F. Bahmaei6 & N. ... out cooperative learning in the end, post-test was done and by analyzing the tests it was concluded that ... Johnson et al, 1991 b, Reynolds et al. 1995, Vidakovic .... connection of mental constructs (Hiebert, Carpenter, 1992).
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
A reflexive perspective in problem solving
Chio, José Angel; Álvarez, Aida; López, Margarita
2013-01-01
The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.
Counterfactual Problem Solving and Situated Cognition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glebkin V.V.,
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.
Language and mathematical problem solving among bilinguals.
Bernardo, Allan B I
2002-05-01
Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Yulindar, A.; Setiawan, A.; Liliawati, W.
2018-05-01
This study aims to influence the enhancement of problem solving ability before and after learning using Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model on the concept of heat transfer. The research method used is quantitative method with 35 high school students in Pontianak as sample. The result of problem solving ability of students is obtained through the test in the form of 3 description questions. The instrument has tested the validity by the expert judgment and field testing that obtained the validity value of 0.84. Based on data analysis, the value of N-Gain is 0.43 and the enhancement of students’ problem solving ability is in medium category. This was caused of students who are less accurate in calculating the results of answers and they also have limited time in doing the questions given.
Samo, Damianus Dao; Darhim; Kartasasmita, Bana G.
2018-01-01
The purpose of this study is to show the differences in problem-solving ability between first-year University students who received culture-based contextual learning and conventional learning. This research is a quantitative research using quasi-experimental research design. Samples were the First-year students of mathematics education department;…
Kim, Mijung
2016-01-01
Research on young children's reasoning show the complex relationships of knowledge, theories, and evidence in their decision-making and problem solving. Most of the research on children's reasoning skills has been done in individualized and formal research settings, not collective classroom environments where children often engage in learning and…
Toward High-Performance Communications Interfaces for Science Problem Solving
Oviatt, Sharon L.; Cohen, Adrienne O.
2010-12-01
From a theoretical viewpoint, educational interfaces that facilitate communicative actions involving representations central to a domain can maximize students' effort associated with constructing new schemas. In addition, interfaces that minimize working memory demands due to the interface per se, for example by mimicking existing non-digital work practice, can preserve students' attentional focus on their learning task. In this research, we asked the question: What type of interface input capabilities provide best support for science problem solving in both low- and high- performing students? High school students' ability to solve a diverse range of biology problems was compared over longitudinal sessions while they used: (1) hardcopy paper and pencil (2) a digital paper and pen interface (3) pen tablet interface, and (4) graphical tablet interface. Post-test evaluations revealed that time to solve problems, meta-cognitive control, solution correctness, and memory all were significantly enhanced when using the digital pen and paper interface, compared with tablet interfaces. The tangible pen and paper interface also was the only alternative that significantly facilitated skill acquisition in low-performing students. Paradoxically, all students nonetheless believed that the tablet interfaces provided best support for their performance, revealing a lack of self-awareness about how to use computational tools to best advantage. Implications are discussed for how pen interfaces can be optimized for future educational purposes, and for establishing technology fluency curricula to improve students' awareness of the impact of digital tools on their performance.
Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Schumann, Kristina P.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia
2013-01-01
Aims Problem solving is deemed a core skill for patient diabetes self-management education. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the published literature on the effect of problem-solving interventions on diabetes self-management and disease control. Data Sources We searched PubMed and PsychINFO electronic databases for English language articles published between November 2006 and September 2012. Reference lists from included studies were reviewed to capture additional studies. Study Selection Studies reporting problem-solving intervention or problem solving as an intervention component for diabetes self-management training and disease control were included. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Data Extraction Study design, sample characteristics, measures, and results were reviewed. Data Synthesis Sixteen intervention studies (11 adult, 5 children/adolescents) were randomized controlled trials, and 8 intervention studies (6 adult, 2 children/adolescents) were quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Studies varied greatly in their approaches to problem-solving use in patient education. To date, 36% of adult problem-solving interventions and 42% of children/adolescent problem-solving interventions have demonstrated significant improvement in HbA1c, while psychosocial outcomes have been more promising. The next phase of problem-solving intervention research should employ intervention characteristics found to have sufficient potency and intensity to reach therapeutic levels needed to demonstrate change. PMID:23312614
Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.
Lau, Ying
2014-01-01
The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pedagogy and/or technology: Making difference in improving students' problem solving skills
Hrepic, Zdeslav; Lodder, Katherine; Shaw, Kimberly A.
2013-01-01
Pen input computers combined with interactive software may have substantial potential for promoting active instructional methodologies and for facilitating students' problem solving ability. An excellent example is a study in which introductory physics students improved retention, conceptual understanding and problem solving abilities when one of three weekly lectures was replaced with group problem solving sessions facilitated with Tablet PCs and DyKnow software [1,2]. The research goal of the present study was to isolate the effect of the methodology itself (using additional time to teach problem solving) from that of the involved technology. In Fall 2011 we compared the performance of students taking the same introductory physics lecture course while enrolled in two separate problem-solving sections. One section used pen-based computing to facilitate group problem solving while the other section used low-tech methods for one third of the semester (covering Kinematics), and then traded technologies for the middle third of the term (covering Dynamics). Analysis of quiz, exam and standardized pre-post test results indicated no significant difference in scores of the two groups. Combining this result with those of previous studies implies primacy of pedagogy (collaborative problem solving itself) over technology for student learning in problem solving recitations.
Rr Chusnul, C.; Mardiyana, S., Dewi Retno
2017-12-01
Problem solving is the basis of mathematics learning. Problem solving teaches us to clarify an issue coherently in order to avoid misunderstanding information. Sometimes there may be mistakes in problem solving due to misunderstanding the issue, choosing a wrong concept or misapplied concept. The problem-solving test was carried out after students were given treatment on learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type. The purpose of this study was to elucidate student problem regarding to problem solving errors after learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type. Newman stages were used to identify problem solving errors in this study. The new research used a descriptive method to find out problem solving errors in students. The subject in this study were students of Vocational Senior High School (SMK) in 10th grade. Test and interview was conducted for data collection. Thus, the results of this study suggested problem solving errors in students after learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type for Newman stages.
Analysis of the Impact on Creative Problem Solving in an Organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jasmina Žnideršič
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What affects creative problem solving in anorganization?Purpose: The aim is to obtain a better picture by using statisticalanalysis on the effects of workers' creativity in problem solving inan organizationMethod: The data was obtained by interviewing employees and usingnonparametric tests (χ2 test, Fisher test and χ2 test with Yates correction for data analysis. Results: The research results showed that fear of failure does not affect creative problem solving nor do creativity test encourageworkers towards greater creativity, but prior knowledge and experience do influence workers' creative problem-solving.Organization: Results of this research study will provide managers inan organization a clearer picture of employees’ views, whether there is dominance of routine work, poor stimulated creativity and other factors that affect their creativity.Society: Opinion of workers in an organization can encourage other organizations to explore the impact on creativity of their employees.Originality: Because the data were obtained from a small organization, the results of this research study can only refer tothe setting it researched.Limitations/Future Research: To obtain a wider picture of the effectson creativity, a greater number of employees would need to be included as well as other factors would need to be analysed.This research study took place in an organization where creativityand problem solving are not required.
On the Applicability of Lower Bounds for Solving Rectilinear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Jens; Karisch, Stefan E.; Perregaard, M.
1998-01-01
. Recently, lower bounds based on decomposition were proposed for the so called rectilinear QAP that proved to be the strongest for a large class of problem instances. We investigate the strength of these bounds when applied not only at the root node of a search tree but as the bound function used......The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) belongs to the hard core of NP-hard optimization problems. After almost forty years of research only relatively small instances can be solved to optimality. The reason is that the quality of the lower bounds available for exact methods is not sufficient...
Application of ANNs approach for solving fully fuzzy polynomials system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Novin
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In processing indecisive or unclear information, the advantages of fuzzy logic and neurocomputing disciplines should be taken into account and combined by fuzzy neural networks. The current research intends to present a fuzzy modeling method using multi-layer fuzzy neural networks for solving a fully fuzzy polynomials system. To clarify the point, it is necessary to inform that a supervised gradient descent-based learning law is employed. The feasibility of the method is examined using computer simulations on a numerical example. The experimental results obtained from the investigation of the proposed method are valid and delivers very good approximation results.
A neuro approach to solve fuzzy Riccati differential equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri, E-mail: mshazri@gmail.com [InstitutSainsMatematik, Universiti Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Telekom Malaysia, R& D TM Innovation Centre, LingkaranTeknokrat Timur, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Kumaresan, N., E-mail: drnk2008@gmail.com; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, Kurunathan [InstitutSainsMatematik, Universiti Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2015-10-22
There are many applications of optimal control theory especially in the area of control systems in engineering. In this paper, fuzzy quadratic Riccati differential equation is estimated using neural networks (NN). Previous works have shown reliable results using Runge-Kutta 4th order (RK4). The solution can be achieved by solving the 1st Order Non-linear Differential Equation (ODE) that is found commonly in Riccati differential equation. Research has shown improved results relatively to the RK4 method. It can be said that NN approach shows promising results with the advantage of continuous estimation and improved accuracy that can be produced over RK4.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Soto, Jose Manuel; Fuks, Henryk
2011-01-01
The density classification problem (DCP) is one of the most widely studied problems in the theory of cellular automata. After it was shown that the DCP cannot be solved perfectly, the research in this area has been focused on finding better rules that could solve the DCP approximately. In this paper, we argue that the majority voting rule in high dimensions can achieve high performance in solving the DCP, and that its performance increases with dimension. We support this conjecture with arguments based on the mean-field approximation and direct computer simulations. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez Soto, Jose Manuel [Unidad Academica de Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad entronque Paseo a la Bufa, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Fuks, Henryk, E-mail: jmgomezgoo@gmail.com, E-mail: hfuks@brocku.ca [Department of Mathematics, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON (Canada)
2011-11-04
The density classification problem (DCP) is one of the most widely studied problems in the theory of cellular automata. After it was shown that the DCP cannot be solved perfectly, the research in this area has been focused on finding better rules that could solve the DCP approximately. In this paper, we argue that the majority voting rule in high dimensions can achieve high performance in solving the DCP, and that its performance increases with dimension. We support this conjecture with arguments based on the mean-field approximation and direct computer simulations. (paper)
Research Article Special Issue
African Journals Online (AJOL)
pc
2018-03-22
Mar 22, 2018 ... This research proposed technology use to support knowledge creation in group problem solving. ..... Policy Research Working Paper 4403, World Bank, November 2007. ... Knowledge Management: The Next Big Thing.
LEVELING STUDENTS’ CREATIVE THINKING IN SOLVING AND POSING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree ofcreativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has beendiscussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinkingrefers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is basedon intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focusedon flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving andproblem posing. As students have various backgrounds and differentabilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns,imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have differentlevels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order todevelop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking inmathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe thecharacteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviewswere conducted to collect data with ten 8thgrade junior secondary schoolstudents. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking,namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level.These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty inmathematical problem solving and problem posing.Keywords: student’s creative thinking, problem posing, flexibility,fluency, novelty DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.794.17-40
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edy Surya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The students’ difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal mathematical understanding, and mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was the experimental classroom design with a pretest-posttest control in order to increase the representation of visual thinking ability on mathematical problem solving approach with contextual learning. The research instrument was a test, observation and interviews. Contextual approach increases of mathematical representations ability increases in students with high initial category, medium, and low compared to conventional approaches. Keywords: Visual Thinking Representation, Mathematical Problem Solving, Contextual Teaching Learning Approach DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.568.113-126
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benedict Iorzer Labe
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the extent of student teachers’ willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities and their technological problem-solving self-appraised ability. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design to collect data from 310 purposively random sampled students from three universities in Northern Nigeria. Results of data analyses indicated that student teachers from the universities surveyed reported a moderate willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities as well as a moderately positive self-appraisal of their problem-solving ability. The student teachers’ willingness to engage in troubleshooting activities was also significantly related to the pattern of their self-appraised problem-solving ability. It was therefore concluded that the findings from this research do not support the pedestrian view that students from Nigerian universities are reluctant to engage in problem-solving activities.
Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.
2013-01-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the video…
impact of the curriculum reform on problem solving ability in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
unesco
that “learning is problem solving”. Therefore, teaching problem solving is teaching people how to learn, so is problem solving in chemistry education. Kalbag (4) states that problem solving orientation in chemistry education has an importance in that problem solving converts information into knowledge. Kalbag further states.
Students’ Covariational Reasoning in Solving Integrals’ Problems
Harini, N. V.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.
2018-01-01
Covariational reasoning plays an important role to indicate quantities vary in learning calculus. This study investigates students’ covariational reasoning during their studies concerning two covarying quantities in integral problem. Six undergraduate students were chosen to solve problems that involved interpreting and representing how quantities change in tandem. Interviews were conducted to reveal the students’ reasoning while solving covariational problems. The result emphasizes that undergraduate students were able to construct the relation of dependent variables that changes in tandem with the independent variable. However, students faced difficulty in forming images of continuously changing rates and could not accurately apply the concept of integrals. These findings suggest that learning calculus should be increased emphasis on coordinating images of two quantities changing in tandem about instantaneously rate of change and to promote conceptual knowledge in integral techniques.
Learning Matlab a problem solving approach
Gander, Walter
2015-01-01
This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014. Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.
What is physics problem solving competency?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niss, Martin
2018-01-01
on the nature of physics problem- solving competency. The first, Sommerfeld’s, is a “theory first, phenomenon second” approach. Here the relevant problems originate in one of the theories of physics and the job goal of the problem- solver is to make a mathematical analysis of the suitable equation......A central goal of physics education is to teach problem-solving competency, but the nature of this competency is not well-described in the literature. The present paperarticle uses recent historical scholarship on Arnold Sommerfeld and Enrico Fermi to identify and characterize two positions......(s) and then give a qualitative analysis of the phenomenon that arise from these mathematical results. Fermi’s position is a “phenomenon first, theory second” approach, where the starting point is a physical phenomenon that is analyzed and then brought into the realm of a physics theory. The two positions...
Solving ptychography with a convex relaxation
Horstmeyer, Roarke; Chen, Richard Y.; Ou, Xiaoze; Ames, Brendan; Tropp, Joel A.; Yang, Changhuei
2015-05-01
Ptychography is a powerful computational imaging technique that transforms a collection of low-resolution images into a high-resolution sample reconstruction. Unfortunately, algorithms that currently solve this reconstruction problem lack stability, robustness, and theoretical guarantees. Recently, convex optimization algorithms have improved the accuracy and reliability of several related reconstruction efforts. This paper proposes a convex formulation of the ptychography problem. This formulation has no local minima, it can be solved using a wide range of algorithms, it can incorporate appropriate noise models, and it can include multiple a priori constraints. The paper considers a specific algorithm, based on low-rank factorization, whose runtime and memory usage are near-linear in the size of the output image. Experiments demonstrate that this approach offers a 25% lower background variance on average than alternating projections, the ptychographic reconstruction algorithm that is currently in widespread use.
Lin, Chia-Yi
2017-01-01
This study aimed to help determine what the typology of math creative problem-solving is. Different from studies that have discussed the threshold effect between creativity and intelligence, this research investigated the threshold effect between creativity and other attributes. The typology of the math creative problem-solving abilities of 409 fifth- and sixth-grade Taiwanese students was identified and compared in this study. A Creative Problem-Solving Attribute Instrument was devised for t...
The Elementary School Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Based on Reading Abilities
Wulandari, R. D.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.
2018-01-01
The aim of this research is to describe the third grade of elementary school students’ mathematical problem in solving skills based on their reading abilities. This research is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. This research was conducted at elementary school Kebraon II Surabaya in second semester of 2016-2017 academic years. The participants of this research consist of third grade students with different reading abilities that are independent level, instructional level and frustration level. The participants of this research were selected with purposive sampling technique. The data of this study were collected using reading the narration texts, the Ekwall and Shanker Informal Reading Inventory, problem solving task and interview guidelines. The collected data were evaluated using a descriptive analysis method. Once the study had been completed, it was concluded that problem solving skills varied according to reading abilities, student with independent level and instructional level can solve the problem and students with frustration level can’t solve the problem because they can’t interpret the problem well.
The Improvement of Simple Explanation and Inferencetion Skills with Problem Solving
Dewanti, Fransiska Olivia; Diawati, Chansyanah; Fadiawati, Noor
2013-01-01
The learning process is strongly influenced by the ability and accuracy of teachers in selecting and applying the learning model. The model can be applied to improve of Â simple explanation and inferencetion skill is a model of problem solving. The purpose of this study was to describe the model of problem solving that are effective in improving simple explanation and inferencetion skills on the material electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. This research use a quasi-experimental methods ...
Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh
2015-01-01
Background: Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students? problem solving skills. Methods: The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. T...
1989-08-01
1977. Pp. 1-229. 25. V. Lesser and R. Fennell. "Parallelism in Aritificial Intelligence Problem Solving: A Case Study of Hearsay II," IEEE Transactions...artificial intelligence architecture used to solve the radar tracking problem. The research described was performed at Purdue University during long...TION 1 COSA TI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS in ,,tnu; . ’ .’ , .., ,’ a-, ,’£ ,i-, ,4’o4,, nun br) ,LD I GROUP SUB.GROu P Artificial intelligence Object
Bricolage Programming and Problem Solving Ability in Young Children : an Exploratory Study
Rose, Simon
2016-01-01
Visual programming environments, such as Scratch, are increasingly being used by schools to teach problem solving and computational thinking skills. However, academic research is divided on the effect that visual programming has on problem solving in a computational context. This paper focuses on the role of bricolage programming in this debate; a bottom-up programming approach that arises when using block-style programming interfaces. Bricolage programming was a term originally used to descr...
Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vukadin, Z.
1999-01-01
The exact method of solving radioactive transformations is presented. Nonsingular Bateman coefficients, which can be computed using recurrence formulas, greatly reduce computational time and eliminate singularities that often arise in problems involving nuclide transmutations. Depletion function power series expansion enables high accuracy of the performed calculations, specially in a case of a decay constants with closely spaced values. Generality and simplicity of the method make the method useful for many practical applications. (author)
Solving-Problems and Hypermedia Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo LÓPEZ FERNÁNDEZ
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The solving problems like the transfer constitute two nuclei, related, essential in the cognitive investigation and in the mathematical education. No is in and of itself casual that, from the first moment, in the investigations on the application gives the computer science to the teaching the mathematics, cybernetic models were developed that simulated processes problem solving and transfer cotexts (GPS, 1969 and IDEA (Interactive Decision Envisioning Aid, Pea, BrunerCohen, Webster & Mellen, 1987. The present articulates it analyzes, that can contribute to the development in this respect the new technologies hypermedias, give applications that are good to implement processes of learning the heuristic thought and give the capacity of «transfer». From our perspective and from the experience that we have developed in this field, to carry out a function gives analysis and the theories on the problem solving, it requires that we exercise a previous of interpretation the central aspsects over the theories gives the solving problem and transfer starting from the classic theories on the prosecution of the information. In this sense, so much the theory gives the dual memory as the most recent, J. Anderson (1993 based on the mechanisms activation nodes information they allow to establish an interpretation suggester over the mental mechanism that you/they operate in the heuristic processes. On this analysis, the present articulates it develops a theoritical interpretation over the function gives the supports based on technology hypermedia advancing in the definition of a necessary theoretical body, having in it counts that on the other hand the practical experimentation is permanent concluding in the efficiency and effectiveness gives the support hypermedia like mechanism of comunication in the processes heuristic learning.
Rational approximatons for solving cauchy problems
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Veyis Turut
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this letter, numerical solutions of Cauchy problems are considered by multivariate Padé approximations (MPA. Multivariate Padé approximations (MPA were applied to power series solutions of Cauchy problems that solved by using He’s variational iteration method (VIM. Then, numerical results obtained by using multivariate Padé approximations were compared with the exact solutions of Cauchy problems.
Solving Conic Systems via Projection and Rescaling
Pena, Javier; Soheili, Negar
2015-01-01
We propose a simple projection and rescaling algorithm to solve the feasibility problem \\[ \\text{ find } x \\in L \\cap \\Omega, \\] where $L$ and $\\Omega$ are respectively a linear subspace and the interior of a symmetric cone in a finite-dimensional vector space $V$. This projection and rescaling algorithm is inspired by previous work on rescaled versions of the perceptron algorithm and by Chubanov's projection-based method for linear feasibility problems. As in these predecessors, each main it...
Solving QCD via multi-Regge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A. R.
1998-01-01
To solve QCD at high-energy the authors must simultaneously find the hadronic states and the exchanged pomeron (IP) giving UNITARY scattering amplitudes. Experimentally, the IP ∼ a Regge pole at small Q 2 and a single gluon at larger Q 2 . (F 2 D -H1, dijets-ZEUS). In the solution which the author describes, these non-perturbative properties of the IP are directly related to the non-perturbative confinement and chiral symmetry breaking properties of hadrons
DC-8 MTP calibration for SOLVE-2
Mahoney, M. J.
2003-01-01
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) was the only instrument making temperature measurements at and below flight level on the DC-8 during the SOLVE-2 campaign. Many years of careful comparison of MTP measurements with radiosondes near the DC-8 flight track have shown that the flight level temperature can be determined to an accuracy of 0.2K relative to radiosondes.
Problem solving in nuclear engineering using supercomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, F.; Scheuermann, W.; Schatz, A.
1987-01-01
The availability of supercomputers enables the engineer to formulate new strategies for problem solving. One such strategy is the Integrated Planning and Simulation System (IPSS). With the integrated systems, simulation models with greater consistency and good agreement with actual plant data can be effectively realized. In the present work some of the basic ideas of IPSS are described as well as some of the conditions necessary to build such systems. Hardware and software characteristics as realized are outlined. (orig.) [de
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the
Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vudakin, Z.
1999-01-01
Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations is presented in this paper. High accuracy series expansion of the depletion function and nonsingular Bateman coefficients are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Generality and simplicity of the method are found to be useful in evaluating nuclide chains with one hundred or more nuclides in the chain. Method enables evaluation of complete chain, without elimination of short-lives nuclides. It is efficient and accurate
Multiscale empirical interpolation for solving nonlinear PDEs
Calo, Victor M.
2014-12-01
In this paper, we propose a multiscale empirical interpolation method for solving nonlinear multiscale partial differential equations. The proposed method combines empirical interpolation techniques and local multiscale methods, such as the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM). To solve nonlinear equations, the GMsFEM is used to represent the solution on a coarse grid with multiscale basis functions computed offline. Computing the GMsFEM solution involves calculating the system residuals and Jacobians on the fine grid. We use empirical interpolation concepts to evaluate these residuals and Jacobians of the multiscale system with a computational cost which is proportional to the size of the coarse-scale problem rather than the fully-resolved fine scale one. The empirical interpolation method uses basis functions which are built by sampling the nonlinear function we want to approximate a limited number of times. The coefficients needed for this approximation are computed in the offline stage by inverting an inexpensive linear system. The proposed multiscale empirical interpolation techniques: (1) divide computing the nonlinear function into coarse regions; (2) evaluate contributions of nonlinear functions in each coarse region taking advantage of a reduced-order representation of the solution; and (3) introduce multiscale proper-orthogonal-decomposition techniques to find appropriate interpolation vectors. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on several nonlinear multiscale PDEs that are solved with Newton\\'s methods and fully-implicit time marching schemes. Our numerical results show that the proposed methods provide a robust framework for solving nonlinear multiscale PDEs on a coarse grid with bounded error and significant computational cost reduction.
DEVELOPMENT OF LARSON’S PROBLEMS SOLVING PATTERNS WITH "IDEAL" STRATEGIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
. Junarti
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Mathematical Problem-solving is taught to improve students' high-order thinking skills. A heuristic problem-solving strategy is used to find different Problem-solving. This research is to: 1 describe the student's Problem-solving ability profile in finding the pattern of algebra solving through the "IDEAL" (Identify Define Explore Act Look back strategy by developing Larson’s Problem-solving pattern, 2 measuring the extent of the pattern can be formed by using " IDEAL". Finding patterns is part of the first heuristic strategy. The research method used a qualitative approach with descriptive analysis. Problems conveyed to students are done in pairs of two people, with the consideration that more discussion opportunities with friends make it possible to get more than five troubleshooting as Larson puts it. The results showed that: 1 profile Problem-solving ability found pattern with "IDEAL" strategy from student got result that from problem given to 20 student group can help solve algebra Problem-solving; 2 there are four kinds of Problem-solving patterns consisting of 3 Larson model Problem-solving patterns and one Problem-solving pattern using geometry sequence pattern. Keyword: Problem-solving Pattern, Heuristic, “IDEAL” Strategy Abstrak: Pemecahan masalah matematika diajarkan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pemikiran tingkat tinggi mahasiswa. Strategi pemecahan masalah heuristic digunakan untuk menemukan pemecahan masalah yang berbeda. Penelitian ini untuk: 1 menggambarkan profil kemampuan pemecahan masalah mahasiswa dalam menemukan pola pemecahan aljabar melalui strategi “IDEAL” (Identify Define Explore Act Look back dengan mengembangkan pola pemecahan masalah Larson, 2 mengukur sejauhmana pola yang dapat dibentuk mahasiswa dengan menggunakan strategi “IDEAL”. Menemukan Pola merupakan bagian dari strategi heuristik yang pertama. Metode penelitiannya menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan analisis deskriptif. Masalah
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurita Apridiana Lestari
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Mastery of the concepts of physics students can be measured by its ability to solve the problems of physics. Problem solving ability is one component that must be owned by the students as a physics teacher candidates. Based on the results of initial observations, it is known that the problem solving ability of students is still low, especially associated with the use of physics concepts to solve problems. Therefore, the ability of problem solving should be trained in teaching as a form of scaffolding for students. Scaffolding can be done through the method of Socratic dialogue which is the provision of structured questions to help students find answers to the problems of physics using the right concept. This type of research is the Classroom Action Research with two cycles were performed on physics student teachers in the subjects Physics 1 with a fluid material. Improved problem solving ability was measured using test items at the end of the cycle. The results qualitatively show their developments and increased activity in the classroom compared to learning before the action. These results are supported quantitatively by an increase in average test scores of the first cycle of 70.00 into 75.86 in the second cycle. Keywords: problem solving, socratic dialogue Penguasaan konsep fisika mahasiswa dapat diukur dari kemampuannya dalam memecahkan permasalahan fisika (problem solving. Kemampuan problem solving merupakan salah satu komponen yang harus dimiliki oleh mahasiswa sebagai calon guru fisika. Berdasarkan hasil observasi awal, diketahui bahwa kemampuan problem solving mahasiswa masih rendah, khususnya terkait dengan penggunaan konsep fisika untuk memecahkan masalah. Oleh karena itu, kemampuan problem solving perlu dilatihkan dalam pembelajaran sebagai bentuk scaffolding bagi mahasiswa. Scaffolding dapat dilakukan melalui metode socratic dialogue yang merupakan pemberian pertanyaan terstruktur untuk membantu mahasiswa menemukan jawaban
Model Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning pada Perkuliahan Dasar-dasar Kimia Analitik
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indarini Dwi Pursitasari
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning Model on Foundation of Analytical Chemistry. This study was conducted to know the effects of Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning (IPSBL model on problem solving skills and cognitive ability of pre-service teachers. The subjects of the study were 41 pre- service teachers, 21 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The data were collected through a test on problem solving skills, a test on cognitive ability, and a questionnaire on the students’opinions on the use of IPSBL model. The quantitative data were analyzed using t-test and one-way ANOVA, and the qualitative data were analyzed by counting the percentage. The results of the study show that the implementation of IPSBL model increased the problem solving skills and cognitive ability of the pre-service teachers . The model was also responded positively by the research subjects. Abstrak: Model Integrated Problem Solving Based learning pada Perkuliahan Dasar-dasar Kimia Analitik. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan pengaruh model Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning(IPSBL terhadap peningkatan kemampuan problem solving dan kemampuan kognitif mahasiswa calon guru. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari 21 mahasiswa kelas eksperimen dan 20 mahasiswa kelas kontrol. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan tes kemampuan problem solving, tes kemampuan kognitif, dan angket untuk menjaring pendapat mahasiswa terhadap penggunaan model IPSBL . Data kuantitatif dianalisis denga n uji- t dan Anava dengan bantuan program SPSS 16.0. Data kualitatif dihitung persentasenya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model IPSBL dapat meningkatkan kemampuan problem solving dan kemampuan kognitif serta mendapat tanggapan yang positif dari mahasiswa.
Processes involved in solving mathematical problems
Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra
2018-04-01
This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.
Learning via problem solving in mathematics education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piet Human
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproﬁciency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the
Students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems
Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana
2018-03-01
A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.
A literature review of expert problem solving using analogy
Mair, C; Martincova, M; Shepperd, MJ
2009-01-01
We consider software project cost estimation from a problem solving perspective. Taking a cognitive psychological approach, we argue that the algorithmic basis for CBR tools is not representative of human problem solving and this mismatch could account for inconsistent results. We describe the fundamentals of problem solving, focusing on experts solving ill-defined problems. This is supplemented by a systematic literature review of empirical studies of expert problem solving of non-trivial pr...
Self-directed questions to improve students' ability in solving chemical problems
Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Muna, Khairiatul; Suharto, Bambang; Syahmani
2017-12-01
Students' ability in solving chemical problems is seen from their ability to solve chemicals' non-routine problems. It is due to learning faced directly on non-routine problems will generate a meaningful learning for students. Observations in Banjarmasin Public High School 1 (SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin) showed that students did not give the expected results when they were given the non-routine problems. Learning activities by emphasizing problem solving was implemented based on the existence of knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. Both of these elements are components of metacognition. The self-directed question is a strategy that involves metacognition in solving chemical problems. This research was carried out using classroom action research design in two cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation and reflection. The subjects were 34 students of grade XI-4 at majoring science (IPA) of SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin. The data were collected using tests of the students' ability in problem solving and non-tests instrument to know the process of implementation of the actions. Data were analyzed with descriptivequantitativeand qualitative analysis. The ability of students in solving chemical problems has increased from an average of 37.96 in cycle I became 61.83 in cycle II. Students' ability to solve chemical problems is viewed based on their ability to answer self-directed questions. Students' ability in comprehension questions increased from 73.04 in the cycle I became 96.32 in cycle II. Connection and strategic questions increased from 54.17 and 16.50 on cycle I became 63.73 and 55.23 on cycle II respectively. In cycle I, reflection questions were 26.96 and elevated into 36.27 in cycle II. The self-directed questions have the ability to help students to solve chemical problems through metacognition questions. Those questions guide students to find solutions in solving chemical problems.
Analysis of mathematical problem-solving ability based on metacognition on problem-based learning
Mulyono; Hadiyanti, R.
2018-03-01
Problem-solving is the primary purpose of the mathematics curriculum. Problem-solving abilities influenced beliefs and metacognition. Metacognition as superordinate capabilities can direct, regulate cognition and motivation and then problem-solving processes. This study aims to (1) test and analyzes the quality of problem-based learning and (2) investigate the problem-solving capabilities based on metacognition. This research uses mixed method study with The subject research are class XI students of Mathematics and Science at High School Kesatrian 2 Semarang which divided into tacit use, aware use, strategic use and reflective use level. The collecting data using scale, interviews, and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, and paired samples t-test. The result shows that the students with levels tacit use were able to complete the whole matter given, but do not understand what and why a strategy is used. Students with aware use level were able to solve the problem, be able to build new knowledge through problem-solving to the indicators, understand the problem, determine the strategies used, although not right. Students on the Strategic ladder Use can be applied and adopt a wide variety of appropriate strategies to solve the issues and achieved re-examine indicators of process and outcome. The student with reflective use level is not found in this study. Based on the results suggested that study about the identification of metacognition in problem-solving so that the characteristics of each level of metacognition more clearly in a more significant sampling. Teachers need to know in depth about the student metacognitive activity and its relationship with mathematical problem solving and another problem resolution.
Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth
2015-01-01
This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…
Analysis of problem solving skill in learning biology at senior high school of Surakarta
Rahmawati, D.; Sajidan; Ashadi
2018-04-01
Problem solving is a critical component of comprehensive learning in 21st century. Problem solving is defined as a process used to obtain the best answer from a problem. Someone who can solve the problem is called a problem solver. Problem solver obtains many benefits in the future and has a chance to be an innovator, such as be an innovative entrepreneur, modify behavior, improve creativity, and cognitive skills. The goal of this research is to analyze problem solving skills of students in Senior High School Surakarta in learning Biology. Participants of this research were students of grade 12 SMA (Senior High School) N Surakarta. Data is collected by using multiple choice questions base on analysis problem solving skills on Mourtus. The result of this research showed that the percentage of defining problem was 52.38%, exploring the problem was 53.28%, implementing the solution was 50.71% for 50.08% is moderate, while the percentage of designing the solution was 34.42%, and evaluating was low for 39.24%. Based on the result showed that the problem solving skills of students in SMAN Surakarta was Low.
Decision-making and problem-solving methods in automation technology
Hankins, W. W.; Pennington, J. E.; Barker, L. K.
1983-01-01
The state of the art in the automation of decision making and problem solving is reviewed. The information upon which the report is based was derived from literature searches, visits to university and government laboratories performing basic research in the area, and a 1980 Langley Research Center sponsored conferences on the subject. It is the contention of the authors that the technology in this area is being generated by research primarily in the three disciplines of Artificial Intelligence, Control Theory, and Operations Research. Under the assumption that the state of the art in decision making and problem solving is reflected in the problems being solved, specific problems and methods of their solution are often discussed to elucidate particular aspects of the subject. Synopses of the following major topic areas comprise most of the report: (1) detection and recognition; (2) planning; and scheduling; (3) learning; (4) theorem proving; (5) distributed systems; (6) knowledge bases; (7) search; (8) heuristics; and (9) evolutionary programming.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ikhsan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The aims of this study are to determine the improvement of critical thinking skills mathematical and metacognition of students who are taught with problem solving approach and the correlation between mathematical critical thinking and metacognition of students. This research is an experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The sample this research is the students of class VIII_2 and VIII_3 in SMP Negeri 1 Banda Aceh. Collecting data technique are test and nontest. Data were analyzed using t-test and correlation test. The result of the research shows 1 the critical thinking ability of the students who get the learning through problem solving approach is better than the students who get the conventional learning, 2 Metacognition of students who get the learning by using problem solving approach is better than the students who get the conventional learning, 3 a positive and significant relationship between students' metacognition and critical thinking skills.
A broad look at the literature on math word problem-solving interventions for third graders
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Sheri Kingsdorf
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Though research on effective instruction in math word problem solving is prominent at the middle and secondary levels, much less work has been done in elementary grades. In this article, we review the research on varied problem-solving instructional interventions at the third-grade level for students across ability levels. Third grade was chosen as the focus due to the fact that word problem-solving requirements are first introduced into the curriculum and standardized assessment at this point in time. Drawing on quantitative studies using single subject, quasi-experimental, and randomized controlled trial designs, we examine the instructional components and instructional content identified as effective across the 13 studies that met search criteria. Conclusions focus on current understanding of best practices, limitations of the existing research, and important considerations for future research.
Peningkatan Keterampilan Bertanya Dan Menjawab Pertanyaan Melalui Model Pembelajaran Problem Solving
Saputra, Rendi; Diawati, Chansyanah; Rudibyani, Ratu Betta
2013-01-01
The aim of this research is to describe the effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in reaction rate concept to improving asking and answering question skill which includes the answering question and cite the example skill.Â The effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in this research indicated the presence of n-Gain difference significant between the control and a experiment class.Â The population this research is all students of class XI Science SMAN 7 Bandar...
Penders, Bart; Vos, Rein; Horstman, Klasien
2009-11-01
Solving complex problems in large-scale research programmes requires cooperation and division of labour. Simultaneously, large-scale problem solving also gives rise to unintended side effects. Based upon 5 years of researching two large-scale nutrigenomic research programmes, we argue that problems are fragmented in order to be solved. These sub-problems are given priority for practical reasons and in the process of solving them, various changes are introduced in each sub-problem. Combined with additional diversity as a result of interdisciplinarity, this makes reassembling the original and overall goal of the research programme less likely. In the case of nutrigenomics and health, this produces a diversification of health. As a result, the public health goal of contemporary nutrition science is not reached in the large-scale research programmes we studied. Large-scale research programmes are very successful in producing scientific publications and new knowledge; however, in reaching their political goals they often are less successful.
Developing a Model for Solving the Flight Perturbation Problem
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Amirreza Nickkar
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: In the aviation and airline industry, crew costs are the second largest direct operating cost next to the fuel costs. But unlike the fuel costs, a considerable portion of the crew costs can be saved through optimized utilization of the internal resources of an airline company. Therefore, solving the flight perturbation scheduling problem, in order to provide an optimized schedule in a comprehensive manner that covered all problem dimensions simultaneously, is very important. In this paper, we defined an integrated recovery model as that which is able to recover aircraft and crew dimensions simultaneously in order to produce more economical solutions and create fewer incompatibilities between the decisions. Design/methodology/approach: Current research is performed based on the development of one of the flight rescheduling models with disruption management approach wherein two solution strategies for flight perturbation problem are presented: Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and Lagrangian heuristic. Findings: According to the results of this research, Lagrangian heuristic approach for the DW-MP solved the problem optimally in all known cases. Also, this strategy based on the Dantig-Wolfe decomposition manage to produce a solution within an acceptable time (Under 1 Sec. Originality/value: This model will support the decisions of the flight controllers in the operation centers for the airlines. When the flight network faces a problem the flight controllers achieve a set of ranked answers using this model thus, applying crew’s conditions in the proposed model caused this model to be closer to actual conditions.
Solving Inventory Routing Problems Using Location Based Heuristics
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Paweł Hanczar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Inventory routing problems (IRPs occur where vendor managed inventory replenishment strategies are implemented in supply chains. These problems are characterized by the presence of both transportation and inventory considerations, either as parameters or constraints. The research presented in this paper aims at extending IRP formulation developed on the basis of location based heuristics proposed by Bramel and Simchi-Levi and continued by Hanczar. In the first phase of proposed algorithms, mixed integer programming is used to determine the partitioning of customers as well as dates and quantities of deliveries. Then, using 2-opt algorithm for solving the traveling sales-person problem the optimal routes for each partition are determined. In the main part of research the classical formulation is extended by additional constraints (visit spacing, vehicle filling rate, driver (vehicle consistency, and heterogeneous fleet of vehicles as well as the additional criteria are discussed. Then the impact of using each of proposed extensions for solution possibilities is evaluated. The results of computational tests are presented and discussed. Obtained results allow to conclude that the location based heuristics should be considered when solving real life instances of IRP. (original abstract
Improving Students’ Scientific Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills by The 5E Learning Model
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Sri Mulyani Endang Susilowati
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Biology learning in MA (Madrasah Aliyah Khas Kempek was still dominated by teacher with low students’ involvement. This study would analyze the effectiveness of the 5E (Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration, Evaluation learning model in improving scientific knowledge and problems solving. It also explained the relationship between students’ scientific reasoning with their problem-solving abilities. This was a pre-experimental research with one group pre-test post-test. Sixty students of MA Khas Kempek from XI MIA 3 and XI MIA 4 involved in this study. The learning outcome of the students was collected by the test of reasoning and problem-solving. The results showed that the rises of students’ scientific reasoning ability were 69.77% for XI MIA 3 and 66.27% for XI MIA 4, in the medium category. The problem-solving skills were 63.40% for XI MIA 3, 61.67% for XI MIA 4, and classified in the moderate category. The simple regression test found a linear correlation between students’ scientific reasoning and problem-solving ability. This study affirms that reasoning ability is needed in problem-solving. It is found that application of 5E learning model was effective to improve scientific reasoning and problem-solving ability of students.
Kelly, Regina; McLoughlin, Eilish; Finlayson, Odilla E.
2016-07-01
An interdisciplinary science course has been implemented at a university with the intention of providing students the opportunity to develop a range of key skills in relation to: real-world connections of science, problem-solving, information and communications technology use and team while linking subject knowledge in each of the science disciplines. One of the problems used in this interdisciplinary course has been selected to evaluate if it affords students the opportunity to explicitly display problem-solving processes. While the benefits of implementing problem-based learning have been well reported, far less research has been devoted to methods of assessing student problem-solving solutions. A problem-solving theoretical framework was used as a tool to assess student written solutions to indicate if problem-solving processes were present. In two academic years, student problem-solving processes were satisfactory for exploring and understanding, representing and formulating, and planning and executing, indicating that student collaboration on problems is a good initiator of developing these processes. In both academic years, students displayed poor monitoring and reflecting (MR) processes at the intermediate level. A key impact of evaluating student work in this way is that it facilitated meaningful feedback about the students' problem-solving process rather than solely assessing the correctness of problem solutions.
The needs analysis of learning Inventive Problem Solving for technical and vocational students
Sai'en, Shanty; Tze Kiong, Tee; Yunos, Jailani Md; Foong, Lee Ming; Heong, Yee Mei; Mohaffyza Mohamad, Mimi
2017-08-01
Malaysian Ministry of Education highlighted in their National Higher Education Strategic plan that higher education’s need to focus adopting 21st century skills in order to increase a graduate’s employability. Current research indicates that most graduate lack of problem solving skills to help them securing the job. Realising the important of this skill hence an alternative way suggested as an option for high institution’s student to solve their problem. This study was undertaken to measure the level of problem solving skills, identify the needs of learning inventive problem solving skills and the needs of developing an Inventive problem solving module. Using a questionnaire, the study sampled 132 students from Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education. Findings indicated that majority of the students fail to define what is an inventive problem and the root cause of a problem. They also unable to state the objectives and goal thus fail to solve the problem. As a result, the students agreed on the developing Inventive Problem Solving Module to assist them.
Game theory at work: OR models and algorythms to solve multi-actor heterogeneous decision problems
Sáiz Pérez, M.E.
2007-01-01
Key words: Game theory, operations research, optimisation methods, algorithms. The objective of this thesis is to explore the potential of combining Game Theory (GT) models with Operations Research (OR) modelling. This includes development of algorithms to solve these complex OR models for
Gok, Tolga; Gok, Ozge
2016-01-01
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on learning strategies, problem solving performance, and conceptual understanding of college students in a general chemistry course. The research was performed students enrolled in experimental and control groups of a chemistry course were selected. Students in the…
Yates, Jennifer L.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…
Analysis of 4th Grade Students' Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Several Variables
Sungur, Gülcan; Bal, Pervin Nedim
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to examine if the level of primary school students in solving problems differs according to some demographic variables. The research is descriptive type in the general survey method, it was carried out with quantitative research techniques. The sample of the study consisted of 587 primary school students in Grade 4. The…
Evaluation of Students' Mathematical Problem Solving Skills in Relation to Their Reading Levels
Özsoy, Gökhan; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül; Çakiroglu, Ahmet
2015-01-01
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the correlation between students' reading levels and mathematical problem solving skills. The present study was conducted in line with a qualitative research method, i.e., the phenomenological method. The study group of the current research is composed of six third grade students with different…
Gül Ergün; Buket Şimşek Arslan
2017-01-01
This research aims at reviewing the relation between the problem solving skills of health high school students and their social skill levels. It was planned to be descriptive. The universe of the research was composed of nursing students in the health high school. The sample was determined to be the whole of the universe. A written permission was taken from the management of the health high school regarding the research. Problem Solving Inventory and Social Skill Inventory; the form towards ...
Abosede, Subuola Catherine; Adesanya, Adebimpe Olusola
2017-01-01
This study is aimed at determining the contributions of self-efficacy and problem solving skills to the job performance of secretaries. The study also ascertained the relationship among self-efficacy, problem solving skills and job performance of the secretaries. The study employed the descriptive research design. Ten (10) secretaries were…
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray
2015-01-01
Web-based problem-solving, a compound ability of critical thinking, creative thinking, reasoning thinking and information-searching abilities, has been recognised as an important competence for elementary school students. Some researchers have reported the possible correlations between problem-solving competence and information searching ability;…
Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Burton, Megan E.
2016-01-01
Mathematical word problems are the most common form of mathematics problem solving implemented in K-12 schools. Identifying key words is a frequent strategy taught in classrooms in which students struggle with problem solving and show low success rates in mathematics. Researchers show that using the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA)…
Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
Students must learn effective problem solving strategies in order to develop expertise in physics. Effective problem solving strategies include a conceptual analysis of the problem followed by planning of the solution, and then implementation, evaluation, and reflection upon the process. Research suggests that converting a problem from the initial…
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students' Problem-Solving Strategies with Signed Arithmetic Story Problems
Pagliaro, Claudia M.; Ansell, Ellen
2011-01-01
The use of problem-solving strategies by 59 deaf and hard of hearing children, grades K-3, was investigated. The children were asked to solve 9 arithmetic story problems presented to them in American Sign Language. The researchers found that while the children used the same general types of strategies that are used by hearing children (i.e.,…
Schonberger, Ann Koch
This three-volume report deals with the hypothesis that males are more successful at solving mathematical and spatial problems than females. The general relationship between visual spatial abilities and mathematical problem-solving ability is also investigated. The research sample consisted of seventh graders. Each pupil took five spatial tests…
Ozkan, Hurside Kubra; Aksoy, Ayse Belgin
2017-01-01
Purpose: The present study aims to investigate maternal emotion socialization, children's self-perception, and social problem-solving skills. In addition, this study describes the association between the levels of children's self-perception and social problem-solving skills. Research Methods: This is a quantitative study adopting a relational…
Chang, C.-J.; Chang, M.-H.; Liu, C.-C.; Chiu, B.-C.; Fan Chiang, S.-H.; Wen, C.-T.; Hwang, F.-K.; Chao, P.-Y.; Chen, Y.-L.; Chai, C.-S.
2017-01-01
Researchers have indicated that the collaborative problem-solving space afforded by the collaborative systems significantly impact the problem-solving process. However, recent investigations into collaborative simulations, which allow a group of students to jointly manipulate a problem in a shared problem space, have yielded divergent results…
Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop
2015-01-01
This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…
5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving
Deep, Kusum; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya; Das, Kedar
2016-01-01
This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2015) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.
Seyhan, Hatice Güngör
2015-01-01
This study was conducted with 98 prospective science teachers, who were composed of 50 prospective teachers that had participated in problem-solving applications and 48 prospective teachers who were taught within a more researcher-oriented teaching method in science laboratories. The first aim of this study was to determine the levels of…
Programming languages for business problem solving
Wang, Shouhong
2007-01-01
It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin
Solving hyperbolic heat conduction using electrical simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gheitaghy, A. M.; Talaee, M. R.
2013-01-01
In the present study, the electrical network simulation method is proposed to solve the hyperbolic and parabolic heat conduction problem considering Cattaneo-Vernoute (C.V) constitutive relation. Using this new proposed numerical model and the electrical circuit simulation program HSPICE, transient temperature and heat flux profiles at slab can be obtained easily and quickly. To verify the proposed method, the obtained numerical results for cases of one dimensional two-layer slab under periodic boundary temperature with perfect and imperfect thermal contact are compared with the published results. Comparisons show the proposed technique might be considered as a useful tool in the analysis of parabolic and hyperbolic thermal problems.
Solving crystal structures from neutron diffraction data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, C.C.
1987-07-01
In order to pursue crystal structure determination using neutron diffraction data, and given the wide experience available of solving structures using X-ray data, the codes used in X-ray structural analysis should be adapted to the different requirements of a neutron experiment. Modifications have been made to a direct methods program MITHRIL and to a Patterson methods program PATMET to incorporate into these the features of neutron rather than X-ray diffraction. While to date these modifications have been fairly straightforward and many sophistications remain to be exploited, results obtained from the neutron versions of both programs are promising. (author)
Developing a Model to Support Students in Solving Subtraction
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Nila Mareta Murdiyani
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Subtraction has two meanings and each meaning leads to the different strategies. The meaning of “taking away something” suggests a direct subtraction, while the meaning of “determining the difference between two numbers” is more likely to be modeled as indirect addition. Many prior researches found that the second meaning and second strategy rarely appeared in the mathematical textbooks and teacher explanations, including in Indonesia. Therefore, this study was conducted to contribute to the development of a local instruction theory for subtraction by designing instructional activities that can facilitate first grade of primary school students to develop a model in solving two digit numbers subtraction. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate approach for achieving the research aim and Realistic Mathematics Education (RME was used as a guide to design the lesson. This study involved 6 students in the pilot experiment, 31 students in the teaching experiment, and a first grade teacher of SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this study shows that the beads string could bridge students from the contextual problems (taking ginger candies and making grains bracelets to the use of the empty number line. It also shows that the empty number line could promote students to use different strategies (direct subtraction, indirect addition, and indirect subtraction in solving subtraction problems. Based on these findings, it is recommended to apply RME in the teaching learning process to make it more meaningful for students. Keywords: Subtraction, Design Research, Realistic Mathematics Education, The Beads String, The Empty Number Line DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.567.95-112
Beyond Psychometrics: The Difference between Difficult Problem Solving and Complex Problem Solving
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Jens F. Beckmann
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a synthesis of findings across the various sub-areas of research in complex problem solving and consequently progress in theory building is hampered by an insufficient differentiation of complexity and difficulty. In the proposed framework of person, task, and situation (PTS, complexity is conceptualized as a quality that is determined by the cognitive demands that the characteristics of the task and the situation impose. Difficulty represents the quantifiable level of a person’s success in dealing with such demands. We use the well-documented “semantic effect” as an exemplar for testing some of the conceptual assumptions derived from the PTS framework. We demonstrate how a differentiation between complexity and difficulty can help take beyond a potentially too narrowly defined psychometric perspective and subsequently gain a better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect. In an empirical study a total of 240 university students were randomly allocated to one of four conditions. The four conditions resulted from contrasting the semanticity level of the variable labels used in the CPS system (high vs. low and two instruction conditions for how to explore the CPS system’s causal structure (starting with the assumption that all relationships between variables existed vs. starting with the assumption that none of the relationships existed. The variation in the instruction aimed at inducing knowledge acquisition processes of either (1 systematic elimination of presumptions, or (2 systematic compilation of a mental representation of the causal structure underpinning the system. Results indicate that (a it is more complex to adopt a “blank slate” perspective under high semanticity as it requires processes of inhibiting prior assumptions, and (b it seems more difficult to employ a systematic heuristic when testing against presumptions. In combination, situational characteristics, such as the
Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Problem-solving Skills in Projectile Motion Concept
Sutarno, S.; Setiawan, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Suhandi, A.
2017-09-01
This study is a preliminary research aiming at exploring pre-service physics teachers’ skills in applying the stage of problem-solving strategies. A total of 76 students of physics education study program at a college in Bengkulu Indonesia participated in the study. The skills on solving physics problems are being explored through exercises that demand the use of problem-solving strategies with several stages such as useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, physics equation, mathematical procedures, and logical progression. Based on the results of data analysis, it is found that the pre-service physics teachers’ skills are in the moderate category for physics approach and mathematical procedural, and low category for the others. It was concluded that the pre-service physics teachers’ problem-solving skills are categorized low. It is caused by the learning of physics that has done less to practice problem-solving skills. The problems provided are only routine and poorly trained in the implementation of problem-solving strategies.The results of the research can be used as a reference for the importance of the development of physics learning based on higher order thinking skills.
DDeveloping and solving a bi-objective joint replenishment problem under storing space constraint
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ommolbanin yousefi
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this research, a bi-objective joint replenishment problem has been developed and solved with the assumption of one restricted resource. The proposed model has a storing space constraint and tries to optimize two objective functions simultaneously. They include minimizing annual holding and setup costs and minimizing annual inventory investment. Then, for solving this problem, a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA has been developed. In order to analyze the algorithm efficiency, its performance has been examined in solving 1600 randomly produced problems using parameters extracted from literature. The findings imply that the proposed algorithm is capable of producing a good set of Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, the application of the problem solving approach and the findings of the proposed algorithm have been illustrated for a special problem, which has been randomly produced.
Rasyid, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Lukito, A.
2018-01-01
This study aims to describe reflective thinking of junior high school students on solving the fractions problem in terms of gender differences. This research is a qualitative approach involving one male student and one female student in seventh grade. The data were collected through the assignment of fractional problem solving and interview, then the data were triangulated and analyzed by three stages, namely data condensation, data display and conclusion. The results showed that the subjects of male and female were reacting, elaborating and contemplating at each stage of solving the fractions problem. But at the stage of devising the plan, the female subject was contemplating, relying more on their beliefs, did not consider their experience, in addition, the female subject didn’t use experience of the steps she planned to solve the problem of fractions.
Hidayati, H.; Ramli, R.
2018-04-01
This paper aims to provide a description of the implementation of Physic Problem Solving strategy combined with concept maps in General Physics learning at Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Padang. Action research has been conducted in two cycles where each end of the cycle is reflected and improved for the next cycle. Implementation of Physics Problem Solving strategy combined with concept map can increase student activity in solving general physics problem with an average increase of 15% and can improve student learning outcomes from 42,7 in the cycle I become 62,7 in cycle II in general physics at the Universitas Negeri Padang. In the future, the implementation of Physic Problem Solving strategy combined with concept maps will need to be considered in Physics courses.
The profile of problem-solving ability of students of distance education in science learning
Widiasih; Permanasari, A.; Riandi; Damayanti, T.
2018-05-01
This study aims to analyze the students' problem-solving ability in science learning and lesson-planning ability. The method used is descriptive-quantitative. The subjects of the study were undergraduate students of Distance Higher Education located in Serang, majoring in Primary Teacher Education in-service training. Samples were taken thoroughly from 2 groups taking the course of Science Learning in Primary School in the first term of 2017, amounted to 39 students. The technique of data collection used is essay test of problem solving from case study done at the beginning of lecture in February 2017. The results of this research can be concluded that In-service Training of Primary School Teacher Education Program are categorized as quite capable (score 66) in solving science learning problem and planning science lesson. Therefore, efforts need to be done to improve the ability of students in problem solving, for instance through online tutorials with the basis of interactive discussions.
Derivative free Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) for solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations
Mamat, M.; Dauda, M. K.; Mohamed, M. A. bin; Waziri, M. Y.; Mohamad, F. S.; Abdullah, H.
2018-03-01
Research from the work of engineers, economist, modelling, industry, computing, and scientist are mostly nonlinear equations in nature. Numerical solution to such systems is widely applied in those areas of mathematics. Over the years, there has been significant theoretical study to develop methods for solving such systems, despite these efforts, unfortunately the methods developed do have deficiency. In a contribution to solve systems of the form F(x) = 0, x ∈ Rn , a derivative free method via the classical Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) update is presented. This is achieved by simply approximating the inverse Hessian matrix with {Q}k+1-1 to θkI. The modified method satisfied the descent condition and possess local superlinear convergence properties. Interestingly, without computing any derivative, the proposed method never fail to converge throughout the numerical experiments. The output is based on number of iterations and CPU time, different initial starting points were used on a solve 40 benchmark test problems. With the aid of the squared norm merit function and derivative-free line search technique, the approach yield a method of solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations that is capable of significantly reducing the CPU time and number of iteration, as compared to its counterparts. A comparison between the proposed method and classical DFP update were made and found that the proposed methodis the top performer and outperformed the existing method in almost all the cases. In terms of number of iterations, out of the 40 problems solved, the proposed method solved 38 successfully, (95%) while classical DFP solved 2 problems (i.e. 05%). In terms of CPU time, the proposed method solved 29 out of the 40 problems given, (i.e.72.5%) successfully whereas classical DFP solves 11 (27.5%). The method is valid in terms of derivation, reliable in terms of number of iterations and accurate in terms of CPU time. Thus, suitable and achived the objective.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola
2012-01-01
We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....
Agustan, S.; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko
2017-08-01
Reflective thinking is an important component in the world of education, especially in professional education of teachers. In learning mathematics, reflective thinking is one way to solve mathematical problem because it can improve student's curiosity when student faces a mathematical problem. Reflective thinking is also a future competence that should be taught to students to face the challenges and to respond of demands of the 21st century. There are many factors which give impact toward the student's reflective thinking when student solves mathematical problem. One of them is cognitive style. For this reason, reflective thinking and cognitive style are important things in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper describes aspect of reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem involved solution by using some mathematical concept, namely linear program, algebra arithmetic operation, and linear equations of two variables. The participant, in this research paper, is a male-prospective teacher who has Field Dependent. The purpose of this paper is to describe aspect of prospective teachers' reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper is a descriptive by using qualitative approach. To analyze the data, the researchers focus in four main categories which describe prospective teacher's activities using reflective thinking, namely; (a) formulation and synthesis of experience, (b) orderliness of experience, (c) evaluating the experience and (d) testing the selected solution based on the experience.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Akhlaghi Garmjani
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Teaching science and math has been underdeveloped in nurturing the talents and motivations of young people who are in search of professions in these fields. Identifying and strengthening the students' problem solving beliefs and behaviors, can be a great help to those involved in teaching mathematics. This study investigates on the university and high school students, teachers and professors' problem solving beliefs and behaviors. Considering the research method, this study is a field research in which questionnaire is used. Participants in this research were senior high school and university students, math teachers and math professors. Data collection method for beliefs and behavior variables was via the use of a questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney test results showed that problem solving in high school and university was different and the main difference was in mathematical professional beliefs and behaviors.
Cognitive Work Analysis: Preliminary Data for a Model of Problem Solving Strategies
Rothmayer, Mark; Blue, Jennifer
2007-10-01
Investigations into problem solving strategies are part of the field of physics education research where investigators seek to improve physics instruction by conducting basic research of problem solving abilities among students, differences in knowledge representations between experts and novices, and how to transfer knowledge structures more effectively onto novices. We developed a new conceptual research tool in our laboratory, where we could potentially map the step by step flow of problem solving strategies among experts and novices. This model is derived from the theory of Cognitive Work Analysis, which is grounded in ecological psychology, and as far as we know it has never been applied to a knowledge domain like physics. We collected survey data from 140 undergraduates enrolled in an algebra based introductory physics course at Miami University as part of a larger study aimed to test the validity of the model. Preliminary data will be presented and discussed.
A Flipped Pedagogy for Expert Problem Solving
Pritchard, David
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
Back to Basics: Solving Games with SAT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
QUER, S.
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Games became popular, within the formal verification community, after their application to automatic synthesis of circuits from specifications, and they have been receiving more and more attention since then. This paper focuses on coding the "Sokoban" puzzle, i.e., a very complex single-player strategy game. We show how its solution can be encoded and represented as a Bounded Model Checking problem, and then solved with a SAT solver. After that, to cope with very complex instances of the game, we propose two different ad-hoc divide-and-conquer strategies. Those strategies, somehow similar to state-of-the-art abstraction-and-refinement schemes, are able to decompose deep Bounded Model Checking instances into easier subtasks, trading-off between efficiency and completeness. We analyze a vast set of difficult hard-to-solve benchmark games, trying to push forward the applicability of state-of-the-art SAT solvers in the field. Those results show that games may provide one of the next frontier for the SAT community.