WorldWideScience

Sample records for researcher cell phones

  1. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Current Research Results Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... health problems and exposure to radiofrequency fields via cell phone use? The results of most studies conducted to ...

  2. Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Cell Phones Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... safety of radiation-emitting consumer products such as cell phones and similar wireless devices before they can be ...

  3. Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Following previous research, drivers reported using cell phones : for benefits such as getting work done. The hypocrisy of using : cell phones while advocating restrictions appears to stem from : differences in the perceived safety risks of self vs. ...

  4. Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user’s risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards. PMID:23439568

  5. Cell phone use among homeless youth: potential for new health interventions and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Lee, Alex; Taitt, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Cell phone use has become nearly ubiquitous among adolescents in the United States. Despite the potential for cell phones to facilitate intervention, research, and care for homeless youth, no data exists to date on cell phone use among this population. In 2009, a survey of cell phone use was conducted among a non-probability sample of 169 homeless youth in Los Angeles, CA. Levels of ownership and use, instrumental uses (connecting to case workers, employers) and patterns of connecting to various network types were assessed (family, home-based peers, street-based peers). Differences in socio-demographic characteristics and cell phone ownership were assessed via t test and chi-square statistics. Sixty-two percent of homeless youth own a cell phone; 40% have a working phone. Seventeen percent used their phone to call a case manager, 36% to call either a potential or current employer. Fifty-one percent of youth connected with home-based peers on the phone and 41% connected to parents. Cell phones present new opportunities for intervention research, connecting homeless youth to family and home-based peers who can be sources of social support in times of need. Moreover, cell phones provide researchers and providers with new avenues to maintain connections with these highly transient youth.

  6. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  7. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of exposure ...

  8. Biosensing with cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preechaburana, Pakorn; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Continued progress in cell-phone devices has made them powerful mobile computers, equipped with sophisticated, permanent physical sensors embedded as the default configuration. By contrast, the incorporation of permanent biosensors in cell-phone units has been prevented by the multivocal nature of the stimuli and the reactions involved in biosensing and chemical sensing. Biosensing with cell phones entails the complementation of biosensing devices with the physical sensors and communication and processing capabilities of modern cell phones. Biosensing, chemical-sensing, environmental-sensing, and diagnostic capabilities would thus be supported and run on the residual capacity of existing cell-phone infrastructure. The technologies necessary to materialize such a scenario have emerged in different fields and applications. This article addresses the progress on cell-phone biosensing, the specific compromises, and the blend of technologies required to craft biosensing on cell phones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CELL PHONE ADDICTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DE SOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyse the concept of cell phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  10. Cell Phones for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James H.; Hagevik, Rita A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are fast becoming an integral part of students' everyday lives. They are regarded as important companions and tools for personal expression. School-age children are integrating the cell phone as such, and thus placing a high value on them. Educators endeavor to instill in students a high value for education, but often meet with…

  11. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Cell Phones for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Although in some schools cell phones have to be turned off or perhaps kept in lockers to avoid misuse, the authors hope to demonstrate in this article how they can be used under supervision to assist learning. This ubiquitous device can be a powerful classroom tool. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Cell Phone RF Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in "Physics Today," Meredith and Redish emphasized the need to make introductory physics courses beneficial for life sciences majors. In this study, a lab activity is proposed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones and connect these measurements to various standards, biological…

  14. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    JOSE DE SOLA; FERNANDO RODRIGUEZ DE FONSECA; GABRIEL RUBIO

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain...

  15. Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…

  16. Cell phones: modern man's nemesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Varghese, Alex; Desai, Nisarg R; Mouradi, Rand; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, the use of mobile phones has increased significantly. However, with every technological development comes some element of health concern, and cell phones are no exception. Recently, various studies have highlighted the negative effects of cell phone exposure on human health, and concerns about possible hazards related to cell phone exposure have been growing. This is a comprehensive, up-to-the-minute overview of the effects of cell phone exposure on human health. The types of cell phones and cell phone technologies currently used in the world are discussed in an attempt to improve the understanding of the technical aspects, including the effect of cell phone exposure on the cardiovascular system, sleep and cognitive function, as well as localized and general adverse effects, genotoxicity potential, neurohormonal secretion and tumour induction. The proposed mechanisms by which cell phones adversely affect various aspects of human health, and male fertility in particular, are explained, and the emerging molecular techniques and approaches for elucidating the effects of mobile phone radiation on cellular physiology using high-throughput screening techniques, such as metabolomics and microarrays, are discussed. A novel study is described, which is looking at changes in semen parameters, oxidative stress markers and sperm DNA damage in semen samples exposed in vitro to cell phone radiation.

  17. The feasibility of cell phone based electronic diaries for STI/HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hensel Devon J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA, can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. Methods As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243 completed thrice–daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Results Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236 of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7% each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Conclusion Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an

  18. Cell Phone Methodology for Research and Service with High Risk Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Guest, Kristi Carter; Atwater, Jane; Hughes, Kere

    2007-01-01

    Cell phones afford a set of distinctive advantages for gathering information on daily patterns of behavior, establishing relationships, maintaining contact, and providing professional expertise to participants in a wide array of programs, including intervention, treatment, and service. This paper presents new findings about innovative applications…

  19. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  20. Biometric Security for Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What is protecting this confidential data stored on cell phones? Studies have shown that even though most of the cell phone users are aware of the PIN security feature more than 50% of them are not using it either because of the lack of confidence in it or because of the inconvenience. A large majority of those users believes that an alternative approach to security would be a good idea.

  1. Costly Cell Phones: The Impact of Cell Phone Rings on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    End, Christian M.; Worthman, Shaye; Mathews, Mary Bridget; Wetterau, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    College students participated in a study on the "psychology of note taking" during which they took notes on video content and later completed a multiple-choice test on the material. Researchers assigned 71 participants to either the ringing condition (the video was disrupted by a ringing cell phone) or the control condition (no cell phone rings…

  2. Cell phone based balance trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Kim, Jeonghee; Chen, Shu; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2012-01-01

    ..., weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments...

  3. Cell Phones: The Psychosocial Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user’s risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the u...

  4. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    road ahead and mirrors. In this group of drivers, dialing, reaching for, and answering the cell phone were associated with increased eyes off driving task, as opposed to the decrease in eyes off driving task associated with talking on the phone. Predictions about the effect of cell phone usage on driver distraction need to consider what other behavior is being displaced by the time spent on the phone. A focus by researchers, policy-makers, and the media on the distraction of using cell phones while driving may lead drivers to disregard the risk of other secondary behavior that is even more distracting.

  5. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  6. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  7. Cell Phones: Business Students in the Business Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Research on the topic of cell phones has proliferated over the past decade. Based on a review of the literature, it appears that the majority of the extant research on the topic resides in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. Recent reviews indicate that the scope of the research on cell/mobile phones is eclectic in nature…

  8. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    OpenAIRE

    Edell, Aim?e R; Jung, Jesse J; Solomon, Joel M; Palu, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cel...

  9. Cell Phones: A Bibliometric Analysis Related to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviews of the literature indicate that the scope of research on cell or mobile phones covers a vast typology (Piotrowski & Kass, 2013). The majority of this research is concentrated in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. However, there is a dearth of bibliometric studies on cell phones related to business. To that…

  10. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  11. The effect of cell phones on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Isbeih, Ibrahim N.; Saad, Dina

    2011-10-01

    The effect of cell phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in cell phone usage throughout the world. Cell phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. The objective of this survey is to review the effects of cell phones on human health: A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, in non-human animals and in humans, of which the majority shows no definite causative relationship between exposure to cell phones and harmful biological effects in humans. This is often paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from cell phones, although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are inconclusive.

  12. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    OpenAIRE

    James A Roberts; PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 an...

  13. [Cell phones: health risks and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamanca, I Figà; Giliberti, C; Salerno, S

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes first of all the electromagnetic radiation of cellular phones and presents the physical parameters used to measure and evaluate the absorption of emissions of radio stations and cellular phones. It then presents selected research results of the experimental studies in vivo and in vitro which examine the biological effects of the emissions of cellular phones. The review of the epidemiologic evidence focuses in particular the epidemiologic studies on the use of cell phones and brain tumours, identifying some of the reasons of the conflicting results obtained. Studies dealing with the health risks involved in the increasing use of cellular phones by adolescents and children, more sensitive to this exposure, are also presented showing the need for special caution. The problem of hypersensitivity observed in some individuals is also briefly discussed. Finally the paper presents a summary of the main prevention measures necessary in order to reduce the risks in the framework of the "precautionary principle" including prevention policies and exposure limits in various countries.

  14. Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Cell Phones in the Classroom? Yes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaer, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The author has been using mobile phones actively in her adult education classes for the last two years. She has found that, with a bit of cell phone etiquette, students are responsible and will use phones as learning tools instead of just as toys. In this article, the author describes how she uses them and suggests effective techniques for…

  16. Comparing handheld and hands-free cell phone usage behaviors while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Fitch, Gregory M; Perez, Miguel A; Hanowski, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare cell phone usage behaviors while driving across 3 types of cell phones: handheld (HH) cell phones, portable hands-free (PHF) cell phones, and integrated hands-free (IHF) cell phones. Naturalistic driving data were used to observe HH, PHF, and IHF usage behaviors in participants' own vehicles without any instructions or manipulations by researchers. In addition to naturalistic driving data, drivers provided their personal cell phone call records. Calls during driving were sampled and observed in naturalistically collected video. Calls were reviewed to identify cell phone type used for, and duration of, cell phone subtasks, non-cell phone secondary tasks, and other use behaviors. Drivers in the study self-identified as HH, PHF, or IHF users if they reported using that cell phone type at least 50% of the time. However, each sampled call was classified as HH, PHF, or IHF if the talking/listening subtask was conducted using that cell phone type, without considering the driver's self-reported group. Drivers with PHF or IHF systems also used HH cell phones (IHF group used HH cell phone in 53.2% of the interactions, PHF group used HH cell phone for 55.5% of interactions). Talking/listening on a PHF phone or an IHF phone was significantly longer than talking/listening on an HH phone (P phone call task for HH phones was significantly longer in duration than the end phone call task for PHF and IHF phones. Of all the non-cell phone-related secondary tasks, eating or drinking was found to occur significantly more often during IHF subtasks (0.58%) than in HH subtasks (0.15%). Drivers observed to reach for their cell phone mostly kept their cell phone in the cup holder (36.3%) or in their seat or lap (29.0% of interactions); however, some observed locations may have required drivers to move out of position. Hands-free cell phone technologies reduce the duration of cell phone visual-manual tasks compared to handheld cell phones. However

  17. Cell Phone Roulette and "Consumer Interactive" Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Under current policies, cell phone consumers face a lower probability of finding the best carrier for their usage patterns than winning at roulette. Corroborating survey data consistently show significant dissatisfaction among cell phone users, network performance is a major issue, and customer "churn" is high. This problem may be traced to a new…

  18. Cell Phones and PDA's Hit K-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Richard; Mason, Christine Y.

    2005-01-01

    Although cell phones keep kids in touch with families and personal digital assistants (PDA's) help organize assignments and give Internet access, when they are added to the school climate, educators must reassess policies so technology does not interfere with instruction time. This article discusses the several effects of cell phones to K-6…

  19. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  20. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Prieger; Robert W. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. We develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents, based on new survey data. We test for selection effects, such as whether drivers who use cell phones are inherently less safe drivers, even when not on the phone. The paper has two key findings. First, the impact of cell phone use on accidents varies across the populatio...

  1. Hemispheric dominance and cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Siegel, Bianca; Shah, Priyanka; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    A thorough understanding of why we hold a cell phone to a particular ear may be of importance when studying the impact of cell phone safety. To determine if there is an obvious association between sidedness of cell phone use and auditory hemispheric dominance (AHD) or language hemispheric dominance (LHD). It is known that 70% to 95% of the population are right-handed, and of these, 96% have left-brain LHD. We have observed that most people use their cell phones in their right ear. An Internet survey was e-mailed to individuals through surveymonkey.com. The survey used a modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory protocol. Sample questions surveyed which hand was used to write with, whether the right or left ear was used for phone conversations, as well as whether a brain tumor was present. General community. An Internet survey was randomly e-mailed to 5000 individuals selected from an otology online group, patients undergoing Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as persons on the university listserv, of which 717 surveys were completed. Determination of hemispheric dominance based on preferred ear for cell phone use. A total of 717 surveys were returned. Ninety percent of the respondents were right handed, and 9% were left handed. Sixty-eight percent of the right-handed people used the cell phone in their right ear, 25% in the left ear, and 7% had no preference. Seventy-two of the left-handed respondents used their left ear, 23% used their right ear, and 5% had no preference. Cell phone use averaged 540 minutes per month over the past 9 years. An association exists between hand dominance laterality of cell phone use (73%) and our ability to predict hemispheric dominance. Most right-handed people have left-brain LHD and use their cell phone in their right ear. Similarly, most left-handed people use their cell phone in their left ear. Our study suggests that AHD may differ from LHD owing to the difference in handedness and cell phone ear use

  2. Work productivity in rhinitis using cell phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J.; Bewick, Bridgette M; Arnavielhe, S

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis often impairs social life and performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use cell phone data to assess the impact on work productivity of uncontrolled rhinitis assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, Google Play Store and Apple.......83, PP

  3. Video Field Studies with your Cell Phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Fraser, Euan

    2010-01-01

    is monumental, that equipment is difficult to handle etc. This tutorial presents a lightweight entry into video field studies, using cheap devices like cell phones and portable webcams for informal shooting and simple computer handling for editing. E.g. how far can you get with an iPhone or a video capable i...

  4. Cell phone based balance trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Kim, Jeonghee; Chen, Shu; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2012-02-08

    In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males) and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males) participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P) or a medial-lateral (M/L) body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback), had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used to reduce body sway. Its advantages over more complex

  5. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  6. The myth of cell phone radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the purported link between cell-phone radiation and cancer. We show that it is inconsistent with the photoelectric effect, and that epidemiological studies of any link have no scientific basis.

  7. Distracted walking: cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2011-04-01

    Distraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on distraction of college student pedestrians. In the first, we examined whether pedestrians would display riskier behavior when distracted by a naturalistic cell phone conversation than when undistracted. We also considered whether individual difference factors would moderate the effect of the distraction. In a second experiment, we examined the impact of three forms of distraction on pedestrian safety: (a) engaging in a cell phone conversation, (b) engaging in a cognitively challenging spatial task by phone, and (c) engaging in a cognitively challenging mental arithmetic task by phone. Results revealed that cell phone conversations distracted college pedestrians considerably across all pedestrian safety variables measured, with just one exception. Attention to traffic was not affected by the naturalistic phone conversation in Experiment 1, but was altered by the cognitively-demanding content of some types of conversation in Experiment 2. The content of the conversation did not play a major role in distraction across other variables; both mundane and cognitively complex conversations distracted participants. Moreover, no significant associations between individual difference factors and susceptibility to distraction emerged. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians themselves. Educational campaigns might discourage telephone conversations in pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial ‘Cell’ Phones: Do cell phones carry potential pathogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chawla

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are important companions for professionals especially health care workers (HCWs for better communication in hospital. The present study compared the nature of the growth of potentially pathogenic bacterial flora on cell phones in hospital and community. 75% cell phones from both the categories grew at least one potentially pathogenic organism. Cell phones from HCWs grew significantly more potential pathogens like MRSA (20%, Acinetobacter species (5%, Pseudomonas species (2.5% as compared to the non HCWs. 97.5% HCWs use their cell phone in the hospital, 57.5% never cleaned their cell phone and 20% admitted that they did not wash their hands before or after attending patients, although majority (77.5% knows that cell phones can have harmful colonization and act as vector for nosocomial infections. It is recommended, therefore, that cell phones in the hospital should be regularly decontaminated. Moreover, utmost emphasis needs to be paid to hand washing practices among HCWs.

  9. Bacterial ‘Cell’ Phones: Do cell phones carry potential pathogens?

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Chawla; Chiranjay Mukhopadhayay; Bimala Gurung; Priya Bhate; Indira Bairy

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones are important companions for professionals especially health care workers (HCWs) for better communication in hospital. The present study compared the nature of the growth of potentially pathogenic bacterial flora on cell phones in hospital and community. 75% cell phones from both the categories grew at least one potentially pathogenic organism. Cell phones from HCWs grew significantly more potential pathogens like MRSA (20%), Acinetobacter species (5%), Pseudomonas species (2.5%) ...

  10. A Hidden Markov Model for Localization Using Low-End GSM Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    Research in location determination for GSM phones has gained interest recently as it enables a wide set of location based services. RSSI-based techniques have been the preferred method for GSM localization on the handset as RSSI information is available in all cell phones. Although the GSM standard allows for a cell phone to receive signal strength information from up to seven cell towers, many of today's cell phones are low-end phones, with limited API support, that gives only information ab...

  11. A Study of Cell-Phone Usage in University Classrooms : What Do Students Think?

    OpenAIRE

    影山, 陽子; 雨宮, 由紀枝

    2008-01-01

    This research report investigates and discusses student evaluations of cell phone usage in university classrooms. The research study on classroom cell-phone usage targeted eleven classes in four different subjects at the Japan Women's College of Physical Education from April to July 2007, reaching about 650 students total. In these classrooms, we developed a system to instantly display student opinions registered via their cell phones on classroom monitors. In this research study, we analyzed...

  12. Cell phone usage and erectile function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Badereddin Mohamad; Patzak, Johanna; Fischereder, Katja; Pummer, Karl; Shamloul, Rany

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on erectile function (EF) in men. We recruited 20 consecutive men complaining of erectile dysfunction (ED) for at least six months (Group A), and another group of 10 healthy men with no complaints of ED (Group B). Anamnesis, basic laboratory investigations, and clinical examinations were performed. All men completed the German version of the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) for evaluation of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), as well as another questionnaire designed by our clinicians that assessed cell phone usage habits. There was no significant difference between both groups regarding age, weight, height, and total testosterone (Table 1). The SHIM scores of Group A were significantly lower than that of Group B, 11.2 ±5 and 24.2 ±2.3, respectively. Total time spent talking on the cell phone per week was not significantly higher in Group A over B, 17.6 ±11.1 vs. 12.5 ±7 hours. Men with ED were found to carry their 'switched on' cell phones for a significantly longer time than those without ED, 4.4 ±3.6 vs. 1.8 ±1 hours per day. We found a potential correlation with cell phone usage and a negative impact on EF. Further large-scale studies confirming our initial data and exploring the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are recommended.

  13. Cell phones and tumor: still in no man's land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, D R; Sachdev, A; Vats, H S

    2009-01-01

    The use of cell phones is increasing worldwide at a phenomenal pace. While cellular communication has dramatically influenced our lifestyle, its impact on human health has not been completely assessed. Widespread concern continues in the community about the deleterious effects of radiofrequency radiations (with which cell phones operate) on human tissues and the subsequent potential for carcinogenesis. A detailed survey of published studies researching this question was done in preparation of this manuscript. Included in the survey were case reports, in vitro studies, population based retrospective studies and other investigations. The database of indexed journals was searched for key words like 'cell phone', 'radiation', 'cancer' and 'radio waves'. Guidelines issued by the World Health Organization, federal and technical authorities, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection were reviewed. The evaluation of current evidence provided by various studies to suggest the possible carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency radiation is inconclusive. This risk assumes significance in light of the burgeoning number of people who are continually exposed to the high frequency radiation from cell phones and towers that serve as receiving and transmitting stations. The aim of this review is to identify limitations in past studies, present available data for consideration, and identify gaps in the current knowledge base. This will provide impetus and direction for further research and allow informed decisions pertaining to cell phone use to be made.

  14. Use of Mobile Phones for Research Among Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is titled 'Use of Mobile Phones for Research among Undergraduates in two Polytechnic Libraries in Nigeria. The study seeks to establish if students who make use of the polytechnic libraries studied do use their mobile phones for research purposes, their reasons for preferring to use their mobile phones to ...

  15. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  16. The invisible addiction: cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Yaya, Luc Honore Petnji; Manolis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others.

  17. Cell Phoning and Texting While Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Honoria Rosaire Telemaque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on the consequences of cell phone use while operating a vehicle. We discussed why talking and texting on cell phones are so popular through the analysis of our interviews with police officers, driving instructors, and parents of teens and young adults. The participants came from central, northeastern, northwestern, and southeastern Connecticut. All had exposure with respect to the effects of cell phone usage problem. The study reached a point of theoretical saturation or redundancy by which the analysis no longer resulted in new themes. We concluded that the discoveries revealed the necessity for education, expansion of technology, and additional driver education preparation, which may provide a path for leadership to help solve the problem.

  18. Cell phones as imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Marguier, Joanna; Berclaz, Jérôme; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2010-04-01

    Camera phones are ubiquitous, and consumers have been adopting them faster than any other technology in modern history. When connected to a network, though, they are capable of more than just picture taking: Suddenly, they gain access to the power of the cloud. We exploit this capability by providing a series of image-based personal advisory services. These are designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) and Short Message Service (SMS) features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, these applications must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system (i.e., as a cloud service) and not on the handset itself. Presenting an image to an advisory service in the cloud, a user receives information that can be acted upon immediately. Two of our examples involve color assessment - selecting cosmetics and home décor paint palettes; the third provides the ability to extract text from a scene. In the case of the color imaging applications, we have shown that our service rivals the advice quality of experts. The result of this capability is a new paradigm for mobile interactions - image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones.

  19. Phantom phone signals: An investigation into the prevalence and predictors of imagined cell phone signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M.A.; Beukeboom, C.J.; Hartmann, T.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to elucidate the peculiar phenomenon of imagined cell phone signals, or Phantom Phone Signals (PPS), which is defined as an individual's perception of a phone signal, indicating an incoming call, message, or social media notification, when in fact no such signal was transmitted. A

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body Radiation Basics What is Radiation? The Electromagnetic Spectrum Ionizing Radiation Non-ionizing Radiation The Ionized ... people wonder if cell phones can cause health problems. Here’s what you should know about cell phones ...

  1. RILEY AND ABANDONMENT: EXPANDING FOURTH AMENDMENT PROTECTION OF CELL PHONES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abigail Hoverman

    2017-01-01

    ... of cell phones during searches incident to arrest in Riley v. California. This Note argues for expansion of heightened protections for cell phones in the context of abandoned evidence because the same privacy concerns apply...

  2. From Cell Phone Skeptic to Evangelist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Liz Kolb started her education career as a teacher of middle and high school social studies in Wyoming City Schools in Cincinnati. She was also a teacher and technology coordinator at Grandview Heights City Schools in Columbus, where she adamantly opposed cell phones in school until she had an "ah-ha" moment. She then founded the Web site Cell…

  3. The American College Student Cell Phone Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study of cell phone use among college students. This group is considered particularly important because college students tend to be among the first to try new technology, are the group most likely to innovate new ways of using existing technology, and are most vocal about what they need and/or want to see changed…

  4. Wi-Fi Versus Cell Phone Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of whether cell phones remain the dominant platform or Wi-Fi becomes the prevalent platform, there are some things that libraries can do to improve patron service in light of evolving expectations, behaviors, and tools. People today are more nomadic, which leads to the very real possibility of having to deliver content not just to the…

  5. The Myth of Cell Phone Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. The Myth of Cell Phone Radiation. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1048-1053. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/11/1048-1053 ...

  6. The Myth of Cell Phone Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    We discuss the purported link between cell phone radiation and cancer. We show that it is inconsis- tent with the photoelectric effect, and that epi- demiological studies of any link have no scientific basis. Albert Einstein, arguably the greatest scientist in the history of mankind, won the Nobel Prize not for his work on Relativity ...

  7. Design Principles for Cell Phone Learning in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong

    2010-01-01

    Cell phone learning (C-learning), as an instructional approach, has been gaining more and more attention in the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in the last 10 years. While studies have proved C-learning an effective instructional approach in research settings, a review of literature indicates the lack of design principles to…

  8. Drivers' visual behavior when using handheld and hands-free cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Gregory M; Bartholomew, Paul R; Hanowski, Richard J; Perez, Miguel A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated driver distraction and how the use of handheld (HH), portable hands-free (PHF), and integrated hands-free (IHF) cell phones affected the visual behavior of motor vehicle drivers. A naturalistic driving study recorded 204 participating drivers using video cameras and vehicle sensors for an average of 31 days. A total of 1564 cell phone calls made and 844 text messages sent while driving were sampled and underwent a video review. Baselines were established by recording epochs prior to the cell phone interactions. Total eyes-off-road time (TEORT) was examined to assess the visual demands of cell phone subtasks while driving. Percent TEORT was reported and compared against the baseline. Visual-manual subtasks performed on HH, PHF, and IHF cell phones were found to significantly increase drivers' mean percent TEORT. In contrast, conversing on an HH cell phone was found to significantly decrease drivers' mean percent TEORT, indicating that drivers looked at the forward roadway more often. No significant differences in percent TEORT were found for drivers conversing using PHF or IHF cell phones. The mean TEORT durations for visual-manual subtasks performed on an HH cell phone were significantly longer than the mean TEORT durations on either IHF or PHF cell phones. This research helps to further reinforce the distinction made between handheld and hands-free cell phone use in transportation distraction policy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; O'Bannon, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a survey to examine the perceptions of 92 preservice teachers enrolled at a small Midwestern liberal arts university regarding their support of the use of cell phones in the classroom, the benefits of specific cell phone features for school-related work, and the instructional benefits of and barriers to using cell phones in the…

  10. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Are We Dialing up Disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, George; Green, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a rapid diffusion of cellular technology. Though cell phone use began as a business tool, it has now become part of popular culture. Because of the near ubiquitous presence of cell phone technology among teens in the United States, schools are beginning to explore the use of cell phones as a learning tool. This…

  11. Commonalities in Pedagogy Situating Cell Phone Use in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Laurie Lafer

    2013-01-01

    Technology has become embedded in all aspects of students' lives as they increasingly rely on mobile technology devices such as cell phones to access and share information. Cell phones function as portable, affordable, and ubiquitous mini-computers, yet few teachers have leveraged the benefits of cell phone technology for teaching and learning…

  12. Student Impressions of Academic Cell Phone Use in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have become ubiquitous in society, but they are typically seen as a problem in the classroom. This study was designed to assess the perspective of students regarding the use of cell phones as academic tools in the classroom. The author encouraged students to use their cell phones in an environmental issues course to find data and other…

  13. A study on some psychological health effects of cell-phone usage amongst college going students

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti P Acharya, Indranil Acharya, Divya Waghrey

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have come to stay. Their use without any knowledge of their harmful effects like cancers and other health effects is not ‘quite’ safe. Studies on cancers due to electromagnetic radiations from cell phones are available but there is a need to research on the detrimental physical and psychological effects esp. on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in...

  14. Cell phones and children: follow the precautionary road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Children are increasingly using cell phones. "Family package" deals make it easy for parents to obtain phones for their children, and the phones provide parents with the comfort of easy access to their children. However, cell phones emit radio frequency (RF) radiation (Bucher & the Committee on Appropriations, 2010). While the government has deemed RF radiation to be safe, there is no current significant research to make this claim. To determine the relationship between cell phone radiation and brain cancer requires long-term studies lasting decades and with inclusion of frequent users in the subject pool. Further, to extend the results of any study to children requires controlling for the differences between juveniles and adults regarding the composition of the head, and bone density and neural tissue. Dr. L. Hardell of the University Hospital of Sweden noted that "it is necessary to apply the precautionary principle in this situation," especially for long-term exposure that is likely to affect children (Hardell as cited in Mead, 2008, p. 1). There is cause for concern.

  15. Route Choice Estimation Using Cell Phone Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Homa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays development of cell phone network provides huge and ubiquitous data, with wide application in transportation science. One of the most important advantages of these kinds of data is enabling the process of collecting information without any active users’ interference. A big data set consisting of 300,000 cell phone users’ information in Shiraz are studied. This data set includes spatiotemporal information of travelers for every 5 minutes in a time span of 40 hours in two consecutive days. The spatial part of each user’s information contains the position of the BTS (Base Transceiver Station to which his cell phone is currently connected. Due to the existence of outliers, it is necessary to smooth the data initially. One of the main reasons of errors in the data set is ping pong handover, which leads to false transitions and must be eliminated. After the data preparation, stay locations are determined for each user and a trajectory for each pair of origin and destination is estimated. At this step based on network information of the city, a method to match trajectories with the network map is applied. Finally the obtained results indicate whether travelers choose the shortest path or other possible alternatives.

  16. Modern Educational Technology: Educational Usages of Cell Phone as Perceived by Students of Education Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harba, Ali Moneer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the educational use of cell phones at two Syrian education establishments. The research sample consisted of (n = 184) students from the Department of Teacher Education at Tishreen and Damascus Universities. During the study, students filled in a self-report 17-item questionnaire. Survey results imply that cell phone use…

  17. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-01-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones[R], BlackBerrys[R], and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year. Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they…

  18. Psychological predictors of college students' cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehofer, Michèle M; Thompson, Suzanne C; Ting, Sarah; Ostermann, Sharon; Nierman, Angela; Skenderian, Jessica

    2010-07-01

    Despite the known risk, many people talk on a phone while driving. This study explored psychological predictors of cell phone use while driving. College students (final N=69) completed a survey and predicted their driving performance both with and without a simultaneous phone conversation. Their actual performance on a driving simulator was then assessed. Cell phone use reduced performance on the simulation task. Further, perceiving oneself as good at compensating for driving distractions, overestimating one's performance on the driving simulator, and high illusory control predicted more frequent cell phone use while driving in everyday life. Finally, those who talked more frequently on a phone while driving had poorer real-world driving records. These findings suggest illusory control and positive illusions partly explain driver's decisions of whether to use cell phones while driving. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Profiles in driver distraction: effects of cell phone conversations on younger and older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Drews, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that driving performance of both younger and older adults was influenced by cell phone conversations. Compared with single-task (i.e., driving-only) conditions, when drivers used cell phones their reactions were 18% slower, their following distance was 12% greater, and they took 17% longer to recover the speed that was lost following braking. There was also a twofold increase in the number of rear-end collisions when drivers were conversing on a cell phone. These cell-phone-induced effects were equivalent for younger and older adults, suggesting that older adults do not suffer a significantly greater penalty for talking on a cell phone while driving than compared with their younger counterparts. Interestingly, the net effect of having younger drivers converse on a cell phone was to make their average reactions equivalent to those of older drivers who were not using a cell phone. Actual or potential applications of this research include providing guidance for recommendations and regulations concerning the use of mobile technology while driving.

  20. Pre-teen cell phone adoption: consequences for later patterns of phone usage and involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Geser, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The particular proneness of adolescents to use mobile phones; 3. The consequences of earlier adoption as a focus of research; 4. Data and Methodology; 5. Empirical results; 5. 1.The rapid trend toward ever earlier initial adoption; 5.2 Intensity of phone usage; 5.3 Extensity and intensity of phone partner networks; 5.4 Temporal accessibility; 5.5 Affective mobile phone involvement; 5.6 The changes of early adoption effects with increasing age; 5.7 Early adoption ...

  1. Measuring a conceptual model of the relationship between compulsive cell phone use, in-vehicle cell phone use, and motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Shain, Lindsey M; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Ebel, Beth E

    2017-02-01

    Previous research suggests that anticipation of incoming phone calls or messages and impulsivity are significantly associated with motor vehicle crash. We took a more explanative approach to investigate a conceptual model regarding the direct and indirect effect of compulsive cell phone use and impulsive personality traits on crash risk. We recruited a sample of 307 undergraduate college students to complete an online survey that included measures of cell phone use, impulsivity, and history of motor vehicle crash. Using a structural equation model, we examined the direct and indirect relationships between factors of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale-II (CPOS-II), impulsivity, in-vehicle phone use, and severity and frequency of previous motor vehicle crash. Self-reported miles driven per week and year in college were included as covariates in the model. Our findings suggest that anticipation of incoming communication has a direct association with greater in-vehicle phone use, but was not directly or indirectly associated with increasing risk of previous motor vehicle crash. Of the three latent factors comprising the CPOS-II, only anticipation was significantly associated with elevated cell phone use while driving. Greater impulsivity and use of in-vehicle cell phone use while driving were directly and significantly associated with greater risk of motor vehicle crash. Anticipation of incoming cellular contacts (calls or texts) is associated with greater in-vehicle phone use, while greater in-vehicle cell phone use and impulsive traits are associated with elevated risk of motor vehicle crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell Phones in Task Based Learning--Are Cell Phones Useful Language Learning Tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Patrick J.; Aizawa, Kazumi

    2004-01-01

    Cell phones are now widespread in many countries including Japan where we teach, and are particularly popular among university students. Although they can be a distraction in the classroom, functions such as Internet access and e-mail capability have transformed them into sophisticated communication tools. But are they also potentially useful in…

  3. Cell-phone use diminishes self-awareness of impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Biondi, Francesco; Behrends, Arwen A; Moore, Shannon M

    2016-04-01

    Multitasking diminishes the self-awareness of performance that is often essential for self-regulation and self-knowledge. Participants drove in a simulator while either talking or not talking on a hands-free cell phone. Following previous research, participants who talked on a cell phone made more serious driving errors than control participants who did not use a phone while driving. Control participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and general ability to drive safely while distracted were negatively correlated with the actual number of errors made when they were driving. By contrast, cell-phone participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and confidence in their driving abilities were uncorrelated with their actual errors. Thus, talking on a cell phone not only diminished the safeness of participants' driving, it diminished their awareness of the safeness of their driving.

  4. A comparison of the cell phone driver and the drunk driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Drews, Frank A; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the relative impairment associated with conversing on a cellular telephone while driving. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the relative risk of being in a traffic accident while using a cell phone is similar to the hazard associated with driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit. The purpose of this research was to provide a direct comparison of the driving performance of a cell phone driver and a drunk driver in a controlled laboratory setting. We used a high-fidelity driving simulator to compare the performance of cell phone drivers with drivers who were intoxicated from ethanol (i.e., blood alcohol concentration at 0.08% weight/volume). When drivers were conversing on either a handheld or hands-free cell phone, their braking reactions were delayed and they were involved in more traffic accidents than when they were not conversing on a cell phone. By contrast, when drivers were intoxicated from ethanol they exhibited a more aggressive driving style, following closer to the vehicle immediately in front of them and applying more force while braking. When driving conditions and time on task were controlled for, the impairments associated with using a cell phone while driving can be as profound as those associated with driving while drunk. This research may help to provide guidance for regulation addressing driver distraction caused by cell phone conversations.

  5. Cell Phones in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: How to Eliminate Unwanted Germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Sharon; Biggs, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are more susceptible to infections due to immature immune systems or invasive procedures that compromise protection from bacteria. These infants may stay in the NICU for extended periods of time, are exposed to many caregivers, and may be exposed to other infections. Cell phone use by both family and staff introduce unwanted bacteria into the NICU environment, thereby becoming a threat to this high-risk population. A quality improvement initiative to evaluate and improve the cleanliness of cell phones used in the NICU. A convenience sample of 18 NICU parents and staff. The participants' cell phones were sampled for bacteria pre- and postcleaning with disinfectant wipes and sent to the microbiology laboratory for a 2-day incubation period. In addition, each participant completed a survey on cell phone cleaning habits. Microbial surface contamination was evident on every phone tested before disinfecting. All phones were substantially less contaminated after disinfection. A standardized cleaning process with a surface disinfectant reduced the amount of germs and potential transmission of nosocomial pathogens within the NICU. The simple exercise illustrated the importance of cell phone hygiene in a high-risk population. The implementation of a simple cleaning process has been an easy and effective way to rid unwanted organisms from this high-risk population. Further research evaluating transmission of nosocomial infections from cell phones would enhance the evidence to establish hospital policies on cleaning devices.

  6. Eliminating the Textbook: Learning Science with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    College faculty have myriad choices of resources for their students when designing courses. The rising prices of textbooks and the availability of cell phones with internet access open the question of using cell phones in the classroom. In this study, I compared student learning in an ecology course between a semester in which a textbook was used…

  7. Impact of cell phone use on men's semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschi, T; Mohamad Al-Ali, B; Shamloul, R; Pummer, K; Trummer, H

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present retrospective study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on semen parameters. We examined 2110 men attending our infertility clinic from 1993 to October 2007. Semen analysis was performed in all patients. Serum free testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) were collected from all patients. The information on cell phone use of the patients was recorded and the subjects were divided into two groups according to their cell phone use: group A: cell phone use (n = 991); group B: no use (n = 1119). Significant difference was observed in sperm morphology between the two groups. In the patients of group A, 68.0% of the spermatozoa featured a pathological morphology compared to only 58.1% in the subjects of group B. Patients with cell phone usage showed significantly higher T and lower LH levels than those who did not use cell phone. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding FSH and PRL values. Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men. Further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male fertility. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Is It Safe to Allow Cell Phones in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones were banned from most schools years ago, but after the Columbine High School and 9/11 tragedies, parents started pressuring some school boards and administrators to reverse the bans. On its surface, allowing students to have cell phones under the guise of improved school safety may seem like a "no-brainer" to many board members and…

  9. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in. October ... lance cell phone alerts that were followed-up within 24 hours reported Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect cases while 65.92%. (n=147) ..... as early warning system for health issues such as the.

  10. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  11. Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jorn; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-01-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be at the greatest risk if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated associations between cell phone exposures and headaches in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. When their

  12. The influence of relationship intention on cell phone users' attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... customer retention results in increased profitability (Jena, Guin & Dash 2011: 23). Enduring relationships between cell phone network providers and customers prevent customers from switching to competitors and, for this reason, cell phone network providers employ relationship marketing strategies to ...

  13. Teaching Generation Text: Using Cell Phones to Enhance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisa; Webb, Willyn

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching Generation Text" shows how teachers can turn cell phones into an educational opportunity instead of an annoying distraction. With a host of innovative ideas, activities, lessons, and strategies, Nielsen and Webb offer a unique way to use students' preferred method of communication in the classroom. Cell phones can remind students to…

  14. Review of Estimation Methods for Landline and Cell Phone Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, Antonio; del Mar Rueda, María; Trujillo, Manuel; Molina, David

    2015-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of cell phone use and the accompanying decline in landline service in recent years have resulted in substantial potential for coverage bias in landline random-digit-dial telephone surveys, which has led to the implementation of dual-frame designs that incorporate both landline and cell phone samples. Consequently,…

  15. Cell phone-induced ostracism threatens fundamental needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Andrew; Dvir, Maayan; Wesselmann, Eric; Kruger, Daniel J; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2018-02-13

    Cell phones are useful tools with both practical and social benefits. However, using them in the context of face-to-face conversations may be problematic. We consider this behavior a form of ostracism and test its effects on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence. In Study 1 participants who recalled a time in which a friend was checking a cell phone during a serious conversation reported feeling more ostracized (ignored and excluded), greater pain and threat to basic needs than participants recalling a conversation without a cell phone interruption or a control event. Study 2 replicated and extended this effect: cell phone-induced ostracism's effects were partially mediated by decreased feelings of relational evaluation, and threatened basic needs both in serious and casual conversation contexts. Findings from both studies also indicated that cell phone-induced ostracism hurts women more so than men.

  16. Using Cell Phones to Improve Language Skills: The Hadeda Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butgereit, Laurie; Botha, Adele; van Niekerk, Daniel

    Language skills are essential for education and economic development. Many countries (especially in Africa) have more than one official language and even more unofficial languages. Being able to express oneself effectively in the written word is required for tertiary education. Unfortunately, cell phones are often blamed for the degradation of language skills. There have been many studies blaming cell phone usage and instant messaging as being responsible for the the lack of language skills of children, teenagers, and young adults. Hadeda is a facility where teachers and parents can create spelling lists for pupils and children using either a cell phone or an internet based workstation. Hadeda then generates a fun and enjoyable cell phone midlet (computer program) which pupils and children can download onto their personal cell phone. Hadeda pronounces the words with electronic voices and the pupils and children can then practice their spelling on a medium they enjoy.

  17. Using Cell Phone Keyboards Is (NP) Hard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Peter

    Sending text messages on cell phones which only contain the keys 0 through 9 and # and * can be a painful experience. We consider the problem of designing an optimal mapping of numbers to sets of letters to act as an alternative to the standard {2→{abc}, 3→{def}...}. Our overall goal is to minimize the expected number of buttons that must be pressed to enter a message in English. Some variations of the problem are efficiently solvable, either by being small instances or by being in P, but the most realistic version of the problem is NP hard. To prove NP-completeness, we describe a new graph coloring problem UniquePathColoring. We also provide numerical results for the English language on a standard corpus which describe several mappings that improve upon the standard one. With luck, one of these new mappings will achieve success similar to that of the Dvorak layout for computer keyboards.

  18. Evaluation of a cell phone-based physical activity diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Picchi, Teresa; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ainsworth, Barbara; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2012-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) diaries reduce the recall error inherent in self-reported PA but are burdensome. The purpose of this study was to compare a cell phone-based diary with a paper diary and examine the reliability and validity of the cell phone diary. In a pilot study, 25 women and 23 men, age 45-65 yr, completed cell phone and paper PA diaries 4 d·wk(-1) for three consecutive weeks and a user satisfaction survey. In the subsequent validation study, 623 middle-age participants (52.5% women) were asked to complete the cell phone diary and wear an accelerometer for two 7-d periods, approximately 6 months apart. They also completed two PA questionnaires. Fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat were obtained as indirect validation criteria. Estimates of PA from the cell phone and paper diaries were similar (mean within person difference = -43.8 MET·min·d(-1) of total PA, SD = 360, P = 0.49, 7.4 min·d(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA, SD = 66, P = 0.53). Users preferred the cell phone diary over the paper diary (59.6% vs 35.4%). In the subsequent study, intraclass correlations for the cell phone diary ranged from 0.55 for light PA to 0.63 for vigorous PA. Although PA estimates from the cell phone diary were generally significantly higher than those from the accelerometer and the questionnaires, correlations for moderate and vigorous PA were moderate (ρ = 0.25-0.59 with the questionnaires and 0.27-0.35 with the accelerometer). The correlations between the cell phone diary and the indirect validation criteria were generally in the expected direction and of moderate magnitude. A cell phone-based PA diary is equivalent to a paper diary, acceptable to users, and a relatively reliable and valid approach to self-reported PA.

  19. Cell phones, clothing, and sex: first impressions of power using older African Americans as stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Allison; Barker, Kathleen

    2003-12-01

    Sex, material possessions, and race have long been associated with prestige or status in American society, yet little research has examined this idea. Little is known about the effect of cell phones on first impressions. In a 2 (cell phone: present, absent) x 2 (clothing: jacket, no jacket) x 2 (sex) between-subjects design, 160 women from a predominantly Black college rated stimuli of older, African Americans on 15 items measuring perceived power on three power subscales: expert, legitimate, and coercive. Multivariate analysis of variance showed a 3-way interaction for clothing, cell phone, and sex of stimulus person.

  20. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, M.; van Eijsden, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Loomans, E.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Komhout, H.; van Strien, R.T.; Huss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore,

  1. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed

  2. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, M.; van Eijsden, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Loomans, E.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Komhout, H.; van Strien, H.; Huss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  3. The Relationship between Cell Phone Use and Identity Theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Lewis O.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of mobile phone use has paralleled increased reports of identity theft. Identity theft can result in financial loss and threats to a victim's personal safety. Although trends in identity theft are well-known, less is known about individual cell phone users' attitudes toward identity theft and the extent to which they connect it to cell…

  4. 2010 Survey on cell phone use while performing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Darling, E; Searles, B

    2011-09-01

    Cell phone use in the U.S. has increased dramatically over the past decade and text messaging among adults is now mainstream. In professions such as perfusion, where clinical vigilance is essential to patient care, the potential distraction of cell phones may be especially problematic. However, the extent of this as an issue is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) determine the frequency of cell phone use in the perfusion community, and (2) to identify concerns and opinions among perfusionists regarding cell phone use. In October 2010, a link to a 19-question survey (surveymonkey.com) was posted on the AmSECT (PerfList) and Perfusion.com (PerfMail) forums. There were 439 respondents. Demographic distribution is as follows; Chief Perfusionist (30.5%), Staff Perfusionist (62.0%), and Other (7.5%), with age ranges of 20-30 years (14.2%), 30-40 years (26.5%), 40-50 years (26.7%), 50-60 years (26.7%), >60 years (5.9%). The use of a cell phone during the performance of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was reported by 55.6% of perfusionists. Sending text messages while performing CPB was acknowledged by 49.2%, with clear generational differences detected when cross-referenced with age groups. For smart phone features, perfusionists report having accessed e-mail (21%), used the internet (15.1%), or have checked/posted on social networking sites (3.1%) while performing CPB. Safety concerns were expressed by 78.3% who believe that cell phones can introduce a potentially significant safety risk to patients. Speaking on a cell phone and text messaging during CPB are regarded as "always an unsafe practice" by 42.3% and 51.7% of respondents, respectively. Personal distraction by cell phone use that negatively affected performance was admitted by 7.3%, whereas witnessing another perfusionist distracted with phone/text while on CPB was acknowledged by 33.7% of respondents. This survey suggests that the majority of perfusionists believe cell phones raise

  5. A machine learning approach for detecting cell phone usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Beilei; Loce, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    Cell phone usage while driving is common, but widely considered dangerous due to distraction to the driver. Because of the high number of accidents related to cell phone usage while driving, several states have enacted regulations that prohibit driver cell phone usage while driving. However, to enforce the regulation, current practice requires dispatching law enforcement officers at road side to visually examine incoming cars or having human operators manually examine image/video records to identify violators. Both of these practices are expensive, difficult, and ultimately ineffective. Therefore, there is a need for a semi-automatic or automatic solution to detect driver cell phone usage. In this paper, we propose a machine-learning-based method for detecting driver cell phone usage using a camera system directed at the vehicle's front windshield. The developed method consists of two stages: first, the frontal windshield region localization using the deformable part model (DPM), next, we utilize Fisher vectors (FV) representation to classify the driver's side of the windshield into cell phone usage violation and non-violation classes. The proposed method achieved about 95% accuracy with a data set of more than 100 images with drivers in a variety of challenging poses with or without cell phones.

  6. Cell phone use and traffic crash risk: a culpability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Brubacher, Jeff R; Chan, Herbert

    2013-02-01

    The use of a cell phone or communication device while driving is illegal in many jurisdictions, yet evidence evaluating the crash risk associated with cell phone use in naturalistic settings is limited. This article aims to determine whether cell phone use while driving increases motor vehicle crash culpability. Method Drivers involved in crashes where police reported cell phone use (n = 312) and propensity matched drivers (age, sex, suspect alcohol/drug impairment, crash type, date, time of day, geographical location) without cell phone use (n = 936) were drawn from Insurance Corporation of British Columbia Traffic Accident System data. A standardized scoring tool, modified to account for Canadian driving conditions, was used to determine crash culpability from police reports on all drivers from the crashes. The association between crash culpability and cell phone use was determined, with additional subgroup analyses based on crash severity, driver characteristics and type of licence. A comparison of crashes with vs without cell phones revealed an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.36; P = 0.002). This association was consistent after adjustment for matching variables and other covariates. Subgroup analyses demonstrated an association for male drivers, unimpaired drivers, injured and non-injured drivers, and for drivers aged between 26 and 65 years. Crash culpability was found to be significantly associated with cell phone use by drivers, increasing the odds of a culpable crash by 70% compared with drivers who did not use a cell phone. This increased risk was particularly high for middle-aged drivers.

  7. Cell phones and tumor: Still in no man′s land

    OpenAIRE

    D R Kohli; A Sachdev; H S Vats

    2009-01-01

    The use of cell phones is increasing worldwide at a phenomenal pace. While cellular communication has dramatically influenced our lifestyle, its impact on human health has not been completely assessed. Widespread concern continues in the community about the deleterious effects of radiofrequency radiations (with which cell phones operate) on human tissues and the subsequent potential for carcinogenesis. A detailed survey of published studies researching this question was done in preparation of...

  8. Contamination rates between smart cell phones and non-smart cell phones of healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Lee, Choon-Taek; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare workers' mobile phones are easily contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and could be vehicles of transmission. Smart phones are increasingly used in the hospital. The objective of this study was to compare the contamination rate of bacteria with pathogenic potential between smart phones and non-smart phones. We screened mobile phones of healthcare workers in three teaching hospitals in South Korea. The identification of cultivated micro-organisms and assessment of antibiotic susceptibility were performed. One hundred fifteen (56.7%) participants used smart phones, and 88 (43.3%) used non-smart phones. Bacteria with pathogenic potential were isolated from 58 (28.6%) mobile phones, more often from smart phones than from non-smart phones (34.8% vs 20.5%, P=0.03). Multivariate analysis including various characteristics to determine risk factors revealed that only smart phones (vs non-smart phones) were a significant risk factor for contamination by bacteria with pathogenic potential (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-11.31). Also, in a multivariate model including phone size, the smart phone was still a significant risk factor for the pathogen contamination (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.07-16.33; P=0.04). The smart phones of healthcare workers were contaminated with bacteria with pathogenic potential to a greater extent than were non-smart phones. Copyright © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  9. Is mobile phone radiation genotoxic? An analysis of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, F M; Carmona, A M; Ladeira, C

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey. MN frequencies were tested for potential confounding factors and for duration of phone use and preferential side of mobile phone use. No relationship was observed between MN frequency and duration of mobile phone use in daily calls. Cells ipsilateral to mobile phone use did not present a statistically significantly higher MN frequency, compared to cells contralateral to exposure. A highly statistically significant (pmobile phone-associated EMF do not to induce MN formation in buccal cells at the observed exposure levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of a cell phone conversation on cognitive processing performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemker, Brett E; Stierwalt, Julie A G; LaPointe, Leonard L; Heald, Gary R

    2009-10-01

    The ability to apportion cognitive resources to process multiple visual and auditory stimuli is essential for human communication in competing conditions. The purpose of the current research was to examine the effects of a cell phone conversation on a battery of cognitive tests, using both timing (RT) and accuracy (A') as dependent measures. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted. Forty-two college-age (mean 22 yr) adult females with normal hearing and cognitive function participated in the study. In one condition (quiet), a standardized cognitive assessment battery was administered to participants in a quiet room. In the (cell phone) condition, subjects were formulating and responding to specific questions about their travel experiences during administration of the same cognitive assessment battery. The computer automatically records subject performance. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted using the Bonferroni approach. The alpha level was set at .05 for all data analysis. This method of analysis was repeated for each of the dependent measures, RT, and A'. The results revealed a consistent, significant effect on reaction time between the two conditions. The same analysis was also conducted to examine the effect of participation in a cell phone discussion on accuracy. As with RT, results revealed a consistent, significant affect on A' between the two conditions. Our study supports the notion that there are differential effects of auditory distracters across cognitive spheres. For simple automatic type visual cognitive tasks, the effect is minimal. However, as visual tasks increase in difficulty, the effect of the auditory distraction is magnified, particularly when the task requires extensive division of language resources.

  11. Recent Court Rulings regarding Student Use of Cell Phones in Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Student use of cell phone is a new area of concern in today's schools. Cell phone providers have attempted to convince parents that each child should be provided with their own cell phone for safety reasons and to stay in contact with their families. This has resulted in many students arriving at school with a cell phone, taking it to class and…

  12. A Study to Assess Economic Burden and Practice of Cell Phone Disposal among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj, Mittal; Rajasekar, Vedapriya Dande; Krishnagopal, Lavanya

    2013-01-01

    Context: Our country India is having 919.17 million cell phone users; currently this is the second largest number of cell phone users after China. The youth spend a good amount on talk time and purchasing cell phone handsets. Discarding of cell phone is another issue which needs attention because of generation of e-wastes, which leads to environmental pollution.

  13. Do cell phones affect establishing electronic working length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurstel, Justine; Guivarc'h, Maud; Pommel, Ludovic; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cohen, Stephen; Bukiet, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    Patients often keep their cell phones on and nearby during root canal therapy. Cell phones release electromagnetic interference, which might disturb electronic working length measurements. The purpose of this ex vivo study was to determine the effect of a cell phone (Apple iPhone 5 [Apple, Cupertino, CA] or KP100 [LG, Seoul, Korea]) placed into direct contact with an electronic apex locator (EAL) (Dentaport Root ZX module [J Morita Corp, Tokyo, Japan] or Propex II [Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland]) on working length determination. Twenty-six human premolars without fractures or carious lesions were used; previously cleaned; and observed under magnification (×15) in order to check for the presence of only 1 apical foramen, the absence of apical resorption, an "open" apex, and accessory canals. The working length measurement was performed with a #15 K-file in the presence of 2.6% sodium hypochlorite under 4 conditions: (1) visually, under the microscope until the file tip reached the canal terminus; (2) electronically, without the cell phone in proximity; (3) electronically, with the cell phone in standby mode placed in physical contact with the EAL; and (4) electronically, with the cell phone activated by a call in the same position. The experimental model for electronic working length determination was a screw top plastic container filled with a saline solution. The measurements were repeated 3 times per canal under each condition. Scores of 1 to 3 categorized the stability of the readings as follows: (1) good stability; (2) unstable reading with minor difficulties determining the working length; and (3) major difficulties or impossible to determine the working length. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance (way 1: cell phone type and way 2: EAL model) was performed, and a second repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to seek a difference among the 4 working length determination conditions. Neither the cell phone type nor the EAL

  14. Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jorn; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-12-05

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be at the greatest risk if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated associations between cell phone exposures and headaches in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. When their children reached age seven years, mothers completed a questionnaire regarding the child's health, behaviors, and exposures. We used multivariable adjusted models to relate prenatal only, postnatal only, or both prenatal and postnatal cell phone exposure to whether the child had migraines and headache-related symptoms. Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. Children with cell phone exposure had higher odds of migraines and headache-related symptoms than children with no exposure. The odds ratio for migraines was 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.68) and for headache-related symptoms was 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.40) for children with both prenatal and postnatal exposure. In this study, cell phone exposures were associated with headaches in children, but the associations may not be causal given the potential for uncontrolled confounding and misclassification in observational studies such as this. However, given the widespread use of cell phones, if a causal effect exists it would have great public health impact.

  15. Ambulatory cell phone injuries in the United States: an emerging national concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel C; Schreiber, Kristin M; Saltos, Andreas; Lichenstein, Sarah B; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the use of cell phones has increased 8-fold in the United States. Cell phone use has been shown to increase crash risks for drivers, but no systematic analyses have described injuries related to ambulatory cell phone use. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantitate injuries and deaths among persons using cell phones while walking. We searched the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) for emergency department (ED) reports of injuries related to phone use. The cases that returned were screened initially using words that would eliminate cases unlikely to be related to cell phone use and walking, possibly linked to distraction. The resulting cases were randomized and evaluated for consistency with predetermined case definitions by two authors blinded to the dates of the incidents. Cases that were disagreed upon were evaluated in a second screening by both authors for final case determination. National ED visit rates were estimated based on NEISS sampling methods. Annual variations were analyzed using linear regression with a restricted maximum likelihood approach. Our screening process identified 5,754 possible cases that occurred between 2000 and 2011, and 310 were agreed on as cases of cell-phone-induced distraction. The majority of the patients were female (68%) and 40 years of age or younger (54%). The primary mechanism of injury was a fall (72%), and most patients were treated and released from the ED (85%). No patients died from their injuries while they were in the ED. Linear modeling by year revealed a statistically significant increase in distraction injury rates over the years of study (pcell phone use has been increasing. More research is needed to determine the risks associated with walking and talking on a cell phone and to develop strategies for intervention. Cell phone use continues to increase both at home and outdoor environments. The use of smart phones, with their more enticing features, increases

  16. "Hold the Phone!": Cell Phone Use and Partner Reaction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Tiffany; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of survey data from 995 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed that 93% reported owning a cell phone and a statistically significant difference between women and men (95% versus 91.2%) and between Whites (95.1%) and Blacks (87.7%). In addition, Blacks were twice as likely as Whites to be bothered by their partner's use…

  17. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T; Huss, Anke

    2013-05-01

    A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed the association between maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and teacher-reported and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 5. The study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a population-based birth cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2003-2004). Teachers and mothers reported child behaviour problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 5. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy was asked when children were 7 years old. A total of 2618 children were included. As compared to non-users, those exposed to prenatal cell phone use showed an increased but non-significant association of having teacher-reported overall behaviour problems, although without dose-response relationship with the number of calls (OR=2.12 (95% CI 0.95 to 4.74) for phone use were below 1 or close to unity. Associations of maternal cell phone and cordless phone use with maternal-reported overall behaviour problems remained non-significant. Non-significant associations were found for the specific behaviour problem subscales. Our results do not suggest that maternal cell phone or cordless phone use during pregnancy increases the odds of behaviour problems in their children.

  18. Effects of a Cell Phone Use Education Program on Knowledge, Attitude, Self-efficacy, and Self-control of Cell Phone Use in Elementary School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koo, Hyun-Young

    2012-01-01

    This study was done to develop an education program on cell phone use for elementary school students, and examine its effects on their knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and self-control in cell phone use...

  19. Observing Cell Phone Use and Enhancing Collaborative Learning Using a Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phone use is evident in society. Individuals have cell phone conversations while waiting in line at the grocery store, glance at their cell phones during meetings, check Facebook while having dinner with friends, have a meaningful phone conversation with a parent, and even text while sitting in church service. This assignment provides…

  20. Cell Phone Use and Child and Adolescent Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between cell phone use, including minutes spent talking and number of text messages sent, and two measures of children’s reading proficiency — tests of word decoding and reading comprehension — in the United States. Data were drawn from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative survey of 1,147 children 10–18 in 2009. Children whose parents were better educated, who had higher family incomes, who had fewer siblings, and who lived in urban areas were more likely to own or share a cell phone. Among those with access to a phone, children who spent more time talking on the phone were less proficient at word decoding, whereas children who spent more time sending text messages had greater reading comprehension. Although girls spent more time texting than did boys, there were no gender differences in the association between time spent talking or number of text messages sent with achievement. In spite of racial/ethnic differences in cell phone use levels, there were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between cell phone use and reading proficiency. PMID:27683624

  1. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Humanistic Antidotes to Social Media/Cell Phone Addiction in the College Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes “humanistic antidotes” to offset the widespread social media/cell phone addiction prevalent in current US college classrooms. The inappropriate use of cell phones to engage in social media in college classrooms is a pervasive problem that many college instructors have complained about.  The dominant focus of this article is in humanistic education, in which the author's efforts at getting psychology college students to put away their cell phones, “talk with each other,” and gain awareness of the detrimental effects of social media addiction and narcissism is illustrated.  The methodology utilized in this article is based upon autoethnographic research, where relevant experiences of the researcher are considered to be an informative and fundamental part of the research. The author describes in narrative form his relevant experiences in formulating humanistic antidotes to the excessive and inappropriate use of cell phones to engage in social media, that he encountered in his college psychology teaching. These humanistic antidotes are described as a three-step process: 1 take necessary actions to eliminate as much as possible the inappropriate use of cell phones in the classroom; 2 engage students in required personal/academic small group discussions every class period; 3 include small discussions about the excessive and inappropriate use of cell phones and social media, and require them to write and present project papers of their own choosing, which will likely include some papers on the topic of cell phone/social media addiction, demonstrating their awareness of the detrimental aspects of this pervasive problem.

  3. Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Mavandadi, Sam; Coskun, Ahmet F; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-09-01

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical sciences. Cost-effective translation of these technologies to remote and resource-limited environments could create new opportunities especially for telemedicine applications. Toward this direction, here we demonstrate the integration of imaging cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using a compact, lightweight, and cost-effective optofluidic attachment. In this cell-phone-based optofluidic imaging cytometry platform, fluorescently labeled particles or cells of interest are continuously delivered to our imaging volume through a disposable microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. The same microfluidic device also acts as a multilayered optofluidic waveguide and efficiently guides our excitation light, which is butt-coupled from the side facets of our microfluidic channel using inexpensive light-emitting diodes. Since the excitation of the sample volume occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to the detection path, our cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the specimens as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the target solution of interest. We tested the performance of our cell-phone-based imaging cytometer by measuring the density of white blood cells in human blood samples, which provided a decent match to a commercially available hematology analyzer. We further characterized the imaging quality of the same platform to demonstrate a spatial resolution of ~2 μm. This cell-phone-enabled optofluidic imaging flow cytometer could especially be useful for rapid and sensitive imaging of bodily fluids for conducting various cell counts (e.g., toward monitoring of HIV+ patients) or rare cell analysis as well as for screening of water quality in

  4. Using GPS-enabled cell phones to track the travel patterns of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoch Shawn C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few tools exist to directly measure the microsocial and physical environments of adolescents in circumstances where participatory observation is not practical or ethical. Yet measuring these environments is important as they are significantly associated with adolescent health-risk. For example, health-related behaviors such as cigarette smoking often occur in specific places where smoking may be relatively surreptitious. Results We assessed the feasibility of using GPS-enabled cell phones to track adolescent travel patterns and gather daily diary data. We enrolled 15 adolescent women from a clinic-based setting and asked them to carry the phones for 1 week. We found that these phones can accurately and reliably track participant locations, as well as record diary information on adolescent behaviors. Participants had variable paths extending beyond their immediate neighborhoods, and denied that GPS-tracking influenced their activity. Conclusion GPS-enabled cell phones offer a feasible and, in many ways, ideal modality of monitoring the location and travel patterns of adolescents. In addition, cell phones allow space- and time-specific interaction, probing, and intervention which significantly extends both research and health promotion beyond a clinical setting. Future studies can employ GPS-enabled cell phones to better understand adolescent environments, how they are associated with health-risk behaviors, and perhaps intervene to change health behavior.

  5. Using GPS-enabled cell phones to track the travel patterns of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehe, Sarah E; Carroll, Aaron E; Liu, Gilbert C; Haberkorn, Kelly L; Hoch, Shawn C; Wilson, Jeffery S; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2008-05-21

    Few tools exist to directly measure the microsocial and physical environments of adolescents in circumstances where participatory observation is not practical or ethical. Yet measuring these environments is important as they are significantly associated with adolescent health-risk. For example, health-related behaviors such as cigarette smoking often occur in specific places where smoking may be relatively surreptitious. We assessed the feasibility of using GPS-enabled cell phones to track adolescent travel patterns and gather daily diary data. We enrolled 15 adolescent women from a clinic-based setting and asked them to carry the phones for 1 week. We found that these phones can accurately and reliably track participant locations, as well as record diary information on adolescent behaviors. Participants had variable paths extending beyond their immediate neighborhoods, and denied that GPS-tracking influenced their activity. GPS-enabled cell phones offer a feasible and, in many ways, ideal modality of monitoring the location and travel patterns of adolescents. In addition, cell phones allow space- and time-specific interaction, probing, and intervention which significantly extends both research and health promotion beyond a clinical setting. Future studies can employ GPS-enabled cell phones to better understand adolescent environments, how they are associated with health-risk behaviors, and perhaps intervene to change health behavior.

  6. Dial D for Distraction: The Making and Breaking of Cell Phone Policies in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J.; Westfall, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones are nearly ubiquitous in the college classroom. This study asks two primary questions regarding the making and breaking of in-class cell phone policies. In what manner are students using their phones and how can faculty members minimize the potential for phone-related distractions? To answer these questions we analyze original survey…

  7. Cell Phone Information Seeking Explains Blood Pressure in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany C; Pressler, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Although cell phone use and Internet access via cell phone is not marked by racial disparities, little is known about how cell phone use relates to blood pressure and health information seeking behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (a) describe Internet activities, cell phone use, and information seeking; (b) determine differences in blood pressure and information seeking between cell phone information seekers and nonseekers; and (c) examine cell phone information seeking as a predictor of blood pressure in African American women. Participants ( N = 147) completed a survey and had their blood pressure measured. Independent-sample t tests showed a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in cell phone information seekers and nonseekers. Linear regression revealed cell phone information seeking as an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure, despite confounders. It is possible that cell phone information seekers were using health information to make decisions about self-management of blood pressure.

  8. USE OF MOBILE PHONES AS RESEARCH INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AP Pakhare

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Data collection is a crucial step in any research design or program. In order to be analysed, this collected data needs to be entered into aspreadsheet or statistical software. Transcribing paper based data is time consuming and often associated with errors. Such errors may be due toan inability to read the data-collector’s handwriting,human mistakes during data entry etc. A system wherein data automatically gets transcribed and uploaded in a database during data collection would be of immense use in this situation. A possible solution for this is mobile phone based data collection, a type of electronic data capture method wherein the processes of data collection and data entry are merged1. Initially electronic data collection was done by hand-helddevices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs. However with the entry of the newer and more sophisticated smartphones in the market,there is a growing possibility of extendingthe success achieved on PDAs to a phone-based platform2. Withthe advent of newer technology software solutions this process can even be done on a standard entry level mobile phone. This paper discusses the use and advantages of using mobile phones for data collection and also provides information about resources for mobile based data collection.

  9. Gas detection with microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer technology in cell phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Rami; Hyypiö, Risto; Korkalainen, Marko; Blomberg, Martti; Kattelus, Hannu; Rissanen, Anna

    2015-06-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a miniaturized optical sensor for gas detection in a cell phone. The sensor is based on a microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is a structure with two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force, so there are no actual moving parts. VTT has designed and manufactured a MEMS FPI based carbon dioxide sensor demonstrator which is integrated to a cell phone shield cover. The demonstrator contains light source, gas cell, MEMS FPI, detector, control electronics and two coin cell batteries as a power source. It is connected to the cell phone by Bluetooth. By adjusting the wavelength range and customizing the MEMS FPI structure, it is possible to selectively sense multiple gases.

  10. Prospective study of pregnancy outcomes after parental cell phone exposure: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Valborg; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Møllerløkken, Ole Jacob; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Moen, Bente E

    2015-07-01

    Research about prenatal exposure to electromagnetic fields from cell phones among expectant parents and reproductive outcome is limited. The aim of this article is to investigate the association between pregnancy outcome and parental cell phone exposure in a large prospective study. The study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted during the decade 1999-2009. In that study, pregnant women were recruited before a routine ultrasound examination during gestational week 15; they answered a questionnaire at that time and again around gestational week 30. The expectant father was invited to answer a questionnaire during gestational week 15 (2001-2009). The forms contained questions regarding cell phone use. The response rate was 38.7% and the cohort comprised 100,730 singleton births. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The risk of preeclampsia was slightly lower among women with medium and high cell phone exposure compared with low exposure after adjusting for potential confounders. Fathers with testis exposure when using cell phones had a borderline increased risk of perinatal mortality among offspring and a slightly decreased risk of partner developing preeclampsia during pregnancy compared with no cell phone exposure of head or testis. None of the other pregnancy outcomes was associated with cell phone exposure. We found no association between maternal prenatal or paternal preconceptional cell phone exposure and any of the studied pregnancy outcomes. The only risk estimate suggesting a potential increased risk was not consistent with other findings.

  11. Colors Identification for Blind People using Cell Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A. L.; Graffigna, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Assistive Technology (AT) is an interdisciplinary research area that allows finding solutions to the individual with disability [1] by easing or improving the functions or the skills for accomplishing daily activities. A technology can be considered "assistive" if it is fit for the needs, skills and capabilities of the person, taking into account mainly the intended activity and the limitations of the context and environs where the person performs such activity. The current work intends to solve the problems of vision impaired persons to recognize colors. To this aim, a Java application for cell phones has been made which lets complement the mobiles' technology with that of image processing. The means to obtain the colors from a view are based on analysing the different color models join to a mechanism to reduce the collected data. This paper describes preliminary experiences, methodology and results considering the user perception.

  12. Dynamic Pedagogy for Effective Training of Youths in Cell Phone Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Jimoh, Bakare

    2015-01-01

    The study determined dynamic pedagogies for effective training of youths in cell phone maintenance. The study was conducted in Enugu State of Nigeria. Four research questions were developed while four null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the…

  13. Motorists' use of hand held cell phones in New Zealand: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Unlike many similar countries, New Zealand has no specific legislation restricting the use of cell phones in vehicles. Several factors suggest that legislation may be introduced in the near future. This study provided a benchmark for current cell phone use among motorists. A total of 8,700 drivers of cars were observed for cell phone use as they passed a fixed location in Auckland. Cell phone use was double that of an Australian city, where cell phones are banned. Use of a cell phone while driving was similarly likely in male and female drivers.

  14. Compulsive cell phone use and history of motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Whitehill, Jennifer M; King, Kevin M; Kernic, Mary A; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian W; Mack, Christopher D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use, and to explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an online assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style, to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. We found the CPOS to be composed of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (relative ratio, 1.13; confidence interval, 1.01-1.26). For each 1-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroit, Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  16. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista DAROIT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  17. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Carbonell; Elena Guardiola; Héctor Fuster; Frederic Gil; Tayana Panova

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and...

  19. Internet and cell phone usage patterns among young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Cruz, Maribel; Pérez, Ma Carmen; Vega, Vanessa; Torres, Víctor A

    2017-07-24

    The risks and opportunities associated with the use of technologies are of growing research interest. Patterns of technology usage illuminate these opportunities and risks. However, no studies have assessed the usage patterns (frequency, duration, and intensity) and related factors in young people with intellectual disabilities. Questionnaires on Internet and cell phone usage patterns, the Internet Over-Use Scale and the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory were filled out in one-on-one interviews of 216 youth with intellectual disabilities. Young people with disabilities make more social and recreational rather than educational use of these tools, and show higher rates of excessive use of both technologies than a comparison group of 410 young people without disabilities. Also, their overuse is associated with other unhealthy behaviors. The framework of support needs of people with disabilities should be considered to promote healthy Internet and cell phone use. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development and Effects of a Prevention Program for Cell Phone Addiction in Middle School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koo, Hyun-Young

    2011-01-01

    This study was done to develop a cell phone addiction prevention program for middle school students, and to examine the effects of the program on self-esteem, self-efficacy, impulsiveness, and cell phone use...

  1. Questionnaire survey to assess the pattern and characteristics of cell-phone usage among Indian oncologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusheel Munshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of the first such questionnaire based study have been presented. Most oncologists consider cell-phones a useful tool in patient care. More RO are aware of potential cell-phone hazards compared to non-RO's.

  2. The dimensions of brand romance as predictors of brand loyalty among cell phone users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danie Petzer; Pierre Mostert; Liezl-Marie Kruger; Stefanie Kuhn

    2014-01-01

      In a competitive cell phone industry where consumers have a wide variety of cell phone brands to choose from, it is imperative for marketers to foster brand loyalty in order to establish enduring...

  3. Cell Phone Use by Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Whitehouse, Andrew; Jaquet, Emma; Ziatas, Kathy; Walker, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    While young people have generally been at the forefront of the adoption and use of new communications technologies, little is known of uses by exceptional youth. This study compares cell phone use by a group of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (n = 35) with that by a group of adolescents with typical development (n = 35). People with Asperger…

  4. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other ...

  5. [Development of a cell phone addiction scale for korean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Young

    2009-12-01

    This study was done to develop a cell phone addiction scale for Korean adolescents. The process included construction of a conceptual framework, generation of initial items, verification of content validity, selection of secondary items, preliminary study, and extraction of final items. The participants were 577 adolescents in two middle schools and three high schools. Item analysis, factor analysis, criterion related validity, and internal consistency were used to analyze the data. Twenty items were selected for the final scale, and categorized into 3 factors explaining 55.45% of total variance. The factors were labeled as withdrawal/tolerance (7 items), life dysfunction (6 items), and compulsion/persistence (7 items). The scores for the scale were significantly correlated with self-control, impulsiveness, and cell phone use. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 20 items was .92. Scale scores identified students as cell phone addicted, heavy users, or average users. The above findings indicate that the cell phone addiction scale has good validity and reliability when used with Korean adolescents.

  6. Short Communication: Cell Phone Use by Students at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of a study that was carried out to determine patterns of cell phone use among students within the Library and Information Studies (LIS) Department and students from other departments within the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Botswana. Focus was however on LIS students and was ...

  7. Cell Phones + Self-Access: A Summer Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Mashinter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of a project whereby the author developed a summer vacation contest for the SAC in which students could participate regardless of their physical distance from the facility. This contest was centered on cell phones, photography, and writing and was platformed online.

  8. Cell Phone Coverage Area: Helping Students Achieve in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Reed, Shari Ann; Boone, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Cell phone coverage areas arouse students' curiosity in a lesson that engages students with area as a measure that relates to, but is different from, linear measure. Each distinct set of activities (stations) blends concepts and skills to align with and transcend state standards. In reflecting on the lesson planning and implementation, we…

  9. Cell Phones in American High Schools: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, S. John; Coffey, Kent

    2007-01-01

    A survey instrument to determine school policy and practice regarding cell phone use by teachers and students was developed using a literature review, a panel of experts, and then a pilot study with typical respondents. The survey was mailed out randomly to 200 high school principals representing all 50 states. The return rate was 56 percent with…

  10. Still Trying to "Make the Call" on Student Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In fall 2007, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) of Colorado accused Colorado school officials of committing felonies and violating students' privacy rights. The controversy stemmed from allegations that a high school assistant principal read and transcribed text messages from a cell phone that school officials had taken away from a…

  11. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  12. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  13. Mobile cell-phones (M-phones in telemicroscopy: increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missoni Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of modern information telecommunication (ITC technology and its use in telemedicine plays an increasingly important role in facilitating access to some diagnostic services even to people living in the most remote areas. However, physical and economical constraints in the access to broad band data-transmission network, still represent a considerable obstacle to the transmission of images for the purpose of tele-pathology. Methods Indifferently using m-phones of different brands, and a variety of microscopic preparations, images were taken without the use of any adaptor simply approaching the lens of the mobile cell phone camera to the ocular of common optical microscopes, and subsequently sent via Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS to distant reference centres for tele-diagnosis. Access to MMS service was reviewed with specific reference to the African information communication technology (ICT market. Results Images of any pathologic preparation could be captured and sent over the mobile phone with an MMS, without being limited by appropriate access to the internet for transmission (i.e. access to broad-band services. The quality of the image was not influenced by the brand or model of the mobile-phone used, but only by its digital resolution, with any resolution above 0.8 megapixel resulting in images sufficient for diagnosis. Access to MMS services is increasingly reaching remote disadvantaged areas. Current penetration of the service in Africa was mapped appearing already available in almost every country, with penetration index varying from 1.5% to 92.2%. Conclusion The use of otherwise already widely available technologies, without any need for adaptors or otherwise additional technology, could significantly increase opportunities and quality diagnostics while lowering costs and considerably increasing connectivity between most isolated laboratories and distant reference center.

  14. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual user...

  15. Digital Devices, Distraction, and Student Performance: Does In-Class Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, Angel R.; Wilcox, Bethany R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads, and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use on student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight…

  16. An Investigation on Changing Behaviours of University Students Switching from Using Classical Cell Phones to Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to comprehend whether there occur any changes in behaviours of university students switching from classical cell phones to smartphones. The investigation was carried out according to quantitative research method. Questionnaire was employed as data collection tool. The datum of the study was limited with the information…

  17. Cell Phones: Rule-Setting, Rule-Breaking, and Relationships in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Anita S.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a small qualitative study, this article focuses on understanding the rules for cell phones and other social networking media in schools, an aspect of broader research that led to important understandings of teacher-student negotiations. It considers the rules that schools and teachers make, the rampant breaking of these rules, the…

  18. Examination of drivers' cell phone use behavior at intersections by using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Huimin; Bao, Shan; Sayer, James; Kato, Kazuma

    2015-09-01

    Many driving simulator studies have shown that cell phone use while driving greatly degraded driving performance. In terms of safety analysis, many factors including drivers, vehicles, and driving situations need to be considered. Controlled or simulated studies cannot always account for the full effects of these factors, especially situational factors such as road condition, traffic density, and weather and lighting conditions. Naturalistic driving by its nature provides a natural and realistic way to examine drivers' behaviors and associated factors for cell phone use while driving. In this study, driving speed while using a cell phone (conversation or visual/manual tasks) was compared to two baselines (baseline 1: normal driving condition, which only excludes driving while using a cell phone, baseline 2: driving-only condition, which excludes all types of secondary tasks) when traversing an intersection. The outcomes showed that drivers drove slower when using a cell for both conversation and visual/manual (VM) tasks compared to baseline conditions. With regard to cell phone conversations, drivers were more likely to drive faster during the day time compared to night time driving and drive slower under moderate traffic compared to under sparse traffic situations. With regard to VM tasks, there was a significant interaction between traffic and cell phone use conditions. The maximum speed with VM tasks was significantly lower than that with baseline conditions under sparse traffic conditions. In contrast, the maximum speed with VM tasks was slightly higher than that with baseline driving under dense traffic situations. This suggests that drivers might self-regulate their behavior based on the driving situations and demand for secondary tasks, which could provide insights on driver distraction guidelines. With the rapid development of in-vehicle technology, the findings in this research could lead the improvement of human-machine interface (HMI) design as well

  19. Cell phone e-mail as a means to collect information on pregnancy and delivery: a pilot study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yuko O; Hirata, Nobuko

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion of cell phones is 91.9% in Japan. Especially, cell phone e-mail is now widely used as a media source in Japan. The authors of this research have been engaged in collecting basic data to establish a system for providing improved health information on pregnancy and delivery through cell phones for pregnant women and their family members. In this study, we classified the trends of health information of pregnancy and delivery in which people desire to obtain through cell phone based on the characteristics of the information and, of each classification we revealed the generic characteristic (age, gender, gestational weeks and any other children), any social support, the types of cell phones or/and computers and their related use. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to the participants of delivery preparation workshops held at two places in the northern parts of Kyushu Area to collect data. The cell phone e-mail usage trends were measured by four-rated scales. To classify the characteristics of the information, a Principal Factor Analysis was conducted. To find out correlation between the information classified and the generic characteristics, Mann-Whitney's U-test was conducted. Out of two hundred and fifteen (215) respondents including 117 pregnant women and 98 husbands, 208 respondents possessed cell phones. Regarding the health information of pregnancy and delivery desired to obtain through cell phone e-mail, two factors, namely "medical information" and "non-medical information" have derived. Those who did not possess computers tended to use their cell phone e-mail to obtain both "medical information" (P = .002) and "non-medical information" (P = .02). While those who use cell phone e-mail almost everyday tended to use cell phone e-mail for obtaining "non-medical information" (P = .02). This study indicated that providing medical information and non-medical information through cell phone e-mail is an essential service, especially in Japan, where

  20. College Students' Cell Phone Use, Beliefs, and Effects on Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Anastasia D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore college students' self-reported cell phone use and beliefs and investigate the effect on student learning. Eighty-eight college students responded to a questionnaire about their use of cell phones during classes, studying, and driving and about their beliefs about how cell phones impact their schoolwork. In…

  1. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives of Inclusion, Benefits, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Bolton, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Historically viewed as a disruption by teachers, cell phones have been banned from 69% of classrooms (Common Sense Media, 2009). The increased ubiquity and instructional features of cell phones have prompted some teachers to re-evaluate the ban and consider the benefits associated with allowing cell phones in the classroom. This study surveyed 79…

  2. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation by...

  3. The usage of cell phones and the feeling to them in modern Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mayumi; Sekine, Takiko

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how and to what extent modern people's life is affected by cell phones, which have been rapidly penetrating into the people's individual life. Surveys were conducted by questionnaires to Japanese college students (288 females and 54 males, ages 18 to 21) about their dependency on cell phones and habits of using them. The result was analyzed by the KJ method extracting the typical feelings about cell phones. Forty typical feelings were rated by 5 levels and analyzed in relation to the using years and the frequency per day. About 20% of the students used cell phones more than 30 times a day and for more than 3 hours in average per day. A decisive point concerning the users' dependency on cell phones seemed to exist between the daily use of 30 times and 40 times. At the same time, female students appeared more dependent on cell phones. Those feelings were classified into 6 groups; being 'dependent' on cell phones, regarding cell phones as 'important', 'necessary', 'convenient', just a 'method' of communication, and 'troublesome'. The percentages of those who felt cell phones as convenient, a method, important and necessary were high both in males and females. The dependence on cell phones seemed to be affirmative in both sexes, but males consistently felt cell phones as methods, whereas females tended to be more dependent on them from psychological reasons. Consequently, there were observed some differences between males and females in their use and feelings to cell phones.

  4. 77 FR 54651 - Study on the Use of Cell Phones On Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Cell Phones On Board Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...) directed the Administrator of the FAA to conduct a study on the impact of the use of cell phones for voice... Cell Phone Study Comments using any of the following methods: E-Mail: Send comments to CELLPHONEcomment...

  5. A Happy and Engaged Class without Cell Phones? It's Easier than You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Louise; Lambert, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been many suggestions for incorporating cell phone use into classroom activities, there have been few suggestions for removing cell phone use from the classroom. This article presents an easy-to-implement method using positive reinforcement that effectively removes cell phones from the classroom in a way that is highly endorsed…

  6. The use of GSM (cell-phone) in the library by surdents of Abubakar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that students used the cell-phone mainly for communication purposes, to check time, send text messages, browsing internet, among other things. Cell-phone use in the library caused distraction and made concentration difficult. Recommendations were offered towards reducing use of cell-phone in the ...

  7. Prevalence of problematic cell phone use in an adult population in Spain as assessed by the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Problematic cell phone use has alarmingly increased in industrialized countries in the past 10 years. For many perpetrators, it can turn into a behavioural addiction, although this is not a recognized medical condition. Although there are many tools for evaluating this use, one of the most widely used tools is the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS), which we test on a representative sample of the population in Spain to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of problematic cell phone use in our midst. The age range consists of 16–65 years, with 1,126 surveys conducted. In this population, we verify that the reliability and internal consistency of the MPPUS (α = 0.939) are maintained. Additionally, the construct validity, considering the derived factors (Abuse and Dependence, Craving and Loss of Control, and Dependence on the Social Environment) are aligned with other research and with diverse external criteria of addiction. We establish four categories of users (Casual, Regular, At Risk, and Problematic) and obtain a prevalence of 15.4% among At Risk Users and 5.1% among Problematic Users. This finding implies a total of 20.5% of Users with Problems. A binary logistic regression analysis shows that age, gender, level of education, and daily cell phone use predict problematic cell phone use. The results, based on multiple criteria, show that such problematic use shares features of recognized addictions, affecting large segments of the population and not only adolescents. PMID:28771626

  8. Prevalence of problematic cell phone use in an adult population in Spain as assessed by the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de-Sola

    Full Text Available Problematic cell phone use has alarmingly increased in industrialized countries in the past 10 years. For many perpetrators, it can turn into a behavioural addiction, although this is not a recognized medical condition. Although there are many tools for evaluating this use, one of the most widely used tools is the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS, which we test on a representative sample of the population in Spain to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of problematic cell phone use in our midst. The age range consists of 16-65 years, with 1,126 surveys conducted. In this population, we verify that the reliability and internal consistency of the MPPUS (α = 0.939 are maintained. Additionally, the construct validity, considering the derived factors (Abuse and Dependence, Craving and Loss of Control, and Dependence on the Social Environment are aligned with other research and with diverse external criteria of addiction. We establish four categories of users (Casual, Regular, At Risk, and Problematic and obtain a prevalence of 15.4% among At Risk Users and 5.1% among Problematic Users. This finding implies a total of 20.5% of Users with Problems. A binary logistic regression analysis shows that age, gender, level of education, and daily cell phone use predict problematic cell phone use. The results, based on multiple criteria, show that such problematic use shares features of recognized addictions, affecting large segments of the population and not only adolescents.

  9. Prevalence of problematic cell phone use in an adult population in Spain as assessed by the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Problematic cell phone use has alarmingly increased in industrialized countries in the past 10 years. For many perpetrators, it can turn into a behavioural addiction, although this is not a recognized medical condition. Although there are many tools for evaluating this use, one of the most widely used tools is the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS), which we test on a representative sample of the population in Spain to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of problematic cell phone use in our midst. The age range consists of 16-65 years, with 1,126 surveys conducted. In this population, we verify that the reliability and internal consistency of the MPPUS (α = 0.939) are maintained. Additionally, the construct validity, considering the derived factors (Abuse and Dependence, Craving and Loss of Control, and Dependence on the Social Environment) are aligned with other research and with diverse external criteria of addiction. We establish four categories of users (Casual, Regular, At Risk, and Problematic) and obtain a prevalence of 15.4% among At Risk Users and 5.1% among Problematic Users. This finding implies a total of 20.5% of Users with Problems. A binary logistic regression analysis shows that age, gender, level of education, and daily cell phone use predict problematic cell phone use. The results, based on multiple criteria, show that such problematic use shares features of recognized addictions, affecting large segments of the population and not only adolescents.

  10. Cell phone use diminishes self-awareness of the adverse effects of cell phone use on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Multitasking may diminish the self-awareness of performance that is often essential for self-regulation : and self-knowledge. Participants in an experiment drove on a simulator while talking or not talking on a : cell phone. The errors they made whil...

  11. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2008-01-01

    : 5 of 15 (33.3%) phones from company A and 3 of 26 (11.5%) phones from company B showed at least 1 positive reaction. 3 phones had more than 1 positive DMG spots. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents that excessive nickel release (i.e. a positive DMG test) is relatively frequent in a sample of cell......BACKGROUND: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. OBJECTIVE: Inspired by a recent...... case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. METHODS: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. RESULTS...

  12. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J.P.; Johansen, J.D.; Zachariae, C.

    2008-01-01

    : 5 of 15 (33.3%) phones from company A and 3 of 26 (11.5%) phones from company B showed at least 1 positive reaction. 3 phones had more than 1 positive DMG spots. Conclusions: This study documents that excessive nickel release (i.e. a positive DMG test) is relatively frequent in a sample of cell......Background: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. Objective: Inspired by a recent...... case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. Methods: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. Results...

  13. Wide-field fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent imaging flow cytometry on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-11

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. However these devices are in general relatively bulky and costly, making them less effective in the resource limited settings. To potentially address these limitations, we have recently demonstrated the integration of wide-field fluorescent microscopy and imaging flow cytometry tools on cell-phones using compact, light-weight, and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments. In our flow cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are flushed through a microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing cell-phone camera unit. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the side of this microfluidic chip, which effectively acts as a multi-mode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to uniformly excite the fluorescent targets. The cell-phone camera records a time lapse movie of the fluorescent cells flowing through the microfluidic channel, where the digital frames of this movie are processed to count the number of the labeled cells within the target solution of interest. Using a similar opto-fluidic design, we can also image these fluorescently labeled cells in static mode by e.g. sandwiching the fluorescent particles between two glass slides and capturing their fluorescent images using the cell-phone camera, which can achieve a spatial resolution of e.g. - 10 μm over a very large field-of-view of - 81 mm(2). This cell-phone based fluorescent imaging flow cytometry and microscopy platform might be useful especially in resource limited settings, for e.g. counting of CD4+ T cells toward monitoring of HIV+ patients or for detection of water-borne parasites in drinking water.

  14. Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Meena, Ramovatar; Verma, H N; Kumar, Shivendra

    2013-03-01

    Wireless technologies are ubiquitous today and the mobile phones are one of the prodigious output of this technology. Although the familiarization and dependency of mobile phones is growing at an alarming pace, the biological effects due to the exposure of radiations have become a subject of intense debate. The present evidence on mobile phone radiation exposure is based on scientific research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at radiofrequency (RF)/ electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. The conflict in conclusions is mainly because of difficulty in controlling the affecting parameters. Biological effects are dependent not only on the distance and size of the object (with respect to the object) but also on the environmental parameters. Health endpoints reported to be associated with RF include childhood leukemia, brain tumors, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, infertility and some cardiovascular effects. Most of the reports conclude a reasonable suspicion of mobile phone risk that exists based on clear evidence of bio-effects which with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. The present study summarizes the public issue based on mobile phone radiation exposure and their biological effects. This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Effects of Classroom Cell Phone Use on Expected and Actual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Arnold D.; Carpenter, Christina N.; Inman, Denyse A.; Schooley, Jessica R.; Barnes, Rebecca B.; Brecht, Paul W.; Chacon, Jasmin D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of driving indicate that the conversational aspects of using cell phones generate high risks from divided attention. Prior surveys document high rates at which students carry phones to and use them during class. Some experiments have demonstrated that cell phones distract students from learning. The present studies combined survey and…

  16. Updating Policy on Latest Risks for Students with Cell Phones in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    It is hard to imagine how the majority of people made it through the day without cell phones just 5 to 10 years ago. These days, cell phones are everywhere, and everyone seems to own one--including many middle school students and even some students who are in elementary school. Both parents and students feel these phones are essential in order to…

  17. Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Zachary J; Chu, Kaiqin; Espenson, Alyssa R; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Gryshuk, Amy; Molinaro, Marco; Dwyre, Denis M; Lane, Stephen; Matthews, Dennis; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report the development of two attachments to a commercial cell phone that transform the phone's integrated lens and image sensor into a 350x microscope and visible-light spectrometer...

  18. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaranjani Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75–0.98, P trend  =  .005 among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  19. Lack of Parental Rules for Cell Phone Use among Low Income Mexican Descendent Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bracamonte Wiggs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth have access to and utilize various types of technology at a growing rate. Cell phones are a portable way for adolescents to remain in constant contact with friends, parents, and others. While White youth are more likely to have a cell phone compared to Latino youth, the trends for cell phone use are similar among all teens with text messaging serving as the most popular means of communication. Despite their high volume of communication with others via cell phones, adolescents are likely to have little or no adult supervision while using technology. With a lack of parental supervision or awareness regarding youth technology use, adolescents may be especially vulnerable to cyberbullying and other negative health impacts. The current study investigates cell phone and texting use among a community sample of Latino adolescents and examines how parental rules regarding cell phone use influences adolescents’ cell phone and texting behaviors.

  20. Cell phones: a digital cartography of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polise Moreira De Marchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental function of maps has always been to understand, interpret, and represent the world. Therefore, maps have a communication role, as a language. As communication tool, maps spatialize the interaction of social, economic and cultural urban realities in a graphic expression that provides the very meaning of urban systems. The aim of this paper is to report an academic study involving digital interface design graduate students. They investigated the role of locative media as potential instruments for registering and mapping experiences, observations and perceptions of urban life. This study considers that students can stimulate interactions across the city, whether, directly, in its physical space or, indirectly, through interfaces such as cell phone applications. The project also sought to discuss the cell phone as a producer of new languages, since instead of being merely a telephone it combines the functions of different media and can produce images, videos, sounds etc.

  1. Supreme Court Term Review: Cell Phones, Protests, and Prayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark

    2014-01-01

    If there is one thing that teenagers like to talk about when it comes to the law, it's who does and does not have the right to search their "stuff." And in the world of "stuff," there is nothing more important to average American teenagers than their cell phones. So when, in the waning days of its 2013-2014 term, the U.S.…

  2. Online camera-gyroscope autocalibration for cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chao; Evans, Brian L

    2014-12-01

    The gyroscope is playing a key role in helping estimate 3D camera rotation for various vision applications on cell phones, including video stabilization and feature tracking. Successful fusion of gyroscope and camera data requires that the camera, gyroscope, and their relative pose to be calibrated. In addition, the timestamps of gyroscope readings and video frames are usually not well synchronized. Previous paper performed camera-gyroscope calibration and synchronization offline after the entire video sequence has been captured with restrictions on the camera motion, which is unnecessarily restrictive for everyday users to run apps that directly use the gyroscope. In this paper, we propose an online method that estimates all the necessary parameters, whereas a user is capturing video. Our contributions are: 1) simultaneous online camera self-calibration and camera-gyroscope calibration based on an implicit extended Kalman filter and 2) generalization of the multiple-view coplanarity constraint on camera rotation in a rolling shutter camera model for cell phones. The proposed method is able to estimate the needed calibration and synchronization parameters online with all kinds of camera motion and can be embedded in gyro-aided applications, such as video stabilization and feature tracking. Both Monte Carlo simulation and cell phone experiments show that the proposed online calibration and synchronization method converge fast to the ground truth values.

  3. Applying image quality in cell phone cameras: lens distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Donald; Goma, Sergio R.; Aleksic, Milivoje

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the framework used in one of the pilot studies run under the I3A CPIQ initiative to quantify overall image quality in cell-phone cameras. The framework is based on a multivariate formalism which tries to predict overall image quality from individual image quality attributes and was validated in a CPIQ pilot program. The pilot study focuses on image quality distortions introduced in the optical path of a cell-phone camera, which may or may not be corrected in the image processing path. The assumption is that the captured image used is JPEG compressed and the cellphone camera is set to 'auto' mode. As the used framework requires that the individual attributes to be relatively perceptually orthogonal, in the pilot study, the attributes used are lens geometric distortion (LGD) and lateral chromatic aberrations (LCA). The goal of this paper is to present the framework of this pilot project starting with the definition of the individual attributes, up to their quantification in JNDs of quality, a requirement of the multivariate formalism, therefore both objective and subjective evaluations were used. A major distinction in the objective part from the 'DSC imaging world' is that the LCA/LGD distortions found in cell-phone cameras, rarely exhibit radial behavior, therefore a radial mapping/modeling cannot be used in this case.

  4. Disentangling the influence of cell phone usage in the dilemma zone: An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on developing an analysis framework to study the impact of cell phone treatment (cell phone type and call status) on driver behavior in the presence of a dilemma zone. Specifically, we examine how the treatment influences the driver maneuver decision at the intersection (stop or cross) and the eventual success of the maneuver. For a stop maneuver, success is defined as stopping before the stop line. Similarly, for a cross maneuver, success is defined as clearing the intersection safely before the light turns red. The eventual success or failure of the driver's decision process is dependent on the factors that affected the maneuver decision. Hence it is important to recognize the interconnectedness of the stop or cross decision with its eventual success (or failure). Toward this end, we formulate and estimate a joint framework to analyze the stop/cross decision with its eventual success (or failure) simultaneously. The study is conducted based on driving simulator data provided online for the 2014 Transportation Research Board Data Contest at http://depts.washington.edu/hfsm/upload.php. The model is estimated to analyze drivers' behavior at the onset of yellow by employing exogenous variables from three broad categories: driver characteristics, cell phone attributes and driving attributes. We also generate probability surfaces to identify dilemma zone distribution associated with different cell phone treatment types. The plots clearly illustrate the impact of various cellphone treatments on driver dilemma zone behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Cell Phone and Text Message Conversations on Simulated Street Crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Sarah E; Ward, Nathan; Gaspar, John G; Schab, Kurt R; Crowell, James A; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-02-01

    A fully immersive, high-fidelity street-crossing simulator was used to examine the effects of texting on pedestrian street-crossing performance. Research suggests that street-crossing performance is impaired when pedestrians engage in cell phone conversations. Less is known about the impact of texting on street-crossing performance. Thirty-two young adults completed three distraction conditions in a simulated street-crossing task: no distraction, phone conversation, and texting. A hands-free headset and a mounted tablet were used to conduct the phone and texting conversations, respectively. Participants moved through the virtual environment via a manual treadmill, allowing them to select crossing gaps and change their gait. During the phone conversation and texting conditions, participants had fewer successful crossings and took longer to initiate crossing. Furthermore, in the texting condition, smaller percentage of time with head orientation toward the tablet, fewer number of head orientations toward the tablet, and greater percentage of total characters typed before initiating crossing predicted greater crossing success. Our results suggest that (a) texting is as unsafe as phone conversations for street-crossing performance and (b) when subjects completed most of the texting task before initiating crossing, they were more likely to make it safely across the street. Sending and receiving text messages negatively impact a range of real-world behaviors. These results may inform personal and policy decisions. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Cell Phone Calls in the Operating Theater and Staff Distractions: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Yacobi, Galel; Weissman, Charles; Levin, Phillip D

    2017-01-09

    Cell phones are the primary communication tool in our institution. There are no restrictions on their use in the operating rooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent of cell phone use in the operating rooms during elective surgery and to evaluate whether they cause staff distractions. The following data on cell phone use were recorded anonymously: number of incoming and outgoing cell phone calls, duration of cell phone calls and their content (patient related, work related, private), who was distracted by the cell phone calls, and duration of distractions. We made observations during 52 surgeries. There were 205 cell phone calls, 197 (96.1%; median, 3 per surgery; interquartile range, 2-5) incoming and 8 (3.9%) outgoing. Incoming calls were answered on 110 (55.8%) of 197 (median, 2; interquartile range, 1-3) occasions. The mean duration of incoming calls (64 ± 40 seconds) was shorter than those of the outgoing calls (137 ± 242 seconds, P cell phones (24/30, 80.0%). The mean duration of the distractions was 43.6 ± 22.3 seconds. During all 8 outgoing calls, no other staff members were distracted. The number of cell phone calls in the operating rooms during elective surgery was lower than expected and caused short-lived distractions mainly to the operating surgeons. We recommend that operating surgeons turn off their cell phones before surgery.

  7. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Inattention and Cell Phone Use While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    Inattention to the roadway, including cell phone use while driving (cell phone calls, sending and reading texts, mobile app use, and Internet use), is a critical problem for teen drivers and increases risk for crashes. Effective behavioral interventions for teens are needed in order to decrease teen driver inattention related to cell phone use while driving. However, teens' perceptions of mobile device use while driving is a necessary component for theoretically driven behavior change interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe teen drivers' perceptions of cell phone use while driving in order to inform future interventions to reduce risky driving. We conducted 7 focus groups with a total of 30 teen drivers, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤ 1 year in Pennsylvania. The focus group interview guide and analysis were based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, identifying the attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms about inattention to the roadway. Directed descriptive content analysis was used to analyze the focus group interviews. All focus groups were coded by 2 research team members and discrepancies were reconciled. Themes were developed based on the data. Teens had a mean age of 17.39 (SD = 0.52), mean length of licensure of 173.7 days (SD = 109.2; range 4-364), were 50% male and predominately white (90%) and non-Hispanic (97%). From the focus group data, 3 major themes emerged: (1) Recognizing the danger but still engaging; (2) Considering context; and (3) Formulating safer behaviors that might reduce risk. Despite recognizing that handheld cell phone use, texting, and social media app use are dangerous and distracting while driving, teens and their peers often engaged in these behaviors. Teens described how the context of the situation contributed to whether a teen would place or answer a call, write or respond to a text, or use a social media app. Teens identified ways in which they controlled their behaviors, although some still drew

  8. Teen Drivers’ Perceptions of Inattention and Cell Phone Use While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inattention to the roadway, including cell phone use while driving (cell phone calls, sending and reading texts, mobile app use and internet use), is a critical problem for teen drivers and increases risk for crashes. Effective behavioral interventions for teens are needed in order to decrease teen driver inattention related to cell phone use while driving. However, teens’ perceptions of mobile device use while driving is a necessary component for theoretically driven behavior change interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe teen drivers’ perceptions of cell phone use while driving in order to inform future interventions to reduce risky driving. Methods We conducted seven focus groups with a total of 30 teen drivers, ages 16–18, licensed for ≤1 year in Pennsylvania. The focus group interview guide and analysis were based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, identifying the attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms about inattention to the roadway. Directed descriptive content analysis was used to analyze the focus group interviews. All focus groups were coded by two research team members and discrepancies were reconciled. Themes were developed based on the data. Results Teens had a mean age of 17.39 (sd 0.52), mean length of licensure of 173.7 days (sd 109.2; range 4–364), were 50% male and predominately white (90%) and non-Hispanic (97%). From the focus group data, three major themes emerged; (1) Recognizing the danger but still engaging; (2) Considering context; and (3) Formulating safer behaviors that might reduce risk. In spite of recognizing hand-held cell phone use, texting and social media app use are dangerous and distracting while driving, teens and their peers often engage in these behaviors. Teens described how the context of the situation contributed to whether a teen would place or answer a call, write or respond to a text, or use a social media app. Teens identified ways in which they controlled their

  9. Assessing characteristics related to the use of seatbelts and cell phones by drivers: application of a bivariate probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Kay, Jonathan J; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    The effects of cell phone use and safety belt use have been an important focus of research related to driver safety. Cell phone use has been shown to be a significant source of driver distraction contributing to substantial degradations in driver performance, while safety belts have been demonstrated to play a vital role in mitigating injuries to crash-involved occupants. This study examines the prevalence of cell phone use and safety belt non-use among the driving population through direct observation surveys. A bivariate probit model is developed to simultaneously examine the factors that affect cell phone and safety belt use among motor vehicle drivers. The results show that several factors may influence drivers' decision to use cell phones and safety belts, and that these decisions are correlated. Understanding the factors that affect both cell phone use and safety belt non-use is essential to targeting policy and programs that reduce such behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chatting in the Face of the Eyewitness: The Impact of Extraneous Cell-Phone Conversation on Memory for a Perpetrator

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John. E; Patel, Krupali; Labonte, Katherine; Threadgold, Emma; Skelton, Faye; Fodarella, Cristina; Thorley, Rachel; Battersby, Kirsty; Frowd, Charlie; Ball, LJ; Vachon, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged-crime in the presence of one side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), two sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), one side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue) or quiet. Between 24...

  11. Comparison of Cell Phone Usage Frequencies and Brand Preferences of Public and Private University Education Faculty Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin TUTGUN ÜNAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, cell phone usage frequencies and brand preferences of the education faculty students were examined. Research was conducted with 985 students from Marmara University Ataturk Education Faculty and Maltepe University Education Faculty in Istanbul. For the collection of data, “cell phone usage frequency and brand preference determination survey” was used. In the research, various results were obtained and some of which are as follows: a Students use cell phone intensively for and ratio for usage more than 1 hour is over the average(56.5%. b When the made / received calls were examined it is interesting that 20 and more calls are received (8% and more than 40, 50, 100 calls are made even in little ratios. c Students receive (31.7% and send (31.5% more than 100 messages. d Students mostly prefer Turkcell operator, Young Tariff and mostly prefer Nokia brand. It was understood that usage frequencies and brand preferences of state and foundation universities are significantly different from each other. In the research the intensive cell phone usage of Education Faculty students were emphasized and at the end of the research discussions and suggestions took place related with arranging cell phone usage habits of the students

  12. Cell Phone Ownership and Service Plans Among Low-Income Smokers: The Hidden Cost of Quitlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June-Marie; Toll, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Quitlines (QLs) are free, effective sources of treatment for tobacco dependence. Although the QL number is toll-free, the use of cell phones as the sole source of telephony may impose an unintended cost, in terms of cell minutes. To quantify the use of cell-only telephony among self-pay or Medicaid smokers, assess their calling plans, and estimate the impact of a typical course of QL counseling. A survey of smokers age at least 18 years visiting an American urban emergency department from April to July, 2013. Seven-hundred seventy-three smokers were surveyed, of whom 563 (72.8%) were low-income, defined as having Medicaid or no insurance. All low-income smokers had at least one phone: 48 (8.5%) reported land-lines only, 159 (28.2%) land-lines and cells, and 356 (63.2%) cells only. Of the cell phone owners, monthly calling plans provided unlimited minutes for 339/515 (65.8%), at most 250 minutes for 124 (24.1%), and more than 250 minutes for 52 (10.0%). Another recent trial found that QL users make a median of 1 call lasting 28 minutes, with the 75th and 90th percentiles of calls and minutes at 3 and 4 calls, and 48 and 73.6 minutes, respectively. Thus, robust use of QL services could consume 11%-29% of a low-income smoker's typical 250 monthly cell minutes. Among low-income smokers, cell phones are often the sole telephone. Robust use of the QL may impose a substantial burden on low-income smokers' calling plans, and therefore deter use of the QL. Exempting calls to QLs from counting against smokers' plans may help promote QL utilization. Low-income individuals have high rates of smoking, and are more likely to own only cell phones, not landlines, for telephone access. Because cell phone calling plans often have limited numbers of monthly minutes, cell-only individuals may have to spend a substantial proportion of their monthly minutes on QL services. This may act as a deterrent to using an otherwise free, effective means of treatment for tobacco dependence

  13. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-04-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones®, BlackBerrys®, and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year.2 Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they work." Over the past several years, three high school teachers have collaborated with engineers at Cingular, Motorola, and the University of Michigan to explore the underlying science and design a three-week, student-centered unit with a constructivist pedagogy consistent with the "Modeling in Physics" philosophy.3 This unique pilot program reinforces traditional physics topics including vibrations and waves, sound, light, electricity and magnetism, and also introduces key concepts in communications and information theory. This article will describe the motivation for our work, outline a few key concepts with the corresponding student activities, and provide a summary of the program that has been developed to engage and inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and citizens.

  14. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nascimento Medeiros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR. Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. METHODS: A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. RESULTS: EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity, and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. CONCLUSION: There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus.

  15. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Luisa Nascimento; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity), and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of North Carolina's restriction on teenage driver cell phone use two years after implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Arthur H; O'Brien, Natalie P; Foss, Robert D

    2012-09-01

    A majority of states now restrict teenagers from using a mobile communication device while driving. The effect of these restrictions is largely unknown. In a previous study, we found North Carolina's teenage driver cell phone restriction had little influence on young driver behavior four months after the law took effect (Foss et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to examine the longer-term effect of North Carolina's cell phone restriction. It was expected that compliance with the restriction would increase, as awareness of the restriction grew over time. Teenagers were observed at high schools in North Carolina approximately two years after the law was implemented. Observations were also conducted in South Carolina, which did not have a cell phone restriction. In both states, there was a broad decrease in cell phone use. A logistic regression analysis showed the decrease in cell phone use did not significantly differ between the two states. Although hand-held cell phone use decreased, there was an increase in the likelihood that drivers in North Carolina were observed physically manipulating a phone. Finally, a mail survey of teenagers in North Carolina showed awareness for the cell phone restriction now stands at 78% among licensed teens. Overall, the findings suggest North Carolina's cell phone restriction has had no long-term effect on the behavior of teenage drivers. Moreover, it appears many teenage drivers may be shifting from talking on a phone to texting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell phones and young drivers: a systematic review regarding the association between psychological factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzulino, Francesca; Burke, Rita V; Muller, Valerie; Arbogast, Helen; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Cell phone use among young drivers has become increasingly common in recent years. Young people are the most likely to accept the use of new technology and least likely to understand the risks associated with cell phone use while driving (CPWD; defined here as talking on the phone only) and texting while driving (TextWD). Due to inexperience, young drivers are the most at risk when using cell phones while driving and therefore should be the target of the majority of prevention strategies. The intent of this review is to determine factors that influence young drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD and suggest a basis for prevention campaigns and strategies that can effectively prevent current and future generations from using cell phones while driving. We conducted a search for original articles in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. All abstracts were reviewed and for those that met the inclusion criteria, full articles were obtained and assessed. Four hundred and twelve articles were identified in the search and, of those, 37 full-text articles were obtained. A total of 29 articles about the frequency of CPWD and the psychological effects influencing young driver's tendency to engage in CPWD were included. There was a high frequency of both CPWD and TextWD despite a high perceived risk of both behaviors. This discrepancy was explained by a high perceived controllability, the effect of social norms, call importance, and lack of effective law enforcement. The intervention strategies reviewed were also found to be ineffective over the long term. The systematic review reveals that young drivers are an at-risk group for distracted driving. We propose preventative strategies based on identifying factors that influence drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD as well as by reviewing strategies found in the reviewed articles. Further research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of these proposed strategies.

  18. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil

    2008-07-01

    Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. Inspired by a recent case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. 5 of 15 (33.3%) phones from company A and 3 of 26 (11.5%) phones from company B showed at least 1 positive reaction. 3 phones had more than 1 positive DMG spots. This study documents that excessive nickel release (i.e. a positive DMG test) is relatively frequent in a sample of cell phones from the Danish market. Prolonged use of cell phones may in some cases fulfil the criteria for items included in the European Union Nickel Directive. We believe that this new cause of nickel dermatitis should be carefully followed and that regulatory steps may be necessary.

  19. Problematic internet and cell phone use in Spanish teenagers and young students

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro Lusar, Andrés; Griffiths, Mark; Oberst, Ursula; Cladellas i Pros, Ramon; Talarn Caparrós, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Addiction to the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has become an important research topic. The aims of the present study were to determine the problematic uses of Internet and cell phones in Spanish teenagers and young students and analyze the predictive capacity of these problematic uses to explain scores on the CERI (Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con Internet) and CERM (Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con el Móvil). Three questionnaires were applied to 1...

  20. Genotoxicity assessment data for exfoliated buccal cells exposed to mobile phone radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy mobile phone users aged 18–30 y.o. provided exfoliated buccal cells samples from the right and left inner cheeks. A total of 2000 cells per subject were screened for the presence of micronuclei as a sign of genotoxic damage, according to the mobile phone use profile of each user. Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, Mobile phones, Genotoxicity, Micronuclei, Exfoliated buccal cells, Feulgen stain

  1. Questionnaire survey to assess the pattern and characteristics of cell-phone usage among Indian oncologists

    OpenAIRE

    Anusheel Munshi; Debanarayan Dutta; Pramod Tike; Jai Prakash Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Obtain baseline data of cell-phone usage in the medical (MO), surgical (SO) and radiation (RO) oncology community practicing in India. Materials and Methods: Indigenously prepared cell-phone usage related questionnaire was used in the present study after approval by the Institutional Ethics/Scientific Committees. The questionnaire had 41 items and was made to assess the cell-phone usage parameters, utility in clinical practice, awareness, and to compare parameters between oncology...

  2. Teaching Teenagers with Autism to Answer Cell Phones and Seek Assistance When Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Hannah; Taylor, Bridget A; Rodriguez, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Three participants with autism were taught to answer a cell phone and to follow directions to seek assistance when lost in community settings. During baseline, none of the participants answered a cell phone or sought assistance. Following instruction at school and in the community, all participants learned to answer the cell phone and follow instructions to seek assistance from a naïve adult by exchanging a communication card. Generalization probes were conducted in non-training community sit...

  3. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells

    OpenAIRE

    DAROIT,Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the m...

  4. Determination of the Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Student Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ann Blankinship

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sampling of common use items (e.g., student cell phones for bacterial presence, identification, and antibiotic resistance profiling helps students to recognize the need for routine cleaning of personal items and encourages thoughtful use of currently available medications. This multilab period project can be used to teach or reinforce several methods from general microbiology including aseptic technique, isolation streak, serial dilution, spread plating, Kirby Bauer testing, unknown identification, and media production. The data generated can be saved and added to each semester, thus providing a data set that reflects a local trend of antibiotic resistance.      

  5. Towards autonomous lab-on-a-chip devices for cell phone biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Germán; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2016-03-15

    Modern cell phones are a ubiquitous resource with a residual capacity to accommodate chemical sensing and biosensing capabilities. From the different approaches explored to capitalize on such resource, the use of autonomous disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices-conceived as only accessories to complement cell phones-underscores the possibility to entirely retain cell phones' ubiquity for distributed biosensing. The technology and principles exploited for autonomous LOC devices are here selected and reviewed focusing on their potential to serve cell phone readout configurations. Together with this requirement, the central aspects of cell phones' resources that determine their potential for analytical detection are examined. The conversion of these LOC concepts into universal architectures that are readable on unaccessorized phones is discussed within this context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  7. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Singh, Aspinder; Hamada, Alaa; Kesari, Kavindra

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  8. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Zajdel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one’s psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. Objectives: The aim of the study was: (1 to evaluate the infl uence of the sound of a ringing mobile phone on the complex reaction time (RT score in healthy subjects (owners, and (2 to check if there are any differences in RT when a landline phone and mobile phone ring. Methods: To assess RT we used our system and protocol of examination, previously validated. The examination conditions were standardized. All tests were performed in the same room with the same light and general acoustic conditions. The test group consisted of 23 women and 24 men, aged 19–24 years. The examination comprised 4 sessions: Training Session (TS during which the subjects were accustomed with the application and sample stimuli, Control Session (CS with no telephone ringing, Landline Session (LS with landline phone ringing, Mobile Session (MS with mobile phone ringing. Results: The median RT in the study population was signifi cantly elongated (p 0.05. Conclusions: We think that the specifi c ‘bond’ between a person and their private phone can signifi cantly disrupt their attention and thus affect the attention-demanding activities.

  9. Usability of Mobile Phones in Physical Activity-Rrelated Research: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Courtney M.; Thompson, Dixie L.; Bassett, David R., Jr.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile phones for physical activity (PA) promotion and assessment represents an attractive research area because this technology is characterized by a widespread reach and dynamic features. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of mobile phone-based approaches for encouraging and assessing PA.…

  10. Digital Devices, Distraction and Student Performance - Does Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, A. R.; Wilcox, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in the use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use for student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight introductory science courses at one large public university in 2010-2011. Results show a significant negative correlation between in-class cell phone use and overall course grades, corresponding to a drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are consistent with recent research[1] suggesting students cannot multi-task nearly as effectively as they think they can. While 75% of students reported regular cell phone use, observation data suggests undergraduates typically under-report the frequency of in-class digital device use. [1] Ophir, E., Nass, C. and A.D. Wagner. 2009. "Cognitive Control in Media Multi-Taskers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106: 15583-15587.

  11. Cell phone-based health education messaging improves health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (Pliteracy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.

  12. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents' perceptions of problematic use. The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to "virtual addictions".

  13. Microbial flora on cell-phones in an orthopedic surgery room before and after decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgier, J; Coste, J-F; Cavaignac, E; Bayle-Iniguez, X; Chiron, P; Bonnevialle, P; Laffosse, J-M

    2016-12-01

    Cell-phones are the typical kind of object brought into the operating room from outside by hospital staff. A great effort is made to reduce the level of potentially contaminating bacteria in the operating room, and introducing these devices may run counter to good practice. The study hypothesis was that cell-phones are colonized by several strains of bacteria and may constitute a source of nosocomial contamination. The main study objective was to screen for bacterial colonies on the surfaces of cell-phones introduced in an orthopedic surgery room. The secondary objective was to assess the efficacy of decontamination. Samples were taken from the cell-phones of hospital staff (surgeons, anaesthetists, nurses, radiology operators, and external medical representatives) entering the operating room of the university hospital center orthopedic surgery department, Toulouse (France). Sampling used Count Tact(®) contact gel, without wiping the phone down in advance. Both sides of the phone were sampled, before and after decontamination with a pad imbibed with 0.25% Surfanios(®) Premium disinfectant. A nasal sample was also taken to investigate the correlation between Staphylococcus aureus in the nasal cavities and on the cell-phone. Fifty-two cell-phones were sampled. Before decontamination, the mean number of colony-forming units (CFU) was 258 per phone (range, 0-1,664). After decontamination, it was 127 (range, 0-800) (P=0.0001). Forty-nine cell-phones bore CFUs before decontamination (94%), and 39 after (75%) (P=0.02). Cell-phones are CFU carriers and may thus lead to contamination. Guidelines should be drawn up to encourage cleaning phones regularly and to reduce levels of use within the operating room. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Questionnaire survey to assess the pattern and characteristics of cell-phone usage among Indian oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Anusheel; Dutta, Debanarayan; Tike, Pramod; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Obtain baseline data of cell-phone usage in the medical (MO), surgical (SO) and radiation (RO) oncology community practicing in India. Indigenously prepared cell-phone usage related questionnaire was used in the present study after approval by the Institutional Ethics/Scientific Committees. The questionnaire had 41 items and was made to assess the cell-phone usage parameters, utility in clinical practice, awareness, and to compare parameters between oncology specialties. Between November 2009 and January 2010, the questionnaire was sent as an E-mail attachment to 200 oncologists in India. In all, 123 responses were received (61% responders); 84 (68.3%) were RO. The median age of responders was 35 years. Overall, 80% felt handicapped without cell-phone. The Mean cell-phone score, an index to assess overall usefulness over a score of 1-10, was 6.46 (median 7, standard deviation 1.709). There was no significant difference between RO, MO and SO in duration of usage (P = 0.235), number of cell-phones (P = 0.496), call duration per day (P = 0.490) and dependence on cell-phone (P = 0.574). Age of starting cell-phone usage was earlier in RO (P = 0.086). Professional usage was significantly more by MO and SO compared to RO (P cell-phone hazards compared to RO (P cell-phones a useful tool in patient care. More RO are aware of potential cell-phone hazards compared to non-RO's.

  15. Short-term effects of a teenage driver cell phone restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Robert D; Goodwin, Arthur H; McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A

    2009-05-01

    On December 1, 2006, North Carolina began prohibiting use of any mobile communication device by drivers younger than 18. The current study examined the effects of the law on teenage drivers' cell phone use. Teenage drivers were observed at high schools in North Carolina 1-2 months before and approximately 5 months after the law took effect. The proportion of teenagers using cell phones did not change significantly (11.0% before the law took effect, 11.8% after). Cell phone use among teenage drivers at high schools in South Carolina, an adjacent state without a teenage driver phone ban, was stable at about 13%. Interviews were conducted with parents and teenagers in North Carolina both before and after the law took effect. In post-law interviews, teenagers were more likely than parents to say they knew about the cell phone restriction (64% vs. 39%), but support for the ban was greater among parents (95% vs. 74%). Only 22% of teenagers and 13% of parents believed the law was being enforced fairly often or a lot. Although the proportion of teenagers who reported using phones while driving declined somewhat following the law, about half admitted they used their phones, if they had driven, on the day prior to the interview. Overall, the findings suggest that North Carolina's cell phone restriction had little to no effect on teenage drivers' use of cell phones shortly after the law took effect.

  16. [Internet and cell phone addiction: passing fad or disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Carbonell, Xavier; Beranuy, Marta; Castellana, Montserrat; Chamarro, Ander; Oberst, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) generate new styles of meeting people or connecting with friends or strangers. In this context, the internet and the mobile phone deserve special attention. This article deals with the maladaptive use of these technologies. By reviewing the literature published between 1991 and 2005 and indexed in the databases of PsycINFO, Medline, Psicodoc, IME, and ISOC, we aim to determine whether maladaptive use of these technologies can be considered a mental disorder, and if so, of which type. We describe the psychological phenomena of maladaptive use of the internet and mobile phones, we review research on prevalence and possible risk groups, and finally we discuss some of the criticisms made with regard to the existence and classification of this disorder. It is concluded that excessive use of the internet can lead to a mental disorder of the addictive type, which can particularly affect individuals with special emotional needs, as well as adolescents and young adults. Among specific applications of the internet, a major risk is found for the use of communicative and synchronic applications, such as chats and online role games, since they permit hyperpersonal communication, playing with different identities, and projections and dissociation without consequences in real life. Furthermore, the internet can play an important role in the development and maintenance of other addictions, such as pathological gambling and sex addiction. In contrast to the case of the internet, maladaptive use of mobile phones may be considered abuse, but not addiction, since their use does not lead to the rapid emotional changes or the playing with identities that can take place in chats and online role games.

  17. Cost-effective and rapid blood analysis on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. We evaluated the performance of this cell-phone based blood analysis platform using anonymous human blood samples and achieved comparable results to a standard bench-top hematology analyser. Test results can either be stored on the cell-phone memory or be transmitted to a central server, providing remote diagnosis opportunities even in field settings.

  18. Relationship of Near-Crash/Crash Risk to Time Spent on a Cell Phone While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine in a naturalistic driving setting the dose-response relationship between cell phone usage while driving and risk of a crash or near crash. How is the increasing use of cell phones by drivers associated with overall near-crash/crash risk (i.e., during driving times both on and off the phone)? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. A random sample was selected comprised of 4 trips from each month that each driver was in the study, and in-vehicle video was used to classify driver behavior. The proportion of driving time spent using a cell phone was estimated for each 3-month period and correlated with overall crash and near-crash rates for each period. Thus, it was possible to test whether changes in an individual driver's cell phone use over time were associated with changes in overall near-crash/crash risk. Drivers in the study spent 11.7% of their driving time interacting with a cell phone, primarily talking on the phone (6.5%) or simply holding the phone in their hand or lap (3.7%). The risk of a near-crash/crash event was approximately 17% higher when the driver was interacting with a cell phone, due primarily to actions of reaching for/answering/dialing, which nearly triples risk (relative risk = 2.84). However, the amount of driving time spent interacting with a cell phone did not affect a driver's overall near-crash/crash risk. Vehicle speeds within 6 s of the beginning of each call on average were 5-6 mph lower than speeds at other times. Results of this naturalistic driving study are consistent with the observation that increasing cell phone use in the general driving population has not led to increased crash rates. Although cell phone use can be distracting and crashes have occurred during this distraction, overall crash rates appear unaffected by changes in the rate of cell phone use, even for individual drivers. Drivers compensate somewhat for the distraction

  19. The Relationship Between Cell Phone Use and Academic Performance in a Sample of U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lepp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cell phone is ever-present on college campuses and is frequently used in settings where learning occurs. This study assessed the relationship between cell phone use and actual college grade point average (GPA after controlling for known predictors. As such, 536 undergraduate students from 82 self-reported majors at a large, public university were sampled. A hierarchical regression (R2 = .449 demonstrated that cell phone use was significantly (p < .001 and negatively (β = −.164 related to actual college GPA after controlling for demographic variables, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, self-efficacy for academic achievement, and actual high school GPA, which were all significant predictors (p < .05. Thus, after controlling for other established predictors, increased cell phone use was associated with decreased academic performance. Although more research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms, findings suggest a need to sensitize students and educators about the potential academic risks associated with high-frequency cell phone use.

  20. ICAT: Development of an Internet-Based Data Collection Method for Ecological Momentary Assessment Using Personal Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Labhart, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Rapid advances in mobile data-transfer technologies offer new possibilities in the use of cell phones to conduct assessments of a person's natural environment in real time. This paper describes features of a new Internet-based, cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), which consists of a retrospective baseline assessment combined with text messages sent to the participants' personal cell phones providing a hyperlink to an Internet-stored cell phone-optimized questionnaire. Two participation conditions were used to test variations in response burden. Retention rates, completion rates, and response times in different subgroups were tested by means of χ² tests, Cox regression, and logistic regression. Among the 237 initial participants, we observed a retention rate of 90.3% from the baseline assessment to the cell-phone part, and 80.4% repeated participation in the 30 daily assessments. Each day, 40-70% of the questionnaires were returned, a fourth in less than 3 minutes. Qualitative interviews underscored the ease of use of ICAT. This technique appears to be an innovative, convenient, and cost-effective way of collecting data on situational characteristics while minimizing recall bias. Because of its flexibility, ICAT can be applied in various disciplines, whether as part of small pilot studies or large-scale, crosscultural, and multisite research projects.

  1. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  2. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Don't Put Them Away Just Yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Carolyn Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    As the number of students with cell phones has steadily increased over the past decade, these technological advances have caused trepidation among educators over behavioral issues, from off-task activities to cheating (Prensky, 2005). On the other hand, mobile learning, as well as some tools to use with cell phones, are easy to set up, easy to…

  3. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birks, Laura; Guxens, Mònica; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Alexander, Jan; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Gallastegi, Mara; Ha, Mina; Haugen, Margaretha; Huss, Anke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880; Kheifets, Leeka; Lim, Hyungryul; Olsen, Jørn; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Sudan, Madhuri; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Cardis, Elisabeth; Vrijheid, Martine

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal cell phone use and child behavioral problems, but findings have been inconsistent and based on retrospective assessment of cell phone use. This study aimed to assess this association in a multi-national analysis, using data

  4. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birks, Laura; Guxens, Mònica; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Alexander, Jan; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Gallastegi, Mara; Ha, Mina; Haugen, Margaretha; Huss, Anke; Kheifets, Leeka; Lim, Hyungryul; Olsen, Jørn; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Sudan, Madhuri; Vermeulen, Roel; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Cardis, Elisabeth; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal cell phone use and child behavioral problems, but findings have been inconsistent and based on retrospective assessment of cell phone use. This study aimed to assess this association in a multi-national analysis, using data from three

  5. Cell phone exposures and hearing loss in children in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002.

  6. Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

  7. Cell Phone Usage among Adolescents in Uganda: Acceptability for Relaying Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Bull, Sheana; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in cell phone use has manifested a growing interest in using this technology for health promotion. The portability and "always on" features of the cell phone, along with increasing capability for the devices to carry and transfer data suggest that they will reach more people than computers and the Internet in coming years.…

  8. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

  9. The Educative Potential of Cell Phones in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguth, Brad M.

    2013-01-01

    Over 75 percent of teens have a cell phone, and today's youth are increasingly turning to their cell phones to communicate and access information (Pew Internet 2009). As teens gain access and use mobile devices outside of the classroom, there's been a growing movement for teachers to enlist the digital tools students really use and are…

  10. Teens and distracted driving : texting, talking and other uses of the cell phone behind the wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-16

    This study investigated cell phone use and texting while driving, by teenage drivers, in the United States. It found that one third of 16-17 year old teenagers who text do so while driving. 50% of 16-17 year old teenagers have spoken on cell phones w...

  11. Tools for School: Student Fluency and Perception of Cell Phones Used for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble-Thaden, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Technology is changing the way society interacts, communicates, collaborates, and learns. Improved cell phone capabilities and an ever increasing amount of cell phone applications allow individuals to connect globally and afford almost instantaneous access to information inside and outside the classroom. The majority of students today possesses…

  12. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Roni; Avdalimov, Angelika; Freud, Tamar

    2011-03-23

    The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%). Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007). They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001). More physicians (79.7%) would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%). However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001). There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039). The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number.

  13. Use of cell phones and computers for health promotion and tobacco cessation by American Indian college students in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jo Ann W; Nelson, Lonnie A; Young, Sara L; Buchwald, Dedra; Roll, John

    2017-01-01

    Cell phones and personal computers have become popular mechanisms for delivering and monitoring health information and education, including the delivery of tobacco cessation education and support. Tobacco smoking is prevalent among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs), with 26% AI/AN adult men smoking compared to 19% of Caucasian adult males and 22% of African American adult males. Smoking is even more prevalent in Northern Plains AI populations, with 42% of men and women reporting current smoking. The literature on the availability and use of cell phones and computers, or the acceptability of use in health promotion among AIs and ANs, is scant. The authors report findings from a survey of AI students regarding their cell phone and computer access and use. The survey was conducted to inform the development and implementation of a text messaging smoking cessation intervention modeled on a program developed and used in Australia. A 22-item paper and pencil survey was administered to students at tribal colleges in rural Montana. The survey questions included cell phone ownership and access to service, use of cell phones and computers for health information, demographics, tobacco use habits, and interest in an intervention study. The study was reviewed and determined exempt by the institutional review boards at the tribal colleges and the lead research university. The study was conducted by researchers at the tribal colleges. Survey respondents received $10 when the survey was completed and returned. Data analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Among 153 AI respondents, the mean age was 29 years, range was 18-64 years. Overall, 40% reported smoking cigarettes with a mean age of 16 years at initiation. A total of 131 participants (86%) had cell phones and, of those, 122 (93%) had unlimited text messaging. A total of 104 (68%) had smart phones (with internet access), although 40% of those with smart phones reported that

  14. The Correlation between Cell Phone Use and Sleep Quality in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Bayatiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The negative health effects of electromagnetic radiation and psychological dependence are among the major consequences of widespread cell phone use in the general population, especially among adolescents. In this study, the relationship between cell phone use and sleep quality parameters was evaluated. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of 820 students (305 males and 515 females, recruited from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. The participants completed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and Cell-phone Overuse Scale (COS; the validity of these questionnaires had been previously confirmed in the Iranian population. Information on demographic characteristics and variables associated with cell phone exposure, such as the frequency and duration of phone calls and number of messages was collected in a separate questionnaire. Results Data analysis showed that cell phone overuse was significantly correlated with sleep quality and its components. Moreover, the results indicated that the global PSQI score and some sleep components were significantly correlated with several variables related to cell phone use. Based on the findings, the mean PSQI score was significantly different among heavy and light cell phone users (P

  15. Brief behavioral self-regulation counseling for HIV treatment adherence delivered by cell phone: an initial test of concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey; Swetzes, Connie; Amaral, Christina M; White, Denise; Jones, Mich'l; Grebler, Tamar; Eaton, Lisa

    2011-05-01

    Affordable and effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions are needed for many patients to promote positive treatment outcomes and prevent viral resistance. We conducted a two-arm randomized trial (n = 40 men and women receiving and less than 95% adherent to ART) to test a single office session followed by four biweekly cell phone counseling sessions that were grounded in behavioral self-management model of medication adherence using data from phone-based unannounced pill counts to provide feedback-guided adherence strategies. The control condition received usual care and matched office and cell phone/pill count contacts. Participants were baseline assessed and followed with biweekly unannounced pill counts and 4-month from baseline computerized interviews (39/40 retained). Results showed that the self-regulation counseling delivered by cell phone demonstrated significant improvements in adherence compared to the control condition; adherence improved from 87% of pills taken at baseline to 94% adherence 4 months after baseline, p self-efficacy (p < 0.05) and use of behavioral strategies for ART adherence (p < 0.05). We conclude that the outcomes from this test of concept trial warrant further research on cell phone-delivered self-regulation counseling in a larger and more rigorous trial.

  16. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE WIDESPREAD INTERACT OF THE MODERN CELL PHONE DEVICES WITH THE CHILDREN AND THE SIDE EFFECTS ON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Waseem Saad Nsaif*

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the mobile phones and the wireless internet, which spread around the world, studies and interest in this subjects began, and their effect in the human body, but because of time constraints on this invention, until now there are no studies or research that specifically describes the damage to the cell phones signals waves and the internet signals waves in the human body, so that be required approximately thirty years of continuous research on a specific group of people are u...

  18. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests.

  19. Prospect for Cell Phones as Instructional Tools in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Roksana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…

  20. Using Cell Phones for Data Collection: Benefits, Outcomes, and Intervention Possibilities with Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Schmitz, Rachel M

    2017-03-01

    While many homeless youth use cell phones to stay socially connected, and maintaining positive social ties can contribute to pathways out of homelessness, little is known about how using cell phones for data collection can improve these young people's lives. We conducted baseline and follow-up interviews with 150 homeless youth as well as provided them with a cell phone for 30 days to gather daily data using short message service (SMS) surveying. This paper examines youths' opinions about study participation and how they used the cell phone. Results revealed that youth liked participating in the study because the SMS texting portion, for example, made them feel that someone still cared about them, prompted them to self-reflect on their life, and allowed them to make a difference (e.g. educating the public about homelessness). Despite numerous benefits of study participation, improvements that youth discussed for future studies included changing the format of our text questions to allow for explanations and the use of higher quality phones. In terms of study phone usage, youth reported using the phone to schedule appointments, contact employers, and to keep in touch with family and friends. Finally, we highlight ways in which cell phones via SMS could be used with homeless youth to provide informational resources along with educational and employment opportunities, all of which are important intervention strategies in improving life situations for this population.

  1. National School Debate: Banning Cell Phones in Public Schools: Analyzing a National School and Community Relations Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clarence; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    School systems in America face many critical challenges pertaining to regulating cell phone use by students in today's schools. School executives and classroom teachers face challenges daily relative to how to effectively deal with student's using cell phones. There are many drawbacks and benefits for cell phone use by students. The authors…

  2. Investigation of cell phones as a potential source of bacterial contamination in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Irshad A; Patel, Nirav H; Chamberland, Robin R; Kaar, Scott G

    2015-02-04

    Cell phone use has become common in areas of the hospital, including the operating room. The purpose of this study was to document the frequency of bacterial contamination on the cell phones of orthopaedic surgeons in the operating room and to determine whether a standardized disinfecting protocol decreased the rate of bacterial contamination and the amount of organic material. Orthopaedic attending and resident cell phones were swabbed on the front and back in the operating room with adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence to quantify organic material contamination and culture swabs to evaluate bacterial contamination. Adenosine triphosphate was quantified with use of relative light units. One photon of light was emitted for each molecule of adenosine triphosphate. Thresholds of 250 and 500 relative light units were used. The phones were cleaned with a cleaning wipe and were retested. One week later, a final set of studies was obtained. Fifty-three participants were enrolled in this study. Pathogenic bacteria were defined as those commonly causing surgical site infections. Of fifty-three cell phones, 83% (forty-four cell phones) had pathogenic bacteria at initial testing, 8% (four cell phones) had pathogenic bacteria after disinfection, and 75% (forty cell phones) had pathogenic bacteria one week later. The mean result (and standard deviation) at initial testing was 3488 ± 2998 relative light units, which reduced after disinfection to 200 ± 123 relative light units, indicating a cleaned surface, but increased one week later to 1825 ± 1699 relative light units, indicating a poorly cleaned surface. The cell phones of orthopaedic surgeons had a high rate of pathogenic bacteria and organic material contamination. Both were decreased after a single disinfecting process. However, recontamination occurred. It seems prudent to routinely disinfect them or avoid their use in the operating room. The current study investigates orthopaedic surgeons' cell phones as a

  3. Increasing cell phone usage among Hispanics: implications for telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Elkasabi, Mahmoud; Streja, Leanne

    2012-06-01

    We examined whether the widespread assumption that Hispanics are subject to greater noncoverage bias in landline telephone surveys because they are more likely than other ethnic groups to use cell phones exclusively was supported by data. Data came from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and the 2009 California Health Interview Survey. We considered estimates derived from surveys of adults with landline telephones biased and compared them with findings for all adults. Noncoverage bias was the difference between them, examined separately for Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. Differences in demographic and health characteristics between cell-only and landline users were larger for non-Hispanic Whites than Hispanics; cell usage was much higher for Hispanics than non-Hispanic Whites. The existence, pattern, and magnitude of noncoverage bias were comparable between the groups. We found no evidence to support a larger noncoverage bias for Hispanics than non-Hispanic Whites in landline telephone surveys. This finding should be considered in the design and interpretation of telephone surveys.

  4. Work productivity in rhinitis using cell phones: The MASK pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Bewick, M.; Arnavielhe, S.; Mathieu-Dupas, E.; Murray, R.; Bedbrook, A.; Caimmi, D. P.; Vandenplas, O.; Hellings, P. W.; Bachert, C.; Anto, J. M.; Bergmann, K. C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bosnic-Anticevich, S.; Bouchard, J.; Canonica, G. W.; Chavannes, N. H.; Cruz, A. A.; Dahl, R.; Demoly, P.; de Vries, G.; Devillier, P.; Fink-Wagner, A.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Guldemond, N. A.; Haahtela, T.; Hellqvist-Dahl, B.; Just, J.; Keil, T.; Klimek, L.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Laune, D.; Larenas-Linnemann, D.; Mullol, J.; Pereira, A. M.; Carreiro-Martins, P.; Melén, E.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Nogueira-Silva, L.; O'Hehir, R. E.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Passalacqua, G.; Portejoie, F.; Price, D.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sheikh, A.; Simons, F. E. R.; Spranger, O.; Todo Bom, A.; Tomazic, P. V.; Triggiani, M.; Valero, A.; Valovirta, E.; Valiulis, A.; van Eerd, M.; Wickman, M.; Young, I.; Zuberbier, T.

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis often impairs social life and performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use cell phone data to assess the impact on work productivity of uncontrolled rhinitis assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, Google Play Store and Apple App

  5. Effect of cell phone-like electromagnetic radiation on primary human thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Hilly, Ohad; Strenov, Yulia; Tzabari, Cochava; Hauptman, Yirmi; Feinmesser, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency energy (RFE) emitted by cell phones on human thyroid primary cells. Primary thyroid cell culture was prepared from normal thyroid tissue obtained from patients who underwent surgery at our department. Subconfluent thyroid cells were irradiated under different conditions inside a cell incubator using a device that simulates cell phone-RFE. Proliferation of control and irradiated cells was assessed by the immunohistochemical staining of antigen Kiel clone-67 (Ki-67) and tumor suppressor p53 (p53) expression. DNA ploidy and the stress biomarkers heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Our cells highly expressed thyroglobulin (Tg) and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) confirming the origin of the tissue. None of the irradiation conditions evaluated here had an effect neither on the proliferation marker Ki-67 nor on p53 expression. DNA ploidy was also not affected by RFE, as well as the expression of the biomarkers HSP70 and ROS. Our conditions of RFE exposure seem to have no potential carcinogenic effect on human thyroid cells. Moreover, common biomarkers usually associated to environmental stress also remained unchanged. We failed to find an association between cell phone-RFE and thyroid cancer. Additional studies are recommended.

  6. Homeless patients' perceptions about using cell phones to manage medications and attend appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczygemba, Leticia R; Cox, Lauren S; Marks, Samantha A; Robinson, Margaret A; Goode, Jean-Venable R; Jafari, Nellie

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) describe homeless persons' access and use of cell phones and their perceptions about using cell phone alerts to help manage medications and attend health care appointments and (2) identify demographic characteristics, medication use and appointment history and perceptions associated with interest in receiving cell phone alerts to manage medications and appointments. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 at a homeless clinic in Virginia. The questionnaire comprised items about cell phone usage, ownership and functions such as text messaging. Participants reported medication use and appointment history, perceptions about cell phone alerts and interest in receiving alerts to manage medications and appointments. Descriptive statistics for all variables are reported. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of interest in using a cell phone to manage medications and appointments. A total of 290 participants completed the survey; 89% had a cell phone. Seventy-seven percent were interested in appointment reminders, whereas 66%, 60% and 54% were interested in refill reminders, medication taking reminders and medication information messages respectively. Those who believed reminders were helpful were more likely to be interested in medication taking, refill and appointment reminder messages compared to those who did not believe reminders were helpful. A history of running out of medicine and forgetting appointments were predictors of interest in refill and appointment reminders. Mobile technology is a feasible method for communicating medication and appointment information to those experiencing or at risk for homelessness. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. The influence of perceived privacy on customer loyalty in mobile phone services-An Empirical Research in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Samsudin Wahab; Ahmad Suffian Mohd Zahari; Khaled Al Momani; Nor Azila Mohd Nor

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the privacy of personal information and communications is the top reason many consumers have stayed out off the online services including mobile phone services. The keen competitive in the communication and mobile phone service market place and the increasing numbers of mobile phone users all over the world has influence the researcher to investigate privacy as antecedents of customer loyalty in mobile phone services industry. Out of 800 questionnaires distributed, four hundreds...

  8. A Study to Assess Economic Burden and Practice of Cell Phone Disposal among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuj, Mittal; Rajasekar, Vedapriya Dande; Krishnagopal, Lavanya

    2013-04-01

    Our country India is having 919.17 million cell phone users; currently this is the second largest number of cell phone users after China. The youth spend a good amount on talk time and purchasing cell phone handsets. Discarding of cell phone is another issue which needs attention because of generation of e-wastes, which leads to environmental pollution. To assess economic burden and practice of cell phone disposal among medical students. It is a cross-sectional study where self filled questionnaire were given to randomly chosen students. Out of total 311 participants, 133 were males and 178 were females. Mean monthly expenditure of students was Rs. 2787. Out of 311 students only 2 (0.64%) boys were not using cell phones. It was observed that boys are more inclined towards cell phone than girls, as number of previous handsets, money spent on buying handsets and therefore average monthly costs of handsets were significantly higher among boys than girls. Most common reason for frequent changing of handsets was that they were outdated (46.14%). 47.13% of handsets were disposed by exchanging or giving to somebody for use, but 36.57% of handsets were lying waste or thrown away. As noticed that a good amount of money was spent on cell phones, students and parents should be counseled regarding cost effective use of cell phone. An effort should be made to dispose off handset in environment friendly way, which can be done by creating awareness about collection centers and strengthening collection chain.

  9. Post and during event effect of cell phone talking and texting on driving performance--a driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Codjoe, Julius; Ishak, Sherif; McCarter, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have been done in the field of driver distraction, specifically on the use of cell phone for either conversation or texting while driving. Researchers have focused on the driving performance of drivers when they were actually engaged in the task; that is, during the texting or phone conversation event. However, it is still unknown whether the impact of cell phone usages ceases immediately after the end of task. The primary objective of this article is to analyze the post-event effect of cell phone usage (texting and conversation) in order to verify whether the distracting effect lingers after the actual event has ceased. This study utilizes a driving simulator study of 36 participants to test whether a significant decrease in driver performance occurs during cell phone usage and after usage. Surrogate measures used to represent lateral and longitudinal control of the vehicle were standard deviation (SD) of lane position and mean velocity, respectively. RESULTS suggest that there was no significant decrease in driver performance (both lateral and longitudinal control) during and after the cell phone conversation. For the texting event, there were significant decreases in driver performance in both the longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle during the actual texting task. The diminished longitudinal control ceased immediately after the texting event but the diminished lateral control lingered for an average of 3.38 s. The number of text messages exchanged did not affect the magnitude or duration of the diminished lateral control. The result indicates that the distraction and subsequent elevated crash risk of texting while driving linger even after the texting event has ceased. This finding has safety and policy implications in reducing distracted driving.

  10. Humanistic Antidotes to Social Media/Cell Phone Addiction in the College Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This article describes “humanistic antidotes” to offset the widespread social media/cell phone addiction prevalent in current US college classrooms. The inappropriate use of cell phones to engage in social media in college classrooms is a pervasive problem that many college instructors have complained about.  The dominant focus of this article is in humanistic education, in which the author's efforts at getting psychology college students to put away their cell phones, “talk with each other,”...

  11. Combined effects of varicocele and cell phones on semen and hormonal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Ingrid; Mohamad Al-Ali, Badereddin

    2017-10-13

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a combined effect of varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets on semen and hormonal parameters. A retrospective analysis of 468 men attending an infertility clinic from 1993-2007 was performed. Varicoceles were determined by clinical examination and patients were questioned on cell phone usage and storage fashion. Semen samples were analyzed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 1999. Serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assessed. There was a significant effect of cell phone storage in trousers pockets and varicocele in multivariate analysis (both p phone storage in trousers pockets showed an influence on the percentage of normal sperm morphology and LH (both p phone storage in trousers pockets did not show a combined effect (p = 0.76). This analysis showed an inverse relation between sperm concentration and degree of varicocele, with lower concentrations in higher grade varicoceles. Testosterone was significantly higher in higher grade varicoceles, which could reflect a compensatory mechanism to the impaired testicular function. Cell phone storage in trousers pockets showed an effect on LH and sperm morphology. A combined effect of varicocele and cell phone storage in trousers pockets was not detected.

  12. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Strien, Rob T; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and children's cognitive function at 5-6 years of age. Cross-sectional study on children aged 5-6 years from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, the Netherlands (n=2354). Residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations was estimated with a 3D geospatial radio wave propagation model. Residential presence of indoor sources (cordless phone base stations and Wi-Fi) and children's cell phone and cordless phone use was reported by the mother. Speed of information processing, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and visuomotor coordination was assessed using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks. Residential presence of RF-EMF indoor sources was associated with an improved speed of information processing. Higher residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations and presence of indoor sources was associated with an improved inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility whereas we observed a reduced inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility with higher personal cordless phone use. Higher residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations was associated with a reduced visuomotor coordination whereas we observed an improved visuomotor coordination with residential presence of RF-EMF indoor sources and higher personal cell phone use. We found inconsistent associations between different sources of RF-EMF exposure and cognitive function in children aged 5-6 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The attentional cost of receiving a cell phone notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothart, Cary; Mitchum, Ainsley; Yehnert, Courtney

    2015-08-01

    It is well documented that interacting with a mobile phone is associated with poorer performance on concurrently performed tasks because limited attentional resources must be shared between tasks. However, mobile phones generate auditory or tactile notifications to alert users of incoming calls and messages. Although these notifications are generally short in duration, they can prompt task-irrelevant thoughts, or mind wandering, which has been shown to damage task performance. We found that cellular phone notifications alone significantly disrupted performance on an attention-demanding task, even when participants did not directly interact with a mobile device during the task. The magnitude of observed distraction effects was comparable in magnitude to those seen when users actively used a mobile phone, either for voice calls or text messaging. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-01

    The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way.

  15. Innovation on a Hospital Perinatal Unit: Cell Phone Use by Nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrilak, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the impact and effect of cell phone communication technology on reducing nurse task frequency and time spent on activities that could more appropriately be accomplished by hospital support staff...

  16. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students’ Addiction to Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Findings Results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that depression and avoidant attachment style were the best predictors of students’ cell phone addiction (R2 = 0.23). Conclusion The results of this study highlighted the predictive value of depression and avoidant attachment style concerning students’ cell phone addiction. PMID:26885356

  17. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students' Addiction to Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that depression and avoidant attachment style were the best predictors of students' cell phone addiction (R(2) = 0.23). The results of this study highlighted the predictive value of depression and avoidant attachment style concerning students' cell phone addiction.

  18. A study on some psychological health effects of cell-phone usage amongst college going students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acharya, Indranil; Acharya, Jayanti P; Waghrey, Divya

    2013-01-01

    .... on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in colleges in a big city...

  19. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be...

  20. Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate why people talk on a cell phone while driving and why they also support legislation to restrict this practice. Participants completed a survey about their driving attitudes, abilities, and behaviors, and performed...

  1. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space has the potential to be cost...

  2. Hands-free versus hand-held cell phone conversation on a braking response by young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Joy L; Switzer, Jamie R

    2007-10-01

    As some states allow motorists to use hands-free cell phones only while driving, this study was done to examine some braking responses to see if conversing on these two types of cell phones affects quick responding. College-age drivers (n=25) completed reaction time trials in go/no-go situations under three conditions: control (no cell phone or conversation), and conversing on hands-free and hand-held cell phones. Their task involved moving the right foot from one pedal to another as quickly as possible in response to a visual signal in a lab setting. Significantly slower reaction times, movement times, and total response times were found for both cell phone conditions than for the control but no differences between hands-free and hand-held phone conditions. These findings provide additional support that talking on cell phones, regardless if it is hands-free or hand-held, reduces speed of information processing.

  3. Effect of Cell Phone Radiations on Orofacial Structures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Kumari, Shail; Rao, Srinivasa B

    2017-05-01

    The widespread use of cell phone in recent years has raised many questions whether their use is safe to operator who is exposed to Electromagnetic Waves (EMV). To find out the effect of cell phone emitted radiations on the orofacial structures. To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline, Pubmed and EBSCO host database in December 2016. The search was focused on effect of cell phone on orofacial structures. Among the literature available in English, the screening of the related titles and abstracts was done, and only those articles were selected for full text reading that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The initial literature search resulted in 360 articles out of which only 24 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Cell phone emitted radiations had their adverse effect on salivary glands and facial nerves. Studies showed that cell phone emitted radiations had effects on oral mucosal cells and causes changes in salivary flow rate. It was still unclear that cell phone radiations cause tumours of the salivary glands.

  4. Contamination of cell phones by pathogenic microorganisms: Comparison between hospital staff and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURNIMA R. CHITLANGE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitlange PR. 2014. Contamination of cell phones by pathogenic microorganisms: Comparison between hospital staff and college students. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 203-206. Cell phone (CP is a long range portable electronic device. The cell phone is constantly exposed to arrays of micro organisms, making it a harbour and breeding ground for microbes especially those associated with skin. The adult human is covered with approximately 2m2 of skin with area supporting about 106 bacteria. To check whether the cell phone act as a vector for transmission of various pathogens, a potential study was carried out in microbiology department of Shri Radhakisan Laxminarayan Toshniwal College of Science, Akola. Total 20 cell samples were screened. Two parameters were considered: College students and hospital staff. The isolated bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus subtilis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Streptococci, P. vulgaris were identified on the basis of morphological and cultural characteristics. The main aim of present study was to check the contamination by bacterial pathogens on cell phones and also to check role of cell phone for transmission of pathogens from person to person or not.

  5. Effect of Cell Phone Radiations on Orofacial Structures: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Ramesh; Kumari, Shail; Rao, Srinivasa B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of cell phone in recent years has raised many questions whether their use is safe to operator who is exposed to Electromagnetic Waves (EMV). Aim To find out the effect of cell phone emitted radiations on the orofacial structures. Materials and Methods To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline, Pubmed and EBSCO host database in December 2016. The search was focused on effect of cell phone on orofacial structures. Among the literature available in English, the screening of the related titles and abstracts was done, and only those articles were selected for full text reading that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results The initial literature search resulted in 360 articles out of which only 24 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Conclusion Cell phone emitted radiations had their adverse effect on salivary glands and facial nerves. Studies showed that cell phone emitted radiations had effects on oral mucosal cells and causes changes in salivary flow rate. It was still unclear that cell phone radiations cause tumours of the salivary glands. PMID:28658925

  6. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students? Addiction to Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Find...

  7. The Correlation between Cell Phone Use and Sleep Quality in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Reza Bayatiani; Fatemeh Seif; Akram Bayati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The negative health effects of electromagnetic radiation and psychological dependence are among the major consequences of widespread cell phone use in the general population, especially among adolescents. In this study, the relationship between cell phone use and sleep quality parameters was evaluated. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of 820 students (305 males and 515 females), recruited from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. The participants compl...

  8. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freud Tamar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%. Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007. They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001. More physicians (79.7% would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%. However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001. There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039. Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number.

  9. Determination of Invisible Environmental Pollution Due to Cell Phones EMF Radiation and projections for 2030

    OpenAIRE

    K Parandham Gowd; Gupta, R. P.; Sangeeta Jauhari

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades cell phones usage have altered the land scape of modern human beings in countless ways, in office, at home and on mobility. However, created the environmental electronic pollution due to electromagnetic fields. In spite of the recent studies indicating possible harmful impact of EMF pollution on several species, there is no long term data available on the environmental impacts of EMF pollution and how much power density is radiated in the environment due to cell phones. T...

  10. Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Vini G; Teo, Charles; Kundi, Michael; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2009-09-01

    The debate regarding the health effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. In the present review, the authors attempt to address the following question: is there epidemiologic evidence for an association between long-term cell phone usage and the risk of developing a brain tumor? Included with this meta-analysis of the long-term epidemiologic data are a brief overview of cell phone technology and discussion of laboratory data, biological mechanisms, and brain tumor incidence. In order to be included in the present meta-analysis, studies were required to have met all of the following criteria: (i) publication in a peer-reviewed journal; (ii) inclusion of participants using cell phones for > or = 10 years (ie, minimum 10-year "latency"); and (iii) incorporation of a "laterality" analysis of long-term users (ie, analysis of the side of the brain tumor relative to the side of the head preferred for cell phone usage). This is a meta-analysis incorporating all 11 long-term epidemiologic studies in this field. The results indicate that using a cell phone for > or = 10 years approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same ("ipsilateral") side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use. The data achieve statistical significance for glioma and acoustic neuroma but not for meningioma. The authors conclude that there is adequate epidemiologic evidence to suggest a link between prolonged cell phone usage and the development of an ipsilateral brain tumor.

  11. Cell Phone Exposures and Hearing Loss in Children in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Background Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. Methods The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. Detailed interviews were conducted during gestation, and when the children were 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of age. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, marginal structural models (MSM) with inverse-probability weighting, and doubly-robust estimation (DRE) to relate hearing loss at age 18 months to cell phone use at age seven years, and to investigate cell phone use reported at age seven in relation to hearing loss at age seven. Results Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age seven, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM, and DRE models being 1.21 [0.99–1.46], 1.23 [1.01–1.49], and 1.22 [1.00–1.49], respectively. Conclusions Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed. PMID:23574412

  12. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Comparing appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to phone interviews in qualitative research on reproductive decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Despite an increasing use of qualitative email interviews by nurse researchers, there is little understanding about the appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to other qualitative data collection methods, especially on sensitive topics research. The purpose is to describe our procedures for completing asynchronous, email interviews and to evaluate the appropriateness and equivalency of email interviews to phone interviews in two qualitative research studies that examined reproductive decisions. Content analysis guided the methodological appraisal of appropriateness and equivalency of in-depth, asynchronous email interviews to single phone interviews. Appropriateness was determined by: (a) participants' willingness to engage in email or phone interviews, (b) completing data collection in a timely period, and (c) participants' satisfaction with the interview. Equivalency was evaluated by: (a) completeness of the interview data, and (b) insight obtained from the data. Of the combined sample in the two studies (N=71), 31% of participants chose to participate via an email interview over a phone interview. The time needed to complete the email interviews averaged 27 to 28days and the number of investigator probe-participant response interchanges was 4 to 5cycles on average. In contrast, the phone interviews averaged 59 to 61min in duration. Most participants in both the email and phone interviews reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their ability to express their true feelings throughout the interview. Regarding equivalence, 100% of the email and phone interviews provided insight into decision processes. Although insightful, two of the email and one phone interview had short answers or, at times, underdeveloped responses. Participants' quotes and behaviors cited within four published articles, a novel evaluation of equivalency, revealed that 20% to 37.5% of the citations about decision processes were from email participants, which is

  15. [The cell phones as devices for the ocular fundus documentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němčanský, J; Kopecký, A; Timkovič, J; Mašek, P

    2014-12-01

    To present our experience with "smart phones" when examining and documenting human eyes. From September to October 2013 fifteen patients (8 men, 7 women) eye fundus was examined, an average age during the examination was 58 year (ranging from 20-65 years). The photo-documentation was performed with dilated pupils (tropicamid hydrochloridum 1% eye drops) with mobile phone Samsung Galaxy Nexus with the operating system Android 4.3 (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA) and iPhone 4 with the operating system 7.0.4 (Apple Inc., Loop Cupertino, CA, USA), and with 20D lens (Volk Optical Inc., Mentor, OH, USA). The images of the retina taken with a mobile phone and the spherical lens are of a very good quality, precise and reproducible. Learning this technique is easy and fast, the learning curve is steep. Photo-documentation of retina with a mobile phone is a safe, time-saving, easy-to-learn technique, which may be used in a routine ophthalmologic practice. The main advantage of this technique is availability, small size and easy portability of the devices.

  16. Cell Phone-Related Near Accidents Among Young Drivers: Associations With Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Christopher P; Terry, Danielle L

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use while driving (CPWD) has been shown to significantly reduce driver safety. This is a particular concern among young drivers who possess less driving experience and tend to engage in high rates of cell phone use. The present study identified psychological predictors of near accidents related to CPWD among a sample of 385 college student drivers. Participants answered a series of questions regarding their use of a cell phone while driving and completed measures of mindfulness, polychronicity, and intrusive thinking. Students who reported talking on their phone or texting more frequently while driving reported a higher incidence of near accidents related to each behavior. However, after controlling for CPWD, multiple regression analysis indicated that those who reported experiencing more cell phone-related intrusive thoughts also experienced more near accidents. Furthermore, two facets of mindfulness--acting with awareness and nonjudging of inner experience--were negatively associated with near accidents. These findings suggest that individuals who are more aware of the present moment and accepting of their affective responses may better regulate their attention while using a cell phone behind the wheel.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Human Movements and Applications for Disaster Response Management Utilizing Cell Phone Usage Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, M.; Renschler, C. S.; Bittner, T. E.

    2015-07-01

    As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning) and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake), factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.

  18. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENTS AND APPLICATIONS FOR DISASTER RESPONSE MANAGEMENT UTILIZING CELL PHONE USAGE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yasumiishi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake, factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.

  19. Effects of Washington, D.C. law on drivers' hand-held cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A; Geary, Lori L

    2006-03-01

    To assess the effects of Washington, D.C. law prohibiting drivers' use of hand-held cell phones on such use. Daytime observations of drivers were conducted at signalized intersections in D.C. in March 2004, several months before the law took effect on July 1, 2004, and again in October 2004. As a comparison, observations also were conducted in areas of Virginia and Maryland located close to the D.C. border. Maryland and Virginia placed no limitations on drivers' phone use. Use was observed for 36,091 vehicles in D.C., 25,151 vehicles in Maryland, and 28,483 vehicles in Virginia. The rate of talking on hand-held cell phones among drivers in D.C. declined significantly from 6.1% before the law to 3.5% after. Phone use declined slightly in Maryland and increased significantly in Virginia so that, relative to the patterns of hand-held phone use in the two states, phone use in D.C. declined 50%. Hand-held phone use in D.C. declined comparably among drivers of vehicles registered in all three jurisdictions. D.C. police issued 2,556 citations and 1,232 warnings for cell phone violations during July-November 2004. There were spates of media coverage when the law was passed and when it took effect. D.C.'s law prohibiting drivers' hand-held phone use had a strong effect on such use among drivers in D.C. Without ongoing publicized enforcement of the law, long-term compliance may be difficult to achieve.

  20. In the shadow of the cell-phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    Based on discussions of hybrid space as well as the concepts of the database and archive art, the paper analyzes Hasan Elahi’s project “Tracking Transience” (2003-) and relates it to Sophie Calle’s performance “Detective” (1980) while discussing how we can understand the mobile phone as a device...... that is capable of creating a ‘database shadow’ of the mobile phone owner. Elahi created “Tracking Transience” after he was held back by the FBI in 2003 on suspicion of being a possible terrorist; by consulting the website trackingtransience.net everyone now has access to the data generated by Elahi and his...... mobile phone, which meticulously tracks his life. However, even though Elahi’s life seems to be thoroughly and intimately documented with pictures of e.g. every eaten meal and every visited restroom, we are clearly not getting the full picture. Consequently, despite having been granted access...

  1. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Laura; Guxens, Mònica; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Alexander, Jan; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Gallastegi, Mara; Ha, Mina; Haugen, Margaretha; Huss, Anke; Kheifets, Leeka; Lim, Hyungryul; Olsen, Jørn; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Sudan, Madhuri; Vermeulen, Roel; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Cardis, Elisabeth; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal cell phone use and child behavioral problems, but findings have been inconsistent and based on retrospective assessment of cell phone use. This study aimed to assess this association in a multi-national analysis, using data from three cohorts with prospective data on prenatal cell phone use, together with previously published data from two cohorts with retrospectively collected cell phone use data. We used individual participant data from 83,884 mother-child pairs in the five cohorts from Denmark (1996-2002), Korea (2006-2011), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Norway (2004-2008), and Spain (2003-2008). We categorized cell phone use into none, low, medium, and high, based on frequency of calls during pregnancy reported by the mothers. Child behavioral problems (reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire or Child Behavior Checklist) were classified in the borderline/clinical and clinical ranges using validated cut-offs in children aged 5-7years. Cohort specific risk estimates were meta-analyzed. Overall, 38.8% of mothers, mostly from the Danish cohort, reported no cell phone use during pregnancy and these mothers were less likely to have a child with overall behavioral, hyperactivity/inattention or emotional problems. Evidence for a trend of increasing risk of child behavioral problems through the maternal cell phone use categories was observed for hyperactivity/inattention problems (OR for problems in the clinical range: 1.11, 95%CI 1.01, 1.22; 1.28, 95%CI 1.12, 1.48, among children of medium and high users, respectively). This association was fairly consistent across cohorts and between cohorts with retrospectively and prospectively collected cell phone use data. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk for behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention problems, in the offspring. The interpretation of these results is unclear

  2. "The Only 13-Year-Old on Planet Earth without a Cell Phone": Meanings of Cell Phones in Early Adolescents' Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…

  3. Cell Phones to Collect Pregnancy Data From Remote Areas in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R.; Munro, Michelle L.; Boyd, Carol J.; Andreatta, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report findings on knowledge and skill acquisition following a 3-day training session in the use of short message service (SMS) texting with non- and low-literacy traditional midwives. Design A pre- and post-test study design was used to assess knowledge and skills acquisition with 99 traditional midwives on the use of SMS texting for real-time, remote data collection in rural Liberia, West Africa. Methods Paired sample t-tests were conducted to establish if overall mean scores varied significantly from pre-test to immediate post-test. Analysis of variance was used to compare means across groups. The nonparametric McNemar’s test was used to determine significant differences between the pre-test and post-test values of each individual step involved in SMS texting. Pearson’s chi-square test of independence was used to examine the association between ownership of cell phones within a family and achievement of the seven tasks. Findings The mean increase in cell phone knowledge scores was 3.67, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 3.39 to 3.95. Participants with a cell phone in the family did significantly better on three of the seven tasks in the pre-test: “turns cell on without help” (χ2(1) = 9.15, p = .003); “identifies cell phone coverage” (χ2(1) = 5.37, p = .024); and “identifies cell phone is charged” (χ2(1) = 4.40, p = .042). Conclusions A 3-day cell phone training session with low- and nonliterate traditional midwives in rural Liberia improved their ability to use mobile technology for SMS texting. Clinical Relevance Mobile technology can improve data collection accessibility and be used for numerous healthcare and public health issues. Cell phone accessibility holds great promise for collecting health data in low-resource areas of the world. PMID:22672157

  4. The association of sleep and late-night cell phone use among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amra

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aims to assess the relationship of late-night cell phone use with sleep duration and quality in a sample of Iranian adolescents. Methods: The study population consisted of 2400 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, living in Isfahan, Iran. Age, body mass index, sleep duration, cell phone use after 9 p.m., and physical activity were documented. For sleep assessment, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used. Results: The participation rate was 90.4% (n = 2257 adolescents. The mean (SD age of participants was 15.44 (1.55 years; 1270 participants reported to use cell phone after 9 p.m. Overall, 56.1% of girls and 38.9% of boys reported poor quality sleep, respectively. Wake-up time was 8:17 a.m. (2.33, among late-night cell phone users and 8:03 a.m. (2.11 among non-users. Most (52% late-night cell phone users had poor sleep quality. Sedentary participants had higher sleep latency than their peers. Adjusted binary and multinomial logistic regression models showed that late-night cell users were 1.39 times more likely to have a poor sleep quality than non-users (p-value < 0.001. Conclusion: Late-night cell phone use by adolescents was associated with poorer sleep quality. Participants who were physically active had better sleep quality and quantity. As part of healthy lifestyle recommendations, avoidance of late-night cell phone use should be encouraged in adolescents.

  5. Longer-term effects of Washington, DC, law on drivers' hand-held cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the substantial short-term declines in drivers' use of hand-held phones achieved in the District of Columbia (DC) were sustained 1 year after a ban. Drivers' daytime hand-held cell phone use was observed in DC and nearby areas of Virginia and Maryland, states without bans. Observations were conducted several months before the ban, shortly after, and 1 year later. The number of vehicles observed in all three surveys combined was 51,945 in DC, 36,796 in Maryland, and 43,033 in Virginia. The rate of talking on hand-held phones declined significantly from 6.1 percent before the law to 3.5 percent shortly after; when measured 1 year later, use was 4.0 percent, still significantly lower than baseline. Based on increases in rates of talking on hand-held phones in Maryland and Virginia, longer-term phone use in DC was estimated to be 53 percent lower than would have been expected without the ban. Declines in DC were identified for drivers of vehicles registered in all three jurisdictions. In DC, there was an initial decline of about 50 percent in drivers talking on hand-held cell phones following a ban, and this decline was sustained about 1 year later. After a similar ban in New York, there was an initial decline in phone use comparable with the initial decline in DC, but the decline a year after the New York ban took full effect was only about 21 percent and not statistically significant. The potential difference in sustained effectiveness for the DC ban may reflect tougher enforcement in DC. Even if full compliance with hand-held phone bans can be achieved, the risks from drivers' use of hands-free phones will remain.

  6. Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho; de Souza, Fabrício Tinôco Alvim; Ferreira, Efigênia; Souza, Renan Pedra; Macedo, Samuel Costa; Friedman, Eitan; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2016-10-01

    There is controversy on the effects of the non-ionizing radiation emitted by cell phones on cellular processes and the impact of such radiation exposure on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands. Cytokine expression profile was determined by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in the saliva produced by the parotid glands in healthy volunteers, and correlated with self-reported cell phone use and laterality. The following parameters were determined, in 83 Brazilian individuals in saliva produced by the parotid glands comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to that from the contralateral parotid: salivary flow, total protein concentration, interleukin 1 β (IL-1 β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interferon γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) salivary levels by ELISA. After multiple testing correction, decreased IL-10 and increased IL-1β salivary levels in the ipsilateral side compared with the contralateral side (P cell phones for more than 10 years presented higher differences between IL-10 levels in ipsilateral versus contralateral parotids (P = 0.0012). No difference was observed in any of the tested parameters in correlation with cell phone monthly usage in minutes. The exposure of parotid glands to cell phones can alter salivary IL-10 and IL-1β levels, consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment that may be related to heat production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The association of sleep and late-night cell phone use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amra, Babak; Shahsavari, Ali; Shayan-Moghadam, Ramin; Mirheli, Omid; Moradi-Khaniabadi, Bita; Bazukar, Mehdi; Yadollahi-Farsani, Ashkan; Kelishadi, Roya

    This study aims to assess the relationship of late-night cell phone use with sleep duration and quality in a sample of Iranian adolescents. The study population consisted of 2400 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, living in Isfahan, Iran. Age, body mass index, sleep duration, cell phone use after 9p.m., and physical activity were documented. For sleep assessment, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used. The participation rate was 90.4% (n=2257 adolescents). The mean (SD) age of participants was 15.44 (1.55) years; 1270 participants reported to use cell phone after 9p.m. Overall, 56.1% of girls and 38.9% of boys reported poor quality sleep, respectively. Wake-up time was 8:17 a.m. (2.33), among late-night cell phone users and 8:03a.m. (2.11) among non-users. Most (52%) late-night cell phone users had poor sleep quality. Sedentary participants had higher sleep latency than their peers. Adjusted binary and multinomial logistic regression models showed that late-night cell users were 1.39 times more likely to have a poor sleep quality than non-users (p-valuecell phone use by adolescents was associated with poorer sleep quality. Participants who were physically active had better sleep quality and quantity. As part of healthy lifestyle recommendations, avoidance of late-night cell phone use should be encouraged in adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  8. Relationship intention and satisfaction following service recovery: The mediating role of perceptions of service recovery in the cell phone industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L Kruger; P Mostert; Lt De Beer

    2015-01-01

    ... and behavioural intentions, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between South African cell phone customers' relationship intentions, their perceptions of service recovery...

  9. Providing views of the driving scene to drivers' conversation partners mitigates cell-phone-related distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John G; Street, Whitney N; Windsor, Matthew B; Carbonari, Ronald; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F; Mathewson, Kyle E

    2014-12-01

    Cell-phone use impairs driving safety and performance. This impairment may stem from the remote partner's lack of awareness about the driving situation. In this study, pairs of participants completed a driving simulator task while conversing naturally in the car and while talking on a hands-free cell phone. In a third condition, the driver drove while the remote conversation partner could see video of both the road ahead and the driver's face. We tested the extent to which this additional visual information diminished the negative effects of cell-phone distraction and increased situational awareness. Collision rates for unexpected merging events were high when participants drove in a cell-phone condition but were reduced when they were in a videophone condition, reaching a level equal to that observed when they drove with an in-car passenger or drove alone. Drivers and their partners made shorter utterances and made longer, more frequent traffic references when they spoke in the videophone rather than the cell-phone condition. Providing a view of the driving scene allows remote partners to help drivers by modulating their conversation and referring to traffic more often. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Effect of mobile phones on micronucleus frequency in human exfoliated oral mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Llor, I; Sanchez-Siles, M; Camacho-Alonso, F; Lopez-Jornet, P

    2012-11-01

    In the last two decades, the use of mobile phones has increased enormously all over the world. The controversy regarding whether radiofrequency (RF) fields exert effects upon biological systems is a concern for the general population. An evaluation is made of DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential, and cell death because of RF radiation emitted by mobile phones in healthy young users. This cohort study was carried out in 50 Caucasian mobile phone users. We collected two cell samples from each subject (a total of 100 cell samples), corresponding to the right and left cheek mucosa, respectively. Case histories and personal information were assessed, including age, gender, body height and weight, history of cancer, smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical carcinogens or radiation, and dietary habits. Sampling comprised cell collection from both cheeks with a cytobrush, centrifugation, slide preparation, fixation, and staining, followed by fluorescent microscopic analysis. A total of 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, especially micronucleus. No statistically significant changes were recorded in relation to age, gender, body mass index, or smoking status. A comparison of the results vs the control area according to the side of the face on which the mobile phone was placed, and in relation to the duration of exposure (years) to mobile phone radiation in the total 100 samples, yielded no significant differences. No genotoxic effects because of RF exposure were observed in relation to any of the study parameters. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Effectiveness of cell phones and mypyramidtracker.gov to estimate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, JoAnn D; Boswell, Carol; Rogers, Toby J; Littlefield, Laurel A; Estep, Gary; Shriver, Brent J; Roman-Shriver, Carmen R; Culpepper, Dean; Kuenzi, Gina; Song, Huaxin

    2013-02-01

    Inadequate fruit and vegetable intake is linked to leading causes of global mortality and rise in obesity. Measuring fruit and vegetable intake is problematic. Advances in cell phone technologies may improve the accuracy and ease of recording diet. This study tested the effectiveness of using cell phones with digital pictures to prompt memory and mypyramidtracker.gov to estimate self-reported fruit and vegetable intake in 69 college students. A repeated measures design was used. Focus groups provided feedback on the acceptability, usability, and feasibility of cell phones for diet recording in this population. A statistically significant difference in fruit and vegetable scores, F(1, 58)=4.64, p=.04, was supported between cell phone use for short-term memory prompt and mypyramidtracker.gov alone. Cell phone pictures improved memory and accuracy of recall when using an online self-reported interactive diet record and was considered an easy, relevant, and accessible way to record diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The scope of cell phones in diabetes management in developing country health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Vamadevan S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a major public health concern in developing nations. Health systems in most developing countries are yet to integrate effective prevention and control programs for diabetes into routine health care services. Given the inadequate human resources and underfunctioning health systems, we need novel and innovative approaches to combat diabetes in developing-country settings. In this regard, the tremendous advances in telecommunication technology, particularly cell phones, can be harnessed to improve diabetes care. Cell phones could serve as a tool for collecting information on surveillance, service delivery, evidence-based care, management, and supply systems pertaining to diabetes from primary care settings in addition to providing health messages as part of diabetes education. As a screening/diagnostic tool for diabetes, cell phones can aid the health workers in undertaking screening and diagnostic and follow-up care for diabetes in the community. Cell phones are also capable of acting as a vehicle for continuing medical education; a decision support system for evidence-based management; and a tool for patient education, self-management, and compliance. However, for widespread use, we need robust evaluations of cell phone applications in existing practices and appropriate interventions in diabetes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. College students use cell phones while driving more frequently than found in government study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Sheryl; Mayer, Joni; Ryan, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Cell phone use while driving is hazardous; it quadruples the risk of a collision and multiplies the risk of a fatality nine-fold. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that 8% of young drivers and 5% of all drivers use cell phones while driving. The authors trained graduate student volunteers to observe the daytime cell phone use of 3,650 drivers leaving the student exits of college parking structures at a large university. The student observers recorded a cell phone usage rate of 11.1%, which was significantly higher than that seen in the National Occupant Protection Use Survey (p<.00001). Female drivers were 1.51 times more likely to be using a cell phone while driving than were men (12.9% vs 8.6%, p<.001), and drivers with passengers were 0.15 times more likely to drive while telephoning than were solo drivers (1.8% vs 12.1%, p<.001). The authors offer suggestions for possible interventions to reduce this hazardous behavior.

  14. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  15. Effects of non-thermal mobile phone radiation on breast adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Fourie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone usage currently exceeds landline communication in Africa. The extent of this usage has raised concerns about the long-term health effects of the ongoing use of mobile phones. To assess the physiological effects of radiation from mobile phones in vitro, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 2W/kg non-thermal 900-MHz mobile phone radiation. The effects investigated were those on metabolic activity, cell morphology, cell cycle progression, phosphatidylserine (PS externalisation and the generation of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species. Statistically insignificant increases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity were observed in irradiated cells when compared to controls. Fluorescent detection of F-actin demonstrated an increase in F-actin stress fibre formation in irradiated MCF-7 cells. Cell cycle progression revealed no statistically significant variation. A small increase in early and late apoptotic events in irradiated MCF-7 cells was observed. No statistically significant changes were observed in reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species generation. In addition, quantitative and qualitative analyses of cell cycle activity and nuclear and cytosolic changes, respectively, revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, exposure to 1 h of 900-MHz irradiation induced an increase in PS externalisation and an increase in the formation of F-actin stress fibres in MCF-7 cells. Data obtained from this study, and their correlation with other studies, provides intriguing links between radio frequency radiation and cellular events and warrant further investigation.

  16. 75 FR 8921 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the cell phone kitting and distribution facilities of... kitting and distribution of cell phones at the facilities of Brightpoint North America L.P., located in... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell...

  17. Habits of cell phone usage and sperm quality - does it warrant attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Sheinfeld, Yulia; Grach, Bronislava; Lahav-Baratz, Shirly; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2015-09-01

    Male infertility constitutes 30-40% of all infertility cases. Some studies have shown a continuous decline in semen quality since the beginning of the 20th century. One postulated contributing factor is radio frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones. This study investigates an association between characteristics of cell phone usage and semen quality. Questionnaires accessing demographic data and characteristics of cell phone usage were completed by 106 men referred for semen analysis. Results were analysed according to WHO 2010 criteria. Talking for ≥1 h/day and during device charging were associated with higher rates of abnormal semen concentration (60.9% versus 35.7%, P phones ≤50 cm from the groin, a non-significantly higher rate of abnormal sperm concentration was found (47.1% versus 11.1%). Multivariate analysis revealed that talking while charging the device and smoking were risk factors for abnormal sperm concentration (OR = 4.13 [95% CI 1.28-13.3], P cell phone usage may bear adverse effects on sperm concentration. Investigation using large-scale studies is thus needed. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does Talking on a Cell Phone, With a Passenger, or Dialing Affect Driving Performance? An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Simmons, Sarah M; Wiley, Katelyn; Johnston, Kate A; Horrey, William J

    2018-02-01

    Objective An up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental research on talking and driving is needed to provide a comprehensive, empirical, and credible basis for policy, legislation, countermeasures, and future research. Background The effects of cell, mobile, and smart phone use on driving safety continues to be a contentious societal issue. Method All available studies that measured the effects of cell phone use on driving were identified through a variety of search methods and databases. A total of 93 studies containing 106 experiments met the inclusion criteria. Coded independent variables included conversation target (handheld, hands-free, and passenger), setting (laboratory, simulation, or on road), and conversation type (natural, cognitive task, and dialing). Coded dependent variables included reaction time, stimulus detection, lane positioning, speed, headway, eye movements, and collisions. Results The overall sample had 4,382 participants, with driver ages ranging from 14 to 84 years ( M = 25.5, SD = 5.2). Conversation on a handheld or hands-free phone resulted in performance costs when compared with baseline driving for reaction time, stimulus detection, and collisions. Passenger conversation had a similar pattern of effect sizes. Dialing while driving had large performance costs for many variables. Conclusion This meta-analysis found that cell phone and passenger conversation produced moderate performance costs. Drivers minimally compensated while conversing on a cell phone by increasing headway or reducing speed. A number of additional meta-analytic questions are discussed. Application The results can be used to guide legislation, policy, countermeasures, and future research.

  19. Do people understand IARC's 2B categorization of RF fields from cell phones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M; Boerner, Franziska U; Repacholi, Michael H

    2014-07-01

    In May 2011, the International Agency on Cancer in Research (IARC) issued an official statement concluding that cell phone usage was "possibly carcinogenic to humans." There have been considerable doubts that non-experts and experts alike fully understood what IARC's categorization actually meant, as "possibly carcinogenic" can be interpreted in many ways. The present study is based on an online survey indicating that both the characterization of the probability of carcinogenicity, as well as the description of the risk increase given in the IARC press release, was mostly misunderstood by study participants. Respondents also greatly overestimated the magnitude of the potential risk. Our study results showed that IARC needs to improve their scientific communications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebold, Michael J; Lepp, Andrew; Sanders, Gabriel J; Barkley, Jacob E

    2015-01-01

    This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone) functions (texting, talking, listening to music) on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years) each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale) were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1)), heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1)) and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm) in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014) greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1)) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1) each). Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1)) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1)) but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1)). Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm) was greater (p = 0.05) than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm) but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm) conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate) and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking) can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.

  1. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rebold

    Full Text Available This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone functions (texting, talking, listening to music on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1, heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1 and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014 greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1 each. Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1 but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1. Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm was greater (p = 0.05 than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.

  2. Using Cell Phone Technology for Self-Monitoring Procedures in Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedesem, Pena L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and social validity of an innovative method of self-monitoring for middle school students with high-incidence disabilities in inclusive settings. An updated self-monitoring procedure, called CellF-Monitoring, utilized a cell phone as an all-inclusive self-monitoring device. The study took…

  3. Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Using Cell Phone Technology in Undergraduate Science Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pennington

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Students of science traditionally make 3x5 flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flashcards viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback opportunities for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use computers, but they use their cell phones 24 hours a day. This report outlines these trends and an even more recent educational technology initiative, that of using cell phone flash cards to help students learn biology and chemistry nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Students responded positively to cell phone flash cards in a pilot study and a more detailed study is planned for the coming year.

  4. Teaching teenagers with autism to answer cell phones and seek assistance when lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Hannah; Taylor, Bridget A; Rodriguez, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Three participants with autism were taught to answer a cell phone and to follow directions to seek assistance when lost in community settings. During baseline, none of the participants answered a cell phone or sought assistance. Following instruction at school and in the community, all participants learned to answer the cell phone and follow instructions to seek assistance from a naïve adult by exchanging a communication card. Generalization probes were conducted in non-training community sites and with the participants' parents. Data also were collected on the responses of naïve community members to determine the social validity of the participants' assistance-seeking skills. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of teaching community safety skills to individuals with autism and the challenges of teaching these responses to individuals with severe communication and social deficits.

  5. Group cell phones are feasible and acceptable for promoting optimal breastfeeding practices in a women's microcredit program in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Negerie, Mekebeb; Yakubu, Danjuma; Leatherman, Sheila; Bentley, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    As part of a breastfeeding promotion intervention trial in Nigeria, we provided one cell phone per group of 5-7 microcredit clients and instructed the group's cell phone recipient to share weekly breastfeeding voice and text messages with group members. We measured the feasibility and acceptability of using group cell phones by conducting semi-structured exit interviews with 195 microcredit clients whose babies were born during the intervention (target group), in-depth interviews with eight phone recipients and nine non-phone recipients, and 16 focus group discussions with other microcredit clients. Women in the target group said the group phone worked well or very well (64%). They were motivated to try the recommended practices because they trusted the information (58%) and had support from others (35%). Approximately 44% of target women reported that their groups met and shared messages at least once a week. Women in groups that met at least weekly had higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.6, 19.7) than women in groups that never met. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions indicated that non-phone recipients had positive feelings towards phone recipients, the group phone met participants' needs, and messages were often shared outside the group. In conclusion, group cell phone messaging to promote breastfeeding among microcredit clients is feasible and acceptable and can be part of an effective behaviour change package. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Cost of Privacy: Riley v. California's Impact on Cell Phone Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Riley v. California is the United States Supreme Court’s first attempt to regulate the searches of cell phones by law enforcement.  The 2014 unanimous decision requires a warrant for all cell phone searches incident to arrest absent an emergency.  This work summarizes the legal precedent and analyzes the limitations and practical implications of the ruling.  General guidelines for members of the criminal justice system at all levels consistent with the Supreme Court’s decision are provided.  

  7. A Low-Cost Imaging Method to Avoid Hand Shake Blur for Cell Phone Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin-Bo; Chong, Jong-Wha

    In this letter, a novel imaging method to reduce the hand shake blur of a cell phone camera without using frame memory is proposed. The method improves the captured image in real time through the use of two additional preview images whose parameters can be calculated in advance and stored in a look-up table. The method does not require frame memory, and thus it can significantly reduce the chip size. The scheme is suitable for integration into a low-cost image sensor of a cell phone camera.

  8. Spatio-Temporally Adaptive Waiting Time for Cell Phone Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Deepthi Chander; Bhushan Jagyasi; Desai, U. B.; Merchant, S N

    2011-01-01

    In cell phone sensor networks (CpSN), sensor-embedded cell phones communicate sensor data using Near Field Communication outlets such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. This paper considers a query dissemination application of CpSN, where sensor data belonging to a certain time window [ts,min, ts,max] is needed from a region of interest. Existing approaches, such as ADAPT, use adaptive broadcast ranges at the Wireless Access Point (WAP) for query dissemination. This paper proposes the adaptation of waiti...

  9. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  10. Life cycle assessment of cell phones in Brazil based on two reverse logistics scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Gama e Silva Volpe Moreira de Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a cell phone collection obtained at the Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI under the AMBIENTRONIC Program, an initiative that supports the Brazilian electronic sector in the development of technologies for sustainability. The objective of this article is to assess two reverse logistic scenarios of cell phones using the technique of life-cycle assessment (LCA. The first scenario reflects the current scenario in Brazil, where batteries are recycled in Brazil and the other parts of the phones are outsourced to Europe. The second scenario is a proposal of full treatment in Brazil. The results indicate that the second scenario has a lower potential impact with important reduction of acidification, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication and the use of non-renewable energy. Furthermore, fully implementing reverse logistics in Brazil will enable socioeconomic benefits from the sale of materials and the generation of employment and income.

  11. Engrossed in conversation: the impact of cell phones on simulated driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beede, Kristen E; Kass, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of cognitively distracting tasks on various measures of driving performance. Thirty-six college students with a median of 6 years of driving experience completed a driving history questionnaire and four simulated driving scenarios. The distraction tasks consisted of responding to a signal detection task and engaging in a simulated cell phone conversation. Driving performance was measured in terms of four categories of behavior: traffic violations (e.g., speeding, running stop signs), driving maintenance (e.g., standard deviation of lane position), attention lapses (e.g., stops at green lights, failure to visually scan for intersection traffic), and response time (e.g., time to step on brake in response to a pop-up event). Performance was significantly impacted in all four categories when drivers were concurrently talking on a hands-free phone. Performance on the signal detection task was poor and not significantly impacted by the phone task, suggesting that considerably less attention was paid to detecting these peripheral signals. However, the signal detection task did interact with the phone task on measures of average speed, speed variability, attention lapses, and reaction time. The findings lend further empirical support of the dangers of drivers being distracted by cell phone conversations.

  12. Language and Social Factors in the Use of Cell Phone Technology by Adolescents with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Simkin, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare cell phone use (both oral and text-based) by adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and examine the extent to which language and social factors affect frequency of use. Method: Both interview and diary methods were used to compare oral and text-based communication using cell phones by…

  13. ICAT: Development of an Internet-Based Data Collection Method for Ecological Momentary Assessment Using Personal Cell Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Labhart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid advances in mobile data-transfer technologies offer new possibilities in the use of cell phones to conduct assessments of a person’s natural environment in real time. This paper describes features of a new Internet-based, cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), which consists of a

  14. Exploring the Use of MXit: A Cell-Phone Social Network to Facilitate Learning in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Mpine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical suitability of using cell phones to enhance learning through social interaction in distance education. Social interaction was used as a conceptual framework to explore the potential for using "MXit"--a cell-phone instant messaging system--to support and enhance learning for distance…

  15. The effect of mobile phone on the number of Purkinje cells: a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rağbetli, Murat C; Aydinlioğlu, Atif; Koyun, Necat; Rağbetli, Cennet; Bektas, Seyman; Ozdemir, Serdar

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organisation proposed an investigation concerning the exposure of animals to radiofrequency fields because of the possible risk factor for health. At power frequencies there is evidence to associate both childhood leukaemia and brain tumours with magnetic field exposures. There is also evidence of the effect of mobile phone exposure on both cognitive functions and the cerebellum. Purkinje cells of the cerebellum are also sensitive to high dose microwave exposure in rats. The present study investigated the effect of exposure to mobile phone on the number of Purkinje and granule neurons in the developing cerebellum. Male and female Swiss albino mice were housed as control and mobile phone-exposed groups. Pregnant animals in the experimental group were exposed to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) mobile phone radiation at 890-915 MHz at 0.95 W/Kg specific absorption rate (SAR). The cerebella were processed by frozen microtome. The sections obtained were stained with Haematoxylin-eosin and cresyl violet. For cell counting by the optical fractionator method, a pilot study was firstly performed. Cerebellar areas were analysed by using Axiovision software running on a personal computer. The optical dissectors were systematically spaced at random, and focused to the widest profile of the neuron cell nucleus. A significant decrease in the number of Purkinje cells and a tendency for granule cells to increase in cerebellum was found. Further studies in this area are needed due to the popular use of mobile telephones and relatively high exposure on developing brain.

  16. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  17. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-12-01

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p < .05) in the levels of germinal epithelial diameter in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. There was no significant change (p < .05) in cross-sectional diameter of all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Group D rats showed a significant decrease (p ˂ .05) in lumen diameter compared with group B rats. There was an uneven distribution of germinal epithelial cells in groups B, C and D. However, there was degeneration of the epithelia cells in group D when compared to the control and group B rats. Sera levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are markers of reactive oxygen species, significantly increased (MDA) and decreased (SOD), respectively, in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Also sera levels of gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) significantly decreased (p < .05) in groups C and D compared with the control group. The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased

  18. High Ringxiety: Attachment Anxiety Predicts Experiences of Phantom Cell Phone Ringing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Djerf, Jaikob M

    2016-01-01

    Mobile cell phone users have reported experiencing ringing and/or vibrations associated with incoming calls and messages, only to find that no call or message had actually registered. We believe this phenomenon can be understood as a human signal detection issue, with potentially important influences from psychological attributes. We hypothesized that individuals higher in attachment anxiety would report more frequent phantom cell phone experiences, whereas individuals higher in attachment avoidance would report less frequent experiences. If these experiences are primarily psychologically related to attributes of interpersonal relationships, associations with attachment style should be stronger than for general sensation seeking. We also predicted that certain contexts would interact with attachment style to increase or decrease the likelihood of experiencing phantom cell phone calls and messages. Attachment anxiety directly predicted the frequency of phantom ringing and notification experiences, whereas attachment avoidance and sensation seeking did not directly predict frequency. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance interacted with contextual factors (expectations for a call or message and concerned about an issue that one may be contacted about) in the expected directions for predicting phantom cell phone experiences.

  19. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on : hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based : on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), : which is administe...

  20. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided "g" Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Muller, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education. We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration "g" using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects…

  1. Cell Phone Video Recording Feature as a Language Learning Tool: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromik, Nicolas A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study conducted at a Japanese national university. Nine participants used the video recording feature on their cell phones to produce weekly video productions. The task required that participants produce one 30-second video on a teacher-selected topic. Observations revealed the process of video creation with a cell…

  2. Bring-Your-Own-Device: Turning Cell Phones into Forces for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazeki, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, classroom response systems (or "clickers") have become increasingly common. Although most systems require students to use a standalone handheld device, bring-your-own-device (BYOD) systems allow students to use devices they already own (e.g., a cell phone, tablet or laptop) to submit responses via text message or…

  3. Text or talk? Social anxiety, loneliness, and divergent preferences for cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donna J; Reid, Fraser J M

    2007-06-01

    This paper investigates whether social anxiety and loneliness lead to contrasting beliefs and preferences among cell phone users towards texting and talking on their cell phones. Three hypotheses are examined: (1) that social anxiety and loneliness are differentially associated with generalized preferences either for texting or for talking on the cell phone, (2) that these preferences are linked to contrasting beliefs concerning the social functionality of the short message service (SMS), and (3) that these divergent beliefs mediate the effects of social anxiety and loneliness on cell phone users' generalized preferences for texting or talking. Results from an Internet questionnaire (N=158) showed that, whilst lonely participants preferred making voice calls and rated texting as a less intimate method of contact, anxious participants preferred to text, and rated it a superior medium for expressive and intimate contact. These divergent beliefs accounted for 36% and 16% of the variance in preference for texting and voice calls, respectively, and significantly attenuated the influence of loneliness and social anxiety when they were added to the regression equations for these measures. Results are discussed in terms of the hyperpersonal possibilities of mobile communications technologies.

  4. Using a Cell Phone to Investigate the Skin Depth Effect in Salt Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the skin depth effect for electromagnetic waves in salt water using a cell phone that is immersed to a critical depth where it no longer responds when called. We show that this critical depth is directly proportional to the theoretical skin depth for a range of salt concentrations.

  5. Cell-Phone Use and Cancer: A Case Study Exploring the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon Parrilla, Wilma V.

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an introductory nonmajors biology course, this case study presents students with a series of short news stories describing a scientific study of cell-phone use and its health effects. Students read the news stories and then the scientific paper they are based on, comparing the information presented by the news media to the information…

  6. Microchip ELISA coupled with cell phone to detect ovarian cancer HE4 biomarker in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuQi; Akbas, Ragip; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in the USA, and early diagnosis can potentially increase 5-year survival rate. Detection of biomarkers derived from hyperplasia of epithelial tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) proves to be a practical way of early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, ELISA is commonly performed in a laboratory setting, and it cannot be used in a clinical setting for on-site consultation. We have shown a microchip ELISA that detects HE4, an ovarian cancer biomarker, from urine using a cell phone integrated with a mobile application for imaging and data analysis. In microchip ELISA, HE4 from urine was first absorbed on the surface; the primary and secondary antibodies were subsequently anchored on the surface via immuno-reaction; and addition of substrate led to color development because of enzymatic labeling. The microchip after color development was imaged using a cell phone, and the color intensity was analyzed by an integrated mobile application. By comparing with an ELISA standard curve, the concentration of HE4 was reported on the cell phone screen. The presented microchip ELISA coupled with a cell phone is portable as opposed to traditional ELISA, and this method can facilitate the detection of ovarian cancer at the point-of-care (POC).

  7. "Where Are You?" Cell Phones and Environmental Self-Understanding amongst Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuypere, Mathias; Masschelein, Jan; Simons, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the cell phone is omnipresent in our society, certainly amongst youngsters. Its presence, and the possibility to be in constant touch, have some profound consequences on our experience (of our selves, of others and the world) and self-understanding. It is important for educators and scholars in the field of education to understand such…

  8. EDITORIAL Cell phone use and ill health: Is there a definite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiation. Despite “tissue heating” being the primary concern of electromagnetic radiation on the human body, it has been reported that at the frequencies of cell phones, the skin and ... negligible temperature rises in the brain or any other organs of the body. ... radiation, does not cause DNA damage that can lead to cancer.

  9. Vestibular schwannoma and cell-phones. Results, limits and perspectives of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornet, E; Kania, R; Sauvaget, E; Herman, P; Tran Ba Huy, P

    2013-11-01

    The widespread development of cell-phones entails novel user exposure to electromagnetic fields. Health impact is a public health issue and a source of anxiety in the population. Some clinical studies reported an association between cell and cordless phone use and vestibular schwannoma; others found none. A systematic review was performed of all published clinical studies (cohort, registry, case-control and validation studies), with analysis of results, to determine the nature of the association and the level of evidence. Cohort studies were inconclusive due to short exposure durations and poor representativeness. Registry studies showed no correlation between evolution of cell-phone use and incidence of vestibular schwannoma. Case-control studies reported contradictory results, with methodological flaws. Only a small number of subjects were included in long-term studies (>10 years), and these failed to demonstrate any indisputable causal relationship. Exposure assessment methods were debatable, and long-term assessment was lacking. An on-going prospective study should determine any major effect of electromagnetic fields; schwannoma being a rare pathology, absence of association will be difficult to prove. No clinical association has been demonstrated between cell and cordless phone use and vestibular schwannoma. Existing studies are limited by their retrospective assessment of exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Cell phone electromagnetic field radiations affect rhizogenesis through impairment of biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Sharma, Ved Parkash; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Indiscriminate adoption and use of cell phone technology has tremendously increased the levels of electromagnetic field radiations (EMFr) in the natural environment. It has raised the concerns among the scientists regarding the possible risks of EMFr to living organisms. However, not much has been done to assess the damage caused to plants that are continuously exposed to EMFr present in the environment. The present study investigated the biochemical mechanism of interference of 900 MHz cell phone EMFr with root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata syn. Phaseolus aureus) hypocotyls, a model system to study rhizogenesis in plants. Cell phone EMFr enhanced the activities of proteases (by 1.52 to 2.33 times), polyphenol oxidases (by 1.5 to 4.3 times), and peroxidases (by 1.5 to 2.0 times) in mung bean hypocotyls over control. Further, EMFr enhanced malondialdehyde (an indicator of lipid peroxidation), hydrogen peroxide, and proline content, indicating a reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative damage in hypocotyls. It was confirmed by the upregulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase) suggesting their possible role in providing protection against EMFr-induced oxidative damage. The study concluded that cell phone radiations affect the process of rhizogenesis through biochemical alterations that manifest as oxidative damage resulting in root impairment.

  11. Determinants of the Use of Cell phones in Access to Beef Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell phone is said to be an innovative communication device which allows consumers, traders and farmers to search market appropriate information for timely decision-making to save time and travelling costs. However, determinants of using this technology in beef cattle market information seeking for smallholders in ...

  12. A bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature on Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Beranuy, Marta; Bellés, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the scientific literature dealing with addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to characterize the pattern of publications in these areas. One hundred seventy-nine valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO between 1996 and 2005 related to pathological Internet, cell phone, or video game use. The years with the highest numbers of articles published were 2004 (n = 42) and 2005 (n = 40). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were the United States (n = 52), China (n = 23), the United Kingdom (n = 17), Taiwan (n = 13), and South Korea (n = 9). The most commonly used language was English (65.4%), followed by Chinese (12.8%) and Spanish (4.5%). Articles were published in 96 different journals, of which 22 published 2 or more articles. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology & Behavior (n = 41). Addiction to the Internet was the most intensely studied (85.3%), followed by addiction to video games (13.6%) and cell phones (2.1%). The number of publications in this area is growing, but it is difficult to conduct precise searches due to a lack of clear terminology. To facilitate retrieval, bibliographic databases should include descriptor terms referring specifically to Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction as well as to more general addictions involving communications and information technologies and other behavioral addictions.

  13. [Research on WiFi-based wireless microscopy on a mobile phone and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailan, Jin; Jing, Liu

    2012-11-01

    We proposed and realized a new device that acquires microscopic image wirelessly based on mobile phone and WiFi system. The mobile terminals could record, display and store the image from the far end via the wireless LAN. Using this system, a series of conceptual experiments on monitoring the microscopic images of common objects and liver cancer cells were successfully demonstrated. This system is expected to have important value in the experimental investigations on wirelessly monitoring the cell culture, and small insect etc.

  14. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  15. Shifting attention across near and far spaces: implications for the use of hands-free cell phones while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Fabio; Fagioli, Sabrina; Di Nocera, Francesco; Sdoia, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    In three experiments, participants performed two tasks concurrently during driving. In the peripheral detection task, they responded manually to visual stimuli delivered through a LED placed on the internal rear mirror; in the conversation task, they were engaged in a conversation with a passenger, or through earphone-operated, loudspeaker-operated, or hand-held cell phones. Results showed that drivers were slower at responding to the visual stimuli when conversing through a hand-held cell phone or an earphone-operated cell phone than when conversing through a loudspeaker-operated cell phone or with a passenger. These results suggest that due to the brain coding the space into multiple representations, devices that make phone conversations taking place in the near, personal space make drivers slower at responding to visual stimuli, compared to devices that make the conversation occurring in a far space.

  16. The use of cell phone network data in traffic data collection and long-haul truckshed (geographic extent) tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzed the potential of cell phone positioning techniques in freight truck data collection and long-haul : truckshed (geographic extent) tracking. Freight truck identification and tracking algorithms were developed by means of : cell pho...

  17. Surveillance study of bacterial contamination of the parent's cell phone in the NICU and the effectiveness of an anti-microbial gel in reducing transmission to the hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstrom, A C; Cleman, P E; Cassis-Ghavami, F L; Kamitsuka, M D

    2013-12-01

    To determine the bacterial contamination rate of the parent's cell phone and the effectiveness of anti-microbial gel in reducing transmission of bacteria from cell phone to hands. Cross-sectional study of cultures from the cell phone and hands before and after applying anti-microbial gel (n=50). All cell phones demonstrated bacterial contamination. Ninety percent had the same bacteria on the cell phone and their cleaned hands. Twenty two percent had no growth on their hands after applying anti-microbial gel after they had the same bacteria on the cell phone and hands. Ninety-two percent of parents were aware that cell phones carried bacteria, but only 38% cleaned their cell phones at least weekly. Bacterial contamination of cell phones may serve as vectors for nosocomial infection in the neonatal intensive care unit. Bacteria transmitted from cell phone to hands may not be eliminated using anti-microbial gel. Development of hand hygiene and cell phone cleaning guidelines are needed regarding bedside cell phone use.

  18. The Effect of 217 Hz Magnetic Field of Cell Phone with Different Intensities on Apoptosis of Normal and Cancerous Cells Treated with Chemotherapy Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mansourian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted at animal-human level.

  19. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Strien, Rob T.; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources, personal cell

  20. Differences Between Landline and Mobile Phone Users in Sexual Behavior Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Paul B; Patrick, Kent; Smith, Anthony M A; Simpson, Judy M; Pennay, Darren; Rissel, Chris E; de Visser, Richard O; Grulich, Andrew E; Richters, Juliet

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated differences between the demographic characteristics, participation rates (i.e., agreeing to respond to questions about sexual behavior), and sexual behaviors of landline and mobile phone samples in Australia. A nationally representative sample of Australians aged 18 years and over was recruited via random digit dialing in December 2011 to collect data via computer-assisted telephone interviews. A total of 1012 people (370 men, 642 women) completed a landline interview and 1002 (524 men, 478 women) completed a mobile phone interview. Results revealed that telephone user status was significantly related to all demographic variables: gender, age, educational attainment, area of residence, country of birth, household composition, and current ongoing relationship status. In unadjusted analyses, telephone status was also associated with women's participation rates, participants' number of other-sex sexual partners in the previous year, and women's lifetime sexual experience. However, after controlling for significant demographic factors, telephone status was only independently related to women's participation rates. Post hoc analyses showed that significant, between-group differences for all other sexual behavior outcomes could be explained by demographic covariates. Results also suggested that telephone status may be associated with participation bias in research on sexual behavior. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of sampling both landline and mobile phone users to improve the representativeness of sexual behavior data collected via telephone interviews.

  1. Tools for water quality monitoring and mapping using paper-based sensors and cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Clémence; Glen, Chad; Aubie, Brandon; Wallace, Dan; Jahanshahi-Anbuhi, Sana; Pennings, Kevin; Daigger, Glen T; Pelton, Robert; Brennan, John D; Filipe, Carlos D M

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we describe a combination of paper-based sensors and a novel smart-phone application for on-site quantification of colorimetric readouts as an ultra-low cost solution to monitoring water quality. The system utilizes a paper-based analytical device (μPAD) that produces a colorimetric signal that is dependent on the concentration of a specific target; a cell phone equipped with a camera for capturing images of two μPADs - one tested with a water sample and the other tested with clean water that is used as a control; and an on-site image processing app that uses a novel algorithm for quantifying color intensity and relating this to contaminant concentration. The cell phone app utilizes a pixel counting algorithm that performs with less bias and user subjectivity than the typically used lab-based software, ImageJ. The use of a test and control strip reduces bias from variations in ambient lighting, making it possible to acquire and process images on-site. The cell phone is also able to GPS tag the location of the test, and transmit results to a newly developed website, WaterMap.ca, that displays the quantitative results from the water samples on a map. We demonstrate our approach using a previously developed μPAD that detects the presence of organophosphate pesticides based on the inhibition of immobilized acetylcholinesterase by these contaminants. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance and potential of developing and integrated monitoring system consisting of μPADs, cell-phones and a centralized web portal for low-cost monitoring environmental contaminants at a large-scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of the Predictive role of Self-Regulation and Self-Control on Intemperate Use of Cell Phones by Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pourrazavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Regarding increasing the rate of cell phones use and its' subsequent dependency in such instrument among young people and also considering the important role of self-regulation and self-control traits on health related issues and the roles of such issues in problematic and addictive behaviors, this study has been designed to evaluate the predictive role of self-regulation and self-control on the intemperate use of cell phone and its related de-pendencies. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study with analytical and descriptive orientation which has been carried out the students of universities which were located in the Tabriz city, Iran in 2013. Data were gathered through a questionnaire that was filled by 476 students (190 male and 286 female. Participants were selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling method from 9 universities in Tabriz. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 21 and Mplus software version 6.2. Results: Results showed that the predictive effect of self-regulation (P= 0.19 and self-control (P=0.41 on intemperate cell phone use was not significant, hence the increase of one unit in self-regulation and self-control respectively reduced 42.0, 87.0 dependency in cell phone. Conclusion: The present study could not demonstrate the predictive effect of self-regulation and self-control on intemperate cell phones use, however, the results showed that the meas-ures were relatively correlated with dependency in cell phone and therefore further researches seem to be necessary in this field.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 152-160

  3. University Student's Perspectives on Using Cell Phones in Classrooms--Are They Dialing up Disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones are one of the fastest growing technologies in this century all over the world and these devices are extremely influencing the adolescents. The present study was sought to establish students' views on cell phones usage in university classrooms in an educational district in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The study employed…

  4. 77 FR 22331 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones Phase II (NCI) Summary: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes...: Title: Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones Phase II (NCI). Type of Information Collection...

  5. Association between number of cell phone contracts and brain tumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Some concern has arisen about adverse health effects of cell phones, especially the possibility that the low power microwave-frequency signal transmitted by the antennas on handsets might cause brain tumors or accelerate the growth of subclinical tumors. We analyzed data from the Statistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 2000-2004 and 2007 cell phone subscription data from the Governing State and Local Sourcebook. There was a significant correlation between number of cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors in nineteen US states (r = 0.950, P numbers of both cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors could be due solely to the fact that some states, such as New York, have much larger populations than other states, such as North Dakota, multiple linear regression was performed with number of brain tumors as the dependent variable, cell phone subscriptions, population, mean family income and mean age as independent variables. The effect of cell phone subscriptions was significant (P = 0.017), and independent of the effect of mean family income (P = 0.894), population (P = 0.003) and age (0.499). The very linear relationship between cell phone usage and brain tumor incidence is disturbing and certainly needs further epidemiological evaluation. In the meantime, it would be prudent to limit exposure to all sources of electro-magnetic radiation.

  6. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronic data capture platform for clinical research based on mobile phones and near field communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Jürgen; Schwetz, Verena; Hayn, Dieter; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Schreier, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    Electronic data capture systems support data acquisition for clinical research and enable the evaluation of new investigational medical devices. In case of evaluating a device the most challenging part is the user interface i.e. the solution how to acquire the data within a clinical setting and to synchronize them with a web-based data centre. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of an electronic data capture system with a mobile data input solution based on mobile phones and Near Field Communication technology. This system was evaluated within a real clinical setting and demonstrated high usability, security and reliability.

  8. Women's adult romantic attachment style and communication by cell phone with romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S

    2012-08-01

    Cell phones have become important communication media for individuals in romantic relationships. The frequency of and methods used for communication may vary by adults' style of romantic attachment. Female university students (N = 31) currently in romantic relationships responded to a questionnaire. They estimated the frequency of calls and text messages received from and made to their romantic partners and completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised instrument, a measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Also, the participants reviewed their cell phones' memories and provided accurate frequency of communication to and from the romantic partner. Attachment anxiety was associated with more estimated text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners and actual text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners. Attachment avoidance was associated (r = -.38) with fewer estimated calls made to the romantic partners and fewer actual calls made to the romantic partners (r = -.34).

  9. Measures of physical activity using cell phones: validation using criterion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexelius, Christin; Löf, Marie; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Forsum, Elisabet; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2010-01-29

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of many chronic diseases. Data collected on physical activity in large epidemiological studies is often based on paper questionnaires. The validity of these questionnaires is debated, and more effective methods are needed. This study evaluates repeated measures of physical activity level (PAL) and the feasibility of using a Java-based questionnaire downloaded onto cell phones for collection of such data. The data obtained were compared with reference estimates based on the doubly labeled water method and indirect calorimetry (PAL(ref)). Using a Java-based cell phone application, 22 women reported their physical activity based on two short questions answered daily over a 14-day period (PAL(cell)). Results were compared with reference data obtained from the doubly labeled water method and indirect calorimetry (PAL(ref)). Results were also compared against physical activity levels assessed by two regular paper questionnaires completed by women at the end of the 14-day period (PAL(quest1) and PAL(quest2)). PAL(cell), PAL(quest1), and PAL(quest2) were compared with PAL(ref) using the Bland and Altman procedure. The mean difference between PAL(cell) and PAL(ref) was small (0.014) with narrow limits of agreement (2SD = 0.30). Compared with PAL(ref), the mean difference was also small for PAL(quest1) and PAL(quest2) (0.004 and 0.07, respectively); however, the limits of agreement were wider (PAL(quest1), 2SD = 0.50 and PAL(quest2), 2SD = 0.90). The test for trend was statistically significant for PAL(quest1) (slope of regression line = 0.79, P = .04) as well as for PAL(quest2) (slope of regression line = 1.58, P cell phones produced PAL estimates that agreed well with PAL reference values. Furthermore, the limits of agreement between PAL obtained using cell phones, and reference values were narrower than for corresponding estimates obtained using paper questionnaires. Java-based questionnaires downloaded onto cell phones

  10. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Nisarg R; Kesari, Kavindra K; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the dist...

  11. Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Using Cell Phone Technology in Undergraduate Science Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pennington; Julia Paredes; Mai Yin Tsoi; Candace Timpte; Deborah Sauder; David Pursell

    2010-01-01

    Students of science traditionally make 3x5 flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flashcards viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback opportunities for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use computers, but they use their cell phones 24 hours a day. This report outlines these trends and an even more recent educational technology initiative, that of using...

  12. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Zahedifar; Javad Baharara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, ...

  13. Integrating cell phones and mobile technologies into public health practice: a social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Mobile communications are being used for many purposes, from instant messaging (IM), mobile or microblogging (Twitter), social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), e-mail to basic voicemail. A brief background on cell phone and mobile technology use in public health is reviewed. The focus of the article is framing the use of mobile technologies in public health from a social marketer's perspective--using the 4 Ps marketing mix as a guide.

  14. Effects of cell-phone and text-message distractions on true and false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Theodore S; Isaak, Matthew I; Senette, Christian G; Abadie, Brenton G

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the effects of electronic communication distractions, including cell-phone and texting demands, on true and false recognition, specifically semantically related words presented and not presented on a computer screen. Participants were presented with 24 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists while manipulating the concurrent presence or absence of cell-phone and text-message distractions during study. In the DRM paradigm, participants study lists of semantically related words (e.g., mother, crib, and diaper) linked to a non-presented critical lure (e.g., baby). After studying the lists of words, participants are then requested to recall or recognize previously presented words. Participants often not only demonstrate high remembrance for presented words (true memory: crib), but also recollection for non-presented words (false memory: baby). In the present study, true memory was highest when participants were not presented with any distraction tasks during study of DRM words, but poorer when they were required to complete a cell-phone conversation or text-message task during study. False recognition measures did not statistically vary across distraction conditions. Signal detection analyses showed that participants better discriminated true targets (list items presented during study) from true target controls (items presented during study only) when cell-phone or text-message distractions were absent than when they were present. Response bias did not vary significantly across distraction conditions, as there were no differences in the likelihood that a participant would claim an item as "old" (previously presented) rather than "new" (not previously presented). Results of this study are examined with respect to both activation monitoring and fuzzy trace theories.

  15. Acceptance of Mobile Phone Return Programmes for Increased Resource Efficiency by Young People—Experiences from a German Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jolanta Welfens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for recycling obsolete mobile phones has significantly increased with their rapidly growing worldwide production and distribution. Return and recycling rates are quite low; people tend to keep old, unused phones at home instead of returning them for recycling or further use because of a lack of knowledge and acceptance of return programmes. Thus far, individual use and recycling behavior has not shown any trend towards more sustainable patterns. Consequently, an increased awareness is needed for the high environmental and social impact throughout the whole value chain of a mobile phone—there is simply a lack of information and knowledge regarding sustainability issues around the mobile phone. A teaching material was therefore developed in a German research project, based on the concept of the ecological rucksack, presenting comprehensive information about the value chain of a mobile phone. Its application in different schools led to an increased awareness and interest among pupils for the connection between sustainability, resources and mobile phones. Based on these research results, this paper analyses young people’s knowledge of sustainability issues linked to their mobile phones and their acceptance of more sustainable behavioral patterns regarding their mobile, including return and recycling programmes.

  16. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996-2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) Edition could change the publication trends in the

  17. Optimization of injection molding process parameters for a plastic cell phone housing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Vasant, Pandian; Khe, Cheng Seong; Merican, Zulkifli; Oo, Zeya

    2016-11-01

    To produce thin-walled plastic items, injection molding process is one of the most widely used application tools. However, to set optimal process parameters is difficult as it may cause to produce faulty items on injected mold like shrinkage. This study aims at to determine such an optimum injection molding process parameters which can reduce the fault of shrinkage on a plastic cell phone cover items. Currently used setting of machines process produced shrinkage and mis-specified length and with dimensions below the limit. Thus, for identification of optimum process parameters, maintaining closer targeted length and width setting magnitudes with minimal variations, more experiments are needed. The mold temperature, injection pressure and screw rotation speed are used as process parameters in this research. For optimal molding process parameters the Response Surface Methods (RSM) is applied. The major contributing factors influencing the responses were identified from analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Through verification runs it was found that the shrinkage defect can be minimized with the optimal setting found by RSM.

  18. Location Dependency and Antenna/Body/Sensor-Lead Interaction Effects in a Cell-Phone Based GSM 1800 Telemedicine Link

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troulis, S

    2001-01-01

    The error-free requirement of today's cell-phone based telemedicine systems demands investigations into the potential causes of service degradation, Measuring the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI...

  19. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.

  20. Computerized Automated Reminder Diabetes System (CARDS): e-mail and SMS cell phone text messaging reminders to support diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, David A; Wentzell, Katherine; Laffel, Nikki; Laffel, Lori M

    2009-02-01

    Cell phone text messaging, via the Short Messaging Service (SMS), offers the promise of a highly portable, well-accepted, and inexpensive modality for engaging youth and young adults in the management of their diabetes. This pilot and feasibility study compared two-way SMS cell phone messaging with e-mail reminders that were directed at encouraging blood glucose (BG) monitoring. Forty insulin-treated adolescents and young adults with diabetes were randomized to receive electronic reminders to check their BG levels via cell phone text messaging or e-mail reminders for a 3-month pilot study. Electronic messages were automatically generated, and participant replies with BG results were processed by the locally developed Computerized Automated Reminder Diabetes System (CARDS). Participants set their schedule for reminders on the secure CARDS website where they could also enter and review BG data. Of the 40 participants, 22 were randomized to receive cell phone text message reminders and 18 to receive e-mail reminders; 18 in the cell phone group and 11 in the e-mail group used the system. Compared to the e-mail group, users in the cell phone group received more reminders (180.4 vs. 106.6 per user) and responded with BG results significantly more often (30.0 vs. 6.9 per user, P = 0.04). During the first month cell phone users submitted twice as many BGs as e-mail users (27.2 vs. 13.8 per user); by month 3, usage waned. Cell phone text messaging to promote BG monitoring is a viable and acceptable option in adolescents and young adults with diabetes. However, maintaining interest levels for prolonged intervals remains a challenge.

  1. Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Su, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-21

    We demonstrate wide-field fluorescent and darkfield imaging on a cell-phone with compact, light-weight and cost-effective optical components that are mechanically attached to the existing camera unit of the cell-phone. For this purpose, we used battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to pump the sample of interest from the side using butt-coupling, where the pump light was guided within the sample cuvette to uniformly excite the specimen. The fluorescent emission from the sample was then imaged using an additional lens that was positioned right in front of the existing lens of the cell-phone camera. Because the excitation occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to our detection path, an inexpensive plastic colour filter was sufficient to create the dark-field background required for fluorescent imaging, without the need for a thin-film interference filter. We validate the performance of this platform by imaging various fluorescent micro-objects in 2 colours (i.e., red and green) over a large field-of-view (FOV) of ∼81 mm(2) with a raw spatial resolution of ∼20 μm. With additional digital processing of the captured cell-phone images, through the use of compressive sampling theory, we demonstrate ∼2 fold improvement in our resolving power, achieving ∼10 μm resolution without a trade-off in our FOV. Further, we also demonstrate darkfield imaging of non-fluorescent specimen using the same interface, where this time the scattered light from the objects is detected without the use of any filters. The capability of imaging a wide FOV would be exceedingly important to probe large sample volumes (e.g., >0.1 mL) of e.g., blood, urine, sputum or water, and for this end we also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of labeled white-blood cells from whole blood samples, as well as water-borne pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Giardia Lamblia cysts. Weighing only ∼28 g (∼1 ounce), this compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform

  2. Learning on Hold: Cell Phones Sidetrack Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessa; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2017-01-01

    Although research suggests that responsive interactions are imperative for language development, the advent of mobile technology means that parent-child exchanges are often fraught with unpredictable interruptions. Less clear is how these momentary breaks in responsiveness affect word learning. In this within-subjects design, 38 mothers taught…

  3. The influence of relationship intention on cell phone users' attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... relational factors in classifying customers', Journal of Services Marketing, 18(6): 482–493. Day, R.L. 1984. 'Modeling choices among alternative responses to dissatisfaction', Advances in Consumer Research, 11(1): 496–499. De Jager, J.N.W. 2006. Relationship intention as a prerequisite for relationship ...

  4. The use of FDTD in establishing in vitro experimentation conditions representative of lifelike cell phone radiation on the spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradi, Rand; Desai, Nisarg; Erdemir, Ahmet; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that exposing human semen samples to cell phone radiation leads to a significant decline in sperm parameters. In daily living, a cell phone is usually kept in proximity to the groin, such as in a trouser pocket, separated from the testes by multiple layers of tissue. The aim of this study was to calculate the distance between cell phone and semen sample to set up an in vitro experiment that can mimic real life conditions (cell phone in trouser pocket separated by multiple tissue layers). For this reason, a computational model of scrotal tissues was designed by considering these separating layers, the results of which were used in a series of simulations using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. To provide an equivalent effect of multiple tissue layers, these results showed that the distance between a cell phone and semen sample should be 0.8 cm to 1.8 cm greater than the anticipated distance between a cell phone and the testes.

  5. Sleep Quality in Medical Students; the Impact of Over-Use of Mobile Cell-Phone and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Absari, Rozita; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Saadati, Mohammadreza; Sharifimoghadam, Soroush; Ahmadi, Ali; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality is closely associated with lifestyle habits including use of mobile cell-phones.This study aimed to identify the relationship between sleep quality due to abuse in mobile cell-phones and engagement in social networks. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 380 undergraduate students selected by proportional stratified sampling in Qom, Iran in 2015. Data were collected by two standard questionnaire including Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (COS) and Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire beside the status of usage in cell-phone social networks. T-test, chi-square, Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate logistic regression were used in data analysis. The mean age of participants was 21.8 ±3.2 yr, 69.1% were female, and 11.7% were married. The mean of COS and sleep quality scores were 48.18 ±17.5 and 5.38 ±2.31, respectively. The prevalence of over-use of cell phone was 10.7% (CI 0.95; 8.8%, 12.6%) and the prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.7% (CI 0.95; 57.1%, 66.3%). The mean of all aspects and total score of sleep quality showed a direct significant association by cell-phone addiction score except sleep duration score that was inversely. Based on multivariate analysis affected to cell-phone addiction, being male gender and studying in general physician level are the most important predictors of poor sleep quality. Over use of internet and social networks via smart phones is related to poor sleep quality and quantity. Predefined sport programs, educational, cultural, and interesting entertainment are the essential needs for all medical students. These interventions are more important especially for male students who have longer educational.

  6. Cell Phone Use While Driving: Prospective Association with Emerging Adult Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Neha; Haynie, Denise; Bible, Joe; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    Secondary task engagement such as cell phone use while driving is a common behavior among adolescents and emerging adults. Texting and other distracting cell phone use in this population contributes to the high rate of fatal car crashes. Peer engagement in similar risky driving behaviors, such as texting, could socially influence driver phone use behavior. The present study investigates the prospective association between peer and emerging adult texting while driving the first year after high school. Surveys were conducted with a national sample of emerging adults and their nominated peers. Binomial logistic regression analyses, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, and family affluence, showed that participants (n=212) with peers (n=675) who reported frequently texting while driving, were significantly more likely to text while driving the following year (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.19-7.59; P=0.05). The findings are consistent with the idea that peer texting behavior influences the prevalence of texting while driving among emerging adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Please silence your cell phone: Your ringtone captures other people′s attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ringtones are designed to draw attention away from on-going activities. In the present study, it was investigated whether the disruptive effects of a ringing cell phone on short-term memory are inevitable or become smaller as a function of exposure and whether (self- relevance plays a role. Participants performed a serial recall task either in silence or while task-irrelevant ringtones were presented. Performance was worse when a ringing phone had to be ignored, but gradually recovered compared with the quiet control condition with repeated presentation of the distractor sound. Whether the participant′s own ringtone was played or that of a yoked-control partner did not affect performance and habituation rate. The results offer insight into auditory distraction by highly attention-demanding distractors and recovery therefrom. Implications for work environments and other applied settings are discussed.

  8. Managed access technology to combat contraband cell phones in prison: Findings from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommon, Eric

    2017-10-05

    Cell phones in correctional facilities have emerged as one of the most pervasive forms of modern contraband. This issue has been identified as a top priority for many correctional administrators in the United States. Managed access, a technology that utilizes cellular signals to capture transmissions from contraband phones, has received notable attention as a promising tool to combat this problem. However, this technology has received little evaluative attention. The present study offers a foundational process evaluation and draws upon output measures and stakeholder interviews to identify salient operational challenges and subsequent lessons learned about implementing and maintaining a managed access system. Findings suggest that while managed access captures large volumes of contraband cellular transmissions, the technology requires significant implementation planning, personnel support, and complex partnerships with commercial cellular carriers. Lessons learned provide guidance for practitioners to navigate these challenges and for scholars to improve future evaluations of managed access. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Please silence your cell phone: Your ringtone captures other people's attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röer, Jan P; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ringtones are designed to draw attention away from on-going activities. In the present study, it was investigated whether the disruptive effects of a ringing cell phone on short-term memory are inevitable or become smaller as a function of exposure and whether (self-) relevance plays a role. Participants performed a serial recall task either in silence or while task-irrelevant ringtones were presented. Performance was worse when a ringing phone had to be ignored, but gradually recovered compared with the quiet control condition with repeated presentation of the distractor sound. Whether the participant's own ringtone was played or that of a yoked-control partner did not affect performance and habituation rate. The results offer insight into auditory distraction by highly attention-demanding distractors and recovery therefrom. Implications for work environments and other applied settings are discussed.

  10. The effect of cell phone use on postural balance and mobility in older compared to young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatar, Rabeb; Kachouri, Hiba; Borji, Rihab; Rebai, Haithem; Sahli, Sonia

    2017-05-01

    Cell phone use is considered as an essential part of everyday life saturating all age groups and demographics. This study aimed to explore the effect of various cell phone functions on postural control and mobility in the elderly. Twenty healthy older (mean age 72.5±2.9) and twenty young (26.3±2.8) adults participated in this study. Postural balance was assessed by measuring the center of pressure (CoP) displacement with (talking on a cell phone (CONVERSE), dialing a number (DIAL) and listening to music (MUSIC)) and without cell phone use. Mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT). Results showed that for both groups, the CoP parameters increased significantly during the CONVERSE (pcell phone use impairs similarly standing postural balance of elderly and young adults. Interestingly, in the elderly, all cell phone functions used altered mobility with the dialing function causing the largest mobility deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In-person contact begets calling and texting: interpersonal motives for cell phone use, face-to-face interaction, and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Borae; Park, Namkee

    2010-12-01

    This study examined how cell-phone use is related to interpersonal motives for using cell phones, face-to-face communication, and loneliness. A survey of 232 college students who owned a cell phone revealed that affection and inclusion were relatively strong motivations for using voice calls and text messaging, and that interpersonal motives were positively related to the amount of cell-phone use, including calling and texting. The amount of face-to-face interaction was positively associated with the participants' cell-phone use and their interpersonal motives for using cell phones: the more the participants engaged in face-to-face interaction with other people, the higher their motives were and the more frequent cell-phone use was. Loneliness did not have a direct relation to cell-phone use. Instead, the participants with higher levels of loneliness were less likely to engage in face-to-face social interaction, which led them to use cell phones less and to be less motivated to use cell phones for interpersonal purposes.

  12. The Distracting Effects of a Ringing Cell Phone: An Investigation of the Laboratory and the Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jill T; Elliott, Emily M; Lynn, Sharon D; Exner, Amanda L

    2009-12-01

    The detrimental effects of a ringing phone on cognitive performance were investigated in four experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, the effects of different types of sounds (a standard cell phone ring, irrelevant tones and an instrumental song commonly encountered by participants) on performance were examined. In Experiment 1, slower responses were observed in all auditory groups relative to a silence condition, but participants in the ring and song conditions recovered more slowly. In Experiment 2, participants who were warned about the potential for distraction recovered more quickly, suggesting a benefit of this prior knowledge. This investigation continued in a college classroom setting (Experiments 3a and 3b); students were exposed to a ringing cell phone during the lecture. Performance on a surprise quiz revealed low accuracy rates on material presented while the phone was ringing. These findings offer insight into top-down cognitive processes that moderate involuntary orienting responses associated with a common stimulus encountered in the environment.

  13. Article Commentary: Adolescent Sleep and Cellular Phone Use: Recent Trends and Implications for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue K. Adams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent sleep needs range from 8.5–10 hours per night, with older adolescents requiring less sleep than younger adolescents. On average, however, American adolescents receive between 7.5–8.5 hours of sleep per night, with many sleeping fewer than 6.5 hours on school nights. Cellular phone use is emerging as an important factor that interferes with both sleep quality and quantity, particularly as smartphones become more widely available to teens. This review paper has three objectives. First, we will describe adolescent sleep patterns and the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescent physical and mental health. Second, we will describe current trends in technology use among adolescents, making associations to how technology impacts sleep. Lastly, we will discuss some of the methodological barriers of conducting sleep and technology research with adolescents and young adults and offer suggestions for overcoming those barriers. We will also discuss implications for healthcare providers.

  14. Adolescent sleep and cellular phone use: recent trends and implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sue K; Daly, Jennifer F; Williford, Desireé N

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent sleep needs range from 8.5-10 hours per night, with older adolescents requiring less sleep than younger adolescents. On average, however, American adolescents receive between 7.5-8.5 hours of sleep per night, with many sleeping fewer than 6.5 hours on school nights. Cellular phone use is emerging as an important factor that interferes with both sleep quality and quantity, particularly as smartphones become more widely available to teens. This review paper has three objectives. First, we will describe adolescent sleep patterns and the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescent physical and mental health. Second, we will describe current trends in technology use among adolescents, making associations to how technology impacts sleep. Lastly, we will discuss some of the methodological barriers of conducting sleep and technology research with adolescents and young adults and offer suggestions for overcoming those barriers. We will also discuss implications for healthcare providers.

  15. Mobile phone technology: a new paradigm for the prevention, treatment, and research of the non-sheltered "street" homeless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M

    2010-05-01

    Individuals experiencing homelessness have disproportionately high rates of health problems. Those who perceive themselves as having greater access to their social support networks have better physical and mental health outcomes as well as lower rates of victimization. Mobile phones offer a connection to others without the physical constraints of landlines and, therefore, may make communication (e.g., access to one's social support networks) more feasible for homeless individuals. This, in turn, could lead toward better health outcomes. This exploratory study examined mobile phone possession and use among a sample of 100 homeless men and women who do not use the shelter system in Philadelphia, PA. Interviews were comprised of the Homeless Supplement to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, a technology module created for this investigation, and the substance use and psychiatric sections of the Addiction Severity Index. Almost half (44%) of the sample had a mobile phone. In the past 30 days, 100% of those with mobile phones placed or received a call, over half (61%) sent or received a text message, and one fifth (20%) accessed the Internet via their mobile phone. Participants possessed and used mobile phones to increase their sense of safety, responsibility (employment, stable housing, personal business, and sobriety or "clean time"), and social connectedness. Mobile phones could potentially be used by public health/health care providers to disseminate information to the street homeless, to enhance communication between the street homeless and providers, and to increase access for the street homeless to prevention, intervention, and aftercare services. Finally, this technology could also be used by researchers to collect data with this transient population.

  16. Assessment of oxidant/antioxidant status in saliva of cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmad M; Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Aljaberi, Ahmad M; Gagaa, Marwan H; Issa, Hamzah S

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular and molecular targets of RF-EMR are still controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the oxidant/antioxidant status in saliva of cell phone users. Saliva samples collected before using a cell phone as well as at the end of 15 and 30 min calls were tested for two commonly used oxidative stress biomarkers: malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-Oxo-dG). The 8-oxo-dG levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) competitive assay, while the MDA levels were measured using the OxiSelect MDA adduct ELISA Kit. The antioxidant capacity of the saliva was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and the hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays according to the manufacture instructions. The mean 8-oxo-dG and the Bradford protein concentrations (ng/ml and mg/ml, respectively) peaked at 15 min. The levels of HORAC, ORAC and MDA progressively increased with time and reached maximum at 30 min. However, there was no significant effect of talking time on the levels of 8-OxodG and MDA. Similarly, there was no statistically significant effect of talking time on the oxygen and hydroxyl radicals averting capacities, (ORAC) and (HORAC), respectively. These findings suggest that there is no relationship between exposure to radio frequency radiation (RFR) and changes in the salivary oxidant/antioxidant profile.

  17. The relationship between cell phone use and management of driver fatigue: It's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, Dyani Juanita; Matthews, Gerald; Neubauer, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Voice communication may enhance performance during monotonous, potentially fatiguing driving conditions (Atchley & Chan, 2011); however, it is unclear whether safety benefits of conversation are outweighed by costs. The present study tested whether personalized conversations intended to simulate hands-free cell phone conversation may counter objective and subjective fatigue effects elicited by vehicle automation. A passive fatigue state (Desmond & Hancock, 2001), characterized by disengagement from the task, was induced using full vehicle automation prior to drivers resuming full control over the driving simulator. A conversation was initiated shortly after reversion to manual control. During the conversation an emergency event occurred. The fatigue manipulation produced greater task disengagement and slower response to the emergency event, relative to a control condition. Conversation did not mitigate passive fatigue effects; rather, it added worry about matters unrelated to the driving task. Conversation moderately improved vehicle control, as measured by SDLP, but it failed to counter fatigue-induced slowing of braking in response to an emergency event. Finally, conversation appeared to have a hidden danger in that it reduced drivers' insights into performance impairments when in a state of passive fatigue. Automation induced passive fatigue, indicated by loss of task engagement; yet, simulated cell phone conversation did not counter the subjective automation-induced fatigue. Conversation also failed to counter objective loss of performance (slower braking speed) resulting from automation. Cell phone conversation in passive fatigue states may impair drivers' awareness of their performance deficits. Practical applications: Results suggest that conversation, even using a hands-free device, may not be a safe way to reduce fatigue and increase alertness during transitions from automated to manual vehicle control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety

  18. Motorcycles, Cell Phones, and Electricity Can Dramatically Change the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier

    2017-05-01

    AbstractSome observations and recent publications demonstrated, particularly in Africa, the potential influence that low-cost motorcycles, cell phones, and even widespread electrification could have on the evolution of infectious diseases, particularly zoonoses. Our reflections support the conclusion that we should focus on the real-time surveillance systems including alerting systems leading to a rapid and flexible response rather than the strongly limited modeling of infectious diseases because of the continuous evolution of microorganisms, as well as changes in the environment and human habits that are unpredictable.

  19. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola syndromic surveillance in high risked settings in Southern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kangbai; Mohamed, Koroma

    2015-09-01

    Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other developing countries like Sri Lanka. In this study we set to evaluate the effectiveness of using cell phone technology for Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in a high risked community in Sierra Leone. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using cell phone messaging (text and calls) for community Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in high risked community in southern Sierra Leone. All cell phone syndromic surveillance data used for this study was reported as cell phone alert messages-texts and voice calls; by the Moyamba District Health Management Team for both Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and mortalities. We conducted a longitudinal data analysis of the monthly cumulative confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases and mortalities collected by both the traditional sentinel and community cell phone syndromic surveillance from August 2014 to October 2014. A total of 129 and 49 Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and confirmed cases respectively were recorded using the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in October 2014. The average number of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspects and confirmed cases for October 2014 were 4.16 (Std.dev 3.76) and 1.58 (Std.dev 1.43) respectively. Thirty-four percent (n=76) of the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alerts that were followed-up within 24 hours reported Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect cases while 65.92% (n=147) reported mortality. Our study suggests some form of underreporting by the traditional sentinel Ebola hemorrhagic fever disease surveillance system in Moyamba District southern Sierra Leone for August

  20. Research and Evaluation of the Energy Flux Density of the Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses variations in the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of 10 mobile phones depending on distance. The studies have been conducted using three modes: sending a text message, receiving a text message and connecting a mobile phone to the Internet. When text messages are received or sent from a mobile phone, the values of the energy flux density of the mobile phone electromagnetic field exceed the safe allowable limit and make 10 μW / cm². A distance of 10, 20 and 30 cm from a mobile phone is effective protection against the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field when writing texts, receiving messages or connecting to the mobile Internet.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nisarg R; Kesari, Kavindra K; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-10-22

    Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  2. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nisarg R; Kesari, Kavindra K; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling. PMID:19849853

  3. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesari Kavindra K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system. This review also addresses: 1 the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2 epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3 finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  4. Chatting in the face of the eyewitness: The impact of extraneous cell-phone conversation on memory for a perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E; Patel, Krupali; Labonté, Katherine; Threadgold, Emma; Skelton, Faye C; Fodarella, Cristina; Thorley, Rachel; Battersby, Kirsty L; Frowd, Charlie D; Ball, Linden J; Vachon, François

    2017-09-01

    Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged crime in the presence of 1 side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), 2 sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), 1 side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue), or quiet. Between 24 and 28 hr later, participants freely described the perpetrator's face, constructed a single composite image of the perpetrator from memory, and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a sequential lineup. Further, participants rated the likeness of the composites to the perpetrator. Face recall and lineup identification were impaired when participants witnessed the staged crime in the presence of a meaningful halfalogue compared to a meaningless halfalogue, meaningful dialogue, or quiet. Moreover, likeness ratings showed that the composites constructed after ignoring the meaningful halfalogue resembled the perpetrator less than did those constructed after experiencing quiet or ignoring a meaningless halfalogue or a meaningful dialogue. The unpredictability of the meaningful content of the halfalogue, rather than its acoustic unexpectedness, produces distraction. The results are novel in that they suggest that an everyday distraction, even when presented in a different modality to target information, can impair the long-term memory of an eyewitness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Khavanin, Ali; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2013-04-01

    There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cell phone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effects of these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves on sperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the duration of exposure and the frequency of these waves. This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g). The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7): i. control; ii. two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulated waves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups, sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the mean sperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test using SPSS version 16 software. The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacity in all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (pcell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility in rats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result in oxidative stress.

  6. Self-reported neck symptoms and use of personal computers, laptops and cell phones among Finns aged 18-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relation between self-reported neck symptoms (aches, pain or numbness) and use of computers/cell phones. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons, and 15.1% of all respondents (6121) reported that they very often experienced physical symptoms in the neck. The results showed that they also had many other symptoms very often, and 49% used a computer daily at work and 83.9% used cell phones. We compared physical/mental symptoms of persons with symptoms in the neck quite often or more, with others. We found significant differences in the physical/mental symptoms and use of cell phones and computers. The results suggest taking into account in the future that those persons' symptoms in the neck can be associated with use of cell phones or computers. We investigated the possible relation between neck symptoms and use of computers/cell phones. We found that persons, who very often had symptoms in the neck, had also other symptoms very often (e.g. exhaustion at work). Their use of information and communication technology (e.g. computers) can associate with their symptoms.

  7. A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judith E; Rauscher, Kimberly J; Zhu, Motao

    2015-04-02

    Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol. There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21-31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman's rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91-99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81-94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86-97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items. While young adults correctly reported their cell phone's characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly

  8. Quantitative Leaching of a Spent Cell Phone Printed Circuit Board by Hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alafara A. Baba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinetic data on the hydrometallurgical recovery of some metal ions from a printed circuit board (PCB of a spent cell phone by hydrochloric acid leaching. The effects of acid concentration, temperature and particle diameter on the dissolution efficiency at various leaching time intervals were examined. The results of the leaching investigations showed that the powdered cell phone dissolution increases with increasing acid concentration, system temperature with decreasing particle diameter at 360 rpm. With 2M HCl solution, about 88.49% of the sample was dissolved within 120 minutes using 0.075-0.112 mm particle diameter at 800 C. The results of the study indicated that the dissolution reaction could be represented by a shrinking core model with surface chemical reaction. A value of 0.61, 60.67 kJ/mol and 12.9s-1 were calculated as reaction order, activation energy and frequency factor, respectively for the dissolution process.

  9. Adult Cancer Patient Recruitment and Enrollment into Cell Phone Text Message Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, Sandra L; Sikorskii, Alla; Given, Charles W; Coursaris, Constantinos K; Majumder, Atreyee; Schueller, Monica; Given, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Text messaging (TMs) on cell phones is emerging as an effective means of delivering behavioral interventions. However, little is known about TM use in adult cancer patients. The present study aimed to extend knowledge on acceptability of a TM intervention in adult cancer patients; examine factors of those screened and enrolled; and compare recruitment at a large national specialty pharmacy versus community-based cancer clinics. Screening, enrollment, and baseline data collected in two randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of TMs on medication adherence or symptom severity in adults prescribed oral anticancer agents were linked. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, t-tests, and generalized linear modeling were used to examine sociodemographics, cancer type and stage, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, social support, and symptoms. The cancer clinics screened 293 patients, 43% were eligible, and 56% consented. The specialty pharmacy screened 169 patients, 72% were eligible, and 74% consented. Mean age was 58 years and did not differ by recruitment setting. Later stage disease (p = 0.01) and higher number of symptoms (p cancer patients were likely to participate in a TM intervention trial. Recruiting through the specialty pharmacy reached a population with higher cell phone ownership and TM usage; with greater interest in a TM intervention compared to the cancer clinics.

  10. Cell phones and health concerns: impact of knowledge and voluntary precautionary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The article explores how voluntary precautionary recommendations for cell phone usage influence people's health concerns and behavior. An experimental study using a sample of Swiss citizens (N=408) was conducted. Three different versions of a newly developed booklet, which focused on common misconceptions in regard to mobile communication, and an existing booklet were tested. The experimental design addressed questions of the potential effects of knowledge, precautionary recommendations, and sender identity on health concerns and transfer of the proposed recommendations. Participants' perceptions were measured three times: immediately before and after reading the booklet, and two weeks later. The reading of the booklets increased participants' knowledge considerably and led to perceptual changes. In regard to cell phones, health concerns increased after the reading and stayed at a higher level even after two weeks. The negative perception of base stations, in contrast, tended to decrease. Neither the identity of the sender nor the omission of precautionary recommendations had significant effects on health concerns. Provision of specific recommendations enhanced readers' behavioral changes. Confrontation with information per se, and not precautionary recommendations, influenced the public's health concerns. These changes should not prevent the provision of precautionary recommendations because, in the face of scientific uncertainty, these are the only means through which to enable users to make informed decisions. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. [Agreement between two observers in the measurement of smoking and use of safety belt and cell phones in vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Curto, Ariadna; Fernández, Esteve

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of direct observations of smoking and use of seat belts and cell phones in drivers in the city of Barcelona, and to analyze the agreement between two observers. We performed 315 pairs of observations. The simple percentage inter-observer agreement between driver and passenger smoking was 100% with a Kappa coefficient=1.0. There was high inter-observer agreement in measurement of cell phone use and the number of passengers aged less than 14 years old. The variable with the lowest agreement was the driver's age. In conclusion, direct observation studies are a good resource for monitoring smoking and use of seat belts and cell phones in the drivers of motor vehicles. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Using Cell Phones After Light-Out on Sleep Quality, Headache, Tiredness, and Distractibility Among Students of a University in North of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zarghami, Mehran; Khalilian, Alireza; Setareh, Javad; Salehpour, Golnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cell phone is a mere fascinating, as well as entertainment object and serves to keep young individuals in constant contact with their peers; and gives them a feeling of autonomy, identity and credibility. Objectives: Considering the increasing trend of using cell phones, the aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which the students of Mazandaran university of medical sciences use their phones after light-out, and to determine its relationship with sleep quality, head...

  13. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  14. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J; Chu, Kaiqin; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  15. The role of anxiety in the perception of technological hazards - a cross-sectional study on cell phones and masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny-Bas, V; Zmirou-Navier, D; De Tychey, C; Briançon, S

    2014-04-01

    Risk perception is determined by parameters related to the nature of the risk, as well as inherent to the individual perceiving this risk. This study was designed to provide a better understanding of the role of personality, especially anxiety traits, on risk perception. It compared representations of two different risks, smoking (with known and generally accepted adverse health effects) and cell phones (whose hazardous potency is still controversial), each presented in two different forms of exposure, active (smokers and cell phone users) and passive (passive smoking and exposure to cell phone masts). A self-administered questionnaire sent to volunteer subjects collected sociodemographic and exposure data. It measured the perceived risk as well as 11 psychometric properties of risk using visual analogue scales (values ranging from 0 to 10). An anxiety trait was evaluated by the Spielberger questionnaire. In all, 72% of the questionnaires sent were returned. Mean declared risk scores attributed to passive and active smoking were higher (8.75 and 8.31 respectively) than those attributed to cell phones and masts (4.44 and 4.73 respectively). However, scores for the 11 psychometric properties of the risk attributed to cell phones were higher than those associated with smoking, especially for dissatisfaction with information (6.71 and 7.36 respectively for cell phones and masts versus 1.75 and 2.18 for passive and active smoking) and the capacity of authorities to master the risk (6.45 and 6.65 for cell phones and masts versus 4.72 and 4.40 for passive and active smoking). Anxiety did not directly influence the risk scores attributed to these 4 forms of exposure but was predictive of the way in which subjects perceived the risk in terms of two essential properties: uncertainty concerning the effects on health and the potential to trigger health catastrophes. Indeed anxious subjects are more certain about the hazards of cell phones and masts than non-anxious subjects (P

  16. Electromagnetic radiation and health risks: Cell phones and microwave radiation in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I.

    1996-07-01

    Presently the public is concerned over the proliferation of cellphone repeater sites around the cities of New Zealand and whether they pose a risk to health. The debate continued for some weeks over the proposal to erect a cellphone repeater in a school yard. The issues that came out of that debate are profiled in this paper -- environmental health professionals need to be able to communicate well-judged advice to their employers. Cellular phone networks use relatively low-powered transmitters to restrict coverage to a circumscribed locality and thereby enable particular carrier frequencies to be used simultaneously at different cell sites in the same general area. Compared with TV and radio broadcasting, the radiation power levels near cell sites are therefore relatively small. Broadcast transmission antennae are designed to confine the radiation so that it doesn`t go in directions where it is not required or not wanted.

  17. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Muhammet Ihsan; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Koca, Orhan; Karaman, Bilal; Öztürk, Metin Ishak; Yurdakul, Necati; Ercan, Feriha

    2014-12-30

    Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW) on rat testes. Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001). Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  18. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ihsan Karaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW on rat testes. Material and Methods: Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. Results: At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  19. Using mobile phones for adolescent research in low and middle income countries: preliminary findings from the birth to twenty cohort, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Alastair C; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M

    2010-03-01

    Mobile phones enable engagement with adolescents through a familiar medium. Survey data are presented from 2,023 South African adolescents who were asked about phone ownership, usage, and their willingness to divulge sensitive information in short message service surveys. Barriers to participation are addressed as are recommendations for follow-up research.

  20. Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J; Chu, Kaiqin; Espenson, Alyssa R; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Gryshuk, Amy; Molinaro, Marco; Dwyre, Denis M; Lane, Stephen; Matthews, Dennis; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2011-03-02

    In this paper we report the development of two attachments to a commercial cell phone that transform the phone's integrated lens and image sensor into a 350x microscope and visible-light spectrometer. The microscope is capable of transmission and polarized microscopy modes and is shown to have 1.5 micron resolution and a usable field-of-view of 150 x 50 with no image processing, and approximately 350 x 350 when post-processing is applied. The spectrometer has a 300 nm bandwidth with a limiting spectral resolution of close to 5 nm. We show applications of the devices to medically relevant problems. In the case of the microscope, we image both stained and unstained blood-smears showing the ability to acquire images of similar quality to commercial microscope platforms, thus allowing diagnosis of clinical pathologies. With the spectrometer we demonstrate acquisition of a white-light transmission spectrum through diffuse tissue as well as the acquisition of a fluorescence spectrum. We also envision the devices to have immediate relevance in the educational field.

  1. Cell phone data and travel behavior research: symposium summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report summarizes the key themes from a symposium held on February 12, 2014, to discuss opportunities and challenges using cellular location data for national travel behavior analysis. Participants discussed the availability of cellular data and...

  2. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cellphone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effectsof these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves onsperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the durationof exposure and the frequency of these waves.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistarrats (200-250 g. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7: i. control; ii.two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulatedwaves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups,sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the meansperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAPmethod. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using SPSSversion 16 software.Results: The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacityin all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05.Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significantdecrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility inrats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result inoxidative stress.

  3. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  4. The Impact of Using Cell Phones After Light-Out on Sleep Quality, Headache, Tiredness, and Distractibility Among Students of a University in North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran; Khalilian, Alireza; Setareh, Javad; Salehpour, Golnaz

    2015-12-01

    Cell phone is a mere fascinating, as well as entertainment object and serves to keep young individuals in constant contact with their peers; and gives them a feeling of autonomy, identity and credibility. Considering the increasing trend of using cell phones, the aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which the students of Mazandaran university of medical sciences use their phones after light-out, and to determine its relationship with sleep quality, headache, tiredness, and distractibility, after elimination of the impact of stressful events. Overall, 358 students from different schools of the university participated in a cross-sectional study with self-report questionnaires (demographic questionnaire, cell phone use questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and social readjustment rating scale). Descriptive indices were used to express data, and the chi-square and logistic regression were used to interpret the results. Overall, 60% of the students used their cell phones after lights were out. There was a significant relationship between using cell phones late at night and insomnia, low energy, tiredness and headache. Once the impact of stressful events was eliminated, the relationship remained significant only for insomnia. No significant relationship was observed between using cell phones and distractibility. Students of Mazandaran university of medical sciences used their cell phones extensively after lights were out and the resulting insomnia may have affected their learning, as well as the quality of medical services provided by them.

  5. Telemedicine and Alzheimer's Disease from Studio-Based Videoconferencing to Mobile Handheld Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pk (Poh-Kooi Loh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Telemedicine in the assessment of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's Disease is evolving with advances in Information and Communication Technology. This article outlines the course of evolution in Western Australia, a large state with a sparse population outside of the capital city. The starting point of the evolution, video-conferencing in Telehealth studios, is reviewed as well as the next stage, use of desktop technology, which enables the physician to consult from the office or clinic. A pilot study currently being undertaken to assess the validity of the latest stage in evolution of Telehealth—the use of handheld mobile cell phone video calling that allows the physician and patient to interact at locations convenient to both parties. The pitfalls and implications of the use of this stage, should it prove to be a valid approach, are discussed.

  6. Is health literacy related to health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns among the text4baby target population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Elisabeth; Gazmararian, Julie; Elon, Lisa; Parker, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Text4baby provides educational text messages to pregnant and postpartum women and targets underserved women. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns of a text4baby target population and the associations with health literacy. Pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta. Women were asked about their demographics, selected pregnancy or postpartum health behaviors, and cell phone usage patterns. Health literacy skills were measured with the English version of the Newest Vital Sign. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine health behaviors and cell usage patterns by health literacy classification, controlling for commonly accepted confounders. Four hundred sixty-eight women were recruited, and 445 completed the Newest Vital Sign. Of these, 22% had inadequate health literacy, 50% had intermediate health literacy, and 28% had adequate health literacy skills. Compared to adequate health literacy, limited literacy was independently associated with not taking a daily vitamin during pregnancy (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.5) and never breastfeeding their infant (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8). The majority (69.4%) of respondents received nine or more text messages a day prior to enrollment, one in four participants (24.6%) had changed their number within the last six months, and 7.0% of study participants shared a cell phone. Controlling for potentially confounding factors, those with limited health literacy were more likely to share a cell phone than those with adequate health literacy (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.69). Text4baby messages should be appropriate for low health literacy levels, especially as this population may have higher prevalence of targeted unhealthy behaviors. Text4baby and other mhealth programs targetting low health literacy populations should also be aware of the different ways that these populations use their cell phones, including: sharing

  7. The Use and Abuse of Cell Phones and Text Messaging in the Classroom: A Survey of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindell, Deborah R.; Bohlander, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices, such as cell phones, has proliferated in academic settings in recent years, new challenges are faced by institutions of higher education and their faculties. The authors surveyed 269 college students from 21 academic majors at a small northeastern university to gain a better understanding of the frequency and manner…

  8. Let Them Have Their Cell Phone (And Let Them Read to It Too): Technology, Writing Instruction and Textual Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Jed

    2012-01-01

    Cell phone ubiquity enables students to record and share audio file versions of their essays for proofreading purposes. Adopting this practice in community college developmental writing classes leads to an investigation of both writing as a technology and the influence of modern technology on composition and composition pedagogy.

  9. Does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho; de Souza, Fabrício Tinoco Alvim; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; de Souza, Renan Pedra

    2017-08-01

    Prior epidemiological studies had examined the association between cell phone use and the development of tumors in the parotid glands. However, there is no consensus about the question of whether cell phone use is associated with increased risk of tumors in the parotid glands. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the existing literature about the mean question and to determine their statistical significance. Primary association studies. Papers that associated cell phone use and parotid gland tumors development were included, with no restrictions regarding publication date, language, and place of publication. Systematic literature search using PubMed, SciELO and Embase followed by meta-analysis. Initial screening included 37 articles, and three were included in meta-analysis. Using three independent samples including 5087 subjects from retrospective case-control studies, cell phone use seems to be associated with greater odds (1.28, 95%- confidence interval: 1.09-1.51) to develop salivary gland tumor. Results should be read with caution due to the limited number of studies available and their retrospective design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Improved Academic Performance and Student Perceptions of Learning through Use of a Cell Phone-Based Personal Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sihui; Steger, Daniel G.; Doolittle, Peter E.; Stewart, Amanda C.

    2018-01-01

    Personal response systems, such as clickers, have been widely used to improve the effectiveness of teaching in various classroom settings. Although hand-held clicker response systems have been the subject of multiple prior studies, few studies have focused on the use of cell phone-based personal response system (CPPRS) specifically. This study…

  11. Missouri Educator Perceptions on the Use of Smartphones/Cell Phones in a Secondary School Setting: Their Relationship to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study evaluated the differences in the perceptions of educators in the state of Missouri on cell phone use in the classroom setting and its relationship to instruction. Specifically, this study analyzed the difference in perceptions and relationships that exist among educators (teachers and counselors) and administrators in…

  12. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  13. Sexually explicit cell phone messaging associated with sexual risk among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62-29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01-10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86-4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.89). Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to "real world" sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula.

  14. Cell phones and the measurement of child neglect: the validity of the parent-child activities interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Howard, Kimberly S; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Borkowski, John G; Atwater, Jane; Guest, Kristi Carter; Ramey, Sharon L; Hughes, Kere

    2008-11-01

    Two multisite studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using cell phone interviews (the Parent-Child Activities Interview) to learn more about the quality of daily parenting among high-risk mothers, including child neglect. In Study 1, 45 primiparous teenage mothers with 3- to 9-month-old infants were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups: one received frequent cell phone interviews and the other group less frequent interviews over their home telephone. Relationships among paper-and-pencil surveys of parenting (gathered in person) and a Parenting Essentials score (coded from the phone interviews) were significantly correlated. In Study 2, adolescent and adult mothers and their first-born children ( n = 544) completed 2 observations of parenting in their home as well as a series of 3 PCA calls at ages 4 and 8 months. Parenting Essentials coded from the interviews were significantly related to observed measures of parenting at both time points. The Parent-Child Activities Interview shows promise as a reliable and valid measure of parenting, capturing frequent and detailed information about daily parenting practices. Cell phones may prove useful in intervening with mothers at risk of suboptimal parenting and child neglect.

  15. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  16. Work productivity in rhinitis using cell phones: The MASK pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Bewick, M; Arnavielhe, S; Mathieu-Dupas, E; Murray, R; Bedbrook, A; Caimmi, D P; Vandenplas, O; Hellings, P W; Bachert, C; Anto, J M; Bergmann, K C; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bosnic-Anticevich, S; Bouchard, J; Canonica, G W; Chavannes, N H; Cruz, A A; Dahl, R; Demoly, P; De Vries, G; Devillier, P; Fink-Wagner, A; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Guldemond, N A; Haahtela, T; Hellqvist-Dahl, B; Just, J; Keil, T; Klimek, L; Kowalski, M L; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Laune, D; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Mullol, J; Pereira, A M; Carreiro-Martins, P; Melén, E; Morais-Almeida, M; Nogueira-Silva, L; O'Hehir, R E; Papadopoulos, N G; Passalacqua, G; Portejoie, F; Price, D; Ryan, D; Samolinski, B; Sheikh, A; Simons, F E R; Spranger, O; Todo Bom, A; Tomazic, P V; Triggiani, M; Valero, A; Valovirta, E; Valiulis, A; van Eerd, M; Wickman, M; Young, I; Zuberbier, T

    2017-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis often impairs social life and performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use cell phone data to assess the impact on work productivity of uncontrolled rhinitis assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, Google Play Store and Apple App Store) collects data from daily visual analogue scales (VAS) for overall allergic symptoms (VAS-global measured), nasal (VAS-nasal), ocular (VAS-ocular) and asthma symptoms (VAS-asthma) as well as work (VAS-work). A combined nasal-ocular score is calculated. The Allergy Diary is available in 21 countries. The app includes the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Allergic Specific Questionnaire (WPAI:AS) in six EU countries. All consecutive users who completed the VAS-work from 1 June to 31 October 2016 were included in the study. A total of 1136 users filled in 5818 days of VAS-work. Symptoms of allergic rhinitis were controlled (VAS-global 50). There was a significant correlation between VAS-global calculated and VAS-work (Rho=0.83, P<0.00001, Spearman's rank test). In 144 users, there was a significant correlation between VAS-work and WPAI:AS (Rho=0.53, P<0.0001). This pilot study provides not only proof-of-concept data on the work impairment collected with the app but also data on the app itself, especially the distribution of responses for the VAS. This supports the interpretation that persons with rhinitis report both the presence and the absence of symptoms. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  17. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  18. [Blocking 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation-induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in lens epithelial cells by noise magnetic fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yao, Ke; Wang, Kai-jun; Lu, De-qiang; He, Ji-liang; Xu, Li-hong; Sun, Wen-jun

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether the exposure to the electromagnetic noise can block reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage of lens epithelial cells induced by 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation. The DCFH-DA method and comet assay were used respectively to detect the intracellular ROS and DNA damage of cultured human lens epithelial cells induced by 4 W/kg 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation or/and 2 muT electromagnetic noise for 24 h intermittently. 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at 4 W/kg for 24 h increased intracellular ROS and DNA damage significantly (PDNA damage of mobile phone radiation plus noise group were not significant enhanced (P>0.05) as compared to sham exposure group. Electromagnetic noise can block intracellular ROS production and DNA damage of human lens epithelial cells induced by 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation.

  19. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-05-12

    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, cell phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  20. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eghlidospour, Mahsa; Ghanbari, Amir; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Azari, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differen...

  1. In Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zalata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU gene expression. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26, ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32, iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31 and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35. The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where pAT>A>N groups, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

  2. Effect of Cell-Phone Radiation in Pregnancy on Serum Levels of Sexual Hormones and Dynastic Cells in adult Female Offspring in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The teratogenic effects of electromagnetic radiation on different processes of growth caused many concerns related to the harmful effects of cell-phone radiation on human health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cell-phone radiation on estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones together with dynastic sexual cells of adult female offspring of pregnant rats affected by these radiations. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 pregnant female rats divided into 3 groups including the control, sham and experimental groups were used. The control group received no radiation and the experimental group was exposed to cell-phone radiation at the beginning of pregnancy (4 hours daily for 14 days. The control group was exposed around turning-on cell-phone without conversation over the same period. After giving birth and after maturity, 10 female offsprings of different groups separated and after phlebotomizing, sexual hormones levels was measured and by separating the ovaries, ovarian follicles species were counted. The results analyzed using ANOVA and T tests. Differences in statistical analysis of data were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that the pregnant female exposure to cell-phone radiation caused significant increase in the size and weight of the ovaries and atresic follicles (p<0.05 without significant effect on the number of primary and secondary follicles, antral, graph, primordial, corpus luteum and sexual hormones. Conclusion: Exposure to cell-phone radiations caused increase in the size, weight and atresic follicles of offspring’s ovaries in pregnant females

  3. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Roni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%. Ninety-three (46.5% responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5% would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5% who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6% said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7% said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7% were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow

  4. The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, Andrew; Barkley, Jacob E; Sanders, Gabriel J; Rebold, Michael; Gates, Peter

    2013-06-21

    Today's cell phones increase opportunities for activities traditionally defined as sedentary behaviors (e.g., surfing the internet, playing video games). People who participate in large amounts of sedentary behaviors, relative to those who do not, tend to be less physically active, less physically fit, and at greater risk for health problems. However, cell phone use does not have to be a sedentary behavior as these devices are portable. It can occur while standing or during mild-to-moderate intensity physical activity. Thus, the relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and physical fitness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate these relationships among a sample of healthy college students. Participants were first interviewed about their physical activity behavior and cell phone use. Then body composition was assessed and the validated self-efficacy survey for exercise behaviors completed. This was followed by a progressive exercise test on a treadmill to exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during exercise was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness. Hierarchical regression was used to assess the relationship between cell phone use and cardiorespiratory fitness after controlling for sex, self-efficacy, and percent body fat. Interview data was transcribed, coded, and Chi-square analysis was used to compare the responses of low and high frequency cell phone users. Cell phone use was significantly (p = 0.047) and negatively (β = -0.25) related to cardio respiratory fitness independent of sex, self-efficacy, and percent fat which were also significant predictors (p cell phones for sedentary behaviors. Second, low frequency users were more likely to report being connected to active peer groups through their cell phones and to cite this as a motivation for physical activity. Third, high levels of cell phone use indicated a broader pattern of sedentary behaviors apart from cell phone use, such as

  5. Estimation of physical activity levels using cell phone questionnaires: a comparison with accelerometry for evaluation of between-subject and within-subject variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexelius, Christin; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Litton, Jan-Eric; Löf, Marie

    2011-09-25

    Physical activity promotes health and longevity. Further elaboration of the role of physical activity for human health in epidemiological studies on large samples requires accurate methods that are easy to use, cheap, and possible to repeat. The use of telecommunication technologies such as cell phones is highly interesting in this respect. In an earlier report, we showed that physical activity level (PAL) assessed using a cell phone procedure agreed well with corresponding estimates obtained using the doubly labeled water method. However, our earlier study indicated high within-subject variation in relation to between-subject variations in PAL using cell phones, but we could not assess if this was a true variation of PAL or an artifact of the cell phone technique. Our objective was to compare within- and between-subject variations in PAL by means of cell phones with corresponding estimates using an accelerometer. In addition, we compared the agreement of daily PAL values obtained using the cell phone questionnaire with corresponding data obtained using an accelerometer. PAL was measured both with the cell phone questionnaire and with a triaxial accelerometer daily during a 2-week study period in 21 healthy Swedish women (20 to 45 years of age and BMI from 17.7 kg/m² to 33.6 kg/m²). The results were evaluated by fitting linear mixed effect models and descriptive statistics and graphs. With the accelerometer, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40%-66%) of the variation was within subjects, while with the cell phone, within-subject variation was 76% (95% CI 59%-83%). The day-to-day variations in PAL observed using the cell phone questions agreed well with the corresponding accelerometer results. Both the cell phone questionnaire and the accelerometer showed high within-subject variations. Furthermore, day-to-day variations in PAL within subjects assessed using the cell phone agreed well with corresponding accelerometer values. Consequently, our cell phone

  6. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN MOBILE PHONE SERVICES IN BANGLADESH: A SURVEY RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Belal Uddin; Bilkis Akhter

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to explore customer satisfaction and its influencing factors of the mobile phone operation industry in Bangladesh. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey form a diversified representative sample. An iterated factor analysis with principal component analysis (PCA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) including measurement model and structural model were applied to analyze data. The empirical results demonstrate that service quality and fair price have indirect in...

  7. Psychotherapeutic Applications of Mobile Phone-based Technologies: A Systematic Review of Current Research and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vikas; Rajan, Tess Maria; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using mobile phone technology to offer real-time psychological interventions and support. However, questions remain on the clinical effectiveness and feasibility of such approaches in psychiatric populations. Our aim was to systematically review the published literature on mobile phone apps and other mobile phone-based technology for psychotherapy in mental health disorders. To achieve this, electronic searches of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were carried out in January 2016. Generated abstracts were systematically screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Studies employing psychotherapy in any form, being delivered through mobile-based technology and reporting core mental health outcomes in mental illness were included in the study. We also included trials in progress with published protocols reporting at least some outcome measures of such interventions. From a total of 1563 search results, 24 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included trials in anxiety disorders (8), substance use disorders (5), depression (4), bipolar disorders (3), schizophrenia and psychotic disorders (3), and attempted suicide (1). Of these, eight studies involved the use of smartphone apps and others involved personalized text messages, automated programs, or delivered empirically supported treatments. Trial lengths varied from 6 weeks to 1 year. Good overall retention rates indicated that the treatments were feasible and largely acceptable. Benefits were reported on core outcomes in mental health illness indicating efficacy of such approaches though sample sizes were small. To conclude, mobile phone-based psychotherapies are a feasible and acceptable treatment option for patients with mental disorders. However, there remains a paucity of data on their effectiveness in real-world settings, especially from low- and middle-income countries.

  8. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN MOBILE PHONE SERVICES IN BANGLADESH: A SURVEY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal Uddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to explore customer satisfaction and its influencing factors of the mobile phone operation industry in Bangladesh. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey form a diversified representative sample. An iterated factor analysis with principal component analysis (PCA and structural equation modeling (SEM including measurement model and structural model were applied to analyze data. The empirical results demonstrate that service quality and fair price have indirect influence on customer satisfaction of a mass service industry (i.e., mobile phone operators through perceive value. Perceived value has mediating role between quality, charge fairness and satisfaction. Furthermore, result shows that fair price has positive direct impact on customer satisfaction, whereas, the results did not find any significant direct impact of service quality on customer satisfaction. Mobile phone operators are recommended to formulate operations and marketing strategies that focus on expectations of customers to enhance level of satisfaction. Similar industries may reveal similar relationship features in respect to these relationship constructs, if they are under similar category.

  9. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  10. Mobile phone appropriation in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Sutko, Daniel; Salis, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes the social appropriation of mobile phones among low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) by asking how favela (slum) residents appropriate cell phones. Findings highlight the difficulty these populations encounter in acquiring and using cell phones d...... in these Brazilian slums. The article concludes by suggesting that future research on technology in low-income communities focus instead on the relationship of people to technology rather than a dichotomization of their access or lack thereof....

  11. Adaptive intervention design in mobile health: Intervention design and development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Lazenka, Tony; Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P

    2015-12-01

    The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this article is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design that made it possible. The Cell Phone Intervention for You study was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored, controlled, 24-month randomized clinical trial comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (body mass index≥25 kg/m2) young adults. Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, adaptive intervention design, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The adaptive intervention design strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. Adaptive intervention design was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely. The cell phone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive-providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools

  12. EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM LEACH LIQUOR OF METALLIC COMPONENT IN DISCARDED CELL PHONE BY CYANEX® 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAFARA A. BABA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cell phones contribute significantly to the amount of electronic waste generation whilst some of its components are toxic and recoverable. Also, due to the increasing demand for Cu(II in building/construction, electrical and as chemical tool in freshwater, it is imperative to develop low cost and ecofriendly technique as a substitute for the conventional treatments such as reduction-roasting route at elevated temperatures. In the present study, the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of Cu(II by Cyanex® 272 in kerosene was examined. Various parameters affecting the extraction of Cu(II such as pH, extractant concentration and phase ratio were optimized. At optimal conditions, about 96.3 % Cu(II was extracted into the organic phase by 0.2 mol/L Cyanex® 272 at equilibrium pH 5.0 and aqueous to organic phase ratio 1:1. The stripping of the loaded organic was carried out by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution and stripping efficiency of 98 % was obtained. By McCabe Thiele diagram, four stages are required for complete extraction of Cu(II.

  13. How connected are people with schizophrenia? Cell phone, computer, email, and social media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Stewart, Adriana; Schrimsher, John; Peeples, Dale; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-02-28

    Technologies such as Internet based social media network (SMN) websites are becoming an important part of many adult lives; however, less is known about their use in patients with schizophrenia. We need to determine (1) how "connected" are patients with schizophrenia?, (2) do these technologies interfere with the patient׳s illness?, and (3) do patients envision these technologies being involved in their treatment? We recruited 80 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with schizophrenia to complete a brief survey on the prevalence and frequency of cell phone, text messaging, computer, email, and SMN use, and associated attitudes. 56% of subjects use text messaging, 48% have an email account, and 27% of subjects use SMN sites daily, with Facebook being the most popular. Many current users agreed that these technologies help them interact/socialize more, expressed interest in receiving text messages from their doctors, and disagreed that these technologies make symptoms worse. These preliminary findings should be investigated in larger samples, but suggest that these technologies afford a unique opportunity to engage and improve treatment for some patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  15. A bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature on Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Elena; Beranuy, Marta; Bellés, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to locate the scientific literature dealing with addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to characterize the pattern of publications in these areas. Methods: One hundred seventy-nine valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO between 1996 and 2005 related to pathological Internet, cell phone, or video game use. Results: The years with the highest numbers of articles published were 2004 (n = 42) and 2005 (n = 40). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were the United States (n = 52), China (n = 23), the United Kingdom (n = 17), Taiwan (n = 13), and South Korea (n = 9). The most commonly used language was English (65.4%), followed by Chinese (12.8%) and Spanish (4.5%). Articles were published in 96 different journals, of which 22 published 2 or more articles. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology & Behavior (n = 41). Addiction to the Internet was the most intensely studied (85.3%), followed by addiction to video games (13.6%) and cell phones (2.1%). Conclusions: The number of publications in this area is growing, but it is difficult to conduct precise searches due to a lack of clear terminology. To facilitate retrieval, bibliographic databases should include descriptor terms referring specifically to Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction as well as to more general addictions involving communications and information technologies and other behavioral addictions. PMID:19404500

  16. Adolescent Sleep and Cellular Phone Use: Recent Trends and Implications for Research

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Sue K.; Daly, Jennifer F.; Williford, Desireé N.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent sleep needs range from 8.5–10 hours per night, with older adolescents requiring less sleep than younger adolescents. On average, however, American adolescents receive between 7.5–8.5 hours of sleep per night, with many sleeping fewer than 6.5 hours on school nights. Cellular phone use is emerging as an important factor that interferes with both sleep quality and quantity, particularly as smartphones become more widely available to teens. This review paper has three objectives. Firs...

  17. Acceptability and Feasibility of a Cell Phone Support Intervention for Youth Living with HIV with Nonadherence to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Marvin E; Kolmodin MacDonell, Karen; Clark, Leslie F; Huang, Jennifer; Olson, Johanna; Kahana, Shoshana Y; Naar, Sylvie; Sarr, Moussa; Thornton, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial of youth ages 15-24 nonadherent to antiretroviral therapy (ART) utilizing daily cell phone support was found to have significant improvement in self-reported adherence and HIV RNA. Understanding acceptability and feasibility is critical for future implementation in clinic settings. Exit interviews were obtained from participants and adherence facilitators (AF). Acceptability was assessed from content analysis of exit interviews. Feasibility was assessed via intervention retention and study retention rates. Thirty-seven eligible youth were enrolled with 19 assigned to the intervention. Seven (37%) discontinued the intervention either due to missing over 20% of calls for two consecutive months (N=5) or missing 10 consecutive calls (N=2). Sixteen participants completed exit interviews, 15 reported the call length was just right, 13 reported they would have liked to continue calls after the 24-week intervention, and all participants reported they would recommend the intervention to friends. Scheduling and making calls required less than 1 h per week per participant. Providing cell phone support to youth nonadherent to ART was acceptable and feasible. While the cost is low compared to the price of ART, healthcare systems will need to explore how to cover the cost of providing cell phones (incentive).

  18. Rapid detection of Clostridium difficile via magnetic bead aggregation in cost-effective polyester microdevices with cell phone image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A; Cabaniss, Scott T; Angotti, Morgan L; Moore, John H; Abhyankar, Mayuresh; Shukla, Nishant; Mills, Daniel L; Kessel, Bryan G; Garner, Gavin T; Swami, Nathan S; Landers, James P

    2016-10-07

    Pathogen detection has traditionally been accomplished by utilizing methods such as cell culture, immunoassays, and nucleic acid amplification tests; however, these methods are not easily implemented in resource-limited settings because special equipment for detection and thermal cycling is often required. In this study, we present a magnetic bead aggregation assay coupled to an inexpensive microfluidic fabrication technique that allows for cell phone detection and analysis of a notable pathogen in less than one hour. Detection is achieved through the use of a custom-built system that allows for fluid flow control via centrifugal force, as well as manipulation of magnetic beads with an adjustable rotating magnetic field. Cell phone image capture and analysis is housed in a 3D-printed case with LED backlighting and a lid-mounted Android phone. A custom-written application (app.) is employed to interrogate images for the extent of aggregation present following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled to product-inhibited bead aggregation (PiBA) for detection of target sequences. Clostridium difficile is a pathogen of increasing interest due to its causative role in intestinal infections following antibiotic treatment, and was therefore chosen as the pathogen of interest in the present study to demonstrate the rapid, cost-effective, and sequence-specific detection capabilities of the microfluidic platform described herein.

  19. [Risk perception of the general public of cell phone towers and cancer: trend and associated factors, 2005-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Vergélys, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess risk perception related to living near a cell phone tower based on data from two national telephone surveys conducted in France in 2005 and 2010. In 2005, 48.5% of French people aged 16-75 years considered that living near a cell phone tower increases the risk of cancer, compared to 68.9% in 2010. In addition, the number of ?don't know' responses decreased. The increase in risk perception was far greater than the increase in perceptions related to other potential environmental factors of cancer (nuclear power plant, air pollution, chemically-treated food). In 2005, the perceived risk of cancer due to exposure to cell phone tower radiation was correlated to gender, level of income, size of town and sensitivity to other environmental causes of cancer. However, these correlations were weaker in 2010. This risk perception may reflect non-specific fears and a lack of trust in the authorities, but is also rooted in a local context.

  20. Connection between cell phone use, p53 gene expression in different zones of glioblastoma multiforme and survival prognoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akhavan-Sigari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate p53 gene expression in the central and peripheral zones of glioblastoma multiforme using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique in patients who use cell phones ≥3 hours a day and determine its relationship to clinicopathological findings and overall survival. Sixty-three patients (38 males and 25 females, diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, underwent tumor resection between 2008 and 2011. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 88 years, with a mean age of 55. The levels of expression of p53 in the central and peripheral zone of the GBM were quantified by RT-PCR. Data on p53 gene expression from the central and peripheral zone, the related malignancy and the clinicopatholagical findings (age, gender, tumor location and size, as well as overall survival, were analyzed. Forty-one out of 63 patients (65% with the highest level of cell phone use (≥3 hours/day had higher mutant type p53 expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.034. Results from the present study on the use of mobile phones for ≥3 hours a day show a consistent pattern of increased risk for the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma, and that this increase was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time. The risk was not higher for ipsilateral exposure. We found that the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma was increased in 65% of patients using cell phones ≥3 hours a day.

  1. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae in cell phones of health care workers from Peruvian pediatric and neonatal intensive care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Steev; Gutierrez, Luz R.; Horna, Gertrudis; Petersen, Kyle; Agapito, Juan; Osada, Jorge; Rios, Paul; Lescano, Andres G.; Tamariz, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care workers (HCWs) use their mobile phones during working hours or medical care. There is evidence that the instruments are colonized with pathogenic microorganisms. Here, we describe levels of Enterobacteriaceae contamination (EC) in cell phones and the risk factors associated with EC in Peruvian intensive care units (ICUs). Methods This was a 5-month cohort study among 114 HCWs of 3 pediatric and 2 neonatology ICUs from 3 Peruvian hospitals. A baseline survey collected data on risk factors associated with EC. Swabs were collected from HCWs’ phones every other week. Results Three-quarters of HCWs never decontaminated their phones, and 47% reported using the phones in the ICU >5 times while working. EC was frequent across samplings and sites and was substantially higher in subjects with longer follow-up. Potential risk factors identified did not have strong associations with positive samples (relative risk, 0.7–1.5), regardless of significance. Half of the phones were colonized with an Enterobacteriaceae at least once during the 4 samplings attained on average during the study period. Half of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and 33% were extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers. Conclusions EC on HCWs’ phones was frequent and apparently randomly distributed through the hospitals without clear clustering or strongly associated risk factors for having a positive sample. Based on the level of EC, phones may be considered as potential bacterial reservoirs of MDR and ESBL bacteria. PMID:27067520

  2. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyeyemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. Objectives: We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Design: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid, Web of Science (ISI, and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication to either make calls or send text messages. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. Conclusions: While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  3. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Sunday O; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid), Web of Science (ISI), and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication) to either make calls or send text messages. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  4. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  5. Evaluation of Mechanisms to Improve Performance of Mobile Phone Surveys in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dustin G; Pariyo, George William; Wosu, Adaeze C; Greenleaf, Abigail R; Ali, Joseph; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Islam, Khaleda; Masanja, Honorati; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    Mobile phone ownership and access have increased rapidly across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) within the last decade. Concomitantly, LMICs are experiencing demographic and epidemiologic transitions, where non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Mobile phone surveys could aid data collection for prevention and control of these NCDs but limited evidence of their feasibility exists. The objective of this paper is to describe a series of sub-studies aimed at optimizing the delivery of interactive voice response (IVR) and computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) for NCD risk factor data collection in LMICs. These sub-studies are designed to assess the effect of factors such as airtime incentive timing, amount, and structure, survey introduction characteristics, different sampling frames, and survey modality on key survey metrics, such as survey response, completion, and attrition rates. In a series of sub-studies, participants will be randomly assigned to receive different airtime incentive amounts (eg, 10 minutes of airtime versus 20 minutes of airtime), different incentive delivery timings (airtime delivered before survey begins versus delivery upon completion of survey), different survey introductions (informational versus motivational), different narrative voices (male versus female), and different sampling frames (random digit dialing versus mobile network operator-provided numbers) to examine which study arms will yield the highest response and completion rates. Furthermore, response and completion rates and the inter-modal reliability of the IVR and CATI delivery methods will be compared. Research activities are expected to be completed in Bangladesh, Tanzania, and Uganda in 2017. This is one of the first studies to examine the feasibility of using IVR and CATI for systematic collection of NCD risk factor information in LMICs. Our findings will inform the future design and

  6. 3D printed disposable optics and lab-on-a-chip devices for chemical sensing with cell phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, G.; Suska, A.; Filippini, D.

    2017-02-01

    Digital manufacturing (DM) offers fast prototyping capabilities and great versatility to configure countless architectures at affordable development costs. Autonomous lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices, conceived as only disposable accessory to interface chemical sensing to cell phones, require specific features that can be achieved using DM techniques. Here we describe stereo-lithography 3D printing (SLA) of optical components and unibody-LOC (ULOC) devices using consumer grade printers. ULOC devices integrate actuation in the form of check-valves and finger pumps, as well as the calibration range required for quantitative detection. Coupling to phone camera readout depends on the detection approach, and includes different types of optical components. Optical surfaces can be locally configured with a simple polishing-free post-processing step, and the representative costs are 0.5 US$/device, same as ULOC devices, both involving fabrication times of about 20 min.

  7. Quantifying travel behavior for infectious disease research: a comparison of data from surveys and mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Stresman, Gillian; Eagle, Nathan; Stevenson, Jennifer; Owaga, Chrispin; Marube, Elizabeth; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Christopher; Cox, Jonathan; Buckee, Caroline O.

    2014-07-01

    Human travel impacts the spread of infectious diseases across spatial and temporal scales, with broad implications for the biological and social sciences. Individual data on travel patterns have been difficult to obtain, particularly in low-income countries. Travel survey data provide detailed demographic information, but sample sizes are often small and travel histories are hard to validate. Mobile phone records can provide vast quantities of spatio-temporal travel data but vary in spatial resolution and explicitly do not include individual information in order to protect the privacy of subscribers. Here we compare and contrast both sources of data over the same time period in a rural area of Kenya. Although both data sets are able to quantify broad travel patterns and distinguish regional differences in travel, each provides different insights that can be combined to form a more detailed picture of travel in low-income settings to understand the spread of infectious diseases.

  8. Evaluation of the potential of mobile phone specific electromagnetic fields (UMTS) to produce micronuclei in human glioblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serori, Halh; Kundi, Michael; Ferk, Franziska; Mišík, Miroslav; Nersesyan, Armen; Murbach, Manuel; Lah, Tamara T; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2017-04-01

    Some epidemiological studies indicate that mobile phones cause glioblastomas in humans. Since it is known that genomic instability plays a key role in the etiology of cancer, we investigated the effects of the universal mobile telecommunications system radiofrequency (UMTS-RF) signal, which is used in "smart" phones, on micronucleus (MN) formation and other anomalies such as nuclear buds (NBUDs) and nucleoplasmatic bridges (NPBs). MN are formed by structural and numerical aberrations, NBs reflect gene amplification and NPBs are formed from dicentric chromosomes. The experiments were conducted with human glioblastoma cell lines, which differ in regard to their p53 status, namely U87 (wild-type) and U251 (mutated). The cells were cultivated for 16h in presence and absence of fetal calf serum and exposed to different SAR doses (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00W/kg), which reflect the exposure of humans, in presence and absence of mitomycin C as former studies indicate that RF may cause synergistic effects in combination with this drug. We found no evidence for induction of MN and other anomalies. However, with the highest dose, induction of apoptosis was observed in U251 cells on the basis of the morphological features of the cells. Our findings indicate that the UMTS-RF signal does not cause chromosomal damage in glioblastoma cells; the mechanisms which lead to induction of programmed cell death will be investigated in further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  10. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into many ... they also retain the ability to produce more stem cells, a process termed self-renewal. There are multiple ...

  11. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  12. In vitro effect of cell phone radiation on motility, DNA fragmentation and clusterin gene expression in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalata, Adel; El-Samanoudy, Ayman Z; Shaalan, Dalia; El-Baiomy, Youssef; Mostafa, Taymour

    2015-01-01

    Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU) gene expression. In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26), ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32), iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31) and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35). The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where pAT>A>N groups, respectively (pnegative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

  13. Safety-critical event risk associated with cell phone tasks as measured in naturalistic driving studies: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sarah M; Hicks, Anne; Caird, Jeff K

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of naturalistic driving studies involving estimates of safety-critical event risk associated with handheld device use while driving is described. Fifty-seven studies identified from targeted databases, journals and websites were reviewed in depth, and six were ultimately included. These six studies, published between 2006 and 2014, encompass seven sets of naturalistic driver data and describe original research that utilized naturalistic methods to assess the effects of distracting behaviors. Four studies involved non-commercial drivers of light vehicles and two studies involved commercial drivers of trucks and buses. Odds ratios quantifying safety-critical event (SCE) risk associated with talking, dialing, locating or answering, and texting or browsing were extracted. Stratified meta-analysis of pooled odds ratios was used to estimate SCE risk by distraction type; meta-regression was used to test for sources of heterogeneity. The results indicate that tasks that require drivers to take their eyes off the road, such as dialing, locating a phone and texting, increase SCE risk to a greater extent than tasks that do not require eyes off the road such as talking. Although talking on a handheld device did not increase SCE risk, further research is required to determine whether it indirectly influences SCE risk (e.g., by encouraging other cell phone activities). In addition, a number of study biases and quality issues of naturalistic driving studies are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilizing cell phones for bystander intervention during emergencies: Presentation at the extended Jour Fixe (One day workshop), New Social Media and Crisis, Bielefeld, Germany, April 27, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Akkad, A.; R. Reiners; Zimmermann, A.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the ubiquity and ever-increasing capabilities of cell phones, they have been exploited for mobile data collection in diverse domains [1]. In this position paper, we hypothesize that bystanders can contribute to the handling of emergencies by means of usage of smart phones. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted at first 24 interviews, as described in [2]. Time staggered we also interviewed two persons who experienced the crisis at a stampede [3] at the Love Parade music festival in Ge...

  15. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  16. Dynamic travel information personalized and delivered to your cell phone : addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Real-time travel information must reach a significant amount of travelers to create a large amount of travel behavior change. For this project, since the TRAC-IT mobile phone application is used to monitor user context in terms of location, the mobil...

  17. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Christopoulou, Maria; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2010-04-01

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  18. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  19. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlidospour, Mahsa; Ghanbari, Amir; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Azari, Hassan

    2017-06-01

    Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs. Our results showed that the number and size of resulting neurospheres and also the percentage of cells differentiated into neurons decreased significantly with increasing exposure duration to GSM 900-MHz radiofrequency (RF)-electromagnetic field (EMF). In contrast, exposure to GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF at different durations did not influence cell viability and apoptosis of NSCs and also their astrocytic differentiation. It is concluded that accumulating dose of GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF might have devastating effects on NSCs proliferation and neurogenesis requiring more causations in terms of using mobile devices.

  20. Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Haugen, Margaretha; Schjølberg, Synnve; Magnus, Per; Brunborg, Gunnar; Vrijheid, Martine; Alexander, Jan

    2017-09-05

    Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years. This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89) lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills. We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.

  1. Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years. Methods This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. Results No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89 lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills. Conclusions We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.

  2. Alterations in body weight and blood glucose level of female hamsters exposed to electromagnetic fields of cell phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Lotfi

    2010-02-01

    Group 2 was exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by cell phones for 10 days (short term and group 3 for 50 day (long term. In the latter groups, the exposure was 1 hour per day. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were weighed and blood glucose concentrations were determined by obtaining blood samples from 8 randomly selected hamsters in each group.  The blood glucose level was significantly higher in long-term exposed group in comparison with the control and short-term exposed groups (175, 11.6 and 107 mg/dl, respectively (p

  3. Discarded cell phone lithium ion batteries state of health quick method analysis by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Catarini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of health (SOH is a important evaluation parameter to rechargeable batteries, because determine its cycle life and help on electric devices supplied by batteries maintenance. In this work the lithium ion discards cell phones batteries state of health and apparent diffusion coefficient (Dap were measured and correlated which purpose is diminish the batteries analyze time. The apparent diffusion coefficient is a ionic diffusion coefficient modification from GITT technique. The SOH and Dap correlation is well behaved, disclosing a cubic dependency. The time analyze was reduced by more than 1 h.

  4. The Effects of Internet Use, Cell Phones and Computer Games on Mental Health of Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Kelleci

    2008-01-01

    The use of digital technology, including computers, cell phones, computer games, and so on, most recently, on-the-go for recreational purposes, has increased among our youth over the past 15 years. Children and adolescent between the ages of 8 to 18 years spend an average of 5-6 hours per day using information and communication technologies. It is a useful progress because of the increase of internet usage which is unlimited, uncontrolled and uninhibited and easiness which arrival all sorts o...

  5. A study of mobile phone use among patients with noncommunicable diseases in La Paz, Bolivia: implications for mHealth research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Kevin; Janevic, Mary R; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Valverde, Helen; Piette, John D

    2015-07-04

    While global momentum supporting mobile health (mHealth) research and development is increasing, it is imperative to assess the potential fit of mHealth programs in local settings. We describe the penetration of mobile technologies among Bolivian patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) to inform research on mHealth interventions for the Andean region as well as low- and middle-income countries more generally. Five-hundred and fifty-nine NCD patients were identified from outpatient clinics affiliated with four hospitals in the cities of La Paz and El Alto. Respondents completed surveys about their use of standard mobile phones and smartphones. Respondents also provided information about their sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and access to care. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to understand the variation in mobile phone use across groups defined by patient characteristics associated with health service access and socioeconomic vulnerability. Respondents were on average 52 years of age, 33% had at most a sixth grade education, and 30% spoke an indigenous language in their home. Eighty-six percent owned a mobile phone and 13% owned a smartphone. Fifty-eight percent of mobile phone users sent or received a text message at least once a week. Some mobile phone owners reported connectivity problems, such as lacking mobile signal (9%) or credit to make a call (17%). Younger age, male gender, high health literacy, more years of education, and having fewer previously diagnosed NCDs were positively related to mobile phone ownership. Among mobile phone users, respondents with lower education and other indicators of vulnerability were less likely than their counterparts to report frequent usage of texting services. Mobile phones have high penetration among NCD patients in La Paz, Bolivia, including among those who are older, less educated, and who have other socioeconomic risk factors. Smartphone use is still relatively uncommon, even

  6. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Strien, Rob T; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources,

  7. Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Lee, Joshua; Lee, Imshik

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor behavior of small fish was characterized under a cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF). The trajectory of movement of 10 pairs of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and 15 pairs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a fish tank was recorded and tracked under the presence of a cell phone-generated RF EMF. The measures were based on spatial and temporal distributions. A time-series trajectory was utilized to emphasize the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Fish movement was recorded in real-time. Their spatial, velocity, turning angle and sinuosity distribution were analyzed in terms of F(v,x), P[n(x,t)], P(v), F (θ) and F(s), respectively. In addition, potential temperature elevation caused by a cellular phone was also examined. We demonstrated that a cellular phone-induced temperature elevation was not relevant, and that our measurements reflected RF EMF-induced effects on the locomotor behavior of Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. Fish locomotion was observed under normal conditions, in the visual presence of a cell phone, after feeding, and under starvation. Fish locomotor behavior was random both in normal conditions and in the presence of an off-signaled cell phone. However, there were significant changes in the locomotion of the fish after feeding under the RF EMF. The locomotion of the fed fish was affected in terms of changes in population and velocity distributions under the presence of the RF EMF emitted by the cell phone. There was, however, no significant difference in angular distribution.

  8. Integration of Cell Phone Imaging with Microchip ELISA to Detect Ovarian Cancer HE4 Biomarker in Urine at the Point-of-Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuQi; Zhao, Xiaohu; Khimji, Imran; Akbas, Ragip; Qiu, Weiliang; Edwards, Dale; Cramer, Daniel W.; Ye, Bin; Demirci, Utkan

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is asymptomatic at early stages and most patients present with advanced levels of disease. Lack of cost-effective methods that can achieve frequent, simple and non-invasive testing hinders early detection and causes high mortality in ovarian cancer patients. Here, we report a simple and inexpensive microchip ELISA-based detection module that employs a portable detection system, i.e., a cell phone/charge-coupled device (CCD) to quantify an ovarian cancer biomarker, HE4, in urine. Integration of a mobile application with a cell phone enabled immediate processing of microchip ELISA results, which eliminated the need for a bulky, expensive spectrophotometer. The HE4 level detected by a cell phone or a lensless CCD system was significantly elevated in urine samples from cancer patients (n = 19) than normal healthy controls (n = 20) (p cell phone running an automated analysis application had a sensitivity of 89.5% at a specificity of 90%. Under the same specificity, the microchip ELISA coupled with a CCD had a sensitivity of 84.2%. In conclusion, integration of microchip ELISA with cell phone/CCD-based colorimetric measurement technology can be used to detect HE4 biomarker at the point-of-care (POC), paving the way to create bedside technologies for diagnostics and treatment monitoring. PMID:21881677

  9. Integration of cell phone imaging with microchip ELISA to detect ovarian cancer HE4 biomarker in urine at the point-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuqi; Zhao, Xiaohu; Khimji, Imran; Akbas, Ragip; Qiu, Weiliang; Edwards, Dale; Cramer, Daniel W; Ye, Bin; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-10-21

    Ovarian cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages and most patients present with advanced levels of disease. The lack of cost-effective methods that can achieve frequent, simple and non-invasive testing hinders early detection and causes high mortality in ovarian cancer patients. Here, we report a simple and inexpensive microchip ELISA-based detection module that employs a portable detection system, i.e., a cell phone/charge-coupled device (CCD) to quantify an ovarian cancer biomarker, HE4, in urine. Integration of a mobile application with a cell phone enabled immediate processing of microchip ELISA results, which eliminated the need for a bulky, expensive spectrophotometer. The HE4 level detected by a cell phone or a lensless CCD system was significantly elevated in urine samples from cancer patients (n = 19) than healthy controls (n = 20) (p cell phone running an automated analysis mobile application had a sensitivity of 89.5% at a specificity of 90%. Under the same specificity, the microchip ELISA coupled with a CCD had a sensitivity of 84.2%. In conclusion, integration of microchip ELISA with cell phone/CCD-based colorimetric measurement technology can be used to detect HE4 biomarker at the point-of-care (POC), paving the way to create bedside technologies for diagnostics and treatment monitoring.

  10. HEDONIC ANALYSIS OF CELL PHONES SOLD WITH POST-PAID SERVICE PLANS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Lucinda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determining factors for the pricing of handsets sold with service plans, using the hedonic price method. This was undertaken by building a database comprising 48 handset models, under nine different service plans, over a period of 53 weeks in 2008, and resulted in 27 different attributes and a total number of nearly 300,000 data registers. The results suggest that the value of monthly subscriptions and calling minutes are important to explain the prices of handsets. Furthermore, both the physical volume and number of megapixels of a camera had an effect on the prices. The bigger the handset, the cheaper it becomes, and the more megapixels a camera phone has, the more expensive it becomes. Additionally, it was found that in 2008 Brazilian phone companies were subsidizing enabled data connection handsets.

  11. Immobilized Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-31

    substances (EPS or slime) by Pseudomonas biorcniediatcd. The membrane has the oxygen per- aeruginosa growing on surface of ultrafiltration mem- mcability...the same nutritional stresses, well- metabolism, mixed, free-living cells will react similarly. The exagger- Bringi and Shuler, Cornell University...mammalian cells. This technique could be as putida and a Hyphornicrobium species. Thes._ organ- used to measure the physiological status of cells in

  12. Attitudes of Youth towards Mobile Phone Use

    OpenAIRE

    Özlük, Mert Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to explore the attitudes of high school students and the students studying at the Eastern Mediterranean University in Famagusta, TRNC in Spring 2011, towards use of mobile phone also to find out the importance of the cell phones in todays globalized life. This study sets out to explore issues related to the extent to which young people use and attached to their cell phones, significance and the use of different functions of mobile phones, and the extent to...

  13. Highly Stable and Sensitive Nucleic Acid Amplification and Cell-Phone-Based Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Janay E; Wei, Qingshan; Tseng, Derek; Zhang, Jingzi; Pan, Eric; Lewinski, Michael; Garner, Omai B; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2017-03-28

    Key challenges with point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid tests include achieving a low-cost, portable form factor, and stable readout, while also retaining the same robust standards of benchtop lab-based tests. We addressed two crucial aspects of this problem, identifying a chemical additive, hydroxynaphthol blue, that both stabilizes and significantly enhances intercalator-based fluorescence readout of nucleic acid concentration, and developing a cost-effective fiber-optic bundle-based fluorescence microplate reader integrated onto a mobile phone. Using loop-mediated isothermal amplification on lambda DNA we achieve a 69-fold increase in signal above background, 20-fold higher than the gold standard, yielding an overall limit of detection of 25 copies/μL within an hour using our mobile-phone-based platform. Critical for a point-of-care system, we achieve a >60% increase in fluorescence stability as a function of temperature and time, obviating the need for manual baseline correction or secondary calibration dyes. This field-portable and cost-effective mobile-phone-based nucleic acid amplification and readout platform is broadly applicable to other real-time nucleic acid amplification tests by similarly modulating intercalating dye performance and is compatible with any fluorescence-based assay that can be run in a 96-well microplate format, making it especially valuable for POC and resource-limited settings.

  14. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Haberer, Jessica E; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Ware, Norma C; Bangsberg, David R

    2012-06-21

    Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  15. Adaptive Intervention Design in Mobile Health: Intervention Design and Development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Lazenka, Tony; Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design (AID) that made it possible. The CITY study was an NHLBI-sponsored, controlled 24-month randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) young adults. Methods Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, AID, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The AID strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. AID was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely. Results The cellphone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive – providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools for self-tracking and receiving tailored feedback. The intervention changed over two years to

  16. Electromagnetic fields (UHF) increase voltage sensitivity of membrane ion channels; possible indication of cell phone effect on living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabi, N; Mobasheri, H; Faraji-Dana, R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultra high frequency (UHF) nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the channel activities of nanopore forming protein, OmpF porin, were investigated. The voltage clamp technique was used to study the single channel activity of the pore in an artificial bilayer in the presence and absence of the electromagnetic fields at 910 to 990 MHz in real time. Channel activity patterns were used to address the effect of EMF on the dynamic, arrangement and dielectric properties of water molecules, as well as on the hydration state and arrangements of side chains lining the channel barrel. Based on the varied voltage sensitivity of the channel at different temperatures in the presence and absence of EMF, the amount of energy transferred to nano-environments of accessible groups was estimated to address the possible thermal effects of EMF. Our results show that the effects of EMF on channel activities are frequency dependent, with a maximum effect at 930 MHz. The frequency of channel gating and the voltage sensitivity is increased when the channel is exposed to EMF, while its conductance remains unchanged at all frequencies applied. We have not identified any changes in the capacitance and permeability of membrane in the presence of EMF. The effect of the EMF irradiated by cell phones is measured by Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in artificial model of human head, Phantom. Thus, current approach applied to biological molecules and electrolytes might be considered as complement to evaluate safety of irradiating sources on biological matter at molecular level.

  17. Usages Pattern of Cell Phone in Classroom: A Case Study of Mathematical and Physical Science Faculty Students of Jahangirnagar University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md. Shiblu; Hossain, Md. Moyazzem; Rahman, Md. Habibur

    2017-01-01

    Now-a-days mobile phone is very important communicational device. This cableless device reduces the hazards of the land phone. In spite of its various advantages it has some disadvantages also. Misusing of mobile phone increases the disadvantages of this device day by day. Unnecessary talking makes the reasons of wasting the money and time for the…

  18. Use of email, cell phone and text message between patients and primary-care physicians: cross-sectional study in a French-speaking part of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Jonathan; Haller, Dagmar M; Sommer, Johanna; Junod Perron, Noelle

    2016-10-05

    Physicians' daily work is increasingly affected by the use of emails, text messages and cell phone calls with their patients. The aim of this study was to describe their use between primary-care physicians and patients in a French-speaking part of Switzerland. A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted among all primary-care physicians of Geneva canton (n = 636). The questionnaire focused on the frequency of giving access to, type of use, advantages and disadvantages of email, cell phone calls and text messages communication between physicians and patients. Six hundred thirty-six questionnaires were mailed, 412 (65 %) were returned and 372 (58 %) could be analysed (37 refusals and three blanks). Seventy-two percent physicians gave their email-address and 74 % their cell phone number to their patients. Emails were used to respond to patients' questions (82 %) and change appointments (72 %) while cell phone calls and text messages were used to follow patients' health conditions. Sixty-four percent of those who used email communication never discussed the rules for email exchanges, and 54 % did not address confidentiality issues with their patients. Most commonly identified advantages of emails, cell phone calls and text messages were improved relationship with the patient, saving time (for emails) and improving the follow-up (for cell phone and text messages). The main disadvantages included misuse by the patient, interference with private life and lack of reimbursement. These tools are widely used by primary-care physicians with their patients. More attention should be paid to confidentiality, documentation and reimbursement when using email communication in order to optimize its use.

  19. Selenium reduces mobile phone (900 MHz)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çiğ, Bilal

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to mobile phone-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) may affect biological systems by increasing free oxygen radicals, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels although selenium may modulate the values in cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 MHz radiation on the antioxidant redox system, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Cultures of the cancer cells were divided into four main groups as controls, selenium, EMR, and EMR + selenium. In EMR groups, the cells were exposed to 900 MHz EMR for 1 h (SAR value of the EMR was 0.36 ± 0.02 W/kg). In selenium groups, the cells were also incubated with sodium selenite for 1 h before EMR exposure. Then, the following values were analyzed: (a) cell viability, (b) intracellular ROS production, (c) mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (d) cell apoptosis, and (e) caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. Selenium suppressed EMR-induced oxidative cell damage and cell viability (MTT) through a reduction of oxidative stress and restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, selenium indicated anti-apoptotic effects, as demonstrated by plate reader analyses of apoptosis levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. In conclusion, 900 MHz EMR appears to induce apoptosis effects through oxidative stress and mitochondrial depolarization although incubation of selenium seems to counteract the effects on apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  20. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  1. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  2. [When nursing teacher’s authority and education relationship have to deal with cell-phones in class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trophardy, Céline

    2017-09-01

    In nursing institut teachers accompany students with whom they establish a pedagogical relationship, while guaranteeing compliance with internal rules, particularly concerning the banning of mobile phones during teaching. This complex double mission includes, among others, the forbidding of cell phones in classroom. this study aims at understanding the involved relational mechanism through the following question: how teachers articulate pedagogical relationship with their required authority at the same time? qualitative study performed between 2015 and 2016 using semi structured interviews interviews of teachers and students of the nursing school. teachers give importance to the quality of relationship, but arrange differently to link authority and training missions. Students accept and recognize this authority as it is part of the internal rules. This legitimacy allows setting up a cooperative pedagogical relation. The internal rules contribute to build up the authority of teachers' team. This study opens perspectives for reflection on the notions of relationship, rules, legitimacy and collaboration. Authority is a complex phenomenon which fits, just like pedagogical relation, in a frame providing stability and legitimacy. The internal rules would not standardize the behaviors, but would allow expressing individual liberty.

  3. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  4. Nomophobia: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Mobile Phone Usage Among Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Malhi, Ravneet; Pandita, Venisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phones were originally seen as a gadget for communication but currently, the internet enabled mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily life. Their benefits are incomparable but at the same time, they have some negative effects too. Aim To assess the pattern of usage of mobile phones and its effects on the academic performance of students. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 554 students of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research through a self-administered questionnaire to collect the data regarding the usage and associated anxiety with mobile phone. Results About 39.5% students agreed that they score low marks in professional exams if they spend more time on phone. The number of students who frequently checked their cell phone during their classes or while doing clinical work were 24.7% . A total of 24.12% of the students were found to be nomophobic and at risk of being nomophobes were 40.97%. A statistically significant difference was found among preclinical, clinical, interns and postgraduates regarding the usage and effect of mobile phone on them. Conclusion The pattern of usage of mobile phone among dental students showed alarming indication that students have been addicted to mobile phone which in turn affect their academic performance in a negative way. It would be useful to advise the students about the controlled as well as proper usage of mobile phone. PMID:28384977

  5. Nomophobia: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Mobile Phone Usage Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Monika; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Malhi, Ravneet; Pandita, Venisha

    2017-02-01

    Mobile phones were originally seen as a gadget for communication but currently, the internet enabled mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily life. Their benefits are incomparable but at the same time, they have some negative effects too. To assess the pattern of usage of mobile phones and its effects on the academic performance of students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 554 students of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research through a self-administered questionnaire to collect the data regarding the usage and associated anxiety with mobile phone. About 39.5% students agreed that they score low marks in professional exams if they spend more time on phone. The number of students who frequently checked their cell phone during their classes or while doing clinical work were 24.7% . A total of 24.12% of the students were found to be nomophobic and at risk of being nomophobes were 40.97%. A statistically significant difference was found among preclinical, clinical, interns and postgraduates regarding the usage and effect of mobile phone on them. The pattern of usage of mobile phone among dental students showed alarming indication that students have been addicted to mobile phone which in turn affect their academic performance in a negative way. It would be useful to advise the students about the controlled as well as proper usage of mobile phone.

  6. What is harmful for male fertility: cell phone or the wireless Internet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Mehmet Erol; Kaynar, Mehmet; Badem, Huseyin; Cavis, Mucahıt; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Cimentepe, Ersın

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters. We requested semen for analyses from the male patients coming to our infertility division and also asked them to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. We queried their mobile phone and wireless Internet usage frequencies in order to determine their radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation exposure. A total of 1082 patients filled the questionnaire but 51 of them were excluded from the study because of azoospermia. There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, (p = 0.074, p = 0.909, and p = 0.05, respectively). The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively). In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless Internet usage compared with the wired Internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively). There was a negative correlation between wireless Internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = -0.089, p = 0.039). We have also explored the negative effect of wireless Internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  7. What is harmful for male fertility: Cell phone or the wireless internet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Erol Yildirim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters. We requested semen for analyses from the male patients coming to our infertility division and also asked them to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. We queried their mobile phone and wireless internet usage frequencies in order to determine their radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation exposure. A total of 1082 patients filled the questionnaire but 51 of them were excluded from the study because of azoospermia. There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, (p = 0.074, p = 0.909, and p = 0.05, respectively. The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively. In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless internet usage compared with the wired internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively. There was a negative correlation between wireless internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = −0.089, p = 0.039. We have also explored the negative effect of wireless internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results.

  8. Are mobile phones harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Berg, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data......There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal...... effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body...

  9. Smart phone, smart science: how the use of smartphones can revolutionize research in cognitive science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Dufau

    Full Text Available Investigating human cognitive faculties such as language, attention, and memory most often relies on testing small and homogeneous groups of volunteers coming to research facilities where they are asked to participate in behavioral experiments. We show that this limitation and sampling bias can be overcome by using smartphone technology to collect data in cognitive science experiments from thousands of subjects from all over the world. This mass coordinated use of smartphones creates a novel and powerful scientific "instrument" that yields the data necessary to test universal theories of cognition. This increase in power represents a potential revolution in cognitive science.

  10. Smart phone, smart science: how the use of smartphones can revolutionize research in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufau, Stephane; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; McGonigal, Aileen; Peeters, David; Alario, F-Xavier; Balota, David A; Brysbaert, Marc; Carreiras, Manuel; Ferrand, Ludovic; Ktori, Maria; Perea, Manuel; Rastle, Kathy; Sasburg, Olivier; Yap, Melvin J; Ziegler, Johannes C; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Investigating human cognitive faculties such as language, attention, and memory most often relies on testing small and homogeneous groups of volunteers coming to research facilities where they are asked to participate in behavioral experiments. We show that this limitation and sampling bias can be overcome by using smartphone technology to collect data in cognitive science experiments from thousands of subjects from all over the world. This mass coordinated use of smartphones creates a novel and powerful scientific "instrument" that yields the data necessary to test universal theories of cognition. This increase in power represents a potential revolution in cognitive science.

  11. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  12. Using Smart phone to record lectures

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, John

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phone recording technology is capable of recording video, even mid range mobile phones are capable of high resolution playback. This action research avails a mobile phone to record lectures for later playback for higher education students. Early evaluation alludes to the resource having a positive impact in the cohort learning experience.

  13. Feasibility and Perceptions of Cell Phone-Based, Health-Related Communication With Adolescents in an Economically Depressed Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju; Cederna-Meko, Crystal; LaChance, Jenny L; Buttigieg, Angie; Le, Quoc; Nunuk, Irene; Ang, Joyce; Burrell, Katherine M

    2017-02-01

    We examined the feasibility and perception of cell-based (texting, voicemail [VM], and email/social media), health-related communication with adolescents in Genesee County, MI, where 22% reside below the poverty level. Results of an anonymous survey found that 86% of respondents owned a cell phone, 87% had data, 96% texted, 90.5% emailed/used social media, and 68% had VM. Most adolescents were interested in cell-based communication via texting (52%), VM (37%), and email/social media (31%). Interest in types of health communication included appointment reminders (99% texting; 94% VM; 95% email/social media), shot reminders (84.5% texting; 74.5% VM; 81% email/social media), call for test results (71.5% texting; 75% VM; 65% email/social media), medication reminders (63% texting; 54% VM; 58% e-mail/social media), and health tips (36% texting; 18.5% VM; 73% email/social media). Cell-based health-related communication with adolescents is feasible even within low socioeconomic status populations, primarily via texting. Health providers should embrace cell-based patient communication.

  14. Image Processing and Cell Phone Microscopy to Analyze the Immunomagnetic Beads on Micro-Contact Printed Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutay İçöz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report an ultra-low-cost spherical ball lens based cell phone microscopy and image processing algorithms to analyze the amount of immunomagnetic beads on micro-contact printed gratings. The spherical ball lens provides approximately 100× magnification but the recorded images are not clear and are noisy. By using the image-processing algorithms, the noise can be reduced and the images can be enhanced to quantify the amount of immunomagnetic beads on micro-contact printed lines. This method, which is portable and low-cost, can be an alternative read out mechanism for biosensing applications using immunomagnetic beads on micro-contact printed surface receptors. Further, 0.0335 mg/mL was the lowest magnetic bead concentration that could be detected above the inherent noise level of the spherical ball lens.

  15. Development of a cell phone-based video streaming system for persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark P; Nugent, Chris D; Craig, David; Passmore, Peter; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    The current paper presents details regarding the early developments of a memory prompt solution for persons with early dementia. Using everyday technology, in the form of a cell-phone, video reminders are delivered to assist with daily activities. The proposed CPVS system will permit carers to record and schedule video reminders remotely using a standard personal computer and web cam. It is the aim of the three year project that through the frequent delivery of helpful video reminders that a 'virtual carer' will be present with the person with dementia at all times. The first prototype of the system has been fully implemented with the first field trial scheduled to take place in May 2008. Initially, only three patient carer dyads will be involved, however, the second field trial aims to involve 30 dyads in the study. Details of the first prototype and the methods of evaluation are presented herein.

  16. Simulation of autofocus lens design for a cell phone camera with object distance from infinity to 9.754 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Pan, Jui-Wen; Huang, Kai-Chang; Chu, Pu-Yi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the simulation of an autofocus lens design with large depth of field for a cell phone camera. The object distance of the lens is from infinity to 9.754 mm. When the object distance is from infinity to 550 mm, the value of the modulation transfer function (MTF) is greater than 0.6 for the spatial frequency of 114 lp/mm, the optical distortion is less than 1.5%, and the relative illumination is greater than 67%. When the object distance is from 325 to 9.754 mm, the MTF values is greater than 0.4 for close-up shooting. The optical distortion is less than 1.454%, and the relative illumination is greater than 68.8%.

  17. The Effects of Internet Use, Cell Phones and Computer Games on Mental Health of Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Kelleci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital technology, including computers, cell phones, computer games, and so on, most recently, on-the-go for recreational purposes, has increased among our youth over the past 15 years. Children and adolescent between the ages of 8 to 18 years spend an average of 5-6 hours per day using information and communication technologies. It is a useful progress because of the increase of internet usage which is unlimited, uncontrolled and uninhibited and easiness which arrival all sorts of to informations or persons but this state can cause to some important negative results too. The computer games, the internet explores is gradually estrange from social life the children and adolescent. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage, computer games on mental health of children and adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 253-256

  18. iPhones and Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Long utilized in European and Asian countries, fast ―next generation‖ cell phonenetworks and mobile data streams have only recently begun to make deep inroads inthe United States, and companies are scrambling to write content, tools, and newapplets (―apps‖ for these users. The iPhone has become a juggernaut in the UnitedStates, with 13 million units sold in 2008 (a 245% increase over 2007 and a further 45million units expected in 2009 (Elmer-DeWitt, 2009. While iPhone still lags Nokia andRIM internationally, the overall trend toward mobile computing becomes firmer by theday, and it behooves educators to become familiar with the cell phone tools that arerelevant for teaching in tomorrow‘s--and increasingly ―today‘s‖--classroom.Smartphones have for years offered SMS instant messaging, but the first uses of thattechnology have inevitably been social rather than educational in nature (Reid, 2004.The recent rise in popularity of the iPhone has, however, sparked interest in new usesfor SMS with the advent of new and expanded audiences. One promising online tooloffers instant polling via SMS: polleverywhere.com‘s free account allows up to 30responses per 1-question poll, with unlimited polls per account.This opens up the possibility of classroom response systems that require no studentpurchases of the clicker hardware. While accountability back to the student and gradesare not feasible with polleverywhere.com‘s solution, instructors can harvest quick,anonymous feedback and encourage otherwise reluctant students to engage andparticipate.Apart from texting, modern cell phones come equipped with cameras, which cancombine with email capabilities to offer a potent alternative to writing on whiteboards.Working at their seats, singly or in groups, students can photograph their work andemail it to the instructor, who then can choose from the submissions which to highlighton the lecture hall‘s projection of his computer station, and

  19. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  20. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toni M Rudisill; Motao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    .... This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races...