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Sample records for research varian associates

  1. Kocuria varians infection associated with brain abscess: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Tai-Hsin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. Case presentation We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. Conclusions This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.

  2. Kocuria varians infection associated with brain abscess: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Su, Shou-hsin; Cheng, Yu-Hsin; Chou, Yu-lin; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Lieu, Ann-Shung

    2010-04-27

    Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.

  3. Morphological plasticity in the tropical sponge Anthosigmella varians: responses to predators and wave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Malcolm S; Hill, April L

    2002-02-01

    The goal of the research presented here was to examine phenotypic plasticity exhibited by three morphotypes of the common Caribbean sponge Anthosigmella varians (Duchassaing & Michelotti). We were interested in examining the biotic (and, to a lesser extent, abiotic) factors responsible for branch production in this species. We also tested the hypothesis that the skeleton may serve an antipredator function in this sponge, focusing on vertebrate fish predators (i.e., angelfish) in this work. In transplant and caging experiments, unprotected forma varians replicates were immediately consumed by angelfish, while caged replicates persisted on the reef for several months. These findings support the hypothesis that predators (and not wave energy) restrict forma varians to lagoonal habitats. Branch production was not observed in A. varians forma incrustans when sponges were protected from predators or placed in predator-free, low-wave-energy environments. It is not clear from our work whether forma incrustans is capable of producing branches (i.e., whether branch production is a plastic trait in this morph). Additional field experiments demonstrated that A. varians forma varians increased spicule concentrations, compared to uninjured sponges, in response to artificial predation events, and A. varians forma rigida reduced spicule concentrations, compared to uncaged controls, when protected from predators. These findings indicate that spicule concentration is a plastic morphological trait that can be induced by damage, and that A. varians may be able to reduce spicule concentrations when environmental conditions change (e.g., in the absence of predators). The potential significance of inducible defenses and structural anti-predator defenses in sponges is discussed in relation to recent work on sponge chemical defenses.

  4. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, δ notation. (Author)

  5. TU-AB-BRC-05: Creation of a Monte Carlo TrueBeam Model by Reproducing Varian Phase Space Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Grady, K; Davis, S; Seuntjens, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To create a Varian TrueBeam 6 MV FFF Monte Carlo model using BEAMnrc/EGSnrc that accurately reproduces the Varian representative dataset, followed by tuning the model’s source parameters to accurately reproduce in-house measurements. Methods: A BEAMnrc TrueBeam model for 6 MV FFF has been created by modifying a validated 6 MV Varian CL21EX model. Geometric dimensions and materials were adjusted in a trial and error approach to match the fluence and spectra of TrueBeam phase spaces output by the Varian VirtuaLinac. Once the model’s phase space matched Varian’s counterpart using the default source parameters, it was validated to match 10 × 10 cm"2 Varian representative data obtained with the IBA CC13. The source parameters were then tuned to match in-house 5 × 5 cm"2 PTW microDiamond measurements. All dose to water simulations included detector models to include the effects of volume averaging and the non-water equivalence of the chamber materials, allowing for more accurate source parameter selection. Results: The Varian phase space spectra and fluence were matched with excellent agreement. The in-house model’s PDD agreement with CC13 TrueBeam representative data was within 0.9% local percent difference beyond the first 3 mm. Profile agreement at 10 cm depth was within 0.9% local percent difference and 1.3 mm distance-to-agreement in the central axis and penumbra regions, respectively. Once the source parameters were tuned, PDD agreement with microDiamond measurements was within 0.9% local percent difference beyond 2 mm. The microDiamond profile agreement at 10 cm depth was within 0.6% local percent difference and 0.4 mm distance-to-agreement in the central axis and penumbra regions, respectively. Conclusion: An accurate in-house Monte Carlo model of the Varian TrueBeam was achieved independently of the Varian phase space solution and was tuned to in-house measurements. KO acknowledges partial support by the CREATE Medical Physics Research

  6. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory; Espectrometro de masas Varian MAT-250. Laboratorio de isotopos estables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, {delta} notation. (Author)

  7. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - Research Associate III Dr. Zbigniew Dauter is the head investigator of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Section (SRRS) of CCR’s Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory. The Synchrotron Radiation Research Section is located at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; this is the site of the largest U.S. synchrotron facility. The SRRS uses X-ray diffraction technique to solve crystal structures of various proteins and nucleic acids of biological and medical relevance. The section is also specializing in analyzing crystal structures at extremely high resolution and accuracy and in developing methods of effective diffraction data collection and in using weak anomalous dispersion effects to solve structures of macromolecules. The areas of expertise are: Structural and molecular biology Macromolecular crystallography Diffraction data collection Dr. Dauter requires research support in these areas, and the individual will engage in the purification and preparation of samples, crystallize proteins using various techniques, and derivatize them with heavy atoms/anomalous scatterers, and establish conditions for cryogenic freezing. Individual will also participate in diffraction data collection at the Advanced Photon Source. In addition, the candidate will perform spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses of protein and nucleic acid samples in the context of their purity, oligomeric state and photophysical properties.

  8. Collateral patient doses in the Varian 21iX radiotherapy Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barquero, R.; Castillo, A. del

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiotherapy aim is to irradiate the patient tumor cells while the doses in healthy tissue remains as low as possible. Nevertheless, when high photon energy accelerators are used, collateral undesired photon and neutron doses are always implied during the treatments and became more important with the new accelerators and techniques as IMRT. To assess secondary cancer risk outside the treatment volume as a long-term medical consequence of treatments, the total doses received by each patient outside the primary field during his treatment must be estimated. To achieve this purpose photon and neutron dose equivalents Hp(10) and H*(10) has been measured in a new Varian 21iX with maximum photon energy of 15 MV placed recently in our radiotherapy department. Three devices: 1) a neutron dose rate meter BERTHOLD LB 4111 calibrated recently in the German PTB laboratory, 2) a calibrated environmental pressurized photon ionization chamber (IC) VICTOREEN 450-PI n/s 1020, and 3) a calibrated personal electronic photon dosimeter GAMMACOM 4200M, were placed above the treatment couch outside the primary field while the Varian 21iX reference test were done. In particular the photon and neutron doses in the couch were measured while a water phantom was irradiated during automatic beam data acquisition for a 15 MV beam. A complete set of measurements changing field size are made. These 15 MV results are compared with data measured previously by thermoluminescence and bubble dosimeters in the same facility for an Elekta Precise and a Siemens KDS both with maximum photon energy of 18 MV. From this the benefits in the patient collateral doses of decreasing the maximum treatment photon energy are discussed. The patient doses obtained in the Varian 21iX had values that go from 80 to 800 uSv per treatment Gray. As the Varian 21iX therapy Linac is operated in pulsed mode with short pulse length the discussion of the results includes: 1. The correction of dead time in the GM

  9. Halophilic Nuclease from a Moderately Halophilic Micrococcus varians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamekura, Masahiro; Onishi, Hiroshi

    1974-01-01

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Micrococcus varians, isolated from soy sauce mash, produced extracellular nuclease when cultivated aerobically in media containing 1 to 4 M NaCl or KCl. The enzyme, purified to an electrophoretically homogeneous state, had both ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease activities. The nuclease had maximal activity in the presence of 2.9 M NaCl or 2.1 M KCl at 40 C. The enzymatic activity was lost by dialysis against low-salt buffer, whereas when the inactivated enzyme was dialyzed against 3.4 M NaCl buffer as much as 77% of the initial activity could be restored. Images PMID:4852218

  10. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basic Science Program (BSP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research programs in basic or applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology or human genetics. As part of the BSP, the Microbiome and Genetics Core (the Core) characterizes microbiomes by next-generation sequencing to determine their composition and variation, as influenced by immune, genetic, and host health factors. The Core provides support across a spectrum of processes, from nucleic acid isolation through bioinformatics and statistical analysis. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Research Associate II will provide support in the areas of automated isolation, preparation, PCR and sequencing of DNA on next generation platforms (Illumina MiSeq and NextSeq). An opportunity exists to join the Core’s team of highly trained experimentalists and bioinformaticians working to characterize microbiome samples. The following represent requirements of the position: A minimum of five (5) years related of biomedical experience. Experience with high-throughput nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) extraction. Experience in performing PCR amplification (including quantitative real-time PCR). Experience or familiarity with robotic liquid handling protocols (especially on the Eppendorf epMotion 5073 or 5075 platforms). Experience in operating and maintaining benchtop Illumina sequencers (MiSeq and NextSeq). Ability to evaluate experimental quality and to troubleshoot molecular biology protocols. Experience with sample tracking, inventory management and biobanking. Ability to operate and communicate effectively in a team-oriented work environment.

  11. [Porting Radiotherapy Software of Varian to Cloud Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Liu, Xiangxiang; Xie, Zhao; Xie, Yaoqin

    2017-09-30

    To develop a low-cost private cloud platform of radiotherapy software. First, a private cloud platform which was based on OpenStack and the virtual GPU hardware was builded. Then on the private cloud platform, all the Varian radiotherapy software modules were installed to the virtual machine, and the corresponding function configuration was completed. Finally the software on the cloud was able to be accessed by virtual desktop client. The function test results of the cloud workstation show that a cloud workstation is equivalent to an isolated physical workstation, and any clients on the LAN can use the cloud workstation smoothly. The cloud platform transplantation in this study is economical and practical. The project not only improves the utilization rates of radiotherapy software, but also makes it possible that the cloud computing technology can expand its applications to the field of radiation oncology.

  12. Association between Nurses' Education about Research and Their Research Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Lynn; Brown, G. Ted

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 178 of 528 pediatric nurses showed that higher education levels or courses in research design and use were associated with positive attitudes toward research. Higher education levels were associated with self-reported research use; completing research-related courses was not independently associated with higher research use.…

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian Clinac 600C accelerator using dynamic wedges; Simulacao Monte Carlo do acelerador Varian Clinac 600C utilizando cunhas dinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, S. [Universidade da Beira Interior (UBI), Covilha (Portugal); Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Doutor Francisco Gentil (IPO), Coimbra (Portugal); Peralta, L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal)]|[Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2004-07-01

    The advent of linear accelerators (linac) with computer-controlled dynamic collimation systems and functional and anatomical imaging techniques allowed a more exact delimitation and localisation of the target volume. These advanced treatment techniques inevitably increase the complexity level of dose calculation because of the introduction of the temporal variable. On account of this, it is mandatory the usage of more accurate modelling techniques of the collimator components, as it is the case of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which has created an enormous interest in research and clinical practice. Because the patients bodies are not homogenous nor are their body surfaces plane and regular, the dose distribution may differ significantly from the standard distribution from the linac calibration. It is in the treatment planning systems, which include algorithms that are usually measured in homogeneous water phantoms specific for each correction that the dose distributions from each case are obtained. In a real treatment, exception made to superficial lesions, two or more radiation fields are used in order to obtain the recommended dose distributions. The simplest arrangement is made from two parallel and opposed fields that originate a homogeneous dose distribution in almost all the irradiated volume. The available resources are, for example, different types of energies and of radiation, the application of bolus, the protection of healthy structures, the usage of wedged filters and the application of dynamic wedges. A virtual or dynamic wedge, modelled through the movement of one of the jaws, when compared with a set of physical wedges offers an alternative calculation method of an arbitrary number of wedged fields, instead of the four traditional fields of 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg and 60 deg angle and obtained with physical wedges. The goal of this work consists in the study of the application of dynamic wedges in tailoring the radiation field by the Varian Clinac 600

  14. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties. - Highlights: ► The antioxidative properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant produced by gamma-irradiation was investiated. ► The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content levels were higher in mutant strain. ► These results suggest that gamma-irradiation induced algae mutant with superior antioxidant properties.

  15. Recovering traditional raw-milk Tetilla cheese flavour and sensory attributes by using Kocuria varians and Yarrowia lipolytica adjunct cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, J A; Garabal, J I; Docampo, F; Lorenzo, J M; Carballo, J

    2017-06-19

    The rationale of the present study was to evaluate the potential of microbial adjunct cultures including Kocuria varians and/or Yarrowia lipolytica strains in the recovery of the typical sensory profile of traditional (raw-milk) Tetilla cheese. Four batches of Tetilla cheese, a short ripened cows' milk cheese produced in Galicia (NW Spain), were made in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with different microbial cultures. A control batch was manufactured by adding a mesophilic commercial D-starter only. The other three batches were made with the same starter after a cheese-milk pre-ripening step carried out with (i) an adjunct culture of K. varians, (ii) an adjunct culture of Y. lipolytica, or (iii) a combination of both adjunct cultures. The highest pH and water activity values, associated with softer textures were determined in the cheeses manufactured with the Y. lipolytica adjunct after 21days of ripening. The contents of the volatile compounds 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were higher in the cheeses made with only the K. varians adjunct than in the cheeses made with the only yeast adjunct and in the control cheeses. The contents of hexanoic and octanoic acids were highest in the cheeses made with the Y. lipolytica adjunct, and levels of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate were higher in the cheeses made with only the yeast adjunct than in the other batches of cheese. The cheeses manufactured with both adjunct cultures were awarded the highest scores for flavour and overall sensory parameters (considering the standards of the traditional product) and were considered very similar to 'good quality' artisanal raw-milk cheeses. We conclude that use of selected Micrococcaceae and Y. lipolytica strains as adjunct cultures would differentiate the sensory properties and contribute to the quality and typicality of the short-ripened rennet-curd Galician Tetilla and Arzúa-Ulloa cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian Clinac 600C accelerator using dynamic wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, S.; Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C.; Peralta, L.; Universidade de Lisboa

    2004-01-01

    The advent of linear accelerators (linac) with computer-controlled dynamic collimation systems and functional and anatomical imaging techniques allowed a more exact delimitation and localisation of the target volume. These advanced treatment techniques inevitably increase the complexity level of dose calculation because of the introduction of the temporal variable. On account of this, it is mandatory the usage of more accurate modelling techniques of the collimator components, as it is the case of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which has created an enormous interest in research and clinical practice. Because the patients bodies are not homogenous nor are their body surfaces plane and regular, the dose distribution may differ significantly from the standard distribution from the linac calibration. It is in the treatment planning systems, which include algorithms that are usually measured in homogeneous water phantoms specific for each correction that the dose distributions from each case are obtained. In a real treatment, exception made to superficial lesions, two or more radiation fields are used in order to obtain the recommended dose distributions. The simplest arrangement is made from two parallel and opposed fields that originate a homogeneous dose distribution in almost all the irradiated volume. The available resources are, for example, different types of energies and of radiation, the application of bolus, the protection of healthy structures, the usage of wedged filters and the application of dynamic wedges. A virtual or dynamic wedge, modelled through the movement of one of the jaws, when compared with a set of physical wedges offers an alternative calculation method of an arbitrary number of wedged fields, instead of the four traditional fields of 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg and 60 deg angle and obtained with physical wedges. The goal of this work consists in the study of the application of dynamic wedges in tailoring the radiation field by the Varian Clinac 600

  17. Association of African Universities : Education and Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Association of African Universities : Education and Research Networking Unit. The Association of African Universities (AAU), headquartered in Accra, Ghana, is an international nongovernmental organization (NGO) that promotes cooperation between African universities and with the international community.

  18. Neutron contamination of Varian Clinac iX 10 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yani, S; Haryanto, F; Arif, I; Tursinah, R; Rhani, M F; Soh, R C X

    2016-01-01

    High energy medical accelerators are commonly used in radiotherapy to increase the effectiveness of treatments. As we know neutrons can be emitted from a medical accelerator if there is an incident of X-ray that hits any of its materials. This issue becomes a point of view of many researchers. The neutron contamination has caused many problems such as image resolution and radiation protection for patients and radio oncologists. This study concerns the simulation of neutron contamination emitted from Varian Clinac iX 10 MV using Monte Carlo code system. As neutron production process is very complex, Monte Carlo simulation with MCNPX code system was carried out to study this contamination. The design of this medical accelerator was modelled based on the actual materials and geometry. The maximum energy of photons and neutron in the scoring plane was 10.5 and 2.239 MeV, respectively. The number and energy of the particles produced depend on the depth and distance from beam axis. From these results, it is pointed out that the neutron produced by linac 10 MV photon beam in a typical treatment is not negligible. (paper)

  19. On variation in Schloenbachia varians (J. Sowerby, 1817) from the Lower Cenomanian of western Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William James

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. 2013. On variation in Schloenbachia varians (J. Sowerby, 1817) from the Lower Cenomanian of western Kazakhstan Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 443-468. Warszawa. An assemblage of 94 specimens of Schloenbachia varians (J. Sowerby, 1817) from the Lower Cenomanian Sharpeiceras schlueteri Subzone of the Mantelliceras mantelli Zone of the Besakty section in the Mangyshlak Mountains of western Kazakhstan includes 26 complete adults that range from to 59-174 mm in diameter. No size-related dimorphism was detected in the assemblage, which shows wide, continuous intraspecific variation. This is described in terms of five formae; from robust to gracile these are: ventriosa, varians sensu stricto, subtuberculata , intermedia, and subplana. The ratio of robust (ventriosa + varians sensu stricto) to gracile (subtuberculata + intermedia + subplana) individuals is 34% to 66%. The reference specimens of the formae and their synonyms are described and illustrated, and related to the Besakty material. The modification of adult body chamber ornament of all formae is documented, and Jakeiceras Cooper and Owen, 2011 is shown to be based on an adult of a passage form between forma subtuberculata and forma intermedia. The differences between Lower Cenomanian S. varians, lower Middle Cenomanian S. coupei (Brongniart, 1822), and upper Middle and lower Upper Cenomanian S. lymensis Spath, 1926b are described and illustrated.

  20. Association of African Universities : Education and Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Association of African Universities (AAU), headquartered in Accra, Ghana, is an ... The Association operates a number of programs and services for its members. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine ...

  1. Analysis of daily quality assurance tests for tomotherapy and two Varian linear accelerators - three months review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, Pratishtha; Jaiswal, Deeksha; Dheera, A.; Upreti, Udita; Chaudhari, Suresh; Kinhikar, Rajesh; Deshpande, Deepak; Shrivastava, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Daily quality assurance (QA) for high precision radiotherapy equipments is very important to maintain the mechanical and dosimetric accuracy for patient treatments. Gross deviations in these parameters may have an adverse impact on the delivery of the treatments to patients. We report the results of daily QA tests performed over a period of three months for two Varian linear accelerators and a Tomotherapy machine

  2. Active heater control and regulation for the Varian VGT-8011 gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    The Varian VGT-8011 gyrotron is currently being used in the new 110 GHz 2 MW ECH system installed on D3-D. This new ECH system augments the 60 GHz system which uses Varian VA-8060 gyrotrons. The new 110 GHz system will be used for ECH experiments on D3-D with a pulse width capability of 10 sec. In order to maintain a constant RF outpower level during long pulse operation, active filament-heater control and regulation is required to maintain a constant cathode current. On past D3-D experiments involving the use of Varian VA-8060 gyrotrons for ECH power, significant gyrotron heater-emission depletion was experienced for pulse widths > 300 msec. This decline in heater-emission directly results in gyrotron-cathode current droop. Since RF power from gyrotrons decreases as cathode current decreases, it is necessary to maintain a constant cathode current level during gyrotron pulses for efficient gyrotron operation. Therefore, it was determined that a filament-heater control system should be developed for the Varian VGT-8011 gyrotron which will include cathode-current feed-back. This paper discusses the mechanisms used to regulate gyrotron filament-heater voltage by using cathode-current feed-back. 1 fig

  3. PERBEDAAN MUSIM TANAM TERHADAP PERFORMA BUDIDAYA EMPAT VARIAN RUMPUT LAUT EUCHEUMATOIDS DI TELUK GERUPUK, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania Erlania

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Musim tanam rumput laut di perairan Teluk Gerupuk dikelompokkan menjadi musim produktif dan non-produktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perbedaan performa budidaya dari empat varian rumput laut: Kappaphycus alvarezii varian Tambalang dan Maumere, Eucheuma denticulatum, dan K. striatum yang dibudidayakan di perairan Teluk Gerupuk dengan metode long line pada musim tanam yang berbeda. Pengamatan terhadap parameter performa budidaya meliputi laju pertumbuhan harian, pertambahan biomassa, dan produksi rumput laut, yang dilakukan setiap 15 hari sekali selama masa budidaya yaitu 45 hari per siklus. Pengamatan dilakukan selama tiga siklus tanam dari bulan Juli-Desember. Analisis ragam (ANOVA dengan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dan uji lanjut Tukey Test dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan varian rumput laut dan periode musim tanam terhadap parameter yang diamati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa musim tanam (produktif dan non-produktif merupakan salah satu aspek penting yang berpengaruh nyata terhadap performa budidaya rumput laut (P<0,05. Dari keempat varian yang dibudidayakan, E. denticulatum merupakan varian yang memiliki performa terbaik yang berbeda nyata dengan ketiga varian lainnya (P<0,05, baik pada musim produktif maupun musim non-produktif. Pemilihan varian rumput laut yang tepat dengan tingkat pertumbuhan dan daya adaptasi yang lebih baik terhadap perbedaan kondisi lingkungan merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan dan keberlanjutan budidaya rumput laut.

  4. Experimental validation of neutron activation simulation of a varian medical linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, S; Juste, B; Miro, R; Verdu, G; Diez, S

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a Monte Carlo simulation using the last version of MCNP, v. 6.1.1, of a Varian CLinAc emitting a 15MeV photon beam. The main objective of the work is to estimate the photoneutron production and activated products inside the medical linear accelerator head. To that, the Varian LinAc head was modelled in detail using the manufacturer information, and the model was generated with a CAD software and exported as a mesh to be included in the particle transport simulation. The model includes the transport of photoneutrons generated by primary photons and the (n, γ) reactions which can result in activation products. The validation of this study was done using experimental measures. Activation products have been identified by in situ gamma spectroscopy placed at the jaws exit of the LinAc shortly after termination of a high energy photon beam irradiation. Comparison between experimental and simulation results shows good agreement.

  5. Analysis of output trends from Varian 2100C/D and 600C/D accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan, M W D; Hounsell, A R

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of Varian linear accelerator output trends is reported. Two groups, consisting of four matched Varian 2100C/D and four matched Varian 600C/D accelerators, with different designs of monitor chamber, have been investigated and the data acquired from regular calibrated ion chamber/electrometer measurements of the output performance of the eight accelerators analysed. The trend of machine output with time, having removed the effect of adjusting the monitor chamber response, was compared on a monthly and annual basis for monitor chambers with ages ranging between 1 year and 7 years. The results indicate that the response is generally consistent within each set of accelerators with different monitor chamber designs. Those used in a Varian 600C/D machine result in a reduction in measured output over time, with an average monthly reduction of 0.35 ± 0.09% over the course of the first 4 years of use. The chambers used in a 2100C/D accelerator result in an increase in measured output over time, with an average monthly increase of 0.26 ± 0.09% over the course of the first 4 years of use. The output increase then reduces towards the end of this period of time, with the average monthly change falling to -0.03 ± 0.02% for the following 3 years. The output response trend was similar for all clinical energies used on the 2100C/D accelerators--6, 15 MV x-ray beams, and 4, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electron beams. By tracking these changes it has been possible to predict the response over time to allow appropriate adjustments in monitor chamber response to maintain a measured accelerator output within tolerance and give confidence in performance. It has also provided data to indicate the need for planned preventative intervention and indicate if the monitor chamber response is behaving as expected. (note)

  6. European Association of Echocardiography: Research Grant Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargani, Luna; Muraru, Denisa; Badano, Luigi P; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Sicari, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) offers a variety of grants/fellowships to help young professionals in the field of cardiological training or research activities throughout Europe. The number of grants has significantly increased in recent years with contributions from the Associations, Working Groups and Councils of the ESC. The European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) is a registered branch of the ESC and actively takes part in this initiative. One of the aims of EAE is to promote excellence in research in cardiovascular ultrasound and other imaging modalities in Europe. Therefore, since 2008, the EAE offers a Research Grant Programme to help young doctors to obtain research experience in a high standard academic centre (or similar institution oriented to clinical or pre-clinical research) in an ESC member country other than their own. This programme can be considered as a valorization of the geographical mobility as well as cultural exchanges and professional practice in the field of cardiovascular imaging. The programme has been very successful so far, therefore in 2012 the EAE has increased its offer to two grants of 25,000 euros per annum each.

  7. SU-F-BRE-11: Neutron Measurements Around the Varian TrueBeam Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglieri, R; Seuntjens, J; Kildea, J [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Liang, L; DeBlois, F [Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); Evans, M [Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); Licea, A [Canadian Nuclear Safety Comission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Dubeau, J; Witharana, S [Detec, Gatineau, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: With the emergence of flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams, several authors have noted many advantages to their use. One such advantage is the decrease in neutron production by photonuclear reactions in the linac head. In the present work we investigate the reduction in neutrons from a Varian TrueBeam linac using the Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS, Detec). The neutron spectrum, total fluence and source strength were measured and compared for 10 MV with and without flattening filter and the effect of moderation by the room and maze was studied for the 15 MV beam. Methods: The NNS, similar to traditional Bonner sphere detectors but operated in current mode, was used to measure the neutron fluence and spectrum. The NNS was validated for use in high dose rate environments using Monte Carlo simulations and calibrated at NIST and NRC Canada. Measurements were performed at several positions within the treatment room and maze with the linac jaws closed to maximize neutron production. Results: The measurements showed a total fluence reduction between 35-40% in the room and maze when the flattening filter was removed. The neutron source strength Qn was calculated from in-room fluence measurements and was found to be 0.042 × 10{sup 2} n/Gy, 0.026 × 10{sup 2} n/Gy and 0.59 × 101{sup 2} n/Gy for the 10 MV, the 10 MV FFF and 15 MV beams, respectively. We measured ambient equivalent doses of 11 mSv/hr, 7 mSv/hr and 218 mSv/hr for the 10 MV, 10 MV FFF and 15 MV by the head. Conclusion: Our measurements revealed a decrease in total fluence, neutron source strength and equivalent dose of approximately 35-40% across the treatment room for the FFF compared to FF modes. This demonstrates, as expected, that the flattening filter is a major component of the neutron production for the TrueBeam. The authors greatly acknowledge support form the Canadian Nuclear Commission and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada through the CREATE program. Co

  8. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  9. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  10. American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research was held October 9-13, 1995 at Westin William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. This volume contains the abstracts of the papers and poster sessions presented at this meeting, grouped by the session in which they were presented as follows: Radiation Effects; Aerosol Deposition; Collision Simulations and Microphysical Behavior; Filtration Theory and Measurements; Materials Synthesis; Radioactive and Nuclear Aerosols; Aerosol Formation, Thermodynamic Properties, and Behavior; Particle Contamination Issues in the Computer Industry; Pharmaceutical Aerosol Technology; Modeling Global/Regional Aerosols; Visibility; Respiratory Deposition; Biomass and Biogenic Aerosols; Aerosol Dynamics; Atmospheric Aerosols.

  11. The implications of temperature-mediated plasticity in larval instar number for development within a marine invertebrate, the shrimp Palaemonetes varians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Oliphant

    Full Text Available Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30 °C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30 °C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures and consisted of additional instars as 'repeat' instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25 °C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20 °C. We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule

  12. The implications of temperature-mediated plasticity in larval instar number for development within a marine invertebrate, the shrimp Palaemonetes varians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30 °C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30 °C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as 'repeat' instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25 °C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20 °C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  13. Recent operating experience with Varian 70 GHz and 140 GHz gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felch, K.; Bier, R.; Fox, L.; Huey, H.; Ives, L.; Jory, H.; Lopez, N.; Shively, J.; Spang, S.

    1985-01-01

    The design features and initial test results of Varian 70 GHz and 140 GHz CW gyrotrons are presented. The first experimental 140 GHz tube has achieved an output power of 102 kW at 24% efficiency under pulsed conditions in the desired TE 031 0 cavity mode. Further tests aimed at achieving the design goal of 100 kW CW are currently underway. The 70 GHz tube has achieved an output power of 200 kW under pulsed conditions and possesses a wide dynamic range for output power variations. 6 refs., 8 figs

  14. Studying the induced radioactivity of a varian clinac 2100C/D accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Li Hailiang; Deng Daping; Shang Yunying; Jing Zhongjun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To Study the influences of dose, time, distance and irradiation mode on induced radioactivity by measuring a Varian Clinac 2100C/D accelerator. Methods: The induced radioactivity was measured in different dose, time, distance and irradiation mode by using of 450P model dosemeter. The results was analysed. Results: The induced radioactivity is direct ratio with dose, inverse ratio with time and distance. In different irradiation mode, the induced radioactivity is different. Conclusion: The induced radioactivity level of accelerator is related with dose, time, distance and irradiation mode. (authors)

  15. The growth of Micrococcus varians by utilizing sugar cane blackstrap molasses as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Luís A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the growth of Micrococcus varians were carried out in BHI culture medium (control as well as in a culture medium with 2% diluted sugar cane blackstrap molasses, enriched with 0.1% yeast extract. The experiment was conducted with three samples of the experimental and control media in a 5 liter fermentor with working volume of 3.5 liters, continuous agitation (150 rpm, 35 ± 0.1°C temperature, 0.7 L air. l-1 medium. min -1, initial pH 7.0 ± 0.2, 24 hour fermentation period, and approximate inoculum of 6.0 log10 CFU/ml. Samples were collected at 2-hour intervals. Micrococcus varians grew in the two culture media studied, which confirms the experimental medium viability for the growth of this species. The final average concentration of biomass was higher in the control medium than in the experimental medium: 0.99 g.l-1 and 0.78 g.l-1, respectively. The final number of viable cells at the end of fermentation was 20.65 log10 CFU/ml for the control medium (BHI, while in the experimental medium the number of viable cells was 19.43 log10 CFU/ml. The consumption of total sugars was higher for the biomass in the control medium (79.78%, while only 50.53% was consumed for the experimental medium.

  16. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary Determination of Activation Products for a Varian Truebeam Linear Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Ram, Rohan; Steadman, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Medical linear accelerators used to treat various forms of cancers are operated at a number of different energies. A by-product of the high-energy photons produced by accelerators is activation of components within the machine itself and its surrounding bunker. The activation products pose radiological and regulatory challenges during the operation of the accelerator as well as when it is time for final decommissioning. The Varian TrueBeam is a new state-of-the-art linear accelerator now operating in the Canadian market. There is currently limited information on the production of its activation products and the resulting impacts on operation and decommissioning. In this paper, activation products in the Varian TrueBeam accelerator are experimentally determined by performing gamma spectroscopy using a portable high purity germanium detector. A total of 10 isotopes are identified for the conditions tested, which include Na, Al, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cu, Br, Sb, Sb, W. The half-lives of these isotopes range from 2.3 min to 60.2 d. These preliminary results indicate that a decommissioning case similar to other radiotherapy accelerators can be made.

  18. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  19. Source to Skin Distance (SSD) Characteristics from Varian CX Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari Nurdin, Wira; Purnomo, Aji; Dewang, Syamsir

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to describe the characteristics of the source to skin distance (SSD) of Varian CX linear accelerator (LINAC) using the X-ray beam of 6 MV and 10 MV. The variation of the source to the SSD are 90, 100 and 110 cms; the depth of the water phantom used are 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cms, respectively. The depth of the water phantom was created for analysis of percentage depth dose (PDD) and profile dose. It can be concluded from the tests that from the measured SSD, SSD of 110 cm with the depth water phantom of 20-25 cm for energy beam of 6 MV and at all levels of depth for 10 MV energy corresponding tolerance limits to be used in clinical radiotherapy. For the SSD 90 and 100, the values beam symmetry and flatness obtained slightly beyond the limits of tolerance.

  20. Validation of FORTRAN emulators for the G2 varian control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, G.

    1996-01-01

    The extensive use of the Gentilly full scope simulator for training and verification of plant procedures, forced the development of a reliable desktop simulator for software maintenance purposes. For that we needed emulators for the control programs which run on the DCC Varian computers in the full scope simulator. This paper presents the validation results for the Reactor Regulating System (RRS) program. This emulator was programmed in a modular fashion providing ease of maintenance and of transportation to another environment. The results obtained with specific tests or with integrated testing involving complex control rule interactions, compared favorably with the ones obtained using the actual plant control programs running on the full scope simulator, which constitutes an irrefutable validation procedure. This RRS package along with the other emulators being validated In this manner could be used in safety codes with confidence. (author)

  1. TU-FG-201-05: Varian MPC as a Statistical Process Control Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, A; Rowbottom, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance in radiotherapy requires the measurement of various machine parameters to ensure they remain within permitted values over time. In Truebeam release 2.0 the Machine Performance Check (MPC) was released allowing beam output and machine axis movements to be assessed in a single test. We aim to evaluate the Varian Machine Performance Check (MPC) as a tool for Statistical Process Control (SPC). Methods: Varian’s MPC tool was used on three Truebeam and one EDGE linac for a period of approximately one year. MPC was commissioned against independent systems. After this period the data were reviewed to determine whether or not the MPC was useful as a process control tool. Analyses on individual tests were analysed using Shewhart control plots, using Matlab for analysis. Principal component analysis was used to determine if a multivariate model was of any benefit in analysing the data. Results: Control charts were found to be useful to detect beam output changes, worn T-nuts and jaw calibration issues. Upper and lower control limits were defined at the 95% level. Multivariate SPC was performed using Principal Component Analysis. We found little evidence of clustering beyond that which might be naively expected such as beam uniformity and beam output. Whilst this makes multivariate analysis of little use it suggests that each test is giving independent information. Conclusion: The variety of independent parameters tested in MPC makes it a sensitive tool for routine machine QA. We have determined that using control charts in our QA programme would rapidly detect changes in machine performance. The use of control charts allows large quantities of tests to be performed on all linacs without visual inspection of all results. The use of control limits alerts users when data are inconsistent with previous measurements before they become out of specification. A. Carver has received a speaker’s honorarium from Varian

  2. Implementation of the program of quality control of the system on-board imager of varian: initial assessment; Puesta en marcha del programa de control de calidad del sistema on-board imager de varian: evaluacion inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Martin, I.; Ruiz Morales, C.; Lopez Sanchez, F.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to present evidence that are part of our quality control system on-board Imager of Varian, elaborated from recommendations and national and international protocols, as well as a first assessment of the results obtained to date. (Author)

  3. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  4. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  5. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  6. Application of halophilic nuclease H of Micrococcus varians subsp. halophilus to commercial production of flavoring agent 5'-GMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamekura, M; Hamakawa, T; Onishi, H

    1982-01-01

    RNA was degraded at 60 degrees C for 24 h by halophilic nuclease H in supernatants from broth cultures of Micrococcus varians subsp. halophilus containing 12% NaCl. Since contaminating 5'-nucleotidase exhibited almost no activity under these conditions, the 5'-GMP formed could be recovered from the reaction mixture, and the yield was 805 mg from 5 g of RNA. PMID:6184020

  7. Implementation of the program of quality control of the system on-board imager of varian: initial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Martin, I.; Ruiz Morales, C.; Lopez Sanchez, F.; Tobarra Gonzalez, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to present evidence that are part of our quality control system on-board Imager of Varian, elaborated from recommendations and national and international protocols, as well as a first assessment of the results obtained to date. (Author)

  8. Modelling of a linear accelerator VARIAN 600 C/D for dosimetric study using the Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino, Jorge Luis Batista

    2016-01-01

    Based on the high availability of low energy linear accelerators in Brazil and with the goal of developing a reliable tool for dose distribution calculations in radiotherapy; this research aims to validate a linear accelerator head model using MCNP Monte Carlo code. The Varian 600 C/D linear accelerator installed at the Hospital São João de is taken as reference. The main components of the linear accelerator head were simulated based on detailed information of the manufacturer. In order to calculate dose distribution, a water phantom with dimensions of 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 was simulated and placed at 100 cm of source-surface distance. A monoenergetic electron beam of 6,3 MeV was considered as a source. The number of primary particles used in the simulation was 10 8 . A Phase-Space Surface was used to scoring the photon spectrum below the tungsten target. Others two were placed in the model in order to reduce computational time and improve statistical accuracy. In order to validate the developed model, the X-ray spectrum generated by Bremsstrahlung was calculated and analyzed. Furthermore, the results of percentage depth doses and beam profiles calculations were compared with available measurements. The MCNP calculations results were compared to measurement showing good agreement between them. The comparison between MCNP calculations and measurement of PDD showed reasonable coherence at build-up region. The results were in an acceptable interval of confidence at the flat region of beam profiles comparison for three different field sizes. In this work, we compared MCNP calculations to experimental data in order to validate the developed LINAC head model. The results showed a good agreement according to the recommended criteria. The developed model was validated as an accurate tool for LINAC quality control procedures. (author)

  9. Student Science Research Associates (SSRA) 1996 Research Journal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezovich, J. [ed.

    1996-12-01

    The following student projects are reported: SSRA water research projects, various effects on polliwogs` growth and development, effects of Willow Park Golf Course on nitrate and phosphate levels in San Leandro Creek, water quality evaluation using color infrared photography, biochemical analysis of aquatic insects, effects of miracid/calcium chloride/liquid plant food on stringless bush beans, effects of vegetable oil on bean growth, effect of river water on lima beans, effect of storm water runoff on pH and phosphate levels of Dry Creek, acid rain in Modesto, use of random amplified polymorphic DNA to study Egeria Densa, and effect of marination on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked chicken meat.

  10. SU-E-T-775: Use of Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) for Quality Assurance (QA) of Electron Beams On Varian Truebeam System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, B; Yaddanapudi, S; Sun, B; Li, H; Noel, C; Mutic, S; Goddu, S [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In a previous study we have demonstrated the feasibility of using EPID to QA electron beam parameters on a single Varian TrueBeam LINAC. This study aims to provide further investigation on (1) reproducibility of using EPID to detect electron beam energy changes on multiple machines and (2) evaluation of appropriate calibration methods to compare results from different EPIDs. Methods: Ad-hoc mode electron beam images were acquired in developer mode with XML code. Electron beam data were collected on a total of six machines from four institutions. A custom-designed double-wedge phantom was placed on the EPID detector. Two calibration methods - Pixel Sensitivity Map (PSM) and Large Source-to-Imager Distance Flood Field (LSID-FF) - were used. To test the sensitivity of EPID in detecting energy drifts, Bending Magnet Current (BMC) was detuned to invoke energy changes corresponding to ∼±1.5 mm change in R50% of PDD on two machines from two institutions. Percent depth ionization (PDI) curves were then analyzed and compared with the respective baseline images using LSID-FF calibration. For reproducibility testing, open field EPID images and images with a standard testing phantom were collected on multiple machines. Images with and without PSM correction for same energies on different machines were overlaid and compared. Results: Two pixel shifts were observed in PDI curve when energy changes exceeded the TG142 tolerance. PSM showed the potential to correct the differences in pixel response of different imagers. With PSM correction, the histogram of images differences obtained from different machines showed narrower distributions than those images without PSM correction. Conclusion: EPID is sensitive for electron energy changes and the results are reproducible on different machines. When overlaying images from different machines, PSM showed the ability to partially eliminate the intrinsic variation of various imagers. Research Funding from Varian Medical Systems

  11. SU-F-T-66: Characteristics of Electron Beams From Varian Trubeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimofte, A; Kennedy, C; Zhu, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electron beam data between Truebeam and 2300ix Varian accelerators for percent depth dose for broad beam and small circular cutouts, cone factors, head scatter factor as a function of cone size and SSD, phantom scatter factor, blocking factor, distance factor and virtual source position. Methods: Measurements were performed for Truebeam and 2300ix Varian accelerators. The main energies used were: 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. PDD was measured at SSD = 100 cm for open beam and small circular cutouts (r = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.6cm) for different energies. Measurements to determine the head scatter factor (H) were done as a function of radius for six representative energies and five cone sizes (6, 10, 15, 20 and 25cm2). The phantom scatter factor (PSF) is defined as the ratio of blocking factor in water at reference depth and head scatter factor in air. PSF was measured as a function of radius and electron energy. Distance factor was measured for all energies and cones for three SSD’s (100, 110 and 120cm). Results: The percent depth dose (PDD) was measured for small cutouts of radius r = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 5.6cm. Blocking factor (BF) was measured for Truebeam and 2300ix accelerators, for different circular cutouts and energies for a 10×10 cone. Cone factors were compared between the two accelerators for different energies and applicator sizes. Conclusion: Cone factors measured for the two accelerator types differ by up to 5% for the largest applicator size. Blocking factors differs by up to 3%, with the largest variation for the smallest field size (0.5cm). Distance factor for different SSD’s differ by up to 4.5%.

  12. The evaluation for the usability of the Varian Standard Couch modelingusing Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong Mo; Song, Yong Min; Kim, Jin Man; Choi, Ji Min; Choi, Byeung Gi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    When a radiation treatment, there is an attenuation by Carbon Fiber Couch. In this study, we tried to evaluate the usability of the Varian Standard Couch(VSC) by modeling with Treatment Planning System (TPS) VSC was scanned by CBCT(Cone Beam Computed Tomography) of the Linac(Clinac IX, VARIAN, USA), following the three conditions of VSC, Side Rail OutGrid(SROG), Side Rail InGrid(SRIG), Side Rail In OutSpine Down Bar(SRIOS). After scan, the data was transferred to TPS and modeled by contouring Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, Spine Down Bar automatically. We scanned the Cheese Phantom(Middelton, USA) using Computed Tomography(Light Speed RT 16, GE, USA) and transfer the data to TPS, and apply VSC modeled previously with TPS to it. Dose was measured at the isocenter of Ion Chamber(A1SL, Standard imaging, USA) in Cheese Phantom using 4 and 10 MV radiation for every 5° gantry angle in a different filed size(3 X 3 cm{sup 2},10 X 10cm{sup 2}) without any change of MU(=100), and then we compared the calculated dose and measured dose. Also we included dose at the 127° in SRIG to compare the attenuation by Side Bar Upper. Results : The density of VSC by CBCT in TPS was 0.9g/cm{sup 3}, and in the case of Spine Down Bar, it was 0.7g/cm{sup 3}. The radiation was attenuated by 17.49%, 16.49%, 8.54%, and 7.59% at the Side Rail, Side Bar Upper, Side Bar Lower, and Spine Down Bar. For the accuracy of modeling, calculated dose and measured dose were compared. The average error was 1.13% and the maximum error was 1.98% at the 170° beam crossing the Spine Down Bar. To evaluate the usability for the VSC modeled by TPS, the maximum error was 1.98% as a result of compassion between calculated dose and measured dose. We found out that VSC modeling helped expect the dose, so we think that it will be helpful for the more accurate treatment.

  13. SU-F-T-66: Characteristics of Electron Beams From Varian Trubeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimofte, A; Kennedy, C; Zhu, T [University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electron beam data between Truebeam and 2300ix Varian accelerators for percent depth dose for broad beam and small circular cutouts, cone factors, head scatter factor as a function of cone size and SSD, phantom scatter factor, blocking factor, distance factor and virtual source position. Methods: Measurements were performed for Truebeam and 2300ix Varian accelerators. The main energies used were: 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. PDD was measured at SSD = 100 cm for open beam and small circular cutouts (r = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.6cm) for different energies. Measurements to determine the head scatter factor (H) were done as a function of radius for six representative energies and five cone sizes (6, 10, 15, 20 and 25cm2). The phantom scatter factor (PSF) is defined as the ratio of blocking factor in water at reference depth and head scatter factor in air. PSF was measured as a function of radius and electron energy. Distance factor was measured for all energies and cones for three SSD’s (100, 110 and 120cm). Results: The percent depth dose (PDD) was measured for small cutouts of radius r = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 5.6cm. Blocking factor (BF) was measured for Truebeam and 2300ix accelerators, for different circular cutouts and energies for a 10×10 cone. Cone factors were compared between the two accelerators for different energies and applicator sizes. Conclusion: Cone factors measured for the two accelerator types differ by up to 5% for the largest applicator size. Blocking factors differs by up to 3%, with the largest variation for the smallest field size (0.5cm). Distance factor for different SSD’s differ by up to 4.5%.

  14. Research progress of HIV-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun HONG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wide usage of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART leads to reduction of the occurence rate of focal or diffuse neurological damage caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, which prominently improves the living quality of HIV-infected patients. Despite this progress, about 70% of HIV-infected patients develop neurological complications. Although neurological disease typically occurs in the advanced stage of the disease or after severe damage of immune functions, it may also occur during early stage of the infection. HIV-associated myelopathy is a common complication of immunodeficiency syndrome and its typical pathological appearence is vacuolar degeneration. In many patients the clinical manifestations of vacuolar myelopathy are in fact limited to non-specific sphincter or sexual dysfunction, and may remain completely asymptomatic. Even when motor and sensory symptoms become evident, the diagnosis is often complicated by a concomitant peripheral neuropathy. The purpose of this study is to summarize pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, pathological features, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated myelopathy. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.004

  15. Creation of an American Holistic Nurses Association research consultation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sue; Clingerman, Evelyn; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla; Lange, Bernadette

    2012-12-01

    A goal of the American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) Research Committee is to prepare holistic nurses to conduct holistic nursing research. This article describes the creation of a Research Consultation Program and how the knowledge gained from the program will contribute to the development of a formal research mentor program.

  16. Generalized monitor unit calculation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chihray; Kim, Siyong; Kahler, Darren L.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2003-01-01

    The generalized monitor unit (MU) calculation equation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is derived. The assumption of this MU calculation method is that the wedge factor of the EDW at the center of the field is a function of field size, the position of the center of the field in the wedge direction, and the final position of the moving jaw. The wedge factors at the center of the field in both symmetric and asymmetric fields are examined. The difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is within 1.0%. The method developed here is easy to implement. The only datum required in addition to the standard set of conventional physical wedge implementation data is the off-axis output factor for the open field in the reference condition. The off-center point calculation is also examined. For the off-center point calculation, the dose profile in the wedge direction for the largest EDW field is used to obtain the relative off-center ratio in any smaller wedge field. The accuracy of the off-center point calculation decreases when the point of calculation is too close to the field edge

  17. Performance studies of varian VPM-154D.6D VPM-154A/1.6L static crossed field photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.; Leskovar, B.

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics have been measured for the Varian VPM-154D.6D and VPM-154A/1.6L Static Crossed Field Photomultipliers. Some typical photomultiplier characteristics such as: gain, dark current, quantum efficiency, and rise-time--are compared with data provided by the manufacturer. Photomultiplier characteristics generally not available from the manufacturer, such as: transit time, FWHM of the output pulse, peak output current measurement and multiphotoelectron time resolution were measured and are discussed

  18. Neutron dose measurements of Varian and Elekta linacs by TLD600 and TLD700 dosimeters and comparison with MCNP calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Darestani, Hoda; Banaee, Nooshin; Shagholi, Negin; Mohammadi, Kheirollah; Shahvar, Arjang; Bayat, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    High-energy linacs produce secondary particles such as neutrons (photoneutron production). The neutrons have the important role during treatment with high energy photons in terms of protection and dose escalation. In this work, neutron dose equivalents of 18 MV Varian and Elekta accelerators are measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) 600 and TLD700 detectors and compared with the Monte Carlo calculations. For neutron and photon dose discrimination, first TLDs were calibrated separately by gamma and neutron doses. Gamma calibration was carried out in two procedures; by standard 60Co source and by 18 MV linac photon beam. For neutron calibration by (241)Am-Be source, irradiations were performed in several different time intervals. The Varian and Elekta linac heads and the phantom were simulated by the MCNPX code (v. 2.5). Neutron dose equivalent was calculated in the central axis, on the phantom surface and depths of 1, 2, 3.3, 4, 5, and 6 cm. The maximum photoneutron dose equivalents which calculated by the MCNPX code were 7.06 and 2.37 mSv.Gy(-1) for Varian and Elekta accelerators, respectively, in comparison with 50 and 44 mSv.Gy(-1) achieved by TLDs. All the results showed more photoneutron production in Varian accelerator compared to Elekta. According to the results, it seems that TLD600 and TLD700 pairs are not suitable dosimeters for neutron dosimetry inside the linac field due to high photon flux, while MCNPX code is an appropriate alternative for studying photoneutron production.

  19. Research Administrator Salary: Association with Education, Experience, Credentials and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambrook, Jennifer; Roberts, Thomas J.; Triscari, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Research Administrators Stress Perception Survey (2010 RASPerS) collected data from 1,131 research administrators on salary, years experience, educational level, Certified Research Administrator (CRA) status, and gender. Using these data, comparisons were made to show how salary levels are associated with each of these variables. Using…

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of Varian Linac for 6 MV photon beam with BEAMnrc code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Maged; El Bardouni, T.; Chakir, E.; Boukhal, H.; Saeed, M.; Ahmed, Abdul-Aziz

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the initial electron beam parameters on the absorbed dose distribution calculated with EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, for 6 MV photon beam. A proposed methodology for benchmarking the BEAMnrc model of Varian Linac has been used. Also, a new photon cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII release 8 evaluation has been employed. The parameters tested include mean energy, radial intensity distribution and angular spread of the initial electron beam. Mean energy and angular spread were tested for a square irradiation field 10 × 10 cm2, whereas beam width of the electron beam was studied for 10 × 10 cm2 at different depths and 30 × 30 cm2 at depth of 10 cm. The results obtained are compared with measurement data to select the optimal electron beam parameters. The differences between MC calculation and measurements data are analyzed using gamma index criteria which fixed within 1% -1 mm accuracy. The obtained results indicated that the depth-dose and dose-profile curves were considerably influenced by the mean energy of the electron beam. The depth-dose curves were unaffected by the beam width of the electron beam, for both irradiation fields. On the contrary, lateral dose-profile curves were affected by the beam width of initial electron beam. Both dose-profile and depth-dose curves were unaffected to the angular spread of the electron beam. A deep depth of 10 × 10 cm2 is very accurate to tune the beam width. Mean energy and beam width must be tuned precisely, to get the MC does distribution with acceptable accuracy.

  1. Assessment of dosimetrical performance in 11 Varian a-Si500 electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Dosimetrical characteristics of 11 Varian a-Si-500 electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) in clinical use for periods ranging between 10 and 86 months were investigated for consistency of performance and portal dosimetry implications. Properties studied include short-term reproducibility, signal linearity with monitor units, response to reference beam, signal uniformity across the detector panel, signal dependence on field size, dose-rate influence, memory effects and image profiles as a function of monitor units. The EPID measurements were also compared with those of the ionization chambers' to ensure stability of the linear accelerators. Depending on their clinical installation date, the EPIDs were interfaced with one of the two different acquisition control software packages, IAS2/IDU-II or IAS3/IDU-20. Both the EPID age and image acquisition system influenced the dosimetric characteristics with the newer version (IAS3 with IDU-20) giving better data reproducibility and linearity fit than the older version (IAS2 with IDU-II). The relative signal response (uniformity) after 50 MU was better than 95% of the central value and independent of detector. Sensitivity for all EPIDs reduced continuously with increasing dose rates for the newer image acquisition software. In the dose-rate range 100-600 MU min -1 , the maximum variation in sensitivity ranged between 1 and 1.8% for different EPIDs. For memory effects, the increase in the measured signal at the centre of the irradiated field for successive images was within 1.8% and 1.0% for the older and newer acquisition systems, respectively. Image profiles acquired at a lower MU in the radial plane (gun-target) had gradients in measured pixel values of up to 25% for the older system. Detectors with software/hardware versions IAS3/IDU-20 have a high degree of accuracy and are more suitable for routine quantitative IMRT dosimetrical verification.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian Clinac 600C accelerator dynamic and physical wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, S [Universidade da Beira Interior, Av. Marques d' Avila e Bolama, Covilha 6201-001 (Portugal); Chaves, A [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Doutor Francisco Gentil (IPO), Av. Bissaya Barreto, Coimbra 3000-075 (Portugal); Peralta, L [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de PartIculas (LIP), Av. Elias Garcia no14 1o, Lisbon 1000-149 (Portugal); Lopes, Mc [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande EdifIcio C5, Lisbon 1149-016 (Portugal)

    2007-06-15

    The present paper describes the study done on the dosimetric characteristics of the Varian Clinac 600C dynamic wedges (DW) and their comparison with the physical wedges (PW) in terms of the differences affecting the dose distributions, beam spectra, energy fluence and angular distributions. The geometry of the 4 MV photon beam and the dose distributions in a water phantom were simulated with GEANT3 and DPM Monte Carlo code systems. The DW was modelled through the constant movement of the upper jaws. The depth dose distributions and lateral profiles for the DW, PW and open fields were measured and compared with the Monte Carlo simulations and the global agreement was found to be within 3%. It was also found that the effects of a DW on beam spectral and angular distributions are much less significant than those produced by a PW. For example, in our study we found out that the 45{sup 0}PW, when compared with the corresponding open field, can introduce a 30% increase in the mean photon energy due to the beam hardening effect and that it can also introduce a 4.5% dose reduction in the build-up region because of the reduction of the contaminated electrons by the PW. For the DW neither this mean-energy increase nor such dose reduction was found. The PW, when compared to the DW, significantly alters the photon-beam spectrum and these dosimetric differences are significant and further investigation must be performed to quantify the impact in clinical use of these beams.

  3. Clinical application of image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT (on the Varian OBI platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.; Tilikidis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) can be used to measure and correct positional errors for target and critical structures immediately prior to or during treatment delivery. Some of the most recent available methods applied for target localization are: trans-abdominal ultrasound, implanted markers with in room MV or kV X-rays, optical surface tracking systems, implantable electromagnetic markers, in room CT such as kVCT on rail, kilo-voltage or mega-voltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) and helical megavoltage CT. The verification of the accurate treatment position in conjunction with detailed anatomical information before every fraction can be essential for the outcome of the treatment. In this paper we present the on-board imager (OBI, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) that has been in routine clinical use at the Karolinska University Hospital since June 2004. The OBI has been used for on-line set-up correction of prostate patients using internal gold markers. Displacements of these markers can be monitored radiographically during the treatment course and the registered marker shifts act as a surrogate for prostate motion. For this purpose, on-board kV-kV seems to be an ideal system in terms of image quality. The CBCT function of OBI was installed in March 2005 at our department. It focuses on localizing tumors based on internal anatomy, not just on the conventional external marks or tattoos. The CBCT system provides the capacity for soft tissue imaging in the treatment position and real-time radiographic monitoring during treatment delivery. (authors)

  4. PENJADWALAN JOBS PADA SINGLE MACHINE DENGAN MEMINIMUMKAN VARIANS WAKTU PENYELESAIAN JOBS Studi Kasus di P.T. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sutapa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a jobs scheduling on a single machine to minimize variance of job completion time. The objective is especially important in situations where it is desirable to provide customers or jobs with approximately the same treatment. In this case, data are collected from P.T. 'XYZ'. The focus of discussion is LB/KB Departement (Leather Board/Carton Board with carton board's production line, which produces carton board. Carton board's size is 150 x 110 cm and its thickness from 0,6 mm to 2,5 mm. In this paper a comparison analysis, the deviation of the objective value given by a heuristic (Vh method from the objective value given by P.T. 'XYZ' (Vp, is made. The percentage of deviation Vh from Vp is 50,36 %, which shows that the performance of heuristic is better, that is variance of job completion time by heuristic method smaller than by P.T. 'XYZ'. Besides the above discussion, the weakness dan superiority of heuristic are analyzed too. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini membahas penjadwalan jobs pada single machine dengan tujuan meminimumkan varians waktu penyelesaian job, yaitu untuk memberikan konsumen atau jobs kurang lebih perlakuan yang sama. Data yang diambil dalam pembahasan ini berasal dari perusahaan P.T. 'XYZ', di mana departemen yang menjadi fokus pembahasan adalah Departemen LB/KB (Leather Board/Karton Board dengan lintasan produksi karton board yang menghasilkan produk carton board ukuran 150 x 110 cm, dengan ketebalan 0,6 mm sampai dengan 2,5 mm. Dalam makalah ini dilakukan analisis perbandingan jadwal jobs pada proses produksi di perusahaan yang telah ada dengan jadwal jobs menggunakan metode heuristic, yaitu menggunakan persentase penyimpangan Vh (varians waktu penyelesaian jobs metode heuristic dari Vp (varians waktu penyelesaian jobs perusahaan. Dari hasil analisis didapatkan bahwa persentase penyimpangan Vh dari Vp sebesar 50,36%, hal ini menunjukkan bahwa performance metode heuristic lebih baik, yaitu

  5. Distracted Driving and Associated Crash Risks : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Factors aff ecting the : cognitive tasks : associated with : driving are becoming : increasingly critical to : the overall roadway : safety performance. : Therefore, more research is needed in order to understand the complexity and : impact of distra...

  6. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of KSHV in 1994 was a historical landmark in tumor virology and human cancer research. KSHV's subsequent identification as a cause of Kaposi sarcoma and its association with primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease soon attracted the attention of hundreds of research laboratories and motivated thousands of virologists and oncologists to switch

  7. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology...... research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...... of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology...

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 55: An automated XML technique for isocentre verification on the Varian TrueBeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiev, Krum; Mullins, Joel; DeBlois, François; Liang, Liheng; Syme, Alasdair

    2014-01-01

    Isocentre verification tests, such as the Winston-Lutz (WL) test, have gained popularity in the recent years as techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) treatments are more commonly performed on radiotherapy linacs. These highly conformal treatments require frequent monitoring of the geometrical accuracy of the isocentre to ensure proper radiation delivery. At our clinic, the WL test is performed by acquiring with the EPID a collection of 8 images of a WL phantom fixed on the couch for various couch/gantry angles. This set of images is later analyzed to determine the isocentre size. The current work addresses the acquisition process. A manual WL test acquisition performed by and experienced physicist takes in average 25 minutes and is prone to user manipulation errors. We have automated this acquisition on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac (Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The Varian developer mode allows the execution of custom-made XML script files to control all aspects of the linac operation. We have created an XML-WL script that cycles through each couch/gantry combinations taking an EPID image at each position. This automated acquisition is done in less than 4 minutes. The reproducibility of the method was verified by repeating the execution of the XML file 5 times. The analysis of the images showed variation of the isocenter size less than 0.1 mm along the X, Y and Z axes and compares favorably to a manual acquisition for which we typically observe variations up to 0.5 mm

  9. Out‐of‐field doses and neutron dose equivalents for electron beams from modern Varian and Elekta linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Carlos E.; Nitsch, Paige L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Howell, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    Out‐of‐field doses from radiotherapy can cause harmful side effects or eventually lead to secondary cancers. Scattered doses outside the applicator field, neutron source strength values, and neutron dose equivalents have not been broadly investigated for high‐energy electron beams. To better understand the extent of these exposures, we measured out‐of‐field dose characteristics of electron applicators for high‐energy electron beams on two Varian 21iXs, a Varian TrueBeam, and an Elekta Versa HD operating at various energy levels. Out‐of‐field dose profiles and percent depth‐dose curves were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom using a Farmer ion chamber. Neutron dose was assessed using a combination of moderator buckets and gold activation foils placed on the treatment couch at various locations in the patient plane on both the Varian 21iX and Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators. Our findings showed that out‐of‐field electron doses were highest for the highest electron energies. These doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. The Elekta linear accelerator had higher electron out‐of‐field doses than the Varian units examined, and the Elekta dose profiles exhibited a second dose peak about 20 to 30 cm from central‐axis, which was found to be higher than typical out‐of‐field doses from photon beams. Electron doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. With respect to neutron dosimetry, Q values and neutron dose equivalents increased with electron beam energy. Neutron contamination from electron beams was found to be much lower than that from photon beams. Even though the neutron dose equivalent for electron beams represented a small portion of neutron doses observed under photon beams, neutron doses from electron beams may need to be considered for

  10. Out-of-field doses and neutron dose equivalents for electron beams from modern Varian and Elekta linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Carlos E; Nitsch, Paige L; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Howell, Rebecca M; Kry, Stephen F

    2016-07-08

    Out-of-field doses from radiotherapy can cause harmful side effects or eventually lead to secondary cancers. Scattered doses outside the applicator field, neutron source strength values, and neutron dose equivalents have not been broadly investigated for high-energy electron beams. To better understand the extent of these exposures, we measured out-of-field dose characteristics of electron applicators for high-energy electron beams on two Varian 21iXs, a Varian TrueBeam, and an Elekta Versa HD operating at various energy levels. Out-of-field dose profiles and percent depth-dose curves were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom using a Farmer ion chamber. Neutron dose was assessed using a combination of moderator buckets and gold activation foils placed on the treatment couch at various locations in the patient plane on both the Varian 21iX and Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators. Our findings showed that out-of-field electron doses were highest for the highest electron energies. These doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. The Elekta linear accelerator had higher electron out-of-field doses than the Varian units examined, and the Elekta dose profiles exhibited a second dose peak about 20 to 30 cm from central-axis, which was found to be higher than typical out-of-field doses from photon beams. Electron doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. With respect to neutron dosimetry, Q values and neutron dose equivalents increased with electron beam energy. Neutron contamination from electron beams was found to be much lower than that from photon beams. Even though the neutron dose equivalent for electron beams represented a small portion of neutron doses observed under photon beams, neutron doses from electron beams may need to be considered for special cases.

  11. SU-E-T-06: A Comparison of IMRT Treatment of Esophageal Carcinoma in Elekta-Precise and Varian23EX Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, W; Fan, X; Qiu, R; Qiao, X; Zhang, R [Hebei Medical University Fourth Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare and analyze the characteristics of static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans designed on Elekta and Varian Linac in different esophageal cancer(EC), exploring advantages and disadvantages of different vendor Linac, thus can be better serve for clinical. Methods: Twenty-four patients with EC were selected, including 6 cases located in the cervical, upper, middle and the lower thorax, respectively. Two IMRT plans were generated with the Oncentra planning system: in Elekta and Varian Linac, prescription dose of 60Gy in 30 fractions to the PTV. We examined the dose-volume histogram parameters of PTV and the organs at risk (OAR) such as lungs, spinal cord and heart, and additional Monitor units(MU), treatment time, Homogeneity index(HI), Conformity index(CI) and Gamma index comparisons were performed. Results: All plans resulted in abundant dose coverage of PTV for EC of different locations. The doses to PTV, HI and OAR in Elekta plans were not statistically different in comparison with Varian plans, with the following exceptions: in cervical, upper and lower thoracic EC the PTV's CI, and in middle thorax EC PTV's D2, D50, V105 and PTV-average were better in Elekta plans than in Varian plans. In the cervical, upper and the middle thorax EC, treatment time were significantly decreased in Varian plans as against Elekta plans, while in the lower thoracic EC treatment time were no striking difference. MUs and gamma index were similar between the two Linac plans. Conclusion: For the the middle thorax EC Varian plans is better than Elekta plans, not only in treatment time but in the PTV dose; while for the lower thorax EC Elekta plans is the first choice for better CI; for the other part of the EC usually Elekta plans can increase the CI, while Varian plans can reduce treatment time, can be selected according to the actual situation of the patient treatment.

  12. Interactions between Lactobacillus sakei and CNC (Staphylococcus xylosus and Kocuria varians) and their influence on proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonte, P; Reale, A; Di Renzo, T; Tipaldi, L; Di Luccia, A; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E; Succi, M

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate interactions between Lactobacillus sakei and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) (Staphylococcus xylosus and Kocuria varians) and to investigate the influence of these interactions on their own proteolytic activity. Interactions occurring between strains of Lact. sakei and CNC were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis. The growth of 35 strains of Lact. sakei, used as indicators, was compared to that obtained combining the same strains with growing cells or cell-free supernatants of 20 CNC (18 Staph. xylosus and 2 K. varians). The proteolytic activity expressed by single strains or by their combinations was assessed on sarcoplasmic protein extracts by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results evidenced that interactions are able to affect not only the growth but also the in vitro proteolytic activity of Lact. sakei and CNC used in combination. A relationship between the presence of interactions among useful strains and the strength of technological characteristics, such as proteolysis, was defined. The study highlighted that CNC are able to stimulate the growth of some Lact. sakei strains. At the same time, this interaction positively influences the proteolytic activity of strains used in combination. Given the importance of proteolysis during the ripening of fermented meats, this phenomenon should be taken into account to select meat starter cultures. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Visibility of Diversity within Association of Research Libraries Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Lori S.

    2011-01-01

    Libraries in the United States have worked towards developing more inclusive environments and programs. This inclusiveness should also extend to the online library presence. This article provides results of a web page scan of all Association of Research Libraries (ARL) in the United States to document the visibility of diversity on their pages. A…

  14. Original Research Factors associated with hospital arrival time after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research. Factors associated with hospital arrival time after the onset of stroke symptoms: A cross-sectional study at two teaching hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe .... hypertension causing small vessel disease which outweigh the causes of ..... Stroke Mechanism in Atherosclerotic Middle Cerebral Artery Disease:.

  15. Provenance research: investigation of genetic diversity associated with geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1963-01-01

    Provenance in forestry refers to the population of trees growing at n particular place of origin. Provenance research defines the genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation associated with geographic source. Information on provenance is important in assuring sources of seed to give well-adapted, productive trees and in directing breeding of...

  16. Radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. Associated research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the research associated problems for radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits such granites, clays or salt deposits. After a brief description of the underground disposal, the author studies the rheology of sedimentary media and proposes rheological models applied to radioactive wastes repositories. Waste-rock interactions, particularly thermal effects and temperature distribution versus time. 17 refs., 14 figs

  17. Nursing home research: the first International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG) research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yves; Resnick, Barbara; Katz, Paul R; Little, Milta O; Ouslander, Joseph G; Bonner, Alice; Geary, Carol R; Schumacher, Karen L; Thompson, Sarah; Martin, Finbarr C; Wilbers, Joachim; Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, D; Schwendimann, R; Schüssler, S; Dassen, Theo; Lohrmann, Christa; Levy, Cari; Whitfield, Emily; de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Dilles, Tinne; Azermai, Majda; Bourgeois, Jolyce; Orrell, Martin; Grossberg, George T; Kergoat, Hélène; Thomas, David R; Visschedijk, Jan; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Handajani, Yvonne S; Widjaja, Nelly T; Turana, Yuda; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie; Morley, John E

    2014-05-01

    The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics held its first conference on nursing home research in St Louis, MO, in November 2013. This article provides a summary of the presentations. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of the dose equivalents due to neutrons produced during therapeutic irradiations with a Varian CLINAC 2500; Determinacion de la dosis equivalente debida a neutrones producidos durante irradiaciones terapeuticas con un Varian CLINAC 2500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, Ricardo E [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    1991-07-01

    This experiment it was designed to quantify that so important it is the dose equivalent deposited by the neutron flow that is generated by photonuclear reactions during therapeutic irradiations with X rays of produced high-energy for an accelerator Varian CLINAC 2500. This accelerator type is routinely used in the Department of Radiotherapy of the Hospital of the University of Wisconsin, E.U. The equivalent dose was measured in diverse towns of the room of irradiations using the activation of thin sheets of gold put in the center of plastic recipients full with water. In general, the recipients were 1 m or more than the floor and at distances still bigger than the walls. The irradiations were made using photons with the highest energy that you can select with this team - 24 MeV. The due equivalent dose to neutrons taken place here by the energy photons used they were measured and reported. (author)

  19. SU-E-T-370: Measurement of Conical Cone Output Factors for the Varian Edge Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Wang, S; Zhong, H; Wen, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of detector type, SSD/depth, and intermediate reference on conical cone output factor (OF) measurements for the Varian Edge linac. Methods: OF's for 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 mm diameter cones relative to 10cmx10cm field were measured for the 6X FFF and 10X FFF energies, with jaws set to 5cmx5cm. Measurements were performed with an Edge diode (0.8mmx0.8mmx0.03mm WxLxT), stereotatic diode SFD, photon diode, CC01 and pinpoint chambers (2mm diameter for both). 95cm SSD/5cm depth were used in a water tank. For the measurement with diodes, OF's were cross-referred to CC13 ion chamber measurements with 3cmx3cm field, as recommended, to help mitigate the energy variation in diode response with field size. Results were compared to the representative data from Varian measured with Edge detector. With SFD, OF's at 98.5cm SSD/1.5cm depth and 90cm SSD/10cm depth were also measured. Results: OF's measured with the Edge detector matched within 1.3% (max diff) with the representative data from Varian. For the SFD, OF's matched within 1.3% for the 4, 5 and 17.5 mm cones and within 3.7% for the other cones. OF's with photon diode were within 1.3% except for the 4 and 5 mm cones where they were 8.1% and 3.7%, respectively. OF's for the CC01 and pinpoint chamber deviated up to 36% and 44%, respectively for the 4 mm cone. OF's after intermediate reference with 3cmx3cm field changed by 3.7% for SFD, 0.8% for photon diode, and 0.6% for Edge detector. OF's at 98.5cm SSD/1.5cm depth were 10.8% higher than that at 95cm SSD/5cm depth, and OF's at 90cm SSD/1.5cm depth were 7.5% lower. Conclusion: OF's measured with the Edge detector appear to be reliable. CC01 and pinpoint chambers do not appear suitable for measuring the small cone OF's. SSD/depth affects OF measurements significantly

  20. SU-E-T-362: Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Output Factors for Varian 2300CD and the Case for a Reference Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njeh, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dose inhomogeneity in treatment planning can be compensated using physical wedges. Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) were introduced by Varian to overcome some of the short comings of physical wedges. The objectives of this study were to measure EDW output factors for 6 MV and 20 MV photon energies for a Varian 2300CD. Secondly to review the literature in terms of published enhanced dynamic wedge output factors (EDWOF) for different Varian models and thereby adding credence to the case of the validity of reference databases. Methods: The enhanced dynamic wedge output factors were measured for the Varian 2300CD for both 6 MV and 20 MV photon energies. Twelve papers with published EDWOF for different Varian Linac models were found in the literature. Results: The EDWOF for 6 MV varied from 0.980 for a 5×5 cm 10 degree wedge to 0.424 for 20×20 cm 60 degree wedge. Similarly for 20 MV, the EDWOF varied from 0.986 for 5×5 cm 10 degree wedge to 0.529 for 20×20 cm 60 degree wedge. EDWOF are highly dependent on field size. Comparing our results with the published mean, we found an excellent agreement for 6 MV EDWOF with the percentage differences ranging from 0.01% to 0.57% with a mean of 0.03%. The coefficient of variation of published EDWOF ranged from 0.17% to 0.85% and 0.1% to 0.9% for the for 6 MV and 18MV photon energies respectively. This paper provides the first published EDWOF for 20 MV photon energy. In addition, we have provided the first compendium of EDWOFs for different Varian linac models. Conclusion: The consistency of EDWOF across models and institution provide further support that, a standard data set of basic photon and electron dosimetry could be established, as a guide for future commissioning, beam modeling and quality assurance purposes

  1. Determination of the dose equivalents due to neutrons produced during therapeutic irradiations with a Varian CLINAC 2500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Ricardo E.

    1991-01-01

    This experiment it was designed to quantify that so important it is the dose equivalent deposited by the neutron flow that is generated by photonuclear reactions during therapeutic irradiations with X rays of produced high-energy for an accelerator Varian CLINAC 2500. This accelerator type is routinely used in the Department of Radiotherapy of the Hospital of the University of Wisconsin, E.U. The equivalent dose was measured in diverse towns of the room of irradiations using the activation of thin sheets of gold put in the center of plastic recipients full with water. In general, the recipients were 1 m or more than the floor and at distances still bigger than the walls. The irradiations were made using photons with the highest energy that you can select with this team - 24 MeV. The due equivalent dose to neutrons taken place here by the energy photons used they were measured and reported. (author)

  2. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-10-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit.

  3. Thermal-hydraulics associated with nuclear education and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobori, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    This article was the rerecording of the author's lecture at the fourth 'Future Energy Forum' (aiming at improving nuclear safety and economics) held in December 2010. The lecture focused on (1) importance of thermal hydraulics associated with nuclear education and research (critical heat flux, two-phase flow and multiphase flow), (2) emerging trend of maintenance engineering (fluid induced vibration, flow accelerated corrosion and stress corrosion cracks), (3) fostering sensible nuclear engineer with common engineering sense, (4) balanced curriculum of basics and advanced research, (5) computerized simulation and fluid mechanics, (6) crucial point of thermo hydraulics education (viscosity, flux, steam and power generation), (7) safety education and human resources development (indispensable technologies such as defence in depth) and (8) topics of thermo hydraulics research (vortices of curbed pipes and visualization of two-phase flow). (T. Tanaka)

  4. Research Institute ITAL. Association EURATOM ITAL. Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Research Institute ITAL is one of the institutes of the Division for Agricultural Research of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. For certain aspects of its programme it is also a partner in the Association EURATOM-ITAL with the Commission of the European Community. This annual report deals with: molecular genetic methods for plant breeding; biotechnical production of valuable compounds by means of (plant) cell cultures and microorganisms; soil biology including the rhizosphere; radioactive contamination of the environment and its public health risks; the synergistic interaction between radiation and other mutagenic agents; a new approach in malaria control by means of radiation genetic research on insects; genetic sexing in the Mediterranean fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata; food irradiation (activities within the contract of the Dutch Government with the IAEA in Vienna and the FAO in Rome on food irradiation technology for developing countries). (Auth.)

  5. SU-E-T-405: Evaluation of the Raystation Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm for Varian Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansourekidou, P; Allen, C [Health Quest, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the Raystation v4.51 Electron Monte Carlo algorithm for Varian Trilogy, IX and 2100 series linear accelerators and commission for clinical use. Methods: Seventy two water and forty air scans were acquired with a water tank in the form of profiles and depth doses, as requested by vendor. Data was imported into Rayphysics beam modeling module. Energy spectrum was modeled using seven parameters. Contamination photons were modeled using five parameters. Source phase space was modeled using six parameters. Calculations were performed in clinical version 4.51 and percent depth dose curves and profiles were extracted to be compared to water tank measurements. Sensitivity tests were performed for all parameters. Grid size and particle histories were evaluated per energy for statistical uncertainty performance. Results: Model accuracy for air profiles is poor in the shoulder and penumbra region. However, model accuracy for water scans is acceptable. All energies and cones are within 2%/2mm for 90% of the points evaluated. Source phase space parameters have a cumulative effect. To achieve distributions with satisfactory smoothness level a 0.1cm grid and 3,000,000 particle histories were used for commissioning calculations. Calculation time was approximately 3 hours per energy. Conclusion: Raystation electron Monte Carlo is acceptable for clinical use for the Varian accelerators listed. Results are inferior to Elekta Electron Monte Carlo modeling. Known issues were reported to Raysearch and will be resolved in upcoming releases. Auto-modeling is limited to open cone depth dose curves and needs expansion.

  6. Benefits associated with nutrigenomics research and their reporting in the scientific literature: researchers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenne, R; Hurlimann, T; Godard, B

    2013-01-01

    Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics (NGx) are fields of research that have raised significant expectations about their potential benefits. This article presents empirical data from an online survey seeking the opinions of NGx researchers (n=126) regarding the achievability of the potential benefits of NGx, the time envisioned for their realization, the motives that may lead to their explicit mention in scientific peer-reviewed articles and the audience(s) targeted by NGx researchers when reporting their results in such articles. Results show that caution should be taken to avoid the risks associated with biohype and the premature dissemination of the potential benefits of NGx among various audiences.

  7. Female sex pheromone and male behavioral responses of the bombycid moth Trilocha varians: comparison with those of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Takaaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Nakajima, Yumiko; Fujii, Tsuguru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shimada, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of female sex pheromone components and subsequent field trap experiments demonstrated that the bombycid moth Trilocha varians uses a mixture of ( E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (bombykal) and ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienyl acetate (bombykyl acetate) as a sex pheromone. Both of these components are derivatives of ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), the sex pheromone of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori. This finding prompted us to compare the antennal and behavioral responses of T. varians and B. mori to bombykol, bombykal, and bombykyl acetate in detail. The antennae of T. varians males responded to bombykal and bombykyl acetate but not to bombykol, and males were attracted only when lures contained both bombykal and bombykyl acetate. In contrast, the antennae of B. mori males responded to all the three components. Behavioral analysis showed that B. mori males responded to neither bombykal nor bombykyl acetate. Meanwhile, the wing fluttering response of B. mori males to bombykol was strongly inhibited by bombykal and bombykyl acetate, thereby indicating that bombykal and bombykyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists for B. mori males. T. varians would serve as a reference species for B. mori in future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of sex pheromone communication systems in bombycid moths.

  8. Safe bunker designing for the 18 MV Varian 2100 Clinac: a comparison between Monte Carlo simulation based upon data and new protocol recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Manije; Afarande, Fatemeh; Ghiasi, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two bunkers designed by only protocols recommendations and Monte Carlo (MC) based upon data derived for an 18 MV Varian 2100Clinac accelerator. High energy radiation therapy is associated with fast and thermal photoneutrons. Adequate shielding against the contaminant neutron has been recommended by IAEA and NCRP new protocols. The latest protocols released by the IAEA (safety report No. 47) and NCRP report No. 151 were used for the bunker designing calculations. MC method based upon data was also derived. Two bunkers using protocols and MC upon data were designed and discussed. From designed door's thickness, the door designed by the MC simulation and Wu-McGinley analytical method was closer in both BPE and lead thickness. In the case of the primary and secondary barriers, MC simulation resulted in 440.11 mm for the ordinary concrete, total concrete thickness of 1709 mm was required. Calculating the same parameters value with the recommended analytical methods resulted in 1762 mm for the required thickness using 445 mm as recommended by TVL for the concrete. Additionally, for the secondary barrier the thickness of 752.05 mm was obtained. Our results showed MC simulation and the followed protocols recommendations in dose calculation are in good agreement in the radiation contamination dose calculation. Difference between the two analytical and MC simulation methods revealed that the application of only one method for the bunker design may lead to underestimation or overestimation in dose and shielding calculations.

  9. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  10. Surface dose characterisation of the Varian Ir-192 HDR conical surface applicator set with a vertically orientated source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchauer, Konrad; Henke, Guido; Schiefer, Hans; Plasswilm, Ludwig [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    Conical surface applicators with an Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy source are a common modality for the treatment of non-melanomatous skin cancer with high tumour control rates. Surface dose characterisation of the Varian Varisource GammaMed+ IX afterloader vertical type surface applicators is performed two dimensionally using high-resolution film dosimetry. The focus of this study was to determine if Varian surface applicators with a vertical source suffer from the dose distribution irregularities reported for comparable applicators. Our goal was to evaluate if the irregularities found affected treatment and dose output verification procedures. Ionisation chamber-based verification of applicator output was established according to guidelines provided by the manufacturer. For additional measurement of surface dose Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimetry was used. The term ''therapeutic dose'' was defined as 85 % of the prescribed dose level. For the 10 different applicator inserts evaluated, cold spots were observed. Mean cold spot size was 2.0 mm x 3.6 mm (± 0.6 mm). The cold spots were dosimetrically well below 85 % of the prescribed dose. The cold spot was situated 2.2 mm (1.4-2.7 mm) unilaterally from the central axis and caused general asymmetry in the dose profiles intersecting the cold spot area. A source tilt of approximately 8 (± 1 ) was determined for the source used for irradiation. A central underdosed area exceeding 15 % of the prescribed dose has not been previously reported. Source tilt was observed and found to affect clinical use and possibly treatment outcome in applicators using a vertically arranged source. Surface applicators with a vertically orientated source were subject to dose irregularities that could impact on chamber-based applicator output verification procedures. We recommend film dosimetry-backed applicator commissioning to avoid systematic errors. (orig.) [German] Konische Oberflaechenapplikatoren sind ein

  11. SU-E-T-406: Use of TrueBeam Developer Mode and API to Increase the Efficiency and Accuracy of Commissioning Measurements for the Varian EDGE Stereotactic Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, S; Gulam, M; Song, K; Li, H; Huang, Y; Zhao, B; Qin, Y; Snyder, K; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2014-01-01

    ). The scripting also allowed for creation of the files in advance without requiring access to TPS. The API scripting functionality enabled efficient creation/mining of TPS data. Finally, automation reduces the potential for human error in entering linac values at the machine console,and the script provides a log of measurements acquired for each session. This research was supported in part by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA

  12. A Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations using Varian phase space files for TrueBeam Linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anna; Sawkey, Daren; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2015-05-01

    To develop a framework for accurate electron Monte Carlo dose calculation. In this study, comprehensive validations of vendor provided electron beam phase space files for Varian TrueBeam Linacs against measurement data are presented. In this framework, the Monte Carlo generated phase space files were provided by the vendor and used as input to the downstream plan-specific simulations including jaws, electron applicators, and water phantom computed in the EGSnrc environment. The phase space files were generated based on open field commissioning data. A subset of electron energies of 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV and open and collimated field sizes 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 × 15, 20 × 20, and 25 × 25 cm(2) were evaluated. Measurements acquired with a CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber and electron diode detector and simulations from this framework were compared for a water phantom geometry. The evaluation metrics include percent depth dose, orthogonal and diagonal profiles at depths R100, R50, Rp, and Rp+ for standard and extended source-to-surface distances (SSD), as well as cone and cut-out output factors. Agreement for the percent depth dose and orthogonal profiles between measurement and Monte Carlo was generally within 2% or 1 mm. The largest discrepancies were observed within depths of 5 mm from phantom surface. Differences in field size, penumbra, and flatness for the orthogonal profiles at depths R100, R50, and Rp were within 1 mm, 1 mm, and 2%, respectively. Orthogonal profiles at SSDs of 100 and 120 cm showed the same level of agreement. Cone and cut-out output factors agreed well with maximum differences within 2.5% for 6 MeV and 1% for all other energies. Cone output factors at extended SSDs of 105, 110, 115, and 120 cm exhibited similar levels of agreement. We have presented a Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations for Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Electron beam energies of 6 to 20 MeV for open and collimated

  13. Technical Report: Reference photon dosimetry data for Varian accelerators based on IROC-Houston site visit data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerns, James R.; Followill, David S.; Kry, Stephen F., E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lowenstein, Jessica; Molineu, Andrea; Alvarez, Paola; Taylor, Paige A. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Stingo, Francesco C. [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Accurate data regarding linear accelerator (Linac) radiation characteristics are important for treatment planning system modeling as well as regular quality assurance of the machine. The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston (IROC-H) has measured the dosimetric characteristics of numerous machines through their on-site dosimetry review protocols. Photon data are presented and can be used as a secondary check of acquired values, as a means to verify commissioning a new machine, or in preparation for an IROC-H site visit. Methods: Photon data from IROC-H on-site reviews from 2000 to 2014 were compiled and analyzed. Specifically, data from approximately 500 Varian machines were analyzed. Each dataset consisted of point measurements of several dosimetric parameters at various locations in a water phantom to assess the percentage depth dose, jaw output factors, multileaf collimator small field output factors, off-axis factors, and wedge factors. The data were analyzed by energy and parameter, with similarly performing machine models being assimilated into classes. Common statistical metrics are presented for each machine class. Measurement data were compared against other reference data where applicable. Results: Distributions of the parameter data were shown to be robust and derive from a student’s t distribution. Based on statistical and clinical criteria, all machine models were able to be classified into two or three classes for each energy, except for 6 MV for which there were eight classes. Quantitative analysis of the measurements for 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photon beams is presented for each parameter; supplementary material has also been made available which contains further statistical information. Conclusions: IROC-H has collected numerous data on Varian Linacs and the results of photon measurements from the past 15 years are presented. The data can be used as a comparison check of a physicist’s acquired values. Acquired values that are well

  14. Technical Report: Reference photon dosimetry data for Varian accelerators based on IROC-Houston site visit data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, James R.; Followill, David S.; Kry, Stephen F.; Lowenstein, Jessica; Molineu, Andrea; Alvarez, Paola; Taylor, Paige A.; Stingo, Francesco C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate data regarding linear accelerator (Linac) radiation characteristics are important for treatment planning system modeling as well as regular quality assurance of the machine. The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston (IROC-H) has measured the dosimetric characteristics of numerous machines through their on-site dosimetry review protocols. Photon data are presented and can be used as a secondary check of acquired values, as a means to verify commissioning a new machine, or in preparation for an IROC-H site visit. Methods: Photon data from IROC-H on-site reviews from 2000 to 2014 were compiled and analyzed. Specifically, data from approximately 500 Varian machines were analyzed. Each dataset consisted of point measurements of several dosimetric parameters at various locations in a water phantom to assess the percentage depth dose, jaw output factors, multileaf collimator small field output factors, off-axis factors, and wedge factors. The data were analyzed by energy and parameter, with similarly performing machine models being assimilated into classes. Common statistical metrics are presented for each machine class. Measurement data were compared against other reference data where applicable. Results: Distributions of the parameter data were shown to be robust and derive from a student’s t distribution. Based on statistical and clinical criteria, all machine models were able to be classified into two or three classes for each energy, except for 6 MV for which there were eight classes. Quantitative analysis of the measurements for 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photon beams is presented for each parameter; supplementary material has also been made available which contains further statistical information. Conclusions: IROC-H has collected numerous data on Varian Linacs and the results of photon measurements from the past 15 years are presented. The data can be used as a comparison check of a physicist’s acquired values. Acquired values that are well

  15. Assessment of beam stability of high energy and low energy Varian medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayesh, K.; Mohan, R.; Joshi, R.C.; Ganesh, T.; Hegazy, M.; Oubaye, A.J.; AI Idrisi, Maha

    2008-01-01

    An accurate measurement of the dose delivered to the tumor in external beam radiotherapy is one of the primary responsibilities of a medical physicist. In general, such measurements have been based on the application of a dosimetry protocol and quality assurance procedures. Clinically one must be able to assess the beam quality, flatness and symmetry and variation in the output on daily basis. Flatness and symmetry are the main parameters for determining the pattern of a photon and electron beam produced by linear accelerators. The quality assurance in routine clinical practice of radiotherapy and consequently the treatment-outcome depends definitely on the physical parameters of treatment-delivery. Several recommendations from national and international associations are reported to define the limits for the beam parameters. The review of literature and various reports on quality assurance in radiotherapy show that for flatness, symmetry and output constancy the optimal level of deviation should be within ±3%

  16. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit. - Highlights: • A 3/6 MeV electron accelerator equipped with a high energy x-ray target was studied. • Monte Carlo modeling of photon flux was carried out for three accelerator configurations. • Human biological equivalent doses were evaluated within the accelerator facility building.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of a varian 21EX Clinac 6 MV photon beam characteristics using GATE6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nonproliferation System Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Lae [Center for Radiological Environment and Health Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Cheol Ha [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used as the most accurate technique for dose calculation in radiation therapy. In this paper, the GATE6(Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission ver.6) code was employed to calculate the dosimetric performance of the photon beams from a linear accelerator(LINAC). The treatment head of a Varian 21EX Clinac was modeled including the major geometric structures within the beam path such as a target, a primary collimator, a flattening filter, a ion chamber, and jaws. The 6 MV photon spectra were characterized in a standard 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field at 100 cm source-to-surface distance(SSD) and subsequent dose estimations were made in a water phantom. The measurements of percentage depth dose and dose profiles were performed with 3D water phantom and the simulated data was compared to measured reference data. The simulated results agreed very well with the measured data. It has been found that the GATE6 code is an effective tool for dose optimization in radiotherapy applications.

  18. Verifikasi Dua Varian Protokol Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector dengan UPPAAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Oktavia Suzanti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract  MANET is a group of wireless mobile that connected one to each other without fixed infrastructure so topology could change at anytime. MANET routing protocol has two models which are reactive routing protocol that built routing table only when needed and proactive routing protocol that maintain routing table periodically. General property which had to be satisfied by ad-hoc network protocol are route discovery, packet delivery and loop freedom. AODV is a reactive protocol in MANET that has time standard to determine how long a route is valid to be used (route validity so route discovery and packet delivery property should be satisfied in a specifically certain time. Protocol verification process done by modeling protocol specification using technique, tool and mathematic language. In this research protocol modeled using timed automata which is a modeling language that could be used to model a time dependent system in each process. Verification using timed automata can automatically done by UPPAAL tool model checker. Protocol which will be verified are AODV Break Avoidance by Ali Khosrozadeh et al. and AODV Reliable Delivery by Liu Jian and Fang-Min. Result of this protocol verification prove that AODV BA could satisfied route discovery property and AODV Reliable Delivery could satisfied packet delivery property within their specification time.   Keywords—Protocol Verification, Timed Automata, AODV, UPPAAL

  19. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  20. Sea Surface Temperature Products and Research Associated with GHRSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea K.; Minnett, Peter J.; Kaplan, Alexey; Wick, Gary A.; Castro, Sandra; Llewellyn-Jones, David; Merchant, Chris; LeBorgne, Pierre; Beggs, Helen; Donlon, Craig J.

    2012-03-01

    GHRSST serves its user community through the specification of operational Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products (Level 2, Level 3 and Level 4) based on international consensus. Providers of SST data from individual satellites create and deliver GHRSST-compliant near-real time products to a global GHRSST data assembly centre and a long-term stewardship facility. The GHRSST-compliant data include error estimates and supporting data for interpretation. Groups organised within GHRSST perform research on issues relevant to applying SST for air-sea exchange, for instance the Diurnal Variability Working Group (DVWG) analyses the evolution of the skin temperature. Other GHRSST groups concentrate on improving the SST estimate (Estimation and Retrievals Working Group EARWiG) and on improving the error characterization, (Satellite SST Validation Group, ST-VAL) and on improving the methods for SST analysis (Inter-Comparison Technical Advisory Group, IC-TAG). In this presentation we cover the data products and the scientific activities associated with GHRSST which might be relevant for investigating ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  1. Orthogonal image pairs coupled with OSMS for noncoplanar beam angle, intracranial, single-isocenter, SRS treatments with multiple targets on the Varian Edge radiosurgery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine A. Oliver, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, CR-induced shifts with the Varian Edge radiosurgery system will not produce noticeable dosimetric effects for SRS treatments. Thus, replacing cone beam CT with orthogonal kV/kV pairs coupled with OSMS at the treatment couch angle could reduce the number of cone beam CT scans that are acquired during a standard SRS treatment while providing an accurate and safe treatment with negligible dosimetric effects on the treatment plan.

  2. Treatment-Planning Study of Prostate Cancer Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With a Varian Clinac Operated Without a Flattening Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassiliev, Oleg N.; Kry, Stephen F.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Mohan, Radhe; Titt, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer using photon beams from an accelerator operated without a flattening filter; and to determine potential benefits and drawbacks of using unflattened beams for this type of treatment. Methods and Materials: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated for 10 patients with early-stage prostate cancer. For each patient, four plans were generated: with and without the flattening filter, at 6 and 18 MV. The prescription dose was 75.6 Gy to 98% of the planning target volume. The number of beams, their orientations, and optimization constraints were the same for all plans. Plans were generated with Eclipse 8.0 (Varian Medical Systems). Results: All the plans developed with unflattened beams were clinically acceptable. In terms of patient dose distributions, plans with unflattened beams were similar to the corresponding plans with flattened beams. Plans with unflattened beams required fewer monitor units (MUs) per plan: on average, by a factor of 2.0 at 6 MV and 2.6 at 18 MV, assuming that removal of the flattening filter was not followed by recalibration of MUs. Conclusions: Clinically acceptable intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for prostate cancer can be developed with unflattened beams at both 6 and 18 MV. Dosimetrically, flattened and unflattened beams generated similar treatment plans. The plans with unflattened beams required substantially fewer MUs. The reduction in the number of MUs indicates corresponding reduction in beam-on time and in the amount of radiation outside the target

  3. SU-F-T-526: A Comparative Study On Gating Efficiency of Varian RPM Device and Calypso System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindran, P [Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore (India); Wui Ann, W; Lim, Y [The Brunei Cancer Center (Brunei Darussalam)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In general, the linear accelerator is gated using respiratory signal obtained by way of external sensors to account for the breathing motion during radiotherapy. One of the commonly used gating devices is the Varian RPM device. Calypso system that uses electromagnetic tracking of implanted or surface transponders could also be used for gating. The aim of this study is to compare the gating efficiency of RPM device and the calypso system by phantom studies. Methods: An ArcCheck insert was used as the phantom with a Gafchromic film placed in its holder. The ArcCheck insert was placed on a Motion Sim platform and moved in the longitudinal direction simulating a respiratory motion with a period of 5 seconds and amplitude of ±6mm. The Gafchromic film was exposed to a 2 × 2cm{sup 2} field, i) with the phantom static, ii) phantom moving but ungated iii) gated with gating window of 2mm and 3mm. This was repeated with Calypso system using surface transponders with the same gating window. The Gafchromic films were read with an EPSON 11000 flatbed scanner and analysed with ‘Medphysto’ software. Results: The full width at half maximum (FWHM) as measured with film at the level of the film holder was 1.65cm when the phantom was static. FWHM measured with phantom moving and without gating was 1.16 cm and penumbra was 7 mm (80–20%) on both sides. When the beam was gated with 2 mm gating window the FWHM was 1.8 cm with RPM device and 1.9 cm with Calypso. Similarly, when the beam was gated with 3 mm window, the FWHM was 1.9cm with RPM device and 2cm with Calypso. Conclusion: This work suggests that the gating efficiency of RPM device is better than that of the Calypso with surface transponder, with reference to the latency in gating.

  4. A Methodological Problem Associated with Researching Women Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice E. Avolio

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights one of the most significant methodological problems of researching women entrepreneurs and understanding the female entrepreneurial experience, which is related to the definition of what is a women entrepreneur. The article outlines the state of research on women entrepreneurs, presents the diverse definitions used in research, conceptualizes the different aspects related to the definition of a woman entrepreneur, and proposes future directions for developing research ...

  5. SU-F-BRE-10: Methods to Simulate and Measure the Attenuation for Modeling a Couch Top with Rails for FFF Treatment Delivery On the Varian Edge Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulam, M; Gardner, S; Zhao, B; Snyder, K; Song, K; Li, H; Gordon, J; Wen, N; Chetty, I; Kearns, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To measure attenuation for modelling of the KVue Couchtop for 6X and 10X FFF SRS/SBRT treatment Methods: Treatment planning simulation studies were done using 6X FFF beams to estimate the dosimetric impact of KVue couchtops (including the Q-Fix IGRT [carbon fiber] and Calypso [nonconductive Kevlar material]) with a structure model obtained from a research workstation (Eclipse, advanced planning interface (API) v13). Prior to installation on the Varian Edge linac, the couchtop along with (Kevlar) rails were CT scanned with the rails at various positions. An additional scan with the couchtop 15cm above the CT table top was obtained with 20cm solid water to facilitate precised/indexed data acquisition. Measurements for attenuation were obtained for field sizes of 2, 4 and 10 cm 2 at 42 gantry angles including 6 pairs of opposing fields and other angles for oblique delivery where the beams traversed the couchtop and or rails. The delivery was fully automated with xml scripts running in developer mode. The results were then used to determine an accurate structure model for AAA (Eclipse v11) planning of IMRT and RapidArc delivery. Results: The planning simulation relative dose attenuation for oblique entry was not significantly different than the Exact IGRT or BrainLab iBeam couch except that the rails added 6% additional attenuation. The relative attenuation measurements for PA, PA (rails: inner position), oblique, oblique (rails: outer position), oblique (rails: inner position) were: −2.0%, −2.5%, −15.6%, −2.5%, −5.0% for 6X FFF and −1.4%, −1.5%, −12.2%, − 2.5%, −5.0% for 10X FFF with slight decrease in attenuation versus field size. A Couch structure model (with HU values) was developed. Calculation compared to measurement showed good agreement except for oblique (rails: outer position) where differences approached a magnitude of 6%. Conclusion: A model of the couch structures has been developed accounting for attenuation for FFF beams

  6. Modelling of a linear accelerator VARIAN 600 C/D for dosimetric study using the Monte Carlo Method; Modelamento de um acelerador linear VARIAN 600 C/D para estudo dosimétrico usando o Método de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Jorge Luis Batista

    2016-07-01

    Based on the high availability of low energy linear accelerators in Brazil and with the goal of developing a reliable tool for dose distribution calculations in radiotherapy; this research aims to validate a linear accelerator head model using MCNP Monte Carlo code. The Varian 600 C/D linear accelerator installed at the Hospital São João de is taken as reference. The main components of the linear accelerator head were simulated based on detailed information of the manufacturer. In order to calculate dose distribution, a water phantom with dimensions of 30 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3} was simulated and placed at 100 cm of source-surface distance. A monoenergetic electron beam of 6,3 MeV was considered as a source. The number of primary particles used in the simulation was 10{sup 8}. A Phase-Space Surface was used to scoring the photon spectrum below the tungsten target. Others two were placed in the model in order to reduce computational time and improve statistical accuracy. In order to validate the developed model, the X-ray spectrum generated by Bremsstrahlung was calculated and analyzed. Furthermore, the results of percentage depth doses and beam profiles calculations were compared with available measurements. The MCNP calculations results were compared to measurement showing good agreement between them. The comparison between MCNP calculations and measurement of PDD showed reasonable coherence at build-up region. The results were in an acceptable interval of confidence at the flat region of beam profiles comparison for three different field sizes. In this work, we compared MCNP calculations to experimental data in order to validate the developed LINAC head model. The results showed a good agreement according to the recommended criteria. The developed model was validated as an accurate tool for LINAC quality control procedures. (author)

  7. Personality traits are associated with research misbehavior in Dutch scientists : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdink, Joeri; Bouter, Lex; Veldkamp, C.L.S.; van de Ven, Peter; Wicherts, J.M.; Smulders, Yvo; Dorta-González, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research

  8. The CRC Contribution to Research Training: Report of a Scoping Study for the Cooperative Research Centres Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This report summarises findings from a scoping study conducted for the Cooperative Research Centres Association (CRCA) by the Centre for the Study of Higher Education. The purpose of the scoping study is to inform the research training activities of Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs). While previous studies have focussed on the outcomes supported…

  9. Validation of Varian TrueBeam electron phase–spaces for Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Samantha A. M.; Gagne, Isabelle M.; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work evaluates Varian’s electron phase–space sources for Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon and electron radiation therapy (MPERT) where fields are shaped by the photon multileaf collimator (MLC) and delivered at 70 cm SSD. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations performed with EGSnrc-based BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and PENELOPE-based PRIMO are compared against diode measurements for 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm 2 MLC-shaped fields delivered with 6, 12, and 20 MeV electrons at 70 cm SSD (jaws set to 40 × 40 cm 2 ). Depth dose curves and profiles are examined. In addition, EGSnrc-based simulations of relative output as a function of MLC-field size and jaw-position are compared against ion chamber measurements for MLC-shaped fields between 3 × 3 and 25 × 25 cm 2 and jaw positions that range from the MLC-field size to 40 × 40 cm 2 . Results: Percent depth dose curves generated by BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and PRIMO agree with measurement within 2%, 2 mm except for PRIMO’s 12 MeV, 20 × 20 cm 2 field where 90% of dose points agree within 2%, 2 mm. Without the distance to agreement, differences between measurement and simulation are as large as 7.3%. Characterization of simulated dose parameters such as FWHM, penumbra width and depths of 90%, 80%, 50%, and 20% dose agree within 2 mm of measurement for all fields except for the FWHM of the 6 MeV, 20 × 20 cm 2 field which falls within 2 mm distance to agreement. Differences between simulation and measurement exist in the profile shoulders and penumbra tails, in particular for 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm 2 fields of 20 MeV electrons, where both sets of simulated data fall short of measurement by as much as 3.5%. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulated outputs agree with measurement within 2.3% except for 6 MeV MLC-shaped fields. Discrepancies here are as great as 5.5%. Conclusions: TrueBeam electron phase–spaces available from Varian have been

  10. Validation of Varian TrueBeam electron phase–spaces for Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Samantha A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 3P6 5C2 (Canada); Gagne, Isabelle M., E-mail: imgagne@bccancer.bc.ca; Zavgorodni, Sergei [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 5C2 (Canada); Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 5C2 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    spaces available from Varian have been implemented in two distinct Monte Carlo simulation packages to produce dose distributions and outputs that largely reflect measurement. Differences exist in the profile shoulders and penumbra tails for the 20 MeV phase–space off-axis and in the outputs for the 6 MeV phase–space.

  11. XVII Congress of Portuguese Association of Operational Research (APDIO)

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Joao

    2015-01-01

    The development of Operations Research (OR) requires constant improvements, such as the integration of research results with business applications and innovative educational practice. The full deployment and commercial exploitation of goods and services generally need the construction of strong synergies between educational institutions and businesses. The IO2015 -XVII Congress of APDIO aims at strengthening the knowledge triangle in education, research and innovation, in order to maximize the contribution of OR for sustainable growth, the promoting of a knowledge-based economy, and the smart use of finite resources. The IO2015-XVII Congress of APDIO is a privileged meeting point for the promotion and dissemination of OR and related disciplines, through the exchange of ideas among teachers, researchers, students , and professionals with different background, but all sharing a common desire that is the development of OR.

  12. [Research advances in association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Lin; Wan, Chao-Min

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, more and more studies have noted the close association between gut microbiota and the development and progression of obesity. Gut microbiota may act on obesity by increasing energy intake, affecting the secretion of intestinal hormones, inducing chronic systemic inflammation, and producing insulin resistance. This article reviews the association between childhood obesity and gut microbiota, as well as possible mechanisms, in an attempt to provide a reference for the etiology, prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

  13. Research Article Genome-wide association study for economic traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aiqiang Lin

    kept in 4 °C. The PCR products were run on an 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fragments. 103 ..... research reveals a conserved role of phosphorylation of the N terminus of BORA for Plk1. 229 ..... J. Food Compos Anal. 33, 1-5. 359.

  14. SU-E-T-325: The New Evaluation Method of the VMAT Plan Delivery Using Varian DynaLog Files and Modulation Complexity Score (MCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateoka, K [Proton Treatment Center, Radiation Therapy Research Institute, Social Medical Corporation Teishinkai, Sapporo (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, JP (Japan); Fujimomo, K; Hareyama, M [Proton Treatment Center, Radiation Therapy Research Institute, Social Medical Corporation Teishinkai, Sapporo (Japan); Saitou, Y; Nakazawa, T; Abe, T; Nakata, A; Yano, M [Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, JP (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the use of Varian DynaLog files to verify VMAT plans delivery and modulation complexity score (MCS) of VMAT. Methods: Delivery accuracy of machine performance was quantified by multileaf collimator (MLC) position errors, gantry angle errors and fluence delivery accuracy for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The relationship between machine performance and plan complexity were also investigated using the modulation complexity score (MCS). Plan and Actual MLC positions, gantry angles and delivered fraction of monitor units were extracted from Varian DynaLog files. These factors were taken from the record and verify system of MLC control file. Planned and delivered beam data were compared to determine leaf position errors and gantry angle errors. Analysis was also performed on planned and actual fluence maps reconstructed from those of the DynaLog files. This analysis was performed for all treatment fractions of 5 prostate VMAT plans. The analysis of DynaLog files have been carried out by in-house programming in Visual C++. Results: The root mean square of leaf position and gantry angle errors were about 0.12 and 0.15, respectively. The Gamma of planned and actual fluence maps at 3%/3 mm criterion was about 99.21. The gamma of the leaf position errors were not directly related to plan complexity as determined by the MCS. Therefore, the gamma of the gantry angle errors were directly related to plan complexity as determined by the MCS. Conclusion: This study shows Varian dynalog files for VMAT plan can be diagnosed delivery errors not possible with phantom based quality assurance. Furthermore, the MCS of VMAT plan can evaluate delivery accuracy for patients receiving of VMAT. Machine performance was found to be directly related to plan complexity but this is not the dominant determinant of delivery accuracy.

  15. SU-F-T-262: Commissioning Varian Portal Dosimetry for EPID-Based Patient Specific QA in a Non-Aria Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M; Knutson, N [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence RI (United States); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Herrington, J [University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Price, M [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence RI (United States); University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Development of an in-house program facilitates a workflow that allows Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) patient specific quality assurance (QA) measurements to be acquired and analyzed in the Portal Dosimetry Application (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) using a non-Aria Record and Verify (R&V) system (MOSAIQ, Elekta, Crawley, UK) to deliver beams in standard clinical treatment mode. Methods: Initial calibration of an in-house software tool includes characterization of EPID dosimetry parameters by importing DICOM images of varying delivered MUs to determine linear mapping factors in order to convert image pixel values to Varian-defined Calibrated Units (CU). Using this information, the Portal Dose Image Prediction (PDIP) algorithm was commissioned by converting images of various field sizes to output factors using the Eclipse Scripting Application Programming Interface (ESAPI) and converting a delivered configuration fluence to absolute dose units. To verify the algorithm configuration, an integrated image was acquired, exported directly from the R&V client, automatically converted to a compatible, calibrated dosimetric image, and compared to a PDIP calculated image using Varian’s Portal Dosimetry Application. Results: For two C-Series and one TrueBeam Varian linear accelerators, gamma comparisons (global 3% / 3mm) of PDIP algorithm predicted dosimetric images and images converted via the inhouse system demonstrated agreement for ≥99% of all pixels, exceeding vendor-recommended commissioning guidelines. Conclusion: Combinations of a programmatic image conversion tool and ESAPI allow for an efficient and accurate method of patient IMRT QA incorporating a 3rd party R&V system.

  16. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-04: An Evaluation of Out-Of-Field Doses for Electron Beams From Modern Varian and Elekta Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, C; Nitsch, P; Kudchadker, R; Howell, R; Kry, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accurately determining out-of-field doses when using electron beam radiotherapy is of importance when treating pregnant patients or patients with implanted electronic devices. Scattered doses outside of the applicator field in electron beams have not been broadly investigated, especially since manufacturers have taken different approaches in applicator designs. Methods: In this study, doses outside of the applicator field were measured for electron beams produced by a 10×10 applicator on two Varian 21iXs operating at 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV, a Varian TrueBeam operating at 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV, and an Elekta Versa HD operating at 6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV. Peripheral dose profiles and percent depth doses were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom at 100 cm SSD with a Farmer ion chamber. Doses were compared to peripheral photon doses from AAPM’s Task Group #36 report. Results: Doses were highest for the highest electron energies. Doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. Substantial dose differences were observed between different accelerators; the Elekta accelerator had much higher doses than any Varian unit examined. Surprisingly, doses were often similar to, and could be much higher than, doses from photon therapy. Doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that proper shielding may be very important when utilizing electron beams, particularly on a Versa HD, while treating pregnant patients or those with implanted electronic devices. Applying a water equivalent bolus of Emax(MeV)/4 thickness (cm) on the patient would reduce fetal dose drastically for all clinical energies and is a practical solution to manage the potentially high peripheral doses seen from modern electron beams. Funding from NIH Grant number: #CA180803.

  17. 76 FR 23537 - Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Importer Associations and Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Importer Associations and Assessment Computation... computation for assessments received by importer associations under the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order)(7 CFR part 1219). The Order is authorized under the Hass Avocado Promotion, Research...

  18. Earthquake-associated events. Annual safety research report, JFY 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    For the tsunami and slope stability as the earthquake-associated events that increased with the revision of the regulatory guide for reviewing seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities, related technical standard and analysis code were leveled up to support the safety examination of the country. For tsunami study, the original plan was changed due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami, analysis code of river run-up, sedimentation, probabilistic tsunami hazard and tsunami trace database were developed. For slope study, in addition to conventional stress criteria, in order to build a slope stability evaluation method, incorporating new indicators, such as deformation and strain, the following study was conducted. The large-scale shaking table test for E-defense, the test data were obtained. The applicability of slope stability analysis code was examined by using the shaking table test data. (author)

  19. About the Associate Director for Health of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Ronald Hines serves as Associate Director for Health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD).

  20. Challenges associated with performing environmental research on titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are challenges associated with performing research on titanium dioxide NPs in aquatic environments particularly marine systems. A critical focus for current titanium dioxide NP research in aquatic environments needs to be on optimizing methods for differentiating naturally...

  1. Transforming Catholic Education through Research: The American Educational Research Association Catholic Education Special Interest Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States and abroad face numerous financial, cultural, and structural challenges due to contemporary education policies and economic trends. Within this climate, research about Catholic education is often conducted and leveraged in efforts to serve schools' most immediate needs. To be certain, research aimed at finding…

  2. Welcome from ESARDA (European Safeguards Research and Development Association)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, K.

    2015-01-01

    ESARDA, on the one hand being part of that European family and on the other hand working in practice to support peace by the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, can be considered as a perfect representative of that European peace process. Going now from the European to the global perspective, peace should be our motivating force and this is also expressed in the basis of safeguards: the non-proliferation Treaty. Several articles of the Treaty deal with not developing nuclear weapons and not supporting the development of nuclear weapons by other countries, and one article (Article VI) deals with the general and complete nuclear disarmament. What is ESARDA doing in practice- First we provide a forum to exchange scientific information for the benefit of all safeguards stakeholders. The most important forum is the biannual open ESARDA safeguards symposium that will be held next year from 19-21 May in Manchester. Next to the ESARDA symposia, we coordinate European safeguards research via our ESARDA Working Groups. Also non-members are welcome in these WG as observers. JRC Ispra maintains the ESARDA website that also supports exchange of safeguards information

  3. The application in detection the position accuracy of the multi-leaf collimator of Varian linear accelerator with dynamic therapy log files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changhu; Xu Liming; Teng Jianjian; Ge Wei; Zhang Jun; Ma Guangdong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explorer the application in detection the position accuracy of the multileaf collimator of Varian accelerator with dynamic therapy log files. Methods: A pre-designed MLC format files named PMLC for two Varian accelerators, the dynamic treatment log files were recorded 10 times on a different date, and be converted into the MLC format files named DMLC, compared with the original plan PMLC, so we can analysis two files for each leaf position deviation. In addition, we analysis the repeatability of MLC leaves position accuracy between 10 dynalog files of two accelerators. Results: No statistically significant difference between the average position of the 10 times leaf position of the two accelerators,their were 0.29 -0.29 and 0.29 -0.30 (z = -0.77, P=0.442). About 40%, 30%, 20% and 10% of the leaf position deviation was at ≤0.2 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.4 mm, respectively. the maximum value was 0.5 mm. More than 86% of the leaf position are completely coincident between 10 dynamic treatment files of two accelerators. The rate of position deviation no more 0. 05 mm was 96. 6% and 97.3%, respectively. And the maximum value was 0.09 mm. Conclusions: Dynamic treatment log file is a splendid tool in testing the actual position of multi-leaf collimator. The multi-leaf collimator of two accelerators be detected are precise and stabilized. (authors)

  4. Association of learning styles with research self-efficacy: study of short-term research training program for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-12-01

    With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a potential predictor of research career success. Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students' gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to posttraining. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students' gender or ranking of their medical school. Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Office of Energy Research collaborative research programs administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities: Annual report, FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Research (OER) sponsors programs designed to encourage and support interaction between US colleges and universities and DOE research facilities. Faculty members, graduate students, undergraduates, and recent postgraduates participate in research and receive advanced training at DOE laboratories. Staff members from DOE laboratories visit campuses to deliver energy-related lectures and participate in seminars and classroom discussions. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) has been involved in the developemnt and administration of these collaborative research programs since their inception. During FY 1987, ORAU administered appointments for the Office of Energy Research under the following two umbrella programs: University/DOE Laboratory Cooperative Program (Lab Co-op); Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS). In addition, ORAU participated in a project to collect and assess information from individuals who had held research appointment as undergraduate students during a four-year period from 1979 to 1982. All of these activities are summarized in this report

  6. Biological research work within the Association of the Government-Sponsored Research Institutions (AGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Six of the thirteen government-sponsored research institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany carry out research work for the protection of the population against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Their activities in this field concentrate on the following four points of main interest: analysis of radiation-induced processes resulting in biological radiation injury; description and analysis of complex radiation effects on man; medical applications of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy; concepts and methods for radiological protection. The work reported reviews the main problems encountered in the above-mentioned subject fields and presents examples of significant results, with illustrations. The original research papers and their authors are listed separately under the four points of main interest. (orig./MG) [de

  7. AERA Code of Ethics: American Educational Research Association Approved by the AERA Council February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) articulates a common set of values upon which education researchers build their professional and scientific work. The Code is intended to provide both the principles and the rules to cover professional situations encountered by education researchers. It has as its primary…

  8. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  9. Relationships between Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Statistics and Bibliometric Indicators: A Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed 2005-2006 Web of Science bibliometric data from institutions belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and corresponding ARL statistics to find any associations between indicators from the two data sets. Principal components analysis on 36 variables from 103 universities revealed obvious associations between…

  10. Evaluation of IsoCal geometric calibration system for Varian linacs equipped with on-board imager and electronic portal imaging device imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Du, Weiliang; Balter, Peter; Munro, Peter; Jeung, Andrew

    2014-05-08

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the IsoCal geometric calibration system for kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imagers on Varian C-series linear accelerators (linacs). IsoCal calibration starts by imaging a phantom and collimator plate using MV images with different collimator angles, as well as MV and kV images at different gantry angles. The software then identifies objects on the collimator plate and in the phantom to determine the location of the treatment isocenter and its relation to the MV and kV imager centers. It calculates offsets between the positions of the imaging panels and the treatment isocenter as a function of gantry angle and writes a correction file that can be applied to MV and kV systems to correct for those offsets in the position of the panels. We performed IsoCal calibration three times on each of five Varian C-series linacs, each time with an independent setup. We then compared the IsoCal calibrations with a simplified Winston-Lutz (WL)-based system and with a Varian cubic phantom (VC)-based system. The maximum IsoCal corrections ranged from 0.7 mm to 1.5 mm for MV and 0.9 mm to 1.8 mm for kV imagers across the five linacs. The variations in the three calibrations for each linac were less than 0.2 mm. Without IsoCal correction, the WL results showed discrepancies between the treatment isocenter and the imager center of 0.9 mm to 1.6 mm (for the MV imager) and 0.5 mm to 1.1 mm (for the kV imager); with IsoCal corrections applied, the differences were reduced to 0.2 mm to 0.6 mm (MV) and 0.3 mm to 0.6 mm (kV) across the five linacs. The VC system was not as precise as the WL system, but showed similar results, with discrepancies of less than 1.0 mm when the IsoCal corrections were applied. We conclude that IsoCal is an accurate and consistent method for calibration and periodic quality assurance of MV and kV imaging systems.

  11. Mechanical characterization of the Varian Exact-arm and R-arm support systems for eight aS500 electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan, Mark W. D.; McGarry, Conor K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the positioning accuracy at different gantry angles of two electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) support arm systems by using EPID difference images as a measure for displacement. This work presents a comparison of the mechanical performance of eight Varian aS500 (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) EPIDs, mounted using either the Varian Exact-arm or R-arm. Methods: The mechanical performance of the two arm systems was compared by investigating the variation in sensitivity with gantry angle, both before and after the EPID position was adjusted after gantry rotation. Positional errors were investigated by subtracting images from a reference image taken at gantry 0 deg., and the amplitude of the peaks and troughs at the field edges for longitudinal (radial) and lateral (transverse) profiles across the resulting image was related to the distance of displacement. Calibration curves based on a pixel-by-pixel shift were generated for each EPID and the Varian hand pendant accuracy was compared to the calibration data. Results: The response of the EPIDs was found to change with gantry rotation, with the largest difference at 180 deg. The Exact-arm was found to correct well for any displacement, while the R-arm tended to overcorrect following repositioning using the hand pendant. The calibration curves were consistent within each set of matched linacs, and the hand pendant accuracy was similar for both arm systems, although generally in different directions. With respect to gantry rotation effects, the mechanical performance of the Exact-arm systems was found to be much better than that of the R-arm systems. At gantry positions 90 deg., 270 deg., and 180 deg. the average misalignment in the longitudinal direction was +4.2±0.2, +1.8±1.6, and +7.4±0.5 mm for the R-arms, and +2.9±0.2, +2.1±0.8, and +4.9±0.7 mm for the Exact-arms. In the lateral direction the average positional errors were +2.1±0.4, -4.7±0.4, and -2.5

  12. A reviewed technique for total body electron therapy using a Varian Clinac 2100C/D high dose rate treatment beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; Xuereb, E.M.A.; Last, V.; Hunt, P.B.; Wilfert, A.

    1996-01-01

    Our (Royal North Shore Hospital) most recent linear accelerator acquisition is a Varian Clinac 2100C/D which has a high dose rate (approximately 25Gy per minute at 1 metre) total body electron option. We investigated the physical characteristics of the electron beam to develop a suitable method of treatment for total body electron therapy. The useful electron beam width is defined as 80cm above and below the reference height. Measurements of the electron dose received from the two angled electron beams showed a critical dependence on the gantry angles. The treatment protocol uses ten different patient angles, fractionated into directly opposing fields and treated seuqentially each day. A full cycle of treatment is completed in five days. (author)

  13. Design of planning target volume margin using an active breathing control and Varian image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system in unresectable liver tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jinbo; Yu Jinming; Liu Jing; Liu Tonghai; Yin Yong; Shi Xuetao; Song Jinlong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To define the planning target volume(PTV) margin with an active breathing control (ABC) and the Varian image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system. Methods: Thirteen patients with liver cancer were treated with radiotherapy from May 2006 to September 2006. Prior to radiotherapy, all patients had undergone transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) by infusing a mixture of iodized oil contrast medium and chemotherapeutic agents, kV fluoroscopy was used to measure the potential motion of lipiodol spot positions during ABC breath-holds. ABC was used for planning CT scan and radiation delivery, with the breath held at the same phase of the respiratory cycle (near end-exhalation). Cone beam CT (CBCT) was taken using Varian IGRT system, which was then compared online with planning CT using a 3 D-3 D matching tool. Analysis relied on lipiodol spots on planning CT and CBCT manually. The treatment table was moved to produce acceptable setup before treatment delivery. Repeated CBCT image and another analysis were obtained after irradiation. Results: No motion of the intrahepatic tumor was observed on fluoroscopy during ABC breath-holds. The estimated required PTV margins, calculated according to the Stroom formula, were 4.4 mm, 5.3 mm and 7.8 mm in the x, y and z axis directions before radiotherapy. The corresponding parameters were 2.5m, 2.6 mm and 3.9 mm after radiotherapy. Conclusions: We have adopted a PTV margin of 5 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm in the x, y and z axis directions with ABC, and 3,3 and 4 mm with ABC and on-line kilovoltage CBCT. (authors)

  14. An EPID-based method for comprehensive verification of gantry, EPID and the MLC carriage positional accuracy in Varian linacs during arc treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; McGarry, Conor K; Barnes, Michael P; Sabet, Mahsheed; Ebert, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    In modern radiotherapy, it is crucial to monitor the performance of all linac components including gantry, collimation system and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) during arc deliveries. In this study, a simple EPID-based measurement method has been introduced in conjunction with an algorithm to investigate the stability of these systems during arc treatments with the aim of ensuring the accuracy of linac mechanical performance. The Varian EPID sag, gantry sag, changes in source-to-detector distance (SDD), EPID and collimator skewness, EPID tilt, and the sag in MLC carriages as a result of linac rotation were separately investigated by acquisition of EPID images of a simple phantom comprised of 5 ball-bearings during arc delivery. A fast and robust software package was developed for automated analysis of image data. Twelve Varian linacs of different models were investigated. The average EPID sag was within 1 mm for all tested linacs. All machines showed less than 1 mm gantry sag. Changes in SDD values were within 1.7 mm except for three linacs of one centre which were within 9 mm. Values of EPID skewness and tilt were negligible in all tested linacs. The maximum sag in MLC leaf bank assemblies was around 1 mm. The EPID sag showed a considerable improvement in TrueBeam linacs. The methodology and software developed in this study provide a simple tool for effective investigation of the behaviour of linac components with gantry rotation. It is reproducible and accurate and can be easily performed as a routine test in clinics

  15. SU-F-J-14: Kilovoltage Cone-Beam CT Dose Estimation of Varian On-Board Imager Using GMctdospp Monte Carlo Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S; Rangaraj, D [Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Although cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging became popular in radiation oncology, its imaging dose estimation is still challenging. The goal of this study is to assess the kilovoltage CBCT doses using GMctdospp - an EGSnrc based Monte Carlo (MC) framework. Methods: Two Varian OBI x-ray tube models were implemented in the GMctpdospp framework of EGSnrc MC System. The x-ray spectrum of 125 kVp CBCT beam was acquired from an EGSnrc/BEAMnrc simulation and validated with IPEM report 78. Then, the spectrum was utilized as an input spectrum in GMctdospp dose calculations. Both full and half bowtie pre-filters of the OBI system were created by using egs-prism module. The x-ray tube MC models were verified by comparing calculated dosimetric profiles (lateral and depth) to ion chamber measurements for a static x-ray beam irradiation to a cuboid water phantom. An abdominal CBCT imaging doses was simulated in GMctdospp framework using a 5-year-old anthropomorphic phantom. The organ doses and effective dose (ED) from the framework were assessed and compared to the MOSFET measurements and convolution/superposition dose calculations. Results: The lateral and depth dose profiles in the water cuboid phantom were well matched within 6% except a few areas - left shoulder of the half bowtie lateral profile and surface of water phantom. The organ doses and ED from the MC framework were found to be closer to MOSFET measurements and CS calculations within 2 cGy and 5 mSv respectively. Conclusion: This study implemented and validated the Varian OBI x-ray tube models in the GMctdospp MC framework using a cuboid water phantom and CBCT imaging doses were also evaluated in a 5-year-old anthropomorphic phantom. In future study, various CBCT imaging protocols will be implemented and validated and consequently patient CT images will be used to estimate the CBCT imaging doses in patients.

  16. Understanding factors associated with the translation of cardiovascular research: a multinational case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Funders of health research increasingly seek to understand how best to allocate resources in order to achieve maximum value from their funding. We built an international consortium and developed a multinational case study approach to assess benefits arising from health research. We used that to facilitate analysis of factors in the production of research that might be associated with translating research findings into wider impacts, and the complexities involved. Methods We built on the Payback Framework and expanded its application through conducting co-ordinated case studies on the payback from cardiovascular and stroke research in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. We selected a stratified random sample of projects from leading medical research funders. We devised a series of innovative steps to: minimize the effect of researcher bias; rate the level of impacts identified in the case studies; and interrogate case study narratives to identify factors that correlated with achieving high or low levels of impact. Results Twenty-nine detailed case studies produced many and diverse impacts. Over the 15 to 20 years examined, basic biomedical research has a greater impact than clinical research in terms of academic impacts such as knowledge production and research capacity building. Clinical research has greater levels of wider impact on health policies, practice, and generating health gains. There was no correlation between knowledge production and wider impacts. We identified various factors associated with high impact. Interaction between researchers and practitioners and the public is associated with achieving high academic impact and translation into wider impacts, as is basic research conducted with a clinical focus. Strategic thinking by clinical researchers, in terms of thinking through pathways by which research could potentially be translated into practice, is associated with high wider impact. Finally, we identified the complexity of

  17. The 19th Annual Congress of European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA 2017)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kviatek, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA) is an independent organization that aims at stimulating and promoting innovative knowledge and practices of strategic communication, organizational communication and Public Relations across Europe. Founded in 1959 and

  18. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  19. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S; Paettikangas, T [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  20. Self-Regulation of a Chiropractic Association through Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…

  1. Genome-wide association studies in economics and entrepreneurship research: promises and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); A.R. Thurik (Roy); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe recently developed genome-wide association study (GWAS) design enables the identification of genes specifically associated with economic outcomes such as occupational and other choices. This is a promising new approach for economics research which we aim to apply to the choice for

  2. An Overview of Research Infrastructure for Medieval Studies in the United States: Associations, Institutes, and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Kocher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview of research infrastructure in the United States brieflymentions some institutes, universities, associations, conferences,sources of funding, types of courses, research databases, academicjournals and book publishers. It intends to make American medievalistresources better accessible to colleagues from other countries, and toencourage those who wish to study in the United States and those whoare using the Internet to seek printed or digital materials for theirteaching or research.

  3. The national response for preventing healthcare-associated infections: research and adoption of prevention practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Katherine L; Mendel, Peter; Leuschner, Kristin J; Hiatt, Liisa; Gall, Elizabeth M; Siegel, Sari; Weinberg, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) have long been the subject of research and prevention practice. When findings show potential to significantly impact outcomes, clinicians, policymakers, safety experts, and stakeholders seek to bridge the gap between research and practice by identifying mechanisms and assigning responsibility for translating research to practice. This paper describes progress and challenges in HAI research and prevention practices, as explained through an examination of Health and Human Services (HHS) Action Plan's goals, inputs, and implementation in each area. We used the Context-Input-Process-Product evaluation model, together with an HAI prevention system framework, to assess the transformative processes associated with HAI research and adoption of prevention practices. Since the introduction of the Action Plan, HHS has made substantial progress in prioritizing research projects, translating findings from those projects into practice, and designing and implementing research projects in multisite practice settings. Research has emphasized the basic science and epidemiology of HAIs, the identification of gaps in research, and implementation science. The basic, epidemiological, and implementation science communities have joined forces to better define mechanisms and responsibilities for translating HAI research into practice. Challenges include the ongoing need for better evidence about intervention effectiveness, the growing implementation burden on healthcare providers and organizations, and challenges implementing certain practices. Although these HAI research and prevention practice activities are complex spanning multiple system functions and properties, HHS is making progress so that the right methods for addressing complex HAI problems at the interface of patient safety and clinical practice can emerge.

  4. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura

    2017-08-04

    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri K Tijdink

    Full Text Available Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior.Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65% from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ, and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score.Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06-1.53 with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively, and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows.Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research.

  6. Clinical research in dermatology: resources and activities associated with a higher scientific productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Descalzo, Miguel A; García-Doval, Ignacio

    2018-03-06

    Clinical research papers and their derived metrics can be useful to assess the scientific production of medical and research centers. Diverse factors are probably associated to differences in scientific production. But there are scarce studies analyzing them. Resources are limited and have to be distributed efficiently. The objective of this study is to explore what resources and activities are potentially associated with a higher scientific productivity. A bibliometric study was performed to obtain information about scientific productivity. Papers included had to meet criteria to be considered clinical research in dermatology, additionally had to be published between the years 2005-2014, had to be included in Pubmed or Embase and had to include a Spanish center of dermatology as the correspondence address. Information about research resources and activities of the year 2015 was gathered by means of an online survey sent to the authors identified in the bibliometric study. The search strategy returned 8617 papers and only 1104 of them (12.81%) met the inclusion criteria. 63 out of 113 centers responded to the survey (55.75%). Factors associated with a higher scientific productivity were: the size of the resident program, the amount of time specifically dedicated to research, a lower clinical workload, and the number of clinical trials performed in the last year. We have demonstrated that some factors are associated with a higher scientific productivity. Residency program, more research staff, clinical workload redistribution and research motivation/initiatives are key strategies that could improve scientific productivity of a center.

  7. Measuring the bias against low-income country research: an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Macinko, James; Jimenez, Geronimo; Mullachery, Pricila

    2017-11-06

    With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries. Computer-based Implicit Association Test (IAT) distributed to healthcare professionals and researchers. Stimuli representing Rich Countries were chosen from OECD members in the top ten (>$36,000 per capita) World Bank rankings and Poor Countries were chosen from the bottom thirty (based medicine and diffusion of innovations.

  8. Children's Decision-Making Involvement About Research Participation: Associations With Perceived Fairness and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Feudtner, Chris; Jawad, Abbas F

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the associations of children's involvement in decisions about research participation with their perceptions of the decision-making process and self-efficacy. Participants were children (ages 8-17) who enrolled in research studies in the prior 2 months. Children completed a questionnaire that yielded three decision-making involvement subscales: Researcher Engages Child, Researcher Supports Autonomy, and Child Participates. Children reported on fairness of the decision-making process and health-related decision self-efficacy. After adjusting for age, higher scores on Researcher Engages Child were associated with greater self-efficacy, and higher scores on Researcher Supports Autonomy were associated with greater perceived fairness. These data underscore the potential importance of researcher-child interactions about research participation when assent is sought, including proactively involving children in the decision by asking for their opinions and communicating their central role in the decision, which are likely to be more meaningful to children than receiving information or signing a form.

  9. From Genome-Wide Association Study to Phenome-Wide Association Study: New Paradigms in Obesity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-P; Zhang, Y-Y; Duan, D D

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a condition in which excess body fat has accumulated over an extent that increases the risk of many chronic diseases. The current clinical classification of obesity is based on measurement of body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, and body fat percentage. However, these measurements do not account for the wide individual variations in fat distribution, degree of fatness or health risks, and genetic variants identified in the genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In this review, we will address this important issue with the introduction of phenome, phenomics, and phenome-wide association study (PheWAS). We will discuss the new paradigm shift from GWAS to PheWAS in obesity research. In the era of precision medicine, phenomics and PheWAS provide the required approaches to better definition and classification of obesity according to the association of obese phenome with their unique molecular makeup, lifestyle, and environmental impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of the economic and environmental impacts of the research and development program of the Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    A partnership between the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) Energy Technology Centre (CETC) of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and the Canadian coal and steel industries, the Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA) which conducts research and development activities with its partners. This document summarizes the economic and environmental impacts of the research and development program administered by the CCRA. More than 25 research programs have been undertaken by the CCRA since it was established in 1964. The activities dealt with specific technical challenges which the Canadian coal industry faced with regard to the production and marketing of metallurgical coal, as well as the uses of coal and alternative fuels such as natural gas to make coke used in blast furnaces. The report detailed the scope of CETC's energy for high temperature processes, then addressed program resources and study methodology. Three categories of impacts were discussed: general-level impacts, economic and environmental impacts, and quantitative estimates of economic impacts. The attribution of impacts was examined and future directions were examined in the last section of the report. It was determined that CETC participation in the research program is still required, due to the fact that it is Canada's only technical support available to the Canadian coking coal industry. The survival of Canadian coal producers owes something to the economic impacts derived from the CCRA under the current decreasing metallurgical coal prices conditions. 2 tabs

  11. SU-E-T-403: Evaluation of the Beam Performance of a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator Under External Device-Based Gated Delivery Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobulnicky, K; Pawlak, D; Purwar, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the beam performance of a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator under external device-based gated delivery conditions. Methods: Six gating cycles were used to evaluate the gating performance of a standard production TrueBeam system that was not specially tuned in any way. The system was equipped with a factory installed external gating interface (EXGI). An in-house EXGI tester box was used to simulate the input gating signals. The gating cycles were selected based on long beam-on and short beam-off times, short beam-on and long beam-off times, or equal beam on and off times to check linac performance. The beam latencies were measured as the time difference between the logic high gating signal and the first or last target pulses with an oscilloscope. Tissue-Phantom Ratio, beam flatness, and dose distributions from 5 different plans were measured using the 6 different gating durations and the un-gated irradiation. A PTW 729 2-D array was used to compare 5 plans versus the un-gated delivery with a 1%/1mm gamma index passing criteria. Results: The beam latencies of the linac were based off of 20 samples for beam-on and beam-off, for each gating cycle. The average beam-on delays were measured to be between 57 and 66msec, with a maximum of 88 msec. The beam off latencies averaged between 19 and 26msec, with a maximum of 48 msec. TPR20,10 measurements showed beam energy stability within 0.5% of the un-gated delivery. Beam flatness was better than 2.5% for all gated cycles. All but two deliveries, the open field with 4 seconds on, 1 second off, and a five field IMRT plan with 0.5 seconds on, 2.5 seconds off, had >90% passing rate. Conclusion: TrueBeam demonstrates excellent beam stability with minimal beam latencies under external device-based gated operations. Dosimetric measurements show minimal variation in beam energy, flatness, and plan delivery. Authors are employees of Varian Medical Systems, Inc

  12. SU-E-T-403: Evaluation of the Beam Performance of a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator Under External Device-Based Gated Delivery Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobulnicky, K; Pawlak, D; Purwar, A [Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the beam performance of a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator under external device-based gated delivery conditions. Methods: Six gating cycles were used to evaluate the gating performance of a standard production TrueBeam system that was not specially tuned in any way. The system was equipped with a factory installed external gating interface (EXGI). An in-house EXGI tester box was used to simulate the input gating signals. The gating cycles were selected based on long beam-on and short beam-off times, short beam-on and long beam-off times, or equal beam on and off times to check linac performance. The beam latencies were measured as the time difference between the logic high gating signal and the first or last target pulses with an oscilloscope. Tissue-Phantom Ratio, beam flatness, and dose distributions from 5 different plans were measured using the 6 different gating durations and the un-gated irradiation. A PTW 729 2-D array was used to compare 5 plans versus the un-gated delivery with a 1%/1mm gamma index passing criteria. Results: The beam latencies of the linac were based off of 20 samples for beam-on and beam-off, for each gating cycle. The average beam-on delays were measured to be between 57 and 66msec, with a maximum of 88 msec. The beam off latencies averaged between 19 and 26msec, with a maximum of 48 msec. TPR20,10 measurements showed beam energy stability within 0.5% of the un-gated delivery. Beam flatness was better than 2.5% for all gated cycles. All but two deliveries, the open field with 4 seconds on, 1 second off, and a five field IMRT plan with 0.5 seconds on, 2.5 seconds off, had >90% passing rate. Conclusion: TrueBeam demonstrates excellent beam stability with minimal beam latencies under external device-based gated operations. Dosimetric measurements show minimal variation in beam energy, flatness, and plan delivery. Authors are employees of Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

  13. Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Nadia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research. This case study was used to gain insight into the factors that affect the knowledge translation performance of health professional associations in LMICs by describing the organizational elements and processes constituting capacity to use research, and examining the potential determinants of this capacity. Case study methodology was chosen for its flexibility to capture the multiple and often tacit processes within organizational routines. The Burkina Faso Public Health Association (ABSP) was studied, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and key documents review. Five key dimensions that affect the association's capacity to use research to influence health policy emerged: organizational motivation; catalysts; organizational capacity to acquire and organizational capacity to transform research findings; moderating organizational factors. Also examined were the dissemination strategies used by ABSP and its abilities to enhance its capacity through networking, to advocate for more relevant research and to develop its potential role as knowledge broker, as well as limitations due to scarce resources. We conclude that a better understanding of the organizational capacity to use research of health professional associations in LMICs is needed to assess, improve and reinforce such capacity. Increased knowledge translation potential may leverage research resources and promote knowledge-sharing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Trauma Research Associates Program (T-RAP) for undergraduate students: shaping future academic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparas, Galinos; Fierro, Nicole; Lee, Debora; Sun, Beatrice J; Ley, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Offering undergraduate students research opportunities may enhance their interest in pursuing a surgical career and lead to increased academic productivity. We characterize the benefits of participating in the Trauma Research Associates Program. A 19-point Web-based survey. Academic Level I Trauma Center. A total of 29 active and former members of the Trauma Research Associates Program. Academic activities and predictors associated with interest in a surgical career and research productivity. Surveys were completed on 26 of 29 (90%) participants. Clinical experience was the most highly ranked motivation to join the program (65%), followed by pursuing a research experience (46%). During their involvement, 73% of participants observed surgical intensive care unit rounds, 65% observed acute care surgery rounds, and 35% observed a surgical procedure in the operating room. In addition, 46% submitted at least one abstract to a surgical meeting coauthored with the Division's faculty. Furthermore, 58% reported that they enrolled in a medical school, whereas 17% pursued a full-time research job. The program influenced the interest in a surgical career in 39% of all members, and 73% reported that they would incorporate research in their medical career. Observing a surgical procedure was independently associated with development of a high interest in a surgical career (adjusted odds ratio: 6.50; 95% CI: 1.09, 38.63; p = 0.04), whereas volunteering for more than 15 hours per week predicted submission of at least 1 abstract to a surgical conference by the participant (adjusted odds ratio: 13.00; 95% CI: 1.27, 133.29; p = 0.03). Development of a structured research program for undergraduate students is beneficial to both the participants and sponsoring institution. Undergraduate exposure to academic surgery enhances interest in pursuing a surgical specialty and leads to academic productivity. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  15. FFUSION yearbook 1995. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S; Paettikangas, T [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-03-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). All fusion related research in Finland is included in the FFUSION programme and it made it possible to establish a dialogue with the European Fusion Programme already two years before Finland joined the European Union. The process led to the founding of the Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The contract of Association was signed in Helsinki on March 13 1995, to establish the 14th Association in the EU FFusion Programme. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1995. The emphasis is on research supported by the EU Commission. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies of the reactor materials. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), and Remote handling

  16. Factors associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen research among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanzhen; Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip

    2014-04-01

    A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research

  17. Factors Associated with Willingness to Participate in Biospecimen Research Among Chinese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanzhen; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip

    2014-01-01

    A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research

  18. Performance Test for Neutron Detector and Associated System using Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seongwoo; Park, Sung Jae; Cho, Man Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Se Hyun [USERS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ho Cheol [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    SPND (Self-Powered Neutron Detector) has been developed to extend its lifespan. ENFMS (Ex-Core Flux Monitoring System) of pressurized water reactor has been also improved. After the development and improvement, their performance must be verified under the neutron irradiation environment. We used a research reactor for the performance verification of neutron detector and associated system because the research reactor can meet the neutron flux level of commercial nuclear reactor. In this paper, we report the performance verification method and result for the SPND and ENFMS using the research reactor. The performance tests for the SPND and ENFMS were conducted using UCI TRIGA reactor. The test environment of commercial reactor’s neutron flux level must be required. However, it is difficult to perform the test in the commercial rector due to the constraint of time and space. The research reactor can be good alternative neutron source for the test of neutron detectors and associated system.

  19. Overview of innovative PMI research on NSTX-U and associated PMI facilities at PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Skinner, C. N.; Allain, J. P.; Maingi, R.; Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing a reactor compatible divertor and managing the associated plasma material interaction (PMI) has been identified as a high priority research area for magnetic confinement fusion. Accordingly on NSTX-U, the PMI research has received a strong emphasis. Moreover, with ∼15 MW of auxiliary heating power, NSTX-U will be able to test the PMI physics with the peak divertor plasma facing component (PFC) heat loads of up to 40-60 MW/m 2

  20. CPU time optimization and precise adjustment of the Geant4 physics parameters for a VARIAN 2100 C/D gamma radiotherapy linear accelerator simulation using GAMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Pedro; Lagares, Juan Ignacio

    2018-02-01

    We have verified the GAMOS/Geant4 simulation model of a 6 MV VARIAN Clinac 2100 C/D linear accelerator by the procedure of adjusting the initial beam parameters to fit the percentage depth dose and cross-profile dose experimental data at different depths in a water phantom. Thanks to the use of a wide range of field sizes, from 2  ×  2 cm2 to 40  ×  40 cm2, a small phantom voxel size and high statistics, fine precision in the determination of the beam parameters has been achieved. This precision has allowed us to make a thorough study of the different physics models and parameters that Geant4 offers. The three Geant4 electromagnetic physics sets of models, i.e. Standard, Livermore and Penelope, have been compared to the experiment, testing the four different models of angular bremsstrahlung distributions as well as the three available multiple-scattering models, and optimizing the most relevant Geant4 electromagnetic physics parameters. Before the fitting, a comprehensive CPU time optimization has been done, using several of the Geant4 efficiency improvement techniques plus a few more developed in GAMOS.

  1. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Helen; Fox, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease.

  2. The Human Ecology of the American Educational Research Association. Report No. 261.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, James M., Jr.

    The concepts and methods of human ecology are applied to the geographic distribution of members of the American Educational Research Association. State characteristics are measured by five factors: (1) large-scale agriculture; (2) population size; (3) affluence-urbanization; (4) white predominance; (5) emphasis on specialized agriculture. City…

  3. The Dominance of Associative Theorizing in Implicit Attitude Research: Propositional and Behavioral Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; De Houwer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present article we re-examine one of the most deeply entrenched assumptions in modern attitude research, namely, that implicit social cognition is a product of associations between mental representations. More precisely, we argue that the analysis of implicit social cognition in psychology is curtailed by the widespread adoption of the…

  4. The european hematology association roadmap for european hematology research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Engert (Andreas); C.L. Balduini (Carlo); A. Brand (Anneke); B. Coiffier (Bertrand); C. Cordonnier (Charlotte); H. Döhner (Hartmut); De Wit, T.D. (Thom Duyvené); Eichinger, S. (Sabine); W.E. Fibbe (Willem); Green, T. (Tony); De Haas, F. (Fleur); A. Iolascon (Achille); T. Jaffredo (Thierry); F. Rodeghiero (Francesco); G. Salles (Gilles); J.J. Schuringa (Jan Jacob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European

  5. Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated with Community-Based Research in a Mexican-Origin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study…

  6. A Report on the Peace Education Commission Program, International Peace Research Association Conference 2010, Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Swee-Hin

    2010-01-01

    From July 6th to 10th, 2010, International Peace Research Association (IPRA) held its biennial conference at the University of Sydney in Australia. Hosted by the University's Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies and coordinated by Jake Lynch and a team of dedicated staff and volunteers, the conference featured seven plenary panels and many…

  7. Report of the Research Priorities Division of the Speech Communication Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Lloyd F.; And Others

    A wide variety of topics are discussed in relation to research needs and classified in relation to problem areas, decision-making areas, and recommendations. Areas under discussion include an examination of the decision-making structure of the Speech Communication Association, criteria by which decisions can be evaluated, conceptualizing the…

  8. Introduction To The Special Section: The American Psychiatric Association's Research Agenda For The DSM-V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This article provides the historical background for and a brief description of the first conference, which was concerned with the research that would help move the field toward a dimensional classification...... of personality disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)...

  9. 78 FR 20664 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  10. Programme of basic nuclear research and associated fields 1977-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear research and development have been intensively pursued in West Germany by the Government and the Laender since 1955. In this period, the aims and official measures for fostering the research and use of nuclear power for peaceful purposes were laid down in four nuclear programmes. The 4th Nuclear Programme covers the period 1973 to 1976. From 1977, nuclear development became part of the energy research programme which was published by the West German Government in the spring of 1977. The basic nuclear research, however, was regarded as part of a total concept for fostering basic research (to be developed). While all the activities of research in the natural sciences and arts fostered by the West German Ministry of Research and Technology were to be co-ordinated in a more schematic form in the plan for 'Basic Research', it is the aim of the present statement to take stock of the present situation in 'Basic Nuclear Research' including the associated fields of 'Nuclear Solid Research' and 'Synchrotron Radiation', to analyse their structure, to describe the scientific aims for the next five years and to determine the total financial requirements. The basis for determining the financial programme worked out by the expert committee on 'Physical Research in the Nuclear Field' and the other committees in this field. The plans are in agreement with the medium term plan of the West German Ministry of Research and Technology (at 27.10.1977) and their contents correspond to the state of affairs at the end of 1977. (orig./UA) [de

  11. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Calder, Kathryn; Du, Li; El Emam, Khaled; Hyde-Lay, Robyn; Isasi, Rosario; Joly, Yann; Kerr, Ian; Malin, Bradley; McDonald, Michael; Penney, Steven; Piat, Gayle; Roy, Denis-Claude; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vercauteren, Suzanne; Verhenneman, Griet; West, Lori; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-02-03

    The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors' clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants' ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that privacy risks associated with cell

  12. FFUSION yearbook 1996. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S; Paettikangas, T [eds.; VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-05-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1996. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  13. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p < 0.0001). There was a significant linear relationship between the GNI quartile income levels and outcome metrics (p ≤ 0.007). Countries which were highly politically stable were associated with significantly higher dental research productivity (p < 0.0001). There appears to be a regional concentration of articles with just five countries contributing to over 50% of all articles. The human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the impact of defining a global priority research agenda to address HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Matteelli, Alberto; Chiesa, Valentina; Cella, Paola; Ferrari, Antonio; Pezzetti, Federica; Signorelli, Carlo; Getahun, Haileyesus

    2016-11-01

    In 2010, the WHO issued 77 priority research questions (PRQs) to address HIV-associated TB. Objective of the this study was to assess the impact of defining the research agenda in stimulating and directing research around priority research questions. We used number and type of scientific publications as a proxy to quantitatively assess the impact of research agenda setting. We conducted 77 single systematic reviews - one for every PRQ - building 77 different search strategies using PRQs' keywords. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to assess the quantity and quality of research produced over time and accounting for selected covariates. In 2009-2015, PRQs were addressed by 1631 publications (median: 11 studies published per PRQ, range 1-96). The most published area was 'Intensified TB case finding' (median: 23 studies/PRQ, range: 2-74). The majority (62.1%, n = 1013) were published as original studies, and more than half (58%, n = 585) were conducted in the African region. Original studies' publication increased over the study period (P trend = <0.001). They focused more on the 'Intensified TB case finding' (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.56-2.93) and 'Drug-resistant TB and HIV infection' (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.47-3.06) areas than non-original studies. Original studies were published in journals of lower impact factor and received a smaller number of citations than non-original studies (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.69). The generation of evidence to address PRQs has increased over time particularly in selected fields. Setting a priority research agenda for HIV-associated TB might have positively influenced the direction and the conduct of research and contributed to the global response to such a major threat to health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Medical student researchers in Colombia and associated factors with publication: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Bonilla-Velez, Juliana; Tobón-García, Daniel; Ángel-Isaza, Ana María

    2017-12-15

    Gaps between evidence-based research and clinical-public health practice have been evident for decades. One of the aims of medical student research is to close this gap. Accordingly, evaluating individual and environmental factors that influence participation of medical students in research are needed to understand and identify potential targets for action. This study aims to identify characteristics of medical student researchers in Colombia and the associated factors with scientific publications. A cross-sectional study of Colombian medical students involved in research using a validated, self-administered, online survey. The survey was distributed through the Colombian Association of Medical Students' Associations (ASCEMCOL). Data sets were analyzed using descriptive and summary statistics. Bivariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model were conducted to identify predictors of scientific publications. A total of 133 responses were analyzed from students at 12 Colombian cities and 20 higher-education institutions. Although 94% of responders had at least one research proposal, only 57% had completed a project, and 17% had published their findings. Barriers for undertaking research included time restrictions and a lack of mentorship. Motivational factors included opportunity to publish findings and good mentorship. Students planning to do a specialization (OR = 3.25; 95% Confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-8.30), innovators (OR = 3.52; 95%CI = 1.30-9.52) and committed (OR = 3.39; 95%CI = 1.02-11.29), those who had previously published their findings (OR 9.13 IC95% 2.57-32.48), and were further in their medical education (OR 2.26 IC95% 1.01-5.07), were more likely to publish scientific papers. Our findings describe medical students understanding of the process of conducting research in Colombia. Although there appears to be motivation to participate in research, very few students achieve publication. Barriers such as time constraints

  16. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments

  17. SU-E-T-317: The Development of a DIBH Technique for Left Sided Breast Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy Utilizing Varians RPM System in a Community Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, B; Young, M; Workie, D; Geraghty, C [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and implement a Deep Inhalation Breath Hold program (DIBH) for treatment of patients with Left-sided breast cancer in a community hospital. Methods: All patients with left sided breast cancer underwent a screening free breathing CT. Evaluation of the conventional tangent treatment fields and the heart was conducted. If the heart would not be excluded using tangents, the patient then received DIBH breathe coaching. The patients returned for a 4D CT simulation. The patients breathing cycle was monitored using the Varian Real-Time position ManagementTM (RPM) system to assess duration of DIBH, amplitude, phase and recovery time to normal breathing. Then a DIBH CT was obtained at the desired amplitude. Duplicate plans were developed for both free breathing and DIBH on the Eclipse planning system and comparison DVH's were created. The plan that provided the prescribed treatment coverage and the least doses to the OAR (heart, Lt. Lung) was determined. Those patients selected to receive treatment with DIBH were set up for treatment, and breathing was monitored using the RPM system. Practice trials were used to confirm that the amplitude, phase and recovery were consistent with findings from simulation. Results: 10 patients have been treated using the DIBH procedure in our clinic. The DIBH patients had an average increase of 80% lung volume on DIBH, decreased lung volume receiving 50% of the dose, and decreases in the V20 dose. Significant reduction in the maximum and mean dose to the heart, as well as the dose to 1CC of the volume for the DIBH plans. Conclusion: Using the RPM system already available in the clinic, staff training, and patient coaching a simple DIBH program was setup. The use of DIBH has shown promise in reducing doses to the critical organs while maintaining PTV coverage for left sided breast treatments.

  18. SU-G-201-13: Investigation of Dose Variation Induced by HDR Ir-192 Source Global Shift Within the Varian Ring Applicator Using Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y; Cai, J; Meltsner, S; Chang, Z; Craciunescu, O [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The Varian tandem and ring applicators are used to deliver HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The source path within the ring is hard to predict due to the larger interior ring lumen. Some studies showed the source could be several millimeters different from planned positions, while other studies demonstrated minimal dosimetric impact. A global shift can be applied to limit the effect of positioning offsets. The purpose of this study was to assess the necessities of implementing a global source shift using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: The MCNP5 radiation transport code was used for all MC simulations. To accommodate TG-186 guidelines and eliminate inter-source attenuation, a BrachyVision plan with 10 dwell positions (0.5cm step sizes) was simulated as the summation of 10 individual sources with equal dwell times for simplification. To simplify the study, the tandem was also excluded from the MC model. Global shifts of ±0.1, ±0.3, ±0.5 cm were then simulated as distal and proximal from the reference positions. Dose was scored in water for all MC simulations and was normalized to 100% at the normalization point 0.5 cm from the cap in the ring plane. For dose comparison, Point A was 2 cm caudal from the buildup cap and 2 cm lateral on either side of the ring axis. With seventy simulations, 108 photon histories gave a statistical uncertainties (k=1) <2% for (0.1 cm)3 voxels. Results: Compared to no global shift, average Point A doses were 0.0%, 0.4%, and 2.2% higher for distal global shifts, and 0.4%, 2.8%, and 5.1% higher for proximal global shifts, respectively. The MC Point A doses differed by < 1% when compared to BrachyVision. Conclusion: Dose variations were not substantial for ±0.3 cm global shifts, which is common in clinical practice.

  19. SU-G-201-13: Investigation of Dose Variation Induced by HDR Ir-192 Source Global Shift Within the Varian Ring Applicator Using Monte Carlo Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y; Cai, J; Meltsner, S; Chang, Z; Craciunescu, O

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The Varian tandem and ring applicators are used to deliver HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy for cervical cancer. The source path within the ring is hard to predict due to the larger interior ring lumen. Some studies showed the source could be several millimeters different from planned positions, while other studies demonstrated minimal dosimetric impact. A global shift can be applied to limit the effect of positioning offsets. The purpose of this study was to assess the necessities of implementing a global source shift using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: The MCNP5 radiation transport code was used for all MC simulations. To accommodate TG-186 guidelines and eliminate inter-source attenuation, a BrachyVision plan with 10 dwell positions (0.5cm step sizes) was simulated as the summation of 10 individual sources with equal dwell times for simplification. To simplify the study, the tandem was also excluded from the MC model. Global shifts of ±0.1, ±0.3, ±0.5 cm were then simulated as distal and proximal from the reference positions. Dose was scored in water for all MC simulations and was normalized to 100% at the normalization point 0.5 cm from the cap in the ring plane. For dose comparison, Point A was 2 cm caudal from the buildup cap and 2 cm lateral on either side of the ring axis. With seventy simulations, 108 photon histories gave a statistical uncertainties (k=1) <2% for (0.1 cm)3 voxels. Results: Compared to no global shift, average Point A doses were 0.0%, 0.4%, and 2.2% higher for distal global shifts, and 0.4%, 2.8%, and 5.1% higher for proximal global shifts, respectively. The MC Point A doses differed by < 1% when compared to BrachyVision. Conclusion: Dose variations were not substantial for ±0.3 cm global shifts, which is common in clinical practice.

  20. Clinical application of image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT (on the Varian OBI platform); Applications cliniques de la radiotherapie guidee par l'image (RTGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorcini, B.; Tilikidis, A. [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) can be used to measure and correct positional errors for target and critical structures immediately prior to or during treatment delivery. Some of the most recent available methods applied for target localization are: trans-abdominal ultrasound, implanted markers with in room MV or kV X-rays, optical surface tracking systems, implantable electromagnetic markers, in room CT such as kVCT on rail, kilo-voltage or mega-voltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) and helical megavoltage CT. The verification of the accurate treatment position in conjunction with detailed anatomical information before every fraction can be essential for the outcome of the treatment. In this paper we present the on-board imager (OBI, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) that has been in routine clinical use at the Karolinska University Hospital since June 2004. The OBI has been used for on-line set-up correction of prostate patients using internal gold markers. Displacements of these markers can be monitored radiographically during the treatment course and the registered marker shifts act as a surrogate for prostate motion. For this purpose, on-board kV-kV seems to be an ideal system in terms of image quality. The CBCT function of OBI was installed in March 2005 at our department. It focuses on localizing tumors based on internal anatomy, not just on the conventional external marks or tattoos. The CBCT system provides the capacity for soft tissue imaging in the treatment position and real-time radiographic monitoring during treatment delivery. (authors)

  1. SU-E-J-11: Measurement of Eye Lens Dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with Different CBCT Acquisition Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S; Dhote, D; Kumar, R; Thakur, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure actual patient eye lens dose for different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocol of Varian’s On Board Imagining (OBI) system using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter and study the eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens Methods: OSL dosimeter was used to measure eye lens dose of patient. OSL dosimeter was placed on patient forehead center during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens dose. For three different cone beam acquisition protocol (standard dose head, low dose head and high quality head) of Varian On-Board Imaging, eye lens doses were measured. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter to eye lens. Results: Measured eye lens dose for standard dose head was in the range of 1.8 mGy to 3.2 mGy, for high quality head protocol dose was in range of 4.5mGy to 9.9 mGy whereas for low dose head was in the range of 0.3mGy to 0.7mGy. Dose to eye lens is depends upon position of isocenter. For posterioraly located tumor eye lens dose is less. Conclusion: From measured doses it can be concluded that by proper selection of imagining protocol and frequency of imaging, it is possible to restrict the eye lens dose below the new limit set by ICRP. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should be counter balanced by careful consideration of imaging protocol especially for very intense imaging sequences for Adoptive Radiotherapy or IMRT

  2. Promising and Established Investigators' Experiences Participating in the National Athletic Trainers' Association Foundation Research Mentor Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara L; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Barrett, Jessica L

    2017-04-01

      Mentorship is a helpful resource for individuals who transition from doctoral student to tenure-track faculty member. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Research & Education Foundation offers a Research Mentor Program to provide mentorship to promising investigators, particularly as they work to establish independent lines of research.   To gain the perspectives of promising and established investigators on their participation in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program.   Qualitative, phenomenological research.   Higher education institutions.   Seven promising investigators (5 women, 2 men) and 7 established investigators (2 women, 5 men), all of whom had completed the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Data Collection and Analysis We developed and piloted intervi: ew guides designed to gain participants' perspectives on their experiences participating in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Semistructured telephone interviews were completed with each individual and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach, and saturation was obtained. Trustworthiness was established with the use of member checking, multiple-analyst triangulation, and data-source triangulation.   Three themes emerged from the interviews: (1) motivation, (2) collaboration, and (3) resources. Participants were motivated to become involved because they saw the value of mentorship, and mentees desired guidance in their research. Participants believed that collaboration on a project contributed to a positive relationship, and they also desired additional program and professional resources to support novice faculty.   Promising and established investigators should be encouraged to engage in mentoring relationships to facilitate mentees' research agendas and professional development. The NATA Foundation and athletic training profession may consider providing additional resources for novice faculty, such as training on

  3. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research: a consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-02-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap.The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders.The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  4. The 1987-1988 progress report of the CEA-Euratom Association Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The progress report of the CEA-Euratom Association Research Group, concerning 1987 and 1988 activities, is presented. The report involves the work carried out for assembling the Tore Supra system. The different components and the operating modes are described. The report includes: the Tore Supra construction and running, theoretical work, numerical calculations and results, the tritium technology, safety studies, supraconductors and bobbins. The Tore Supra contributions to the JET program are given [fr

  5. Publishing Your Music Education Research: A Seminar for Future Authors--A Summary of the 2009 Ohio Music Education Association Research Forum Presented By Dr. Wendy Sims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatt, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The Ohio Music Education Association (OMEA) Research Committee annually hosts a Graduate Research Forum in conjunction with the OMEA's Professional Development Conference. In 2009, the guest speaker was Dr. Wendy Sims, Director of Music Education at the University of Missouri--Columbia and Editor of the Journal of Research in Music Education. An…

  6. Organization as Information Processing Systems. Toward a Model of the Research Factors Associated with Significant Research Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    institutional conditions enable and reinforce behavior that leads to significant research oit comes. Financial grants, research assistance, and a...include positive instituitional conditions, diverse idea sources and widespread * communications, a goal of theoretical understanding, a relevant research

  7. Accelerators and the Midwestern Universities Research Association in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerst, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The birth of the cooperative research group, the Midwestern Universities Research Association (MURA) is documented in this article, following the promise high energy particles heralded by the invention of alternating-gradient focusing. Regular meetings were established and theoretical research work concentrated on orbits, with the help of the new digital computers. Space charge effects for charge distributions in the beam and the radio frequency ''knock out'' diagnostic technique were also studied. Experimental work on the Cosmotron confirmed the findings and also led to the discovery and use of the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) magnet for direct-current operation which occupied much of MURA's future activities. FFAG accelerators with direct current ring magnets were invented with greatly increased beam intensities. These in turn made colliding beam machines possible. The MURA group later built a 50MeV electron model of a colliding-beam FFAG synchrotron, later used for beam stacking. (UK)

  8. European Social Work Research Association SIG to Study Decisions, Assessment, and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Killick, Campbell; Bertotti, Teresa; Enosh, Guy; Gautschi, Joel; Hietamäki, Johanna; Sicora, Alessandro; Whittaker, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest in professional judgement and decision making is often separate from the discourse about "risk," and the time-honored focus on assessment. The need to develop research in and across these topics was recognized in the founding of a Decisions, Assessment, and Risk Special Interest Group (DARSIG) by the European Social Work Research Association in 2014. The Group's interests include cognitive judgements; decision processes with clients, families, other professionals and courts; assessment tools and processes; the assessment, communication, and management of risk; and legal, ethical, and emotional aspects of these. This article outlines the founding and scope of DARSIG; gives an overview of decision making, assessment, and risk for practice; illustrates connections between these; and highlights future research directions. Professional knowledge about decision making, assessment, and risk complements knowledge about effectiveness of interventions. DARSIG promises to be a useful mechanism for the purpose.

  9. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Mathematics Research in Association of Southeast Asian Nations Countries: A Scientometric Analysis of Patterns and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao P. Ho-Le

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at mapping the trend and impact of mathematics research originated from Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries by using a scientometric approach. We extracted the Web of Science’s article-level data of all publications concerning mathematics research during the period of 2006–2015 for ASEAN countries. The impact of research was assessed in terms of citation, and the pattern of international collaboration was mapped by the presence of coauthorship and international affiliations. During the coverage period, ASEAN countries had published 9,890 papers in mathematics, accounting for 3.8% of total ISI-indexed publications from the region. Almost 95% of the mathematics publication was from Singapore (4,107 papers, Vietnam (2,046, Malaysia (1,927, and Thailand (1,317. Approximately 54% of mathematics papers from ASEAN countries had international coauthorship, and these papers had greater yearly citation rate than those without international collaboration. With the exception of Singapore, the citation rate for other ASEAN countries was below the world average by 8–30%. The most important predictor of citations was journal impact factor, which accounted for 5.2% of total variation in citations between papers. These findings suggest that the contribution of ASEAN countries as a group to mathematics research worldwide is modest in terms of research output and impact.

  11. Growth of a species, an association, a science: 80 years of growth and development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Richard J; Duren, Dana L

    2013-01-01

    Physical anthropological research was codified in the United States with the creation of the American Association of Physical Anthropology (AAPA) in 1929. That same year, a study began in yellow springs, Ohio, with a goal of identifying "what makes people different." The approach used to answer that question was to study the growth and development of Homo sapiens. The resulting study, the Fels Longitudinal Study, is currently the longest continuous study of human growth and development in the world. Although the AAPA and the Fels Longitudinal Study have existed as separate entities for more than 80 years now, it is not surprising, given the relationship between anatomical and developmental research, there has been considerable overlap between the two. As the field of physical anthropology has blossomed to include subdisciplines such as forensics, genetics, primatology, as well as sophisticated statistical methodologies, the importance of growth and development research has escalated. Although current Fels Longitudinal Study research is largely directed at biomedical questions, virtually all findings are relevant to physical anthropology, providing insights into basic biological processes and life history parameters. Some key milestones from the early years of the AAPA and the Fels Longitudinal Study are highlighted here that address growth and development research in physical anthropology. These are still held as fundamental concepts that underscore the importance of this line of inquiry, not only across the subdisciplines of physical anthropology, but also among anthropological, biological, and biomedical inquiries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The regulation and licensing of research reactors and associated facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.W.; Willby, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) licenses nuclear facilities, including research reactors, on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The legislation, the regulatory organizations and the methods of operation that have been developed over the last 30 years result in a largely non-prescriptive form of control that is well suited to research reactors. The most important part of the regulatory system is the license and the attachment of conditions which it permits. These conditions require the licensee to prepare arrangements to control the safety of the facility. In doing so the licensee is encouraged to develop a 'safety culture' within its organization. This is particularly important for research reactors which may have limited staff resources and where the ability, and at times the need, to have access to the core is much greater than for nuclear power plants. Present day issues such as the ageing of nuclear facilities, public access to the rationale behind regulatory decisions, and the emergence of more stringent safety requirements, which include a need for quantified safety criteria, have been addressed by the NII. This paper explores the relevance of such issues to the regulation of research reactors. In particular, it discusses some of the factors associated with research reactors that should be considered in developing criteria for the tolerability of risk from these nuclear facilities. From a consideration of these factors, it is the authors' view that the range of tolerable risk to the public from the operation of new research reactors may be expected to be more stringent than similar criteria for new nuclear power plants, whereas the criteria for tolerable risk for research reactor workers are expected to be about the same as those for power reactor workers

  13. Images of illness: how causal claims and racial associations influence public preferences toward diabetes research spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Despite the salience of health disparities in media and policy discourse, little previous research has investigated if imagery associating an illness with a certain racial group influences public perceptions. This study evaluated the influence of the media's presentation of the causes of type 2 diabetes and its implicit racial associations on attitudes toward people with diabetes and preferences toward research spending. Survey participants who viewed an article on genetic causation or social determinants of diabetes were more likely to support increased government spending on research than those viewing an article with no causal language, while participants viewing an article on behavioral choices were more likely to attribute negative stereotypes to people with diabetes. Participants who viewed a photo of a black woman accompanying the article were less likely to endorse negative stereotypes than those viewing a photo of a white woman, but those who viewed a photo of a glucose-testing device expressed the lowest negative stereotypes. The effect of social determinants language was significantly different for blacks and whites, lowering stereotypes only among blacks. Emphasizing the behavioral causes of diabetes, as is common in media coverage, may perpetuate negative stereotypes. While drawing attention to the social determinants that shape these behaviors could mitigate stereotypes, this strategy is unlikely to influence the public uniformly.

  14. The association between child maltreatment and adult poverty - A systematic review of longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Lisa; Davidson, Gavin; McCartan, Claire; Hanratty, Jennifer; Bywaters, Paul; Mason, Will; Steils, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem affecting millions of children and is associated with an array of cumulative negative outcomes later in life, including unemployment and financial difficulties. Although establishing child maltreatment as a causal mechanism for adult economic outcomes is fraught with difficulty, understanding the relationship between the two is essential to reducing such inequality. This paper presents findings from a systematic review of longitudinal research examining experiences of child maltreatment and economic outcomes in adulthood. A systematic search of seven databases found twelve eligible retrospective and prospective cohort studies. From the available evidence, there was a relatively clear relationship between 'child maltreatment' and poorer economic outcomes such as reduced income, unemployment, lower level of job skill and fewer assets, over and above the influence of family of origin socio-economic status. Despite an extremely limited evidence base, neglect had a consistent relationship with a number of long-term economic outcomes, while physical abuse has a more consistent relationship with income and employment. Studies examining sexual abuse found less of an association with income and employment, although they did find a relationship other outcomes such as sickness absence, assets, welfare receipt and financial insecurity. Nonetheless, all twelve studies showed some association between at least one maltreatment type and at least one economic measure. The task for future research is to clarify the relationship between specific maltreatment types and specific economic outcomes, taking account of how this may be influenced by gender and life course stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SU-F-J-42: Comparison of Varian TrueBeam Cone-Beam CT and BrainLab ExacTrac X-Ray for Cranial Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J; Shi, W; Andrews, D; Werner-Wasik, M; Lu, B; Yu, Y; Dicker, A; Liu, H [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare online image registrations of TrueBeam cone-beam CT (CBCT) and BrainLab ExacTrac x-ray imaging systems for cranial radiotherapy. Method: Phantom and patient studies were performed on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (Version 2.5), which is integrated with a BrainLab ExacTrac imaging system (Version 6.1.1). The phantom study was based on a Rando head phantom, which was designed to evaluate isocenter-location dependence of the image registrations. Ten isocenters were selected at various locations in the phantom, which represented clinical treatment sites. CBCT and ExacTrac x-ray images were taken when the phantom was located at each isocenter. The patient study included thirteen patients. CBCT and ExacTrac x-ray images were taken at each patient’s treatment position. Six-dimensional image registrations were performed on CBCT and ExacTrac, and residual errors calculated from CBCT and ExacTrac were compared. Results: In the phantom study, the average residual-error differences between CBCT and ExacTrac image registrations were: 0.16±0.10 mm, 0.35±0.20 mm, and 0.21±0.15 mm, in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions, respectively. The average residual-error differences in the rotation, roll, and pitch were: 0.36±0.11 degree, 0.14±0.10 degree, and 0.12±0.10 degree, respectively. In the patient study, the average residual-error differences in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were: 0.13±0.13 mm, 0.37±0.21 mm, 0.22±0.17 mm, respectively. The average residual-error differences in the rotation, roll, and pitch were: 0.30±0.10 degree, 0.18±0.11 degree, and 0.22±0.13 degree, respectively. Larger residual-error differences (up to 0.79 mm) were observed in the longitudinal direction in the phantom and patient studies where isocenters were located in or close to frontal lobes, i.e., located superficially. Conclusion: Overall, the average residual-error differences were within 0.4 mm in the translational

  16. TH-EF-BRB-10: Dosimetric Validation of a Trajectory Based Cranial SRS Treatment Technique On a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Gete, E [Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work investigates the dosimetric accuracy of a trajectory based delivery technique in which an optimized radiation beam is delivered along a Couch-Gantry trajectory that is formed by simultaneous rotation of the linac gantry and the treatment couch. Methods: Nine trajectory based cranial SRS treatment plans were created using in-house optimization software. The plans were calculated for delivery on the TrueBeam STx linac with 6MV photon beam. Dose optimization was performed along a user-defined trajectory using MLC modulation, dose rate modulation and jaw tracking. The pre-defined trajectory chosen for this study is formed by a couch rotation through its full range of 180 degrees while the gantry makes four partial arc sweeps which are 170 degrees each. For final dose calculation, the trajectory based plans were exported to the Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System. The plans were calculated on a homogeneous cube phantom measuring 18.2×18.2×18.2 cm3 with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) using a 1mm3 calculation voxel. The plans were delivered on the TrueBeam linac via the developer’s mode. Point dose measurements were performed on 9 patients with the IBA CC01 mini-chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.01 cc. Gafchromic film measurements along the sagittal and coronal planes were performed on three of the 9 treatment plans. Point dose values were compared with ion chamber measurements. Gamma analysis comparing film measurement and AAA calculations was performed using FilmQA Pro. Results: The AAA calculations and measurements were in good agreement. The point dose difference between AAA and ion chamber measurements were within 2.2%. Gamma analysis test pass rates (2%, 2mm passing criteria) for the Gafchromic film measurements were >95%. Conclusion: We have successfully tested TrueBeam’s ability to deliver accurate trajectory based treatments involving simultaneous gantry and couch rotation with MLC and dose rate modulation along the

  17. Fundamental Cardiovascular Research: Returns on Societal Investment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph A; Ardehali, Reza; Clarke, Kimberli Taylor; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Eckhardt, Lee L; Griendling, Kathy K; Libby, Peter; Roden, Dan M; Sadek, Hesham A; Seidman, Christine E; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2017-07-21

    Recent decades have witnessed robust successes in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart and vascular diseases. Many patients who previously would have died now survive. Lifesaving successes like these provide a tremendous and easily recognized benefit to individuals and society. Although cardiovascular mortality has declined, the devastating impact of chronic heart disease and comorbidities on quality of life and healthcare resources continues unabated. Future strides, extending those made in recent decades, will require continued research into mechanisms underlying disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression, and therapeutic intervention. However, severe financial constraints currently jeopardize these efforts. To chart a path for the future, this report analyzes the challenges and opportunities we face in continuing the battle against cardiovascular disease and highlights the return on societal investment afforded by fundamental cardiovascular research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Current status of research on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Dongxu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastasis is a complicated process with multiple steps, and liver metastasis is the most common metastatic mode of colorectal cancer. Deep understanding and study of metastatic mechanism helps to find solutions for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. Recent studies have shown that microRNA are involved in tumor metastasis and recurrence, and studies on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis can provide new thoughts for the development and progression, diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis of the disease. This article summarizes the research advances in microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis and reviews the biological function and molecular mechanism of microRNA, which suggests that microRNA have a vital significance in the field of tumor metastasis, especially colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  19. Research advances in association between Golgi protein 73 and liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Fengxian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Golgi protein 73 (GP73 has a very low expression level in normal people, while it has a significantly higher expression level in patients with liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and therefore, it may become a new marker for HCC. This article introduces the distribution of GP73 in human body and definitions of different subtypes of GP73 and elaborates on its association with benign/malignant liver diseases and surgical operation based on the subtypes of GP73, as well as the application of GP73 in the differentiation of benign/malignant liver diseases. Since GP73 is closely associated with the development, progression, and prognosis of liver diseases, this article summarizes the latest advances in basic research, introduces the structural basis of fucosylated GP73 and proliferation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells and known signaling pathways, and lists the factors which affect the expression of GP73.

  20. Factors associated with the donation and non-donation of embryos for research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorinha, Catarina; Pereira, Margarida; Machado, Helena; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Silva, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Systematic knowledge on the factors that influence the decisions of IVF users regarding embryo donation for research is a core need for patient-centred policies and ethics in clinical practice. However, no systematic review has been provided on the motivations of patients who must decide embryo disposition. This paper fills this gap, presenting a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies, which synthesizes the current body of knowledge on the factors and reasons associated with IVF patients' decisions to donate or not to donate embryos for research. A systematic search of studies indexed in PubMed, ISI WoK and PsycINFO, published before November 2013, was conducted. Only empirical, peer-reviewed, full-length, original studies reporting data on factors and reasons associated with the decision concerning donation or non-donation of embryos for research were included. Eligibility and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers and disagreements were resolved by discussion or a third reviewer, if required. The main quantitative findings were extracted and synthesized and qualitative data were assessed by thematic content analysis. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. More than half of the studies (n = 21) used a quantitative methodology, and the remaining were qualitative (n = 15) or mixed-methods (n = 3) studies. The studies were derived mainly from European countries (n = 18) and the USA (n = 11). The proportion of IVF users who donated embryos for research varied from 7% in a study in France to 73% in a Swiss study. Those who donate embryos for research reported feelings of reciprocity towards science and medicine, positive views of research and high levels of trust in the medical system. They described their decision as better than the destruction of embryos and as an opportunity to help others or to improve health and IVF treatments. The perception of risks, the lack of information

  1. Evaluation of latent variances in Monte Carlo dose calculations with Varian TrueBeam photon phase-spaces used as a particle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhakeem, Eyad; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the latent variance (LV) of Varian TrueBeam photon phase-space files (PSF) for open 10  ×  10 cm2 and small stereotactic fields and estimate the number of phase spaces required to be summed up in order to maintain sub-percent LV in Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc software was used to transport particles from Varian phase-space files (PSFA) through the secondary collimators. Transported particles were scored into another phase-space located under the jaws (PSFB), or transported further through the cone collimators and scored straight below, forming PSFC. Phase-space files (PSFB) were scored for 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV beams with 10  ×  10 cm2 field size, and PSFC were scored for 6 MV beam under circular cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, and 1 cm diameter. Both PSFB and PSFC were transported into a water phantom with particle recycling number ranging from 10 to 1000. For 10  ×  10 cm2 fields 0.5  ×  0.5  ×  0.5 cm3 voxels were used to score the dose, whereas the dose was scored in 0.1  ×  0.1  ×  0.5 cm3 voxels for beams collimated with small cones. In addition, for small 0.25 cm diameter cone-collimated 6 MV beam, phantom voxel size varied as 0.02  ×  0.02  ×  0.5 cm3, 0.05  ×  0.05  ×  0.5 cm3 and 0.1  ×  0.1  ×  0.5 cm3. Dose variances were scored in all cases and LV evaluated as per Sempau et al. For the 10  ×  10 cm2 fields calculated LVs were greatest at the phantom surface and decreased with depth until they reached a plateau at 5 cm depth. LVs were found to be 0.54%, 0.96%, 0.35%, 0.69% and 0.57% for the 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV energies, respectively at the depth of 10 cm. For the 6 MV phase-space collimated with cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, 1.0 cm diameter, the LVs calculated at 1.5 cm depth were 75.6%, 25.4%, 17

  2. Federated Search and the Library Web Site: A Study of Association of Research Libraries Member Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how federated search engines are incorporated into the Web sites of libraries in the Association of Research Libraries. In 2009, information was gathered for each library in the Association of Research Libraries with a federated search engine. This included the name of the federated search service and…

  3. Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC) Research Agenda: Impacting Education and Changing Lives through Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Lumina Foundation, the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) has launched HACU's Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC). The first major task of this virtual gathering of researchers and practitioners in Hispanic higher education has been to assess the state of our knowledge of the key issues…

  4. Contribution of Large Animals to Translational Research on Prenatal Programming of Obesity and Associated Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of factors causing obesity and associated disorders has grown up in the last years from genome to a more complicated concept (developmental programming) in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions markedly modify the phenotype and homeostasis of the individuals and determine juvenile growth, life-time fitness/obesity and disease risks. Experimentation in human beings is impeded by ethical issues plus inherent high variability and confounding factors (genetics, lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity) and preclinical studies in adequate translational animal models are therefore decisive. Most of the studies have been performed in rodents, whilst the use of large animals is scarce. Having in mind body-size, handlingeasiness and cost-efficiency, the main large animal species for use in biomedical research are rabbits, sheep and swine. The choice of the model depends on the research objectives. To outline the main features of the use of rabbits, sheep and swine and their contributions as translational models in prenatal programming of obesity and associated disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Implementation of an Emergency Medicine Research Associates Program: Sharing 20 Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent DeRienzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of research associates (RA programs to facilitate study enrollment in the emergency department was initiated during the mid-1990s. The University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC was an early adopting site for this model, which has experienced considerable growth and development over the past 20 years. Methods: Our goal was to detail the Emergency Department Research Associates (EDRA program processes developed at the URMC that has led to our program’s sustainability and productivity. These processes, and the lessons learned during their development, can assist institutions seeking to establish an RA program or refine an existing program. Results: Defined procedures for selecting, training, and monitoring EDRAs have been created and refined with the goal of maximizing study enrollment and minimizing protocol deviations. Our EDRA program functions as a paid service center for investigators, and our EDRAs engage in a variety of study-related activities including screening and enrolling patients, administering surveys, collecting bio-specimens, and making follow-up calls. Over the past two years, our program has averaged 222 enrollments/month (standard deviation = 79.93, gathering roughly 25 participants per study per month. Conclusion: Our EDRA model has consistently resulted in some of the highest number of enrollments across a variety of recently funded, multi-center studies. Maintaining a high-quality EDRA program requires continual investment on the part of the leadership team, though the benefits to investigators within and outside the department outweigh these costs.

  6. CUEPRA-Clemson University electric power research association: An industry/university partnership for excellence in power engineering education and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, A.A.; Makram, E.B.; Cline, M.L.; Fortson, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    A unique structure for the Clemson University Electric Power Research Association (CUEPRA) has been established to promote electric power system research and to meet the need for a working communication link between the power industry and the academic community. This paper presents the power industries involvement in the power program at Clemson University and the strategic improvements that have been accomplished in research and education

  7. Clinical presentation of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections in research and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedo, Susan E; Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described >15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). RESULTS were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86-92%), school issues (75-81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60-65%), urinary symptoms (42-81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association between GAS infection and symptom onset/exacerbations may

  8. Factors associated with online media attention to research: a cohort study of articles evaluating cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Romana; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Ghosn, Lina; Boutron, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    New metrics have been developed to assess the impact of research and provide an indication of online media attention and data dissemination. We aimed to describe online media attention of articles evaluating cancer treatments and identify the factors associated with high online media attention. We systematically searched MEDLINE via PubMed on March 1, 2015 for articles published during the first 6 months of 2014 in oncology and medical journals with a diverse range of impact factors, from 3.9 to 54.4, and selected a sample of articles evaluating a cancer treatment regardless of study design. Altmetric Explorer was used to identify online media attention of selected articles. The primary outcome was media attention an article received online as measured by Altmetric score (i.e., number of mentions in online news outlets, science blogs and social media). Regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors associated with high media attention, and regression coefficients represent the logarithm of ratio of mean (RoM) values of Altmetric score per unit change in the covariate. Among 792 articles, 218 (27.5%) received no online media attention (Altmetric score = 0). The median [Q1-Q3] Altmetric score was 2.0 [0.0-8.0], range 0.0-428.0. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with high Altmetric score were presence of a press release (RoM = 10.14, 95%CI [4.91-20.96]), open access to the article (RoM = 1.48, 95%CI [1.02-2.16]), and journal impact factor (RoM = 1.10, 95%CI [1.07-1.12]. As compared with observational studies, systematic reviews were not associated with high Altmetric score (RoM = 1.46, 95%CI [0.74-2.86]; P  = 0.27), nor were RCTs (RoM = 0.65, 95%CI [0.41-1.02]; P  = 0.059) and phase I/II non-RCTs (RoM = 0.58, 95%CI [0.33-1.05]; P  = 0.07). The articles with abstract conclusions favouring study treatments were not associated with high Altmetric score (RoM = 0.97, 95%CI [0.60-1.58]; P  = 0

  9. Music genetics research: Association with musicality of a polymorphism in the AVPR1A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariath, Luiza Monteavaro; Silva, Alexandre Mauat da; Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Gattino, Gustavo Schulz; Araujo, Gustavo Andrade de; Figueiredo, Felipe Grahl; Tagliani-Ribeiro, Alice; Roman, Tatiana; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Schuch, Jaqueline Bohrer

    2017-01-01

    Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms in six genes (AVPR1A, SLC6A4, ITGB3, COMT, DRD2 and DRD4) related to social and cognitive traits are associated with musicality in a sample of children. Musicality was assessed through an individualized music therapy assessment profile (IMTAP) which has been validated in Brazil to measure musical ability. We show here that the RS1 microsatellite of the AVPR1A gene is nominally associated with musicality, corroborating previous results linking AVPR1A with musical activity. This study is one of the first to investigate musicality in a comprehensive way, and it contributes to better understand the genetic basis underlying musical ability.

  10. Music genetics research: Association with musicality of a polymorphism in the AVPR1A gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Monteavaro Mariath

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms in six genes (AVPR1A, SLC6A4, ITGB3, COMT, DRD2 and DRD4 related to social and cognitive traits are associated with musicality in a sample of children. Musicality was assessed through an individualized music therapy assessment profile (IMTAP which has been validated in Brazil to measure musical ability. We show here that the RS1 microsatellite of the AVPR1A gene is nominally associated with musicality, corroborating previous results linking AVPR1A with musical activity. This study is one of the first to investigate musicality in a comprehensive way, and it contributes to better understand the genetic basis underlying musical ability.

  11. A Content Analysis of College Reading Association/Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers Teacher Education Publications: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Jeanne Shay; Lewis-Spector, Jill; Price, Debra; Doorn, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a content analysis of the publications of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers (ALER), previously known as College Reading Association (CRA), in the area of preservice teacher education in literacy. As a service to the organization, 71 articles published in ALER's flagship…

  12. Who shares? Who doesn't? Factors associated with openly archiving raw research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowar, Heather A

    2011-01-01

    Many initiatives encourage investigators to share their raw datasets in hopes of increasing research efficiency and quality. Despite these investments of time and money, we do not have a firm grasp of who openly shares raw research data, who doesn't, and which initiatives are correlated with high rates of data sharing. In this analysis I use bibliometric methods to identify patterns in the frequency with which investigators openly archive their raw gene expression microarray datasets after study publication. Automated methods identified 11,603 articles published between 2000 and 2009 that describe the creation of gene expression microarray data. Associated datasets in best-practice repositories were found for 25% of these articles, increasing from less than 5% in 2001 to 30%-35% in 2007-2009. Accounting for sensitivity of the automated methods, approximately 45% of recent gene expression studies made their data publicly available. First-order factor analysis on 124 diverse bibliometric attributes of the data creation articles revealed 15 factors describing authorship, funding, institution, publication, and domain environments. In multivariate regression, authors were most likely to share data if they had prior experience sharing or reusing data, if their study was published in an open access journal or a journal with a relatively strong data sharing policy, or if the study was funded by a large number of NIH grants. Authors of studies on cancer and human subjects were least likely to make their datasets available. These results suggest research data sharing levels are still low and increasing only slowly, and data is least available in areas where it could make the biggest impact. Let's learn from those with high rates of sharing to embrace the full potential of our research output.

  13. Recruitment strategies and costs associated with community-based research in a Mexican-origin population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S; Mangione, Carol M

    2011-06-01

    We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study methodology to categorize recruitment methods, examine community partnerships, and calculate study costs. We employed several recruitment methods to identify and solicit 154 female caregivers for participation in qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys. Recruitment approaches included using flyers and word of mouth, attending health fairs, and partnering with nonprofit community-based organizations (CBOs) to sponsor targeted recruitment events. Face-to-face contact with community residents and partnerships with CBOs were most effective in enrolling caregivers into the studies. Almost 70% of participants attended a recruitment event sponsored or supported by CBOs. The least effective recruitment strategy was the use of flyers, which resulted in only 7 completed interviews or questionnaires. Time and costs related to carrying out the research varied by study, where personal interviews cost more on a per-participant basis ($1,081) than the questionnaires ($298). However, almost the same amount of time was spent in the community for both studies. Partnerships with CBOs were critical for reaching the target enrollment for our studies. The relationship between the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) Resource Center for Minority Aging Research/Center for Health Improvement for Minority Elderly and the Department of Aging provided the infrastructure for maintaining connections with academic-community partnerships. Nevertheless, building partnerships required time, effort, and resources for both researchers and local organizations.

  14. Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated With Community-Based Research in a Mexican-Origin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic–community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study methodology to categorize recruitment methods, examine community partnerships, and calculate study costs. Results: We employed several recruitment methods to identify and solicit 154 female caregivers for participation in qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys. Recruitment approaches included using flyers and word of mouth, attending health fairs, and partnering with nonprofit community-based organizations (CBOs) to sponsor targeted recruitment events. Face-to-face contact with community residents and partnerships with CBOs were most effective in enrolling caregivers into the studies. Almost 70% of participants attended a recruitment event sponsored or supported by CBOs. The least effective recruitment strategy was the use of flyers, which resulted in only 7 completed interviews or questionnaires. Time and costs related to carrying out the research varied by study, where personal interviews cost more on a per-participant basis ($1,081) than the questionnaires ($298). However, almost the same amount of time was spent in the community for both studies. Implications: Partnerships with CBOs were critical for reaching the target enrollment for our studies. The relationship between the University of California–Los Angeles (UCLA) Resource Center for Minority Aging Research/Center for Health Improvement for Minority Elderly and the Department of Aging provided the infrastructure for maintaining connections with academic–community partnerships. Nevertheless, building partnerships required time, effort, and resources for both researchers and local organizations. PMID:21565824

  15. Who shares? Who doesn't? Factors associated with openly archiving raw research data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Piwowar

    Full Text Available Many initiatives encourage investigators to share their raw datasets in hopes of increasing research efficiency and quality. Despite these investments of time and money, we do not have a firm grasp of who openly shares raw research data, who doesn't, and which initiatives are correlated with high rates of data sharing. In this analysis I use bibliometric methods to identify patterns in the frequency with which investigators openly archive their raw gene expression microarray datasets after study publication. Automated methods identified 11,603 articles published between 2000 and 2009 that describe the creation of gene expression microarray data. Associated datasets in best-practice repositories were found for 25% of these articles, increasing from less than 5% in 2001 to 30%-35% in 2007-2009. Accounting for sensitivity of the automated methods, approximately 45% of recent gene expression studies made their data publicly available. First-order factor analysis on 124 diverse bibliometric attributes of the data creation articles revealed 15 factors describing authorship, funding, institution, publication, and domain environments. In multivariate regression, authors were most likely to share data if they had prior experience sharing or reusing data, if their study was published in an open access journal or a journal with a relatively strong data sharing policy, or if the study was funded by a large number of NIH grants. Authors of studies on cancer and human subjects were least likely to make their datasets available. These results suggest research data sharing levels are still low and increasing only slowly, and data is least available in areas where it could make the biggest impact. Let's learn from those with high rates of sharing to embrace the full potential of our research output.

  16. Population based allele frequencies of disease associated polymorphisms in the Personalized Medicine Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Deanna S; Ivacic, Lynn C; Stefanski, Elisha L; McCarty, Catherine A

    2010-06-17

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the frequency of disease associated polymorphisms in populations and population attributable risk for many populations remains unknown. Factors that could affect the association of the allele with disease, either positively or negatively, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, may not be possible to determine without population based allele frequencies.Here we used a panel of 51 polymorphisms previously associated with at least one disease and determined the allele frequencies within the entire Personalized Medicine Research Project population based cohort. We compared these allele frequencies to those in dbSNP and other data sources stratified by race. Differences in allele frequencies between self reported race, region of origin, and sex were determined. There were 19544 individuals who self reported a single racial category, 19027 or (97.4%) self reported white Caucasian, and 11205 (57.3%) individuals were female. Of the 11,208 (57%) individuals with an identifiable region of origin 8337 or (74.4%) were German.41 polymorphisms were significantly different between self reported race at the 0.05 level. Stratification of our Caucasian population by self reported region of origin revealed 19 polymorphisms that were significantly different (p = 0.05) between individuals of different origins. Further stratification of the population by gender revealed few significant differences in allele frequencies between the genders. This represents one of the largest population based allele frequency studies to date. Stratification by self reported race and region of origin revealed wide differences in allele frequencies not only by race but also by region of origin within a single racial group. We report allele frequencies for our Asian/Hmong and American Indian populations; these two minority groups are not typically selected for population allele frequency detection. Population wide allele frequencies are important for the design and

  17. SU-E-J-47: Comparison of Online Image Registrations of Varian TrueBeam Cone-Beam CT and BrainLab ExacTrac Imaging Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J; Shi, W; Andrews, D; Werner-Wasik, M; Yu, Y; Liu, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare online image registrations of TrueBeam cone-beam CT (CBCT) and BrainLab ExacTrac imaging systems. Methods Tests were performed on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (Version 2.0), which is integrated with a BrainLab ExacTrac imaging system (Version 6.0.5). The study was focused on comparing the online image registrations for translational shifts. A Rando head phantom was placed on treatment couch and immobilized with a BrainLab mask. The phantom was shifted by moving the couch translationally for 8 mm with a step size of 1 mm, in vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions, respectively. At each location, the phantom was imaged with CBCT and ExacTrac x-ray. CBCT images were registered with TrueBeam and ExacTrac online registration algorithms, respectively. And ExacTrac x-ray image registrations were performed. Shifts calculated from different registrations were compared with nominal couch shifts. Results The averages and ranges of absolute differences between couch shifts and calculated phantom shifts obtained from ExacTrac x-ray registration, ExacTrac CBCT registration with default window, ExaxTrac CBCT registration with adjusted window (bone), Truebeam CBCT registration with bone window, and Truebeam CBCT registration with soft tissue window, were: 0.07 (0.02–0.14), 0.14 (0.01–0.35), 0.12 (0.02–0.28), 0.09 (0–0.20), and 0.06 (0–0.10) mm, in vertical direction; 0.06 (0.01–0.12), 0.27 (0.07–0.57), 0.23 (0.02–0.48), 0.04 (0–0.10), and 0.08 (0– 0.20) mm, in longitudinal direction; 0.05 (0.01–0.21), 0.35 (0.14–0.80), 0.25 (0.01–0.56), 0.19 (0–0.40), and 0.20 (0–0.40) mm, in lateral direction. Conclusion The shifts calculated from ExacTrac x-ray and TrueBeam CBCT registrations were close to each other (the differences between were less than 0.40 mm in any direction), and had better agreements with couch shifts than those from ExacTrac CBCT registrations. There were no significant differences between True

  18. For a public sociology on participatory democracy. Reflexive feedback on research conducted in an association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nez, Héloïse

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoy’s reflection on “public sociology”, our own research experience in an association, and other research studies conducted in Europe, we define five ways sociologists carry out research on participatory democracy in collaboration with the actors. Beyond a reflection on the social reception of our research, the challenge is to develop a critical and committed sociology on participatory democracy with a view to contributing to the political debate and public action from a critical viewpoint.

    Este artículo desarrolla un enfoque reflexivo sobre las relaciones entre investigación y acción en los trabajos sobre democracia participativa, una temática en la que los vínculos entre los campos académicos, políticos y militantes son numerosos. El objetivo es analizar el impacto de las estrechas relaciones entre sociólogos y actores sociales en los métodos y resultados de la investigación y, al mismo tiempo, el papel de la sociología en el desarrollo de las prácticas participativas. Apoyándose en la reflexión de Michael Burawoy sobre la “sociología pública”, en nuestra propia experiencia de investigación en una asociación y en otras investigaciones en Europa, se definen cinco posturas de sociólogos que trabajan en colaboración con los actores sociales sobre la democracia participativa. Más allá de una reflexión sobre la receptividad social de nuestras investigaciones, el desafío consiste en desarrollar una sociología a la vez crítica y comprometida sobre la democracia participativa, para

  19. Issues in networking and research funding for the European Association of Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, David; Duguet, Anne-Marie

    2008-09-01

    All academics, perhaps with the exception of those who are hermits with independent private means, are concerned with questions of networking and research funding. The nature of academic life is to search out new ideas and revisit old ones, and to discuss these ideas with others. This requires networks of colleagues and funding to provide the basic resources of time and literature. This may be at the local level, but increasingly the expectation is that these activities should become more and more elaborate; our networks are now international, and our time and resources cost ever increasing amounts which, for many if not most academics, must be found outside the general budget of the home University. Our success as academics is measured, in increasing part, on our ability to show our networking and external funding credentials. There is a more resounding reason to pursue both networking and externally funded research: through such projects the experience of each individual can be increased such that the result is far greater than one could achieve alone. Networking and external funding are not ends in themselves, but they can and should be a great enhancement to academic life and contribution. None of this is news or a novel claim; it is simply today's environment. This paper considers some opportunities for how networking and externally funded research might help the EAHL to realise its aims in developing the discipline of health law. We, as authors, do not claim any special expertise in the area, and readers are quite justified in thinking "who are they to talk to us about what we clearly know much more about?" However, we were asked to start a discussion at the inaugural conference of the Association, and the thoughts that we present now were designed to do that. It is a discussion which will form one of the early activities of the Association. Here the paper is divided first issues concerning networking, and second those concerning research funding from sources

  20. Innovation was not enough a history of the Midwestern Universities Research Association (MURA)

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Lawrence; Sessler, Andrew; Symon, Keith; Young, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a history of the Midwestern Universities Research Association (MURA) during its lifetime from the early 1950s to the late 1960s. MURA was responsible for a number of important contributions to the science of particle accelerators, including the invention of fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAG), as well as contributions to accelerator orbit theory, radio frequency acceleration techniques, colliding beams technology, orbit instabilities, computation methods, and designs of accelerator magnets and linear accelerator cavities. A number of students were trained by MURA in accelerator techniques, and went on to important posts where they made further contributions to the field. The authors were all members of the MURA staff and themselves made many contributions to the field. No other such history exists, and there are relatively few publications devoted to the history of particle accelerators.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  2. The Remote Observatories of the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Oswalt, Terry; Mack, Peter; Henson, Gary; Hillwig, Todd; Batcheldor, Daniel; Berrington, Robert; De Pree, Chris; Hartmann, Dieter; Leake, Martha; Licandro, Javier; Murphy, Brian; Webb, James; Wood, Matt A.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the remote facilities operated by the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA) , a consortium of colleges and universities in the US partnered with Lowell Observatory, the Chilean National Telescope Allocation Committee, and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. SARA observatories comprise a 0.96 m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona; one of 0.6 m aperture on Cerro Tololo, Chile; and the 1 m Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain. All are operated using standard VNC or Radmin protocols communicating with on-site PCs. Remote operation offers considerable flexibility in scheduling, allowing long-term observational cadences difficult to achieve with classical observing at remote facilities, as well as obvious travel savings. Multiple observers at different locations can share a telescope for training, educational use, or collaborative research programs. Each telescope has a CCD system for optical imaging, using thermoelectric cooling to avoid the need for frequent local service, and a second CCD for offset guiding. The Arizona and Chile telescopes also have fiber-fed echelle spectrographs. Switching between imaging and spectroscopy is very rapid, so a night can easily accommodate mixed observing modes. We present some sample observational programs. For the benefit of other groups organizing similar consortia, we describe the operating structure and principles of SARA, as well as some lessons learned from almost 20 years of remote operations.

  3. Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MASSEY, CHARLES D.; MESSICK, C.E.; MUSTIN, T.

    1999-01-01

    Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed

  4. Factors associated with home hazards: Findings from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Muhammad H; Tan, Maw P; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul B; Clemson, Lindy

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards. Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire. Basic and instrumental activities of daily living were measured using the Katz and Lawton-Brody scales, and home hazards were identified using the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool. Participants were also asked if they had fallen in the previous 12 months. Data were analyzed from 1489 participants. Hazards were frequently identified (>30%) in the toilet and bathroom areas (no grab rail, no non-slip mat, distant toilet), slippery floors, no bedside light access and inappropriate footwear. Lower educational attainment, traditional housing, Chinese ethnicity, greater number of home occupants, lower monthly expenditure, poor vision and younger age were the factors independently associated with home hazards. This study provides evidence that home hazards are a product of the interaction of the individual's function within their home environment. Hazards are also influenced by local sociocultural and environmental factors. The relationship between home hazards and falls appears complex and deserves further evaluation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 387-395. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. American Diabetes Association and JDRF Research Symposium: Diabetes and the Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkovich, Clay F; Danska, Jayne; Darsow, Tamara; Dunne, Jessica L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Insel, Richard A; McElvaine, Allison T; Ratner, Robert E; Shuldiner, Alan R; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    From 27-29 October 2014, more than 100 people gathered in Chicago, IL, to participate in a research symposium titled "Diabetes and the Microbiome," jointly sponsored by the American Diabetes Association and JDRF. The conference brought together international scholars and trainees from multiple disciplines, including microbiology, bioinformatics, endocrinology, metabolism, and immunology, to share the current understanding of host-microbe interactions and their influences on diabetes and metabolism. Notably, this gathering was the first to assemble specialists with distinct expertise in type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, immunology, and microbiology with the goal of discussing and defining potential pathophysiologies linking the microbiome and diabetes. In addition to reviewing existing evidence in the field, speakers presented their own original research to provide a comprehensive view of the current understanding of the topics under discussion.Presentations and discussions throughout the conference reflected a number of important concepts. The microbiota in any host represent a complex ecosystem with a high degree of interindividual variability. Different microbial communities, comprising bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi, occupy separate niches in and on the human body. Individually and collectively, these microbes provide benefits to the host-including nutrient harvest from food and protection against pathogens. They are dynamically regulated by both host genes and the environment, and they critically influence both physiology and lifelong health. The objective of the symposium was to discuss the relationship between the host and the microbiome-the combination of microbiota and their biomolecular environment and ecology-specifically with regard to metabolic and immunological systems and to define the critical research needed to understand and potentially target the microbiome in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In this report, we present meeting

  6. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections in Research and Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described>15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. Methods: A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). Results were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). Results: As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86–92%), school issues (75–81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60–65%), urinary symptoms (42–81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. Conclusions: The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association

  7. American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) Annual Research Meeting in Conjunction with the Annual Convention of the Association for Career and Technical Education. Proceedings (Orlando, Florida, December 11-13, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, William G., Ed.

    This document contains 14 research papers presented at the American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) annual meeting. The following papers are included: "Factors that Influence Students to Attend 4-Year Automotive Programs" (Gregory G. Belcher, Robert L. Frisbee); "The Training Needs of Vocational Teachers for…

  8. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad

  9. EURATOM/UKAEA Association fusion research. 1998/99 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This annual progress report describes the fusion energy research carried out under the Contract of Association between UKAEA and the European atomic energy community, EURATOM: the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association. It covers the period from April 1998 to March 1999, which has been a very active time, and has included contributions to the European Fusion Programme in several important areas. A main objective of the EURATOM/UKAEA Association is to provide support for JET, which is presently operated as a Joint Undertaking, but this will end in December 1999. It is proposed that the facilities will then pass to the UKAEA which will operate them for a programme of work by all the European Associations in support of ITER; UKAEA has been heavily involved in drafting the Implementing Agreement and operating contract with its European partners. There has also been a strong involvement in the JET scientific and technology programme which, following operation with tritium, includes activation studies and the impact of tritium retention. Highlights in the scientific programme included the first measurements of the plasma current density distribution in configurations with the potential for steady state operation. A second key objective is to contribute to the design of ITER, and in particular the RTO-ITER with its focus on a burning plasma of reduced size. ITER is the tokamak proposed to demonstrate the physics and many of the technology requirements for fusion power production, designed by Europe, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States. Experiments on our COMPASS-D tokamak, which has the same geometry as JET and ITER, are supported by a strong theory programme to develop our understanding of key issues for ITER. One such issue is the study of instabilities which arise in the approach to a steady state configuration at high normalised plasma pressure, β, using micro-wave heating and current drive schemes. Data from our 'spherical' tokamak START, which ceased

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  11. Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Sally A; Nordberg, Judith M; Palmer, Lisa A; Piorun, Mary E

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship. Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991-2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time. Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n = 174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n = 298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n = 332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n = 264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n = 130) of studies identified a funding source. This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians.

  12. Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Sally A.; Nordberg, Judith M.; Palmer, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship. Methodology: Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991–2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time. Results: Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n = 174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n = 298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n = 332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n = 264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n = 130) of studies identified a funding source. Conclusion: This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians. PMID:19626146

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  14. Radiation exposures associated with shipments of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, C.D.; Messick, C.E.; Mustin, T.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the Record of Decision on a Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (ROD) (DOE, 1996a), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a 13-year program under which DOE accepts foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) containing uranium that was enriched in the United States. The ROD required that DOE take several steps to ensure low environmental and health impacts resulting from the implementation of the program. These efforts mainly focus on transportation related activities that the analysis of potential environmental impacts in the Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (EIS) (DOE, 1996b) identified as having the potential for exceeding current radiation protection guidelines. Consequently, DOE issued a Mitigation Action Plan to reduce the likelihood of potential adverse environmental impacts associated with the policy established in the ROD. As shown in the EIS, incident-free radiation exposures to members of the ship's crew, port workers, and ground transportation personnel due to shipments of spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors are expected to be below the radiation exposure limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) per year established to protect the general public. However, the analysis in the EIS demonstrated that port and transportation workers could conceivably receive a cumulative radiation dose above the limit established for the general public if, for example, they are involved in multiple shipments within one year or if the radiation levels outside the casks are at the maximum allowable regulatory limit (10 mrem/hr [0.1 mSv/h] at 2 meters from the surface of the cask). With the program successfully underway, DOE has collected information from the shipments in accordance with the Mitigation Action Plan. The information to date has demonstrated that the analysis in

  15. ceRNAs in plants: computational approaches and associated challenges for target mimic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Alexandre Rossi; Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Stadler, Peter F

    2017-05-30

    The competing endogenous RNA hypothesis has gained increasing attention as a potential global regulatory mechanism of microRNAs (miRNAs), and as a powerful tool to predict the function of many noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs themselves. Most studies have been focused on animals, although target mimic (TMs) discovery as well as important computational and experimental advances has been developed in plants over the past decade. Thus, our contribution summarizes recent progresses in computational approaches for research of miRNA:TM interactions. We divided this article in three main contributions. First, a general overview of research on TMs in plants is presented with practical descriptions of the available literature, tools, data, databases and computational reports. Second, we describe a common protocol for the computational and experimental analyses of TM. Third, we provide a bioinformatics approach for the prediction of TM motifs potentially cross-targeting both members within the same or from different miRNA families, based on the identification of consensus miRNA-binding sites from known TMs across sequenced genomes, transcriptomes and known miRNAs. This computational approach is promising because, in contrast to animals, miRNA families in plants are large with identical or similar members, several of which are also highly conserved. From the three consensus TM motifs found with our approach: MIM166, MIM171 and MIM159/319, the last one has found strong support on the recent experimental work by Reichel and Millar [Specificity of plant microRNA TMs: cross-targeting of mir159 and mir319. J Plant Physiol 2015;180:45-8]. Finally, we stress the discussion on the major computational and associated experimental challenges that have to be faced in future ceRNA studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Agitation in cognitive disorders: International Psychogeriatric Association provisional consensus clinical and research definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Mintzer, Jacobo; Brodaty, Henry; Sano, Mary; Banerjee, Sube; Devanand, D P; Gauthier, Serge; Howard, Robert; Lanctôt, Krista; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Peskind, Elaine; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Reich, Edgardo; Sampaio, Cristina; Steffens, David; Wortmann, Marc; Zhong, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Agitation is common across neuropsychiatric disorders and contributes to disability, institutionalization, and diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. There is no consensus definition of agitation and no widespread agreement on what elements should be included in the syndrome. The International Psychogeriatric Association formed an Agitation Definition Work Group (ADWG) to develop a provisional consensus definition of agitation in patients with cognitive disorders that can be applied in epidemiologic, non-interventional clinical, pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic interventional, and neurobiological studies. A consensus definition will facilitate communication and cross-study comparison and may have regulatory applications in drug development programs. The ADWG developed a transparent process using a combination of electronic, face-to-face, and survey-based strategies to develop a consensus based on agreement of a majority of participants. Nine-hundred twenty-eight respondents participated in the different phases of the process. Agitation was defined broadly as: (1) occurring in patients with a cognitive impairment or dementia syndrome; (2) exhibiting behavior consistent with emotional distress; (3) manifesting excessive motor activity, verbal aggression, or physical aggression; and (4) evidencing behaviors that cause excess disability and are not solely attributable to another disorder (psychiatric, medical, or substance-related). A majority of the respondents rated all surveyed elements of the definition as "strongly agree" or "somewhat agree" (68-88% across elements). A majority of the respondents agreed that the definition is appropriate for clinical and research applications. A provisional consensus definition of agitation has been developed. This definition can be used to advance interventional and non-interventional research of agitation in patients with cognitive impairment.

  17. Honorary authorship in radiologic research articles: assessment of frequency and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Ronald L; Ngo, Long; Boiselle, Philip M; Bankier, Alexander A

    2011-05-01

    To quantify the frequency of perceived honorary authorship in radiologic journals and to identify specific factors that increase its prevalence. This study qualified for exempt status by the institutional review board. An electronic survey was sent to first authors of all original research articles published in Radiology and European Radiology over 3 years. Questions included guidelines used for determining authorship, contributions of coauthors, the perception of honorary authorship, and demographic information. Univariable analysis of sample proportions was performed by using χ(2) tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the independent factors that were associated with the probability of perceiving honorary authorship. Of the 392 (29.3%) of 1338 first authors who responded to the survey, 102 (26.0%) perceived that one or more coauthors did not make sufficient contributions to merit being included as an author. Of the 392 respondents, 231 (58.9%) stated that one or more coauthors performed only "nonauthor" tasks according to International Committee of Medical Journal Editors criteria. Factors associated with an increased first-author perception of honorary authorship included lower academic rank (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66, 5.06), as well as working in an environment in which the section or department head was automatically listed as an author (adjusted OR: 3.80; 95% CI: 2.13, 6.79). The percentage of honorary authorship was significantly higher (P = .019) among respondents who did not follow journal requirements for authorship. The rate of perceived honorary authorship (overall, 26.0%) was substantially more frequent among respondents of lower academic rank and in those working in an environment in which their section or department head was automatically listed as an author. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.11101500/-/DC1. RSNA, 2011

  18. iPat: intelligent prediction and association tool for genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunpeng James; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2018-06-01

    The ultimate goal of genomic research is to effectively predict phenotypes from genotypes so that medical management can improve human health and molecular breeding can increase agricultural production. Genomic prediction or selection (GS) plays a complementary role to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which is the primary method to identify genes underlying phenotypes. Unfortunately, most computing tools cannot perform data analyses for both GWAS and GS. Furthermore, the majority of these tools are executed through a command-line interface (CLI), which requires programming skills. Non-programmers struggle to use them efficiently because of the steep learning curves and zero tolerance for data formats and mistakes when inputting keywords and parameters. To address these problems, this study developed a software package, named the Intelligent Prediction and Association Tool (iPat), with a user-friendly graphical user interface. With iPat, GWAS or GS can be performed using a pointing device to simply drag and/or click on graphical elements to specify input data files, choose input parameters and select analytical models. Models available to users include those implemented in third party CLI packages such as GAPIT, PLINK, FarmCPU, BLINK, rrBLUP and BGLR. Users can choose any data format and conduct analyses with any of these packages. File conversions are automatically conducted for specified input data and selected packages. A GWAS-assisted genomic prediction method was implemented to perform genomic prediction using any GWAS method such as FarmCPU. iPat was written in Java for adaptation to multiple operating systems including Windows, Mac and Linux. The iPat executable file, user manual, tutorials and example datasets are freely available at http://zzlab.net/iPat. zhiwu.zhang@wsu.edu.

  19. Digitization as a Method of Preservation? Final Report of a Working Group of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hartmut; Dorr, Marianne

    The German Research Association (DFG) is actively involved in preservation of research materials; it takes the view that in preservation, the enormous potential of digitization for access should be combined with the stability of microfilm for long-term storage. A working group was convened to investigate the technical state of digitization of…

  20. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic

  1. The Barriers to Achieving the Wider Goals of General Education and Their Implications for the British Educational Research Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John

    1990-01-01

    Advocates revamping the British educational system from technical-rational content model to student-centered process programs designed to promote critical thinking, individual initiative, and communication skills. Discusses obstacles to this educational reform, emphasizing research orientation. Urges the British Educational Research Association to…

  2. The Evolving Landscape of Healthcare-Associated Infections: Recent Advances in Prevention and a Road Map for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nasia; Anderson, Deverick J.; Braun, Barbara I.; Carling, Philip; Cohen, Stuart; Donskey, Curtis; Drees, Marci; Harris, Anthony; Henderson, David K.; Huang, Susan S.; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Linkin, Darren R.; Meddings, Jennifer; Miller, Loren G.; Milstone, Aaron; Morgan, Daniel; Sengupta, Sharmila; Varman, Meera; Yokoe, Deborah; Zerr, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee’s recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, “Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA,” which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24709716

  3. Research Guidelines in the Era of Large-scale Collaborations: An Analysis of Genome-wide Association Study Consortia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Melissa A.; Hair, Marilyn S.; Fullerton, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific research has shifted from studies conducted by single investigators to the creation of large consortia. Genetic epidemiologists, for example, now collaborate extensively for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The effect has been a stream of confirmed disease-gene associations. However, effects on human subjects oversight, data-sharing, publication and authorship practices, research organization and productivity, and intellectual property remain to be examined. The aim of this analysis was to identify all research consortia that had published the results of a GWAS analysis since 2005, characterize them, determine which have publicly accessible guidelines for research practices, and summarize the policies in these guidelines. A review of the National Human Genome Research Institute’s Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies identified 55 GWAS consortia as of April 1, 2011. These consortia were comprised of individual investigators, research centers, studies, or other consortia and studied 48 different diseases or traits. Only 14 (25%) were found to have publicly accessible research guidelines on consortia websites. The available guidelines provide information on organization, governance, and research protocols; half address institutional review board approval. Details of publication, authorship, data-sharing, and intellectual property vary considerably. Wider access to consortia guidelines is needed to establish appropriate research standards with broad applicability to emerging forms of large-scale collaboration. PMID:22491085

  4. On use of ZPR research reactors and associated instrumentation and measurement methods for reactor physics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, J.P. [CEA,DEN, DER, SPEX, Experimental Physics Service, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Blaise, P. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPEX Experimental Programs Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    The French atomic and alternative energies -CEA- is strongly involved in research and development programs concerning the use of nuclear energy as a clean and reliable source of energy and consequently is working on the present and future generation of reactors on various topics such as ageing plant management, optimization of the plutonium stockpile, waste management and innovative systems exploration. Core physics studies are an essential part of this comprehensive R and D effort. In particular, the Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) of CEA: EOLE, MINERVE and MASURCA play an important role in the validation of neutron (as well photon) physics calculation tools (codes and nuclear data). The experimental programs defined in the CEA's ZPR facilities aim at improving the calculation routes by reducing the uncertainties of the experimental databases. They also provide accurate data on innovative systems in terms of new materials (moderating and decoupling materials) and new concepts (ADS, ABWR, new MTR (e.g. JHR), GENIV) involving new fuels, absorbers and coolant materials. Conducting such interesting experimental R and D programs is based on determining and measuring main parameters of phenomena of interest to qualify calculation tools and nuclear data 'libraries'. Determining these parameters relies on the use of numerous and different experimental techniques using specific and appropriate instrumentation and detection tools. Main ZPR experimental programs at CEA, their objectives and challenges will be presented and discussed. Future development and perspectives regarding ZPR reactors and associated programs will be also presented. (authors)

  5. fMRI responses to Jung's Word Association Test: implications for theory, treatment and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchkovsky, Leon; Petchkovsky, Michael; Morris, Philip; Dickson, Paul; Montgomery, Danielle; Dwyer, Jonathan; Burnett, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Jung's Word Association Test was performed under fMRI conditions by 12 normal subjects. Pooled complexed responses were contrasted against pooled neutral ones. The fMRI activation pattern of this generic 'complexed response' was very strong (corrected Z scores ranging from 4.90 to 5.69). The activation pattern in each hemisphere includes mirror neurone areas that track 'otherness' (perspectival empathy), anterior insula (both self-awareness and emotional empathy), and cingulated gyrus (self-awareness and conflict-monitoring). These are the sites described by Siegel and colleagues as the 'resonance circuitry' in the brain which is central to mindfulness (awareness of self) and empathy (sense of the other), negotiations between self awareness and the 'internal other'. But there is also an interhemispheric dialogue. Within 3 seconds, the left hemisphere over-rides the right (at least in our normal subjects). Mindfulness and empathy are central to good psychotherapy, and complexes can be windows of opportunity if left-brain hegemony is resisted. This study sets foundations for further research: (i) QEEG studies (with their finer temporal resolution) of complexed responses in normal subjects (ii) QEEG and fMRI studies of complexed responses in other conditions, like schizophrenia, PTSD, disorders of self organization. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder: consensus guidelines on assessment, treatment and research from the British Association for Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Oliver D; Charman, Tony; King, Bryan H.; Loth, Eva; McAlonan, Gráinne M.; McCracken, James T.; Parr, Jeremy R; Santosh, Paramala; Wallace, Simon; Murphy, Declan G.

    2018-01-01

    An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of ASD involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of ASD varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and irritability) are common. We did not recommend the routine use of any pharmacological treatment for the core symptoms of ASD. In children, melatonin may be useful to treat sleep problems, dopamine blockers for irritability, and methylphenidate, atomoxetine and guanfacine for ADHD. The evidence for use of medication in adults is limited and recommendations are largely based on extrapolations from studies in children and patients without ASD. We discuss the conditions for considering and evaluating a trial of medication treatment, when non-pharmacological interventions should be considered, and make recommendations on service delivery. Finally, we identify key gaps and limitations in the current evidence base and make recommendations for future research and the design of clinical trials. PMID:29237331

  7. Autism spectrum disorder: Consensus guidelines on assessment, treatment and research from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Oliver D; Rogdaki, Maria; Findon, James L; Wichers, Robert H; Charman, Tony; King, Bryan H; Loth, Eva; McAlonan, Gráinne M; McCracken, James T; Parr, Jeremy R; Povey, Carol; Santosh, Paramala; Wallace, Simon; Simonoff, Emily; Murphy, Declan G

    2018-01-01

    An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common. We did not recommend the routine use of any pharmacological treatment for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. In children, melatonin may be useful to treat sleep problems, dopamine blockers for irritability, and methylphenidate, atomoxetine and guanfacine for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The evidence for use of medication in adults is limited and recommendations are largely based on extrapolations from studies in children and patients without autism spectrum disorder. We discuss the conditions for considering and evaluating a trial of medication treatment, when non-pharmacological interventions should be considered, and make recommendations on service delivery. Finally, we identify key gaps and limitations in the current evidence base and make recommendations for future research and the design of clinical trials.

  8. Research on energy stock market associated network structure based on financial indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xian; An, Haizhong

    2018-01-01

    A financial market is a complex system consisting of many interacting units. In general, due to the various types of information exchange within the industry, there is a relationship between the stocks that can reveal their clear structural characteristics. Complex network methods are powerful tools for studying the internal structure and function of the stock market, which allows us to better understand the stock market. Applying complex network methodology, a stock associated network model based on financial indicators is created. Accordingly, we set threshold value and use modularity to detect the community network, and we analyze the network structure and community cluster characteristics of different threshold situations. The study finds that the threshold value of 0.7 is the abrupt change point of the network. At the same time, as the threshold value increases, the independence of the community strengthens. This study provides a method of researching stock market based on the financial indicators, exploring the structural similarity of financial indicators of stocks. Also, it provides guidance for investment and corporate financial management.

  9. Research perspectives on the regulation and physiological functions of FGF21 and its association with NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eInagaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a metabolic hormone primarily secreted from the liver and functions in multiple tissues. Various transcription factors induce FGF21 expression in the liver, which indicates that FGF21 is a mediator of multiple environmental cues. FGF21 alters metabolism under starvation conditions, protects the body from energy depletion, and extends life span. Pharmacological administration of FGF21 alleviates dyslipidemia and induces weight loss in obese animals. In addition to the well-studied functions of FG21, several lines of recent evidence indicate a possible link between FGF21 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. High serum levels of FGF21 are associated with NAFLD and its risk factors such as endoplasmic reticulum stress and chronic inflammation. In addition, FGF21 alleviates the major risk factors of NAFLD including obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity. Thus, FGF21 is a potential drug candidate for diseases such as NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. In this review, the research perspectives of FGF21 and therapeutic potencies of FGF21 as a modulator of NAFLD are summarized.

  10. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  11. Assessment of the DOE/NREL Historically Black College and University Photovoltaic Research Associates Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posey-Eddy, F.; McConnell, R. D.

    2002-08-01

    This report details the DOE/NREL Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Photovoltaic Research Associates Program, a small but remarkable program that directly affected dozens of minority undergraduate students in ways that changed many of their lives. The progress and accomplishments of undergraduates within the nine participating universities were monitored and assessed through their presentations at an annual NREL-sponsored HBCU conference. Although the funding was small, typically $400,000 per year, the money made a significant impact. The best students sometimes went on to the nation's top graduate schools (e.g., MIT) or important management positions in large companies. Other students had opportunities to learn how renewable energy could positively affect their lives and their neighbors' lives. A few were lucky enough to install photovoltaic lighting and water-pumping systems in Africa, and to see and feel firsthand the technical and emotional benefits of this technology for families and villages. Two of the schools, Texas Southern University and Central State University, were particularly successful in leveraging their DOE/NREL funding to obtain additional funding for expanded programs.

  12. From brain to neuro: the brain research association and the making of British neuroscience, 1965-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Rached, Joelle M

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the short history of "neuroscience" as a discipline in its own right as opposed to the much longer past of the brain sciences. It focuses on one historical moment, the formation of the first British "neuroscience" society, the Brain Research Association (BRA), renamed in 1996 to the British Neuroscience Association (BNA). It outlines the new thinking brought about by this new science of brain, mind, and behavior, it sketches the beginnings of the BRA and the institutionalization of neuroscience in the British context, and it further explores the ambiguous relation the association had towards some of the ethical, social, and political implications of this new area of research.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-05-06

    May 6, 2016 ... Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan ... were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. ... Pan African Medical Journal. ... Western countries where incidence rates are higher than 80 per .... CI 95% : 0.357 - 1.523] were negatively associated with breast.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... because of stigma and socio-cultural taboos linked to homosexuality. [3]. However, some studies conducted ... Finally, in Nigeria, a national survey of 879 MSM revealed a 1.1% prevalence rate in Cross River State, .... association of HSH, the contraction of gay wedding. An MSM association is a club where ...

  18. Joint Professional Military Education: Opportunities Exist for Greater Oversight and Coordination of Associated Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    research requests across the department exposes DOD to the risk of potential overlap of studies and analysis research. View GAO-14-216. For more...National Defense University GPRA Government Performance and Results Act CCO Center for Complex Operations CSR Center for Strategic...their future leadership positions. To provide broad educational experiences, students can conduct research at the JPME research institutions as part

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  1. Research

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    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  4. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-05-25

    May 25, 2012 ... investigate factors associated to late the diagnosis of cervical cancer in Morocco ..... Mohamed Berraho: Contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, ... Effect of tumor size on the prognosis of carcinoma of the.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-12-15

    Dec 15, 2017 ... done in rural settings because of security concerns associated with. Boko Haram. ... receptivity or ability to act on public health information against cholera. ... encrypted and stored at Emerging Pathogens Institute's (EPI's).

  8. Research

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    abp

    2017-09-21

    Sep 21, 2017 ... Pericardial patch closure of isolated ventricular septal defect was done in 7 patients (38.9%) while .... as an isolated condition or in association with patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary stenosis. Severe rheumatic mitral.

  9. Latest discoveries and trends in translational cancer research: highlights of the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, William C S

    2008-08-01

    The Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) is the world's largest and most comprehensive gathering of cancer researchers. At the 2008 AACR Annual Meeting, innovative research approaches, novel technologies, potentially life-saving therapies in the pipeline, late-breaking clinical trial findings, and new approaches to cancer prevention were presented by top scientists. Reflecting the global state of cancer research with an eye toward future trends, several areas of great science and discovery in the cancer field were shared in this report, which include cancer biomarkers, the role of microRNAs in cancer research, cancer stem cells, tumor microenvironment, targeted therapy, and cancer prevention. This article presents an overview of hot topics discussed at the 2008 AACR Annual Meeting and recapitulates some scientific sessions geared toward new technologies, recent progress, and current challenges reported by cancer researchers. For those who did not attend the meeting, this report may serve as a highlight of this important international cancer research meeting.

  10. A Scientometric study of Research Papers Published by Visiting Associates of IUCAA, Pune (India) during 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) is an autonomous institution set up by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India to promote the nucleation and growth of active groups in astronomy and astrophysics at Indian universities. It was established in 1988 at Pune, India. IUCAA aims to be a centre of excellence within the university sector for teaching, research and development in astronomy and astrophysics. To highlight IUCAA Associates program and associates ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-30

    May 30, 2017 ... bacteriuria can be seen in general population but occurs more in pregnancy due to ... coli (E.coli), Klebsiella, Proteus and Staphylococcus species. Most of ... infection as both have been associated with increased incidences of preterm labour ... The two groups were closely monitored in the course of ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: In sub Saharan Africa, childbirth remains a challenge that creates the need for additional screening tools. Maternal pelvis height, which is currently in use by automotive engineers has previously been shown to have significant associations with various childbirth related outcomes and ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: Studies have shown high initial mortality in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) programs from resource-limited settings. However, there is dearth of evidence on treatment outcomes and associated determinant factors in public hospitals. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    25 mars 2016 ... Factors associated with cephalic load carriage in children in Benin: cross- ... de la Jeunesse, de l'Education Physique et du Sport (INJEPS), Université ..... Echarri JJ, Forriol F. Effect of axial load on the cervical spine: a study of ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-01-06

    Jan 6, 2013 ... Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression (forward ... factors for percutaneous injuries and splashes among a random ... Data management and analysis ... associated with the outcome, at P-value equal to or less than 0.25 ... uncooperative patient (14%), during disposal (9%), rapid gush of.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-08-29

    Aug 29, 2014 ... Abstract. Introduction: metabolic syndrome and thyroid dysfunction are two common disorders encountered in the metabolic clinic. Recently, there has been increased interest in the association between the two disorders because of the similarities between symptoms of hypothyroidism and components of ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-27

    May 27, 2014 ... of women have significant association with use of long acting and permanent contraceptive. ... inequality, sexual coercion, early marriage, polygamy, female genital cutting, closely .... intra uterine contraceptive device and female sterilization can cause .... countries Dominican Republic and India [7, 10, 11].

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... having a home delivery, maternal HIV infection, low birth weight and antenatal care booking were independently associated with perinatal mortality. Health worker training in emergency management of obstetric and neonatal care was initiated. Marondera District started holding perinatal mortality meetings.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore ... The sample was selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design consisting of 37 clusters, 18 in the .... deficiency in malaria endemic regions has multiple causes of which p.falciparum being one of the ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... (1990-1999), Unpublished MD thesis, Faculty of Medicine and. Biomedical Sciences,University of Yaounde I, Yaounde,. Cameroon 2000. Google Scholar. 32. Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Lumbiganon P, Laopaiboon M,. Carroli G, FawoleB,et al. Caesarean section without medical indications is associated ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2 juil. 2015 ... En analyse univariée, seule l'occupation était statistiquement associée à la ... Au niveau des infrastructures et de l'offre des services, l'accessibilité à un service de Santé ..... Radio cassette fonctionnelle. 2. Vélo en bon état. 3.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    12 oct. 2015 ... de réduire l'impact d'une mauvaise observance en terme de santé mondiale. Un taux moyen de .... Les scènes de simulations du premier contact du ... Psychiatric distress and disability associated with psoriasis: the BGSM ...

  17. Research

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    and technology, universally accessible to all in the community through their full ... experiences in community-based settings provide students with learning opportunities, as they are actively engaged in PHC-associated activities in .... in various learning environments, such as classrooms, communities, PHC facilities and ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... (mainly equipment) and the association of another test such as the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) test. Pan African Medical Journal. ... lack of awareness and information for screening and monitoring difficulties. Given the ... educational level, last menstrual period (LMP), marital status, parity and complaints ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-06

    Aug 6, 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: In Ethiopia information on the level of utilization of the long term and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factorsis lacking. The aim of this study was to understand the determinant factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods use among married women of ...

  20. Research

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    abp

    12 mars 2013 ... patients ayant une HbA1c supérieure à 9%, LDL-c ≥ 1 g/l et une .... mellitus and low HDL cholesterol, but not to hyperlipidemia in .... la macroangiopathie et les autres facteurs de risque associés. CMI. AVC. AOMI. N n. % n. %.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-10-21

    Oct 21, 2012 ... There was an association (P<0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, .... This was a cross-sectional survey that involved interviewing of the HIV/AIDS patients using structured a questionnaire and also laboratory analysis.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 août 2014 ... Epidémiologie des PFA et les performances du système de surveillance en Mauritanie ... ont été classés compatible et un cas de paralysie associée à la vaccination contre .... Organisation du système de surveillance des PFA.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    10 avr. 2012 ... Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits .... Des valeurs comme la confiance, la franchise, la vérité sont citées ..... Social and behavioral factors associated with high-risk sexual ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-15

    Mar 15, 2016 ... In the second stage, households were ... commonest exposure were washing clothes in the stream (72.7%), bathing in the stream (71.0%), .... other hand, a significant association between polymorphisms located in the IL-1a ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to. 4.19) and only one study ...

  6. Dealing with Data: Science Librarians' Participation in Data Management at Association of Research Libraries Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antell, Karen; Foote, Jody Bales; Turner, Jaymie; Shults, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As long as empirical research has existed, researchers have been doing "data management" in one form or another. However, funding agency mandates for doing formal data management are relatively recent, and academic libraries' involvement has been concentrated mainly in the last few years. The National Science Foundation implemented a new…

  7. HIV Genome-Wide Protein Associations: a Review of 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The HIV genome encodes a small number of viral proteins (i.e., 16), invariably establishing cooperative associations among HIV proteins and between HIV and host proteins, to invade host cells and hijack their internal machineries. As a known example, the HIV envelope glycoprotein GP120 is closely associated with GP41 for viral entry. From a genome-wide perspective, a hypothesis can be worked out to determine whether 16 HIV proteins could develop 120 possible pairwise associations either by physical interactions or by functional associations mediated via HIV or host molecules. Here, we present the first systematic review of experimental evidence on HIV genome-wide protein associations using a large body of publications accumulated over the past 3 decades. Of 120 possible pairwise associations between 16 HIV proteins, at least 34 physical interactions and 17 functional associations have been identified. To achieve efficient viral replication and infection, HIV protein associations play essential roles (e.g., cleavage, inhibition, and activation) during the HIV life cycle. In either a dispensable or an indispensable manner, each HIV protein collaborates with another viral protein to accomplish specific activities that precisely take place at the proper stages of the HIV life cycle. In addition, HIV genome-wide protein associations have an impact on anti-HIV inhibitors due to the extensive cross talk between drug-inhibited proteins and other HIV proteins. Overall, this study presents for the first time a comprehensive overview of HIV genome-wide protein associations, highlighting meticulous collaborations between all viral proteins during the HIV life cycle. PMID:27357278

  8. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    31 mars 2016 ... Nous avons recherché les facteurs associés à l'échec de cette stratégie. Méthodes: Nous .... déjà eu un épisode d'accès palustre pendant la grossesse en cours .... Iptp-sp-updated-policy-brief-24jan2014-fr.pdf (Internet). (cité.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    3 janv. 2013 ... prédispose le nouveau-né hypotrophe à des déficits cognitifs, à des moindres capacités physiques, à un risque des maladies tout au long de la vie et même à des maladies chroniques ..... L'anémie d'origine paludéenne serait due non seulement à l'hémolyse, mais aussi à d'autres troubles associés au ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    10 mars 2016 ... Introduction: Les grossesses gémellaires sont associées à un risque de morbimortalité périnatale plus élevé que les grossesses simples. ... étaient plus à risque en exposant notamment à l'hypotrophie chez les nouveau-nés à terme. ... Les critères d'inclusion des patients se sont basés sur la définition.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    11 nov. 2013 ... vomissements. L´infection urinaire était confirmée par un examen cytobactériologique des urines (ECBU) effectué lorsque l´enfant présentait un syndrome inflammatoire à réponse systémique (fièvre, tachycardie, tachypnée, hyperleucytose, leucopenie), associé à des troubles digestifs et/ou urinaires.

  13. The influence of race and ethnicity on becoming a human subject: Factors associated with participation in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Garza, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with willingness of African Americans and Latinos to participate in biomedical and public health research and to delineate factors that influence the decision to become a human subject. Methods: We present results from a 2010 random digit-dial telephone survey of 2,455 African American (N = 1191 and Latino (N = 1264 adults. We used standard measures to assess knowledge of research, terminology, informed consent procedures, previous participation in research, health care experiences, social support, risk perception, religiousness, and trust. Results: Over 60% of both African Americans and Latinos reported they believed people in medical research are pressured into participating. Over 50% said that it was not at all important to have someone of the same race/ethnicity ask them to participate. In a sub-sample of 322 African Americans and 190 Latinos who had previously been asked to participate in a research study, 63% of African Americans and 65% of Latinos consented to participate in a study. Finally, both African Americans (57% and Latinos (68% reported willingness to participate in future research. Overall, the multivariate analysis explained 29% of the variability in willingness to participate in future research. Conclusions: Results suggest that African Americans and Latinos have no automatic predisposition to decline participation in research studies. These results can inform culturally tailored interventions for ethical recruitment of minorities into research and clinical trials.

  14. Research and Development for a Course in Ethics in Nursing Practice for Community College Associate Degree Nursing Students. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Jeanette

    A project was undertaken to research and acquire the instructional sources needed for a course in ethics for community college associate degree nursing students and to develop such a course. Addressed in the individual units of the course were the following topics: bioethics and ethical decision making, basic ethical concepts and principles,…

  15. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-01-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic

  16. Benefits, Challenges, and Dynamism of Positionalities Associated with Mixed Methods Research in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Joseph Kofi

    2012-01-01

    Although mixed methods designs have gained visibility in recent years, most of the publications on this methodological strategy have been written by scholars in the developed world. Consequently, the practical challenges associated with mixed methods research in developing countries have not been adequately discussed in the literature. Relying on…

  17. CONSIDER - Core Outcome Set in IAD Research: study protocol for establishing a core set of outcomes and measurements in incontinence-associated dermatitis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bussche, Karen; De Meyer, Dorien; Van Damme, Nele; Kottner, Jan; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2017-10-01

    This study protocol describes the methodology for the development of a core set of outcomes and a core set of measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis. Incontinence is a widespread disorder with an important impact on quality of life. One of the most common complications is incontinence-associated dermatitis, resulting from chemical and physical irritation of the skin barrier, triggering inflammation and skin damage. Managing incontinence-associated dermatitis is an important challenge for nurses. Several interventions have been assessed in clinical trials, but heterogeneity in study outcomes complicates the comparability and standardization. To overcome this challenge, the development of a core outcome set, a minimum set of outcomes and measurements to be assessed in clinical research, is needed. A project team, International Steering Committee and panelists will be involved to guide the development of the core outcome set. The framework of the Harmonizing Outcomes Measures for Eczema roadmap endorsed by Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative, is used to inform the project design. A systematic literature review, interviews to integrate the patients' perspective and a consensus study with healthcare researchers and providers using the Delphi procedure will be performed. The project was approved by the Ethics review Committee (April 2016). This is the first project that will identify a core outcome set of outcomes and measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis research. A core outcome set will reduce possible reporting bias, allow results comparisons and statistical pooling across trials and strengthen evidence-based practice and decision-making. This project has been registered in the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database and is part of the Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Research Synthesis of the Associations between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Moore, Hadass; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2017-01-01

    Educational researchers and practitioners assert that supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students, thus potentially reducing academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Nonetheless, scientific evidence establishing directional…

  19. 78 FR 55728 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...) Modernizing FDA's Clinical Trials/BIMO Programs; (3) What FDA Expects in a Pharmaceutical Clinical Trial; (4) Medical Device Aspects of Clinical Research; (5) Adverse Event Reporting--Science, Regulation, Error, and...

  20. Overview of research activities associated with the World Health Organization: results of a survey covering 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the first comprehensive effort to provide an overview of the research associated with the World Health Organization (WHO headquarters in 2006/07. Methods Information was obtained by questionnaire and interviews with senior staff operating at WHO headquarters in Geneva. Research type, purpose and resources (both financial and staff were defined and compared for each of the 37 departments identified and a comparative analysis was made with the global burden of disease as expressed by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY. Results Research expenditure in 2006/07 was estimated at US$215 million. WHO is involved in more than 60 research networks/partnerships and often WHO itself is the network host. Using the DALY model, 84% of the funding WHO allocates to research goes to DALY Type I diseases (communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional diseases which represents 40% of DALY. 4% is allocated to Daly Type II (non-communicable diseases which contributes to 48% of DALY. 45% of WHO permanent staff are involved with health research and the WHO's approach to research is predominantly focused on policy, advocacy, health systems and population based research. The Organization principally undertakes secondary research using published data and commissions others to conduct this work through contracts or research grants. This approach is broadly in line with the stated strategy of the Organization. Conclusions The difficulty in undertaking this survey highlights the complexity of obtaining an Organization-wide assessment of research activity in the absence of common standards for research classification, methods for priority setting and a mechanism across WHO, or within the governance of global health research more generally, for managing a research portfolio. This paper presents a strategic birds-eye view of the WHO research portfolio using methodologies that, with further development, may provide the strategic

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    14 août 2012 ... par l'utilisation fréquente des médicaments de la dysfonction érectile ; ils ont en effet été associés à des comportements sexuels à risque [23] ; la méconnaissance des risques de transmission ... La mesure de l'observance a été évaluée sur les 24 dernières heures afin de limiter l'effet d'un éventuel biais de ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    16 déc. 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: Le but de notre étude était d'évaluer la prévalence du surpoids et de l'obésité chez des adolescents scolarisés dans la ville de Sfax mais aussi, d'étudier son association avec le temps de sédentarité et l'activité physique (AP). Méthodes: La population étudiée était composée de.

  3. Development and Operation of Experiment Course using Research Reactor and Associated Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, B. C.; Hwang, I. A.; Won, J. Y.; Ju, Y. C.; Nam, J. S.; Seo, K. W.; Kim, H. N.

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of present research is to offer a specialized educational opportunity by developing specific curriculum for potential users, mainly university students majoring in related with nuclear engineering and radiation field, on site at KAERI, exploiting the diverse offering of HANARO and ancillary facilities. The specific items of this research accomplished are: First, Development of various curricula for specific research using HANARO and continuous operation of the developed curricula to provided university students with opportunities to use HANARO. Second, Continuous operation of research reactor related experimental training programs for university students in nuclear field to make contribution to cultivating specialists. Third, through the site experimental training for new coming nuclear engineering students, support future potential users to the nuclear research fields, as well as enlarge or broaden the base. Finally, it is hoped that these experiments broadens public awareness and acceptance of the present and potential future contribution of the reactor technology, there by bring positive impacts to policy making. As a whole, 108 students offered and 88 students from 6 universities have completed the course of the programs developed by this project. Also, 1 textbook and 1 teaching aid, a questionnaire have been developed to support the program.

  4. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  5. Association between framing of the research question using the PICOT format and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experts recommend formulating a structured research question to guide the research design. However, the basis for this recommendation has not been formally evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine if a structured research question using the PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Time-frame format is associated with a better reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods We evaluated 89 RCTs reports published in three endocrinology journals in 2005 and 2006, the quality of reporting of which was assessed in a previous study. We examined whether the reports stated each of the five elements of a structured research question: population, intervention, comparator, outcome and time-frame. A PICOT score was created with a possible score between 0 and 5. Outcomes were: 1 a 14-point overall reporting quality score (OQS based on the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials; and 2 a 3-point key score (KS, based on allocation concealment, blinding and use of intention-to-treat analysis. We conducted multivariable regression analyses using generalized estimating equations to determine if a higher PICOT score or the use of a structured research question were independently associated with a better reporting quality. Journal of publication, funding source and sample size were identified as factors associated with OQS in our previous report on this dataset, and therefore included in the model. Results A higher PICOT score was independently associated with OQS (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.021, 95% CI: 1.012 to 1.029 and KS (IRR = 1.142, 95% CI: 1.079 to 1.210. A structured research question was present in 33.7% of the reports and it was associated with a better OQS (IRR = 1.095, 95% CI 1.059-1.132 and KS (IRR = 1.530, 95% CI 1.311-1.786. Conclusions Better framing of the research question using the PICOT format is independently associated with better overall reporting quality - although the effect

  6. Change in stated clinical practice associated with participation in the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Richman, Joshua S; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Clinical researchers have attempted many methods to translate scientific evidence into routine clinical practice, with varying success. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide an important, practitioner-friendly venue to test these methods. Dentist practitioner-investigators from...... the Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) completed a detailed questionnaire about how they diagnose and treat dental caries. Next, they received a customized report that compared their answers to those from all other practitioner-investigators. Then, 126 of them attended the DPBRN's first network......-wide meeting of practitioner-investigators from all five of its regions. During that meeting, certain questions were repeated and new ones were asked about the dentist's intention to change the way that he or she diagnosed or treated dental caries. Less than one-third of practitioner-investigators intended...

  7. The dysregulated cluster in personality profiling research: Longitudinal stability and associations with bulimic behaviors and correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Jennifer D.; Klump, Kelly L.; Donnellan, M. Brent; McGue, Matthew; Iacono, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Among cluster analytic studies of the personality profiles associated with bulimia nervosa, a group of individuals characterized by emotional lability and behavioral dysregulation (i.e., a dysregulated cluster) has emerged most consistently. However, previous studies have all been cross-sectional and mostly used clinical samples. This study aimed to replicate associations between the dysregulated personality cluster and bulimic symptoms and related characteristics using a longitudinal, population-based sample. Participants were females assessed at ages 17 and 25 from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, clustered based on their personality traits. The Dysregulated cluster was successfully identified at both time points and was more stable across time than either the Resilient or Sensation Seeking clusters. Rates of bulimic symptoms and related behaviors (e.g., alcohol use problems) were also highest in the dysregulated group. Findings suggest that the dysregulated cluster is a relatively stable and robust profile that is associated with bulimic symptoms. PMID:23398096

  8. Estimates of Arab world research productivity associated with groundwater: a bibliometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Shaher H.; Fuchs-Hanusch, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    The sustainable management of groundwater resources is a pressing necessity for most countries. As most of the Arab world is facing severe water scarcity, threats of depletion of non-renewable groundwater, and problems of pollution and salt-water intrusions into groundwater aquifers, much effort should be devoted to eliminate these dangers in advance. This work was devoted to bring up insights into Arab world research activities in groundwater, which is a crucial task to identify their status and can help in shaping up and improving future research activities. A bibliometric analysis has been conducted to track these activities. The study identified 1417 documents which represent 3.3% of global research productivity. Egypt was the most productive country (313; 22.1%), followed by Saudi Arabia (254; 17.9%). Total citations were 9720 with an average of 6.9. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 39, and the highest one was 22 for Egypt. The most common subject category was Environmental Science, and the most productive journal was Arabian Journal of Geosciences (99; 7.0%). In international research collaboration, France was the most collaborated country with Arab world (125; 8.8%), followed by the United States (113; 8.0%). The most productive institution was King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia (66; 4.7%). The outcomes shows remarkable improvements in groundwater research activities originated from the Arab world. Even though, constructive efforts should be pursued vigorously to bridge the gaps in groundwater-based research. Moreover, promotion of better evaluation tools to assess the risks arising from the mismanagement of groundwater resources is required urgently.

  9. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)--2010 Annual Meeting. For Sight: The Future of Eye and Vision Research--part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookes, Livia

    2010-07-01

    The 2010 Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), held in Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of eye and vision research. This conference report highlights selected presentations on the development of OT-440 (Othera Pharmaceuticals Inc) for the potential treatment of glaucoma, an extended-release implant of brimonidine (pSivida Corp) for ocular hypertension, AR-12286 (Aerie Pharmaceuticals Inc) for ocular hypertension or glaucoma, AC-8 (Calmune Corp/RiboVax Biotechnologies SA) for ocular diseases following HSV infection, and fidarestat (Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co Ltd) and the recombinant proteins NOV and NOVCter (INSERM/University Rene Descartes) for corneal neovascularization.

  10. A Report on the Activities, Publications, and Pending Research of DHS/DOD Sponsored Post-doctoral Research Associate at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-26

    Since beginning at Los Alamos National Laboratory in February of 2012, I have been working as a DHS./DNDO Postdoctoral Research Associate under the mentorship of Lav Tandon and Khalil Spencer (NA-22 and mass spectrometry). The focus of my efforts, in addition to pursuing needed training and qualifications, has been the application of various instrumental approaches (e.g. Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry; TIMS) to a range of systems of interest in materials characterization and nuclear forensics. Research to be pursued in the coming months shall include the continued use of such approaches to advance current methods for: modified total evaporation, monitoring critical minor isotope systems, and chronometry. Each of the above points will be discussed.

  11. Annual progress report 1993. Work in controlled thermonuclear fusion research performed in the fusion research unit under the contract of association between Euratom and Risoe National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The programme of the Research Unit of the Fusion Association Euratom-Risoe National Laboratory covers work in fusion plasma physics and in fusion technology. The fusion plasma physics group has activities within (a) studies of nonlinear dynamical processes in magnetized plasmas, (b) development of pellet injectors for fusion experiments, and (c) development of diagnostics for fusion plasmas. The activities in technology cover radiation damage of fusion reactor materials. A summary of the activities in 1993 is presented. (au) (4 tabs., 21 ills., 64 refs.)

  12. Chaparral and associated ecosystems management: a 5-year research and development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Eugene Conrad; George A. Roby; Serena C. Hunter

    1986-01-01

    Chaparral is the dominant vegetation in the wildlands of central and southern California. It has evolved fire adaptions that make it flammable and trigger postfire regeneration, thereby ensuring plant community rejuvenation. To provide a framework for chaparral-related research and accelerate development and demonstration of urgently needed management techniques, the...

  13. 75 FR 27789 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Application for the Pharmacology Research Associate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be... develop leaders in pharmacological research for key positions in academic, industrial, and Federal...

  14. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: a review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Rock, Melanie; Toohey, Ann M; Hignell, Danica

    2010-07-01

    Given that recent literature reviews on physical activity in urban parks deliberately excluded qualitative findings, we reviewed qualitative research on this topic informed by a published classification scheme based on quantitative research. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies relied mainly on semi-structured interviews with individuals or in focus groups; only five studies involved in situ observation. Our synthesis aligns with previous quantitative research showing that attributes including safety, aesthetics, amenities, maintenance, and proximity are important for encouraging park use. Furthermore, our synthesis of qualitative research suggests that perceptions of the social environment entwine inextricably with perceptions of the physical environment. If so, physical attributes of parks as well as perceptions of these attributes (formed in relation to broader social contexts) may influence physical activity patterns. Both qualitative and quantitative methods provide useful information for interpreting such patterns, and in particular, when designing and assessing interventions intended to improve the amount and intensity of physical activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Quantitative Assessment of the Research Chefs Association Core Competencies for the Practicing Culinologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Rachel L.; Cheng, Michael S. H.; Brannan, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Professional organizations have linked core competency to professional success and competitive strategy. The Research Chefs Assn. (RCA) recently released 43 core competencies for practicing culinologists. Culinology[R] is a profession that links skills of culinary arts and food science and technology in the development of food products. An online…

  16. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Association of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-12

    Jan 12, 2017 ... Subject Recruitment. This study was started after getting ethical approval from Research and Ethics Committee of ..... LeukemiaNet recommendations for the management of CML. Ann Hematol, 94(2) ... Identification of class-mu glutathione transferase genes GSTM1-GSTM5 on human chromosome 1p13.

  18. Towards a database for genotype-phenotype association research: mining data from encyclopaedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajić, V.S.; Pavlović-Lažetić, G.M.; Beljanski, M.V.; Brandt, B.W.; Pajić, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    To associate phenotypic characteristics of an organism to molecules encoded by its genome, there is a need for well-structured genotype and phenotype data. We use a novel method for extracting data on phenotype and genotype characteristics of microorganisms from text. As a resource, we use an

  19. Protocol for a systematic review on the extent of non-publication of research studies and associated study characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portalupi, Susan; von Elm, Erik; Schmucker, Christine; Lang, Britta; Motschall, Edith; Schwarzer, Guido; Gross, Isabel T; Scherer, Roberta W; Bassler, Dirk; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2013-01-09

    Methodological research has found that non-published studies often have different results than those that are published, a phenomenon known as publication bias. When results are not published, or are published selectively based on the direction or the strength of the findings, healthcare professionals and consumers of healthcare cannot base their decision-making on the full body of current evidence. As part of the OPEN project (http://www.open-project.eu) we will conduct a systematic review with the following objectives:1. To determine the proportion and/or rate of non-publication of studies by systematically reviewing methodological research projects that followed up a cohort of studies that a. received research ethics committee (REC) approval,b. were registered in trial registries, orc. were presented as abstracts at conferences.2. To assess the association of study characteristics (for example, direction and/or strength of findings) with likelihood of full publication.To identify reports of relevant methodological research projects we will conduct electronic database searches, check reference lists, and contact experts. Published and unpublished projects will be included. The inclusion criteria are as follows:a. RECs: methodological research projects that examined the subsequent proportion and/or rate of publication of studies that received approval from RECs;b. Trial registries: methodological research projects that examine the subsequent proportion and/or rate of publication of studies registered in trial registries;c. Conference abstracts: methodological research projects that examine the subsequent proportion and/or rate of full publication of studies which were initially presented at conferences as abstracts. Proportion/rate of published studies; time to full publication (mean/median; cumulative publication rate by time). Association of study characteristics with full publication.The different questions (a, b, and c) will be investigated separately. Data

  20. Investigation research of core-basic information associated with the coupling analysis. Outline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Shinichi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Kawahara, Kenichi; Neyama, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The newest literature information in the foreign countries was researched, and this research showed the basic concept of the coupling analysis code to realize coupling analysis in near field of the geological disposal system. The outline of this research is shown in the following. (1) The combination of M (Mechanical) and C (Chemistry) is placed on the weak relations, because coupling analysis of the United States Yucca Mountain limits a site and the specifications of engineered barrier. (2) One of the purposes of this research is information collecting about coupling analysis code NUFT-C adopted in the United States Yucca Mountain. Therefore, we carried out an information exchange with the United States Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We could collect the development purpose of analysis code, key function, and information such as a test case analysis. (3) The investigation of the analysis code concerned with the newest information of coupling analysis which contains the geochemistry process and 2 phase system was done based on the public information for the purpose of building some concept of the coupling analysis code, the extraction of the development issues. It could be understood about the future development strategy and the precaution in addition to a phenomenon to deal with, the current status of the coupling analysis technique as a result of the investigation. (4) It was cleared about the mission of the coupling analysis code and the requirement items (function, quality) by this research. Then, some development options were presented. (5) It was studied about the procedure of developing it to satisfy the above requirement toward the conditions that a site isn't selected, the short development. The tool (Diffpack) which could cope with the speed-up of the calculation time and visualization flexibly was effective, and it was summarized about the test case by using this tool, the key function of this tool as that result. (author)

  1. Multiple Sessions for Information Literacy Instruction are Associated with Improvement in Students’ Research Abilities and Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Wadson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Henry, J., Glauner, D., & Lefoe, G. (2015. A double shot of information literacy instruction at a community college. Community & Junior College Libraries, 21(1-2, 27-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02763915.2015.1120623 Abstract Objective – To evaluate the impact of providing multiple information literacy (IL sessions, instead of a single “one-shot” session, to students in face-to-face and online English courses. Design – Non-experimental, using pre-test and post-test surveys for one group, and only a post-test survey for the other group. Setting – A small community college in North Carolina, United States of America. Subjects – 352 students enrolled in 2 successive 3-credit English courses, excluding those under the age of 18, for a total of 244 participants. Methods – The researchers selected two English courses, ENG 111 and ENG 112, of which most students were required to take at least one to earn a degree or certification. After consulting with faculty, the researchers designed two workshops for each course that integrated active and group learning techniques. The ENG 111 workshops covered pre-searching (e.g., mind mapping and selecting search terms and database searching in the first session, and website analysis and research (e.g., URLs, Google’s advanced search, and the evaluative CRAAP test in the second session. The ENG 112 workshops covered subject database searching in the first session and evaluative analysis of magazine and scholarly journal articles in the second session. Instructors provided web-based tutorials to online course sections as a substitute for the face-to-face sessions. Course assignments were the same for both online and face-to-face classes. The researchers used anonymous online surveys. ENG 111 students completed pre-test and post-test surveys for their two workshops during the fall 2014 semester. The surveys consisted of seven fill-in-the-blank and multiple-choice questions measuring pre

  2. First Ph.D. Student Workshop of the Hermann von Helmholtz Association of National Research Centers (HGF) on ''Nuclear Safety Research''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Sanchez Espinoza, V.H.

    2006-03-01

    The First Ph.D. Student Workshop ''Nuclear Safety Research'' of the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centers (HGF)'' was jointly organized by the Research Center Karlsruhe GmbH and the Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (EnBW) from Wednesday 9th to Friday 11th March 2005. The workshop was opened with welcome greetings by Dr. Peter Fritz, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Subsequently Dr. Joachim U. Knebel explained the main goals and the content of the workshop. The young scientists reported in 28 high-level presentations about their research work which covered a wide spectrum from reactor safety, partitions and transmutation, and innovative reactor systems, to safety research for nuclear waste disposal. The junior researchs showed excellent professional competence and demonstrated presentation qualities at the highest level. The successful funding of two Virtual Institutes, namely: the ''Competence in Nuclear Technologies'' and ''Functional Characteristics of Aquatic Interfaces both co-ordinated by Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe'', by the President of the Helmholtz Association Prof. Walter Kroell was the motivation for the organization of this first Ph.D. Student Workshop. Thanks to these two Virtual Institutes, the Reseach Center Karlsruhe and Juelich together with several univer-sities i.e. RWTH Aachen, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Muenster, and Stuttgart, have successfully financed eight Ph.D. and two post-doctoral students. Moreover, young scientists of the European Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) and additional seven Ph.D. Students, who are sponsored by the German nuclear industry (Framatome ANP, RWE Power, EnBW) in the frame of the Alliance Competence in on Nuclear Technology, and who are trained at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, actively contributed to this workshop. The EnBW-Award was handed over by Dr. Hans-Josef Zimmer, member of the board of directors of the EnBW-Kraftwerksgesellschaft, to Mrs. Ayelet Walter from the University of Stuttgart for the best

  3. Conference on Logistics Management : Contributions of the Section Logistics of the German Academic Association for Business Research

    CERN Document Server

    Spengler, Thomas; Brinkmann, Jan; Grunewald, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the selected and thoroughly reviewed research papers presented at the conference on logistics management LM2015 in Braunschweig, Germany. The conference of the special interest group in logistics of the German Academic Association for Business Research (VHB) was held in conjunction with the special interest group on production of the VHB. Thus, the papers reflect the current state-of-the-art in logistics and supply chain management while focusing especially on aspects of production logistics, i.e., facility layout, inventory management, line configuration, or flexible production.

  4. Associating Factors With Public Preparedness Behavior Against Earthquake: A Review of Iranian Research Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Local preparedness against earthquakes has been recently highlighted in research and policies on disaster management and risk reduction promotion in Iran. To advance the understanding of public preparedness and how it can be applied in diverse localities, further information is required about the predictors of people’s adoption of mitigation activities and earthquake preparedness. A synthesis of the available published research results on earthquake preparedness and the influencing factors in Iran are presented in this literature review. It emphasizes the complexity of both the concept of preparedness and the contextual factors that mediate its adoption. The predominant roles of public awareness, trusted information resources, social capital and community collaboration as predictors are discussed. 

  5. Training and teaching with SILOETTE reactor and associated simulators at the Nuclear Research Centre of Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.

    1983-10-01

    Thanks to its three reactors SILOE (35 MW), MELUSINE (8 MW) and SILOETTE (100 KW), the Reactor Department of the Nuclear Research Centre of Grenoble has gained a considerable experience in the operation and utilization of research and material testing reactors. Inside of this general framework, the Reactor Department of Grenoble has built up a training and teaching centre that has been permanently active since 1975, with the aim of satisfying the considerable needs arising from the development of electro-nuclear power stations. The course is mainly intended for engineers and technicians who will be responsible for running power stations. A thorough series of practical exercices, carried out in the SILOETTE training reactor and in a PWR or in a Gas Cooled Reactor Simulator, desmonstrates the application of the theorical courses and familiarises the trainees with the behaviour of reactors and power stations

  6. Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krol, A.A.; Read, D.

    1986-09-01

    This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

  7. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear and associated techniques in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most laboratories studying pesticide metabolism or other aspects of pesticides use isotope techniques. This manual is aimed at scientists who use or intended to use radioisotopes in pesticide research. It contains a theoretical introduction on the properties of radionuclides and radiation, a description of radioactivity measuring instruments, guidelines for radiation protection and general recommendations on experimental design and performance. A large part of the manual is devoted to laboratory exercises in which detailed protocols for applications of isotope techniques in pesticide research are presented. These are intended to demonstrate concepts or denote representative means of conducting particular types of experiment, and it is hoped that the information gained through the performance of the exercises will serve as a basis for modifications to suit other specialized needs. 36 figs

  8. Is a maturational lag associated with left-handedness? A research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, W O; Chipperfield, J G; Ritchot, K F; Kostiuk, J H

    1996-07-01

    One element of Coren and Halpern's controversial theory [Psychological Bulletin, 109, 90-106 (1991)] that left-handedness is associated with shorter lifespans is the hypothesis that sinistrality is accompanied by a developmental lag. Perinatal traumas could interfere with the normal developmental shift to right-sided lateral preferences during childhood, leading to an association between maturational lag and left-handedness. In a test of this hypothesis, we assessed current stature, predicted adult stature and relative stature, an index of physical maturity, for elementary school-aged children in three separate, large-sample studies. No relations between hand preference and the three measures of physical status were found. Repeated failures to confirm the hypothesis with pre-adolescent samples raise serious doubt about the viability of the left-handed developmental lag hypothesis.

  9. Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, N.G.; Anderson, W.; Davis, R.P.; Carden, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

  10. Agitation in cognitive disorders:International Psychogeriatric Association provisional consensus clinical and research definition

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Jeffrey; Mintzer, Jacobo; Brodaty, Henry; Sano, Mary; Banerjee, Sube; Devanand, D. P.; Gauthier, Serge; Howard, Robert; Lanctôt, Krista; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Peskind, Elaine; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Reich, Edgardo; Sampaio, Cristina; Steffens, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agitation is common across neuropsychiatric disorders and contributes to disability, institutionalization, and diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. There is no consensus definition of agitation and no widespread agreement on what elements should be included in the syndrome. The International Psychogeriatric Association formed an Agitation Definition Work Group (ADWG) to develop a provisional consensus definition of agitation in patients with cognitive diso...

  11. Association between Local Illumination and Visual Fatigue among the Research and Development Staffs of Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mashkoori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Work proper lighting means a safe, healthy and comfort conditions for work under a lighting system that includes qualitative and quantitative features. This study aimed to evaluate the surface local lighting of works and eye fatigue among research and development staffs of an automotive industry. Instrument & Methods: In this descriptive study in Research and Development Department of an automotive industry in 2015, 126 official staffs were selected randomly. A demographic questionnaire and the Visual Fatigue Questionnaire (Persian Version were used for data gathering. Hagner EC1 Luxmeter was used to measure the local lighting. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software, through descriptive statistics. Findings: The lighting in 382 stations (75.8% was improper and less than standard. The minimum and maximum intensity of light was between 22.4lux in station 2 (inventory department and 581lux in station 4 (systems and methods department. The overall intensity in more than 50% units, except the Systems and Methods Department, were less than the standard (300lux. 40.4% of the participants had severe eye fatigue, 28.6% had moderate visual fatigue, 28.6% had low visual fatigue and only 2.4% had no visual fatigue. The average of visual fatigue was 3.50±1.97. Conclusion: The workplace lighting and the eye fatigue of computer users in the Research and Development Department of the studied automotive industry are not in an acceptable condition.

  12. Research on improving image recognition robustness by combining multiple features with associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongwei; Wang, Zhe

    2018-05-01

    Convolutional neural networks (CNN) achieve great success in computer vision, it can learn hierarchical representation from raw pixels and has outstanding performance in various image recognition tasks [1]. However, CNN is easy to be fraudulent in terms of it is possible to produce images totally unrecognizable to human eyes that CNNs believe with near certainty are familiar objects. [2]. In this paper, an associative memory model based on multiple features is proposed. Within this model, feature extraction and classification are carried out by CNN, T-SNE and exponential bidirectional associative memory neural network (EBAM). The geometric features extracted from CNN and the digital features extracted from T-SNE are associated by EBAM. Thus we ensure the recognition of robustness by a comprehensive assessment of the two features. In our model, we can get only 8% error rate with fraudulent data. In systems that require a high safety factor or some key areas, strong robustness is extremely important, if we can ensure the image recognition robustness, network security will be greatly improved and the social production efficiency will be extremely enhanced.

  13. Use of genome-wide association studies for cancer research and drug repositioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhun Zhang

    Full Text Available Although genome-wide association studies have identified many risk loci associated with colorectal cancer, the molecular basis of these associations are still unclear. We aimed to infer biological insights and highlight candidate genes of interest within GWAS risk loci. We used an in silico pipeline based on functional annotation, quantitative trait loci mapping of cis-acting gene, PubMed text-mining, protein-protein interaction studies, genetic overlaps with cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes, and functional enrichment analysis to prioritize the candidate genes at the colorectal cancer risk loci. Based on these analyses, we observed that these genes were the targets of approved therapies for colorectal cancer, and suggested that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study highlights the use of publicly available data as a cost effective solution to derive biological insights, and provides an empirical evidence that the molecular basis of colorectal cancer can provide important leads for the discovery of new drugs.

  14. Assessing Clinical Trial-Associated Workload in Community-Based Research Programs Using the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marjorie J; Hurley, Patricia; Woo, Kaitlin M; Szczepanek, Connie; Stewart, Teresa; Robert, Nicholas; Lyss, Alan; Gönen, Mithat; Lilenbaum, Rogerio

    2016-05-01

    Clinical research program managers are regularly faced with the quandary of determining how much of a workload research staff members can manage while they balance clinical practice and still achieve clinical trial accrual goals, maintain data quality and protocol compliance, and stay within budget. A tool was developed to measure clinical trial-associated workload, to apply objective metrics toward documentation of work, and to provide clearer insight to better meet clinical research program challenges and aid in balancing staff workloads. A project was conducted to assess the feasibility and utility of using this tool in diverse research settings. Community-based research programs were recruited to collect and enter clinical trial-associated monthly workload data into a web-based tool for 6 consecutive months. Descriptive statistics were computed for self-reported program characteristics and workload data, including staff acuity scores and number of patient encounters. Fifty-one research programs that represented 30 states participated. Median staff acuity scores were highest for staff with patients enrolled in studies and receiving treatment, relative to staff with patients in follow-up status. Treatment trials typically resulted in higher median staff acuity, relative to cancer control, observational/registry, and prevention trials. Industry trials exhibited higher median staff acuity scores than trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, academic institutions, or others. The results from this project demonstrate that trial-specific acuity measurement is a better measure of workload than simply counting the number of patients. The tool was shown to be feasible and useable in diverse community-based research settings. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wen, N [Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  16. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H; Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Wen, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  17. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  18. VHB-JOURQUAL2: Method, Results, and Implications of the German Academic Association for Business Research's Journal Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Ulf; Hennig-Thurau, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    VHB-JOURQUAL represents the official journal ranking of the German Academic Association for Business Research. Since its introduction in 2003, the ranking has become the most influential journal evaluation approach in German-speaking countries, impacting several key managerial decisions of German, Austrian, and Swiss business schools. This article reports the methodological approach of the ranking’s second edition. It also presents the main results and additional analyses on the validity of t...

  19. Avian use of introduced plants: ornithologist records illuminate interspecific associations and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare E; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2010-06-01

    Introduced species have the potential to impact processes central to the organization of ecological communities. Although hundreds of nonnative plant species have naturalized in the United States, only a small percentage of these have been studied in their new biotic communities. Their interactions with resident (native and introduced) bird species remain largely unexplored. As a group, citizen scientists such as ornithologists possess a wide range of experiences. They may offer insights into the prevalence and form of bird interactions with nonnative plants on a broad geographic scale. We surveyed 173 ornithologists from four U.S. states, asking them to report observations of bird interactions with nonnative plants. The primary goal of the survey was to obtain information useful in guiding future empirical research. In all, 1143 unique bird-plant interactions were reported, involving 99 plant taxa and 168 bird species. Forty-seven percent of reported interactions concerned potential dispersal (feeding on seeds or fruits). Remaining "habitat interactions" involved bird use of plants for nesting, perching, woodpecking, gleaning, and other activities. We utilized detrended correspondence analysis to ordinate birds with respect to the plants they reportedly utilize. Results illuminate the new guilds formed by these interactions. We assessed the existing level of knowledge about invasiveness of those plants reported most often in feeding interactions, identifying information gaps for biological invasions research priority. To exemplify the usefulness of citizen science data, we utilized survey results to guide field research on invasiveness in some of these plant species and observed both qualitatively and quantitatively strong agreement between survey reports and our empirical data. Questionnaire reports are therefore heuristically informative for the fields of both avian ecology and invasion biology.

  20. Apsheron industrial associations and researches of radioecological conditions of the given territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.; Mehdiyeva, R.N.; Mahmudov, H.M.; Muradov, F.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : This clause contains detail described results of radiation researches within the framework of Apsherone. Briefly we shall note most prominent aspects: Oil-and-gas manufacture on described territory exists more than several tens of years. General extent of maintained territory reaches to 3 thousand hectares. However besides an oil and gas recovery there is an emission of harmful waste products of this industry to the environment. As a result of this there are zones of radioactive infection with background radiation appear in this area which exceeding the established norm a lot. It is necessary to note that the norm of background radiation for this territory reaches to 7-15 mikroroentgen per hour. There are some places with increased pollution where background radiation reaches 100-120 mikroroentgen per hour. The researches which are carried out with the purpose of definition of a radiating background were done by the help of various equipment, in particular with the help of dosimeters. The raised radiating background is caused by presence of gases of radon, radium, thorium, kalium, isotopes of uranium, etc [az

  1. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  2. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification......This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  3. Is there a process of spiritual change or development associated with ageing? A critical review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, P

    2006-01-01

    This review considers whether research shows a process of spiritual change or development associated with ageing. Spirituality was understood as that which is central to a sense of meaning and purpose in an individual's life and pertains to the sacred or transcendent. Electronic literature searches were conducted to find research published 1985-2003 aimed at understanding spiritual change, themes and tasks in later life. A total of 13 studies were reviewed that looked at changes in spirituality over time, spiritual themes and tasks in a lifespan development context and Tornstam's (Torstam, L. (1996). Gerotranscendence--a theory about maturing into old age. Journal of Aging & Identity, 1, 37-50) theory of gerotranscendence. The research reviewed suggested that some aspects of spirituality remain stable into old age but that there are identifiable spiritual tasks, needs and changes associated with ageing. Some common spiritual themes identified across the research were integrity, humanistic concern, changing relationships with others and concern for younger generations, relationship with a transcendent being or power, self transcendence, and coming to terms with death. These were not related to age per se, but to some of the challenges that age presents, and were mediated by cultural factors and individual differences. The findings and their limitations were discussed.

  4. Mapping the Association of College and Research Libraries information literacy framework and nursing professional standards onto an assessment rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Gloria; Angell, Katelyn

    2017-04-01

    The authors developed a rubric for assessing undergraduate nursing research papers for information literacy skills critical to their development as researchers and health professionals. We developed a rubric mapping six American Nurses Association professional standards onto six related concepts of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. We used this rubric to evaluate fifty student research papers and assess inter-rater reliability. Students tended to score highest on the "Information Has Value" dimension and lowest on the "Scholarship as Conversation" dimension. However, we found a discrepancy between the grading patterns of the two investigators, with inter-rater reliability being "fair" or "poor" for all six rubric dimensions. The development of a rubric that dually assesses information literacy skills and maps relevant disciplinary competencies holds potential. This study offers a template for a rubric inspired by the ACRL Framework and outside professional standards. However, the overall low inter-rater reliability demands further calibration of the rubric. Following additional norming, this rubric can be used to help students identify the key information literacy competencies that they need in order to succeed as college students and future nurses. These skills include developing an authoritative voice, determining the scope of their information needs, and understanding the ramifications of their information choices.

  5. Evaluation of medical research performance--position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the

  6. Nontypical hazards associated with D ampersand D of power, weapons, and research and reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, F.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Nontypical hazards such as asbestos and lead exist throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons and research and reactor plants and commercial power plants. Most plants have encountered and identified these hazards during routine maintenance, modification, and repair activities. The decision to abate asbestos and lead is often cost-prohibitive and outweighed by the hazards created by the removal process; therefore, management-in-place concepts were and continue to be chosen as an alternative. This concept controls the hazard by using encapsulation, enclosure, and barrier installation techniques. Long-term operation and maintenance plans are then developed and implemented for periodic inspection, air monitoring, and repair. Although in-place-management plans tend to cover up the hazard, they provide an excellent source for the hazard recognition and identification phase by the paper trail the create

  7. Chemical and microbiological problems associated with research on the biodesulfurization of coal. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G J; Kelly, R M [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA). Polymer Division

    1991-04-01

    The study of microbial processes for the removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from coals is complicated by the lack of direct methods of measurement for organic sulfur content and the related incomplete understanding of the specific forms of organic sulfur in coal. In addition, the accessibility of specific chemical groups in the coal matrix to microorganisms and their enzymes is uncertain, raising questions about the nature and validity of model compound studies. Thus, interpretation of data from numerous efforts focussed on the microbial removal of inorganic and organic sulfur from coals remains controversial. The discussion here reviews recent developments in the chemical characterization of coal sulfur related to bioprocessing research and describes some recent efforts in involving sulfur transformation by hyperthermophilic archaebacteria. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Strategy for an Australian research program into possible health issues associated with exposure to communications radiofrequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.R.; Barnett, S.B.; Lokan, K.H.; Kossoff, G.; Anderson, H.

    1998-01-01

    Telecommunications in Australia has expanded rapidly in recent years. Growth in personal and mobile telecommunications has resulted in the construction of numerous base station antennae. These antennae are highly visible and are often sited in public or high traffic areas. There has also been an increase in the number of mobile phone handsets-the small, low power transmitters held close to the head during use. In the last 2-3 years there has been considerable public concern and media coverage about the possible health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency fields or radiofrequency radiation (RFR) which is used for communicating between handsets and base stations. National and international scientific opinion is that at the present time there is no substantiated evidence that exposure to RFR at levels typically found in the community results in adverse health effects but there is a need for further study. Although considerable research has been undertaken on exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) 50/60 Hz fields, limited information is available on human exposure to RFR in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz. The frequency bands used for the mobile phone networks are mainly in the 800-900 MHz spectrum region with developing technology using the 1.8-2.2 GHz band. In the digital GSM system pulse modulation occurs at 217 Hz. Radio and television broadcasts are in the 0.3-600 MHz range. Other sources include paging systems, personal communication systems and industrial sources. The discussion paper outlines possible priority areas and makes recommendation for further study under the Australian Research Program

  9. Evaluation using Monte Carlo simulations, of the effect of a shielding, called external shielding, for fotoneutrons generated in linear accelerators, using the computational model of Varian accelerator 2300 C/D operating in eight rotation angles of the GA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hugo R.; Silva, Ademir X.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Silva, Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present the results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of shielding against neutrons, called External Shielding, to be placed on the heads of linear accelerators used in radiotherapy. For this, it was used the radiation transport code Monte Carlo N-Particle - MCNPX, in which were developed computational model of the head of the linear accelerator Varian 2300 C/D. The equipment was simulated within a bunker, operating at energies of 10, 15 and 18 MV, considering the rotation of the gantry at eight different angles ( 0 deg, 45 deg, 90 deg, 135 deg, 180 deg, 225 deg, 270 deg and 315 deg), in all cases, the equipment was modeled without and with the shielding positioned attached to the head of the accelerator on its bottom. In each of these settings, it was calculated the Ambient Dose Equivalent due to neutron H * (10)n on points situated in the region of the patient (region of interest for evaluation of undesirable neutron doses on the patient) and in the maze of radiotherapy room (region of interest for shielding the access door to the bunker). It was observed for all energies of equipment operation as well as for all angles of inclination of the gantry, a significant reduction in the values of H * (10) n when the equipment operated with the external shielding, both in the region of the patient as in the region of the maze. (author)

  10. Reactivity variations associated with the core expansion of the MARIA research reactor after modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzysztoszek, G.

    1997-01-01

    Polish high flux research reactor MARIA is a pool type reactor moderated with beryllium and water and cooled with water. The fuel is 80% enriched uranium, in the shape of multitube fuel elements, each tube made up of UAl x alloy in aluminium cladding. MARIA reactor has been operated in the years of 1977-85 and then it was modernised and again put into operation in December 1992. The modernisation as regarded the reactor core comprises a beryllium matrix expansion from 20-48 blocks. Within the frame of the power start-up and trial operation the reactor has been extended from 12 to 18 fuel channels. On that stage of reactor operation the power of mostly loaded fuel channels was constrained to 1,6 MW. Reactor has been operated within the 100-hrs campaign for an irradiation of target materials and for performing measurements at the horizontal channel outlets. In the previous time it has been noticed substantial differences in reactivity changes of the core in similar campaigns of reactor operation. It concerns the reactivity losses during poisoning period of the reactor within the first 30-40 hrs of operation as well as in the fuel burning up process. An analysis of the reactivity variations during the core extension will made possible the fuel management optimisation in further reactor operation system. (author)

  11. 17th General Conference of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    Those familiar with input-output analysis know well that compilation of input-output tables is a difficult statistical work. The very first input-output tables (e.g. such as those for the United States economy in 1919 and 1929 or for the Federal Republic of Germany in the fifties) were the results of applied economic research. But soon after, official statistical bodies, who understood that input-output tables consistent with national accounts can very much improve the quality of economic statistics, started systematic work in this field. It was also obvious that international exchange of experience can be useful. The two main internatio­ nal fora in which discussion of input-output compilation took place were the international input-out­ put conferences and United Nations bodies. Already at the First International Conference on Input-Output Techniques (Driebergen 1950) several authors analysed the relations between input-output tables and national accounts. The topic was also on the programme of the Second...

  12. Assessing bias associated with geocoding of historical residence in epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daikwon Han

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of geocoded historical residence as proxy for retrospective assessment of exposure in early life is increasing in epidemiological studies of chronic health outcomes. Dealing with historical residence poses challenges, primarily due to higher uncertainties associated with data collection and processing. A possible source of bias is connected with the exclusion of subjects, who cannot, for various reasons, be geocoded. We evaluated the potential bias that may arise due to incomplete geocoding, using birth residence data collected as part of a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in western New York state. We found that geocoded and non-geocoded populations did not differ in the distribution of most risk factors compared, and that the geocoding status did not modify the spatial patterns of the study populations. However, the results emphasize the need for epidemiological studies to consider the potential biases that may be introduced by geocoding of historical residence when investigating retrospectively chronic disease and early-life exposure.

  13. Aboriginal research coalition externalities associated with energy production: Types, measures and integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, I.

    1992-01-01

    A system that has evolved to determine the environmental externalities associated with energy generation is described. The system involves identification and understanding of the activity being considered (power generation from a specific type of plant), effects such as air pollution, measures such as pollution control that can influence the levels of the preceding effects, the resources affected, impacts on human resource uses, and the values humans place on the use of the resources. Considerations in estimating external costs are then discussed. These include property rights, air emissions, electromagnetic fields, pollution control effectiveness and costs, valuation of air emissions, water quality and quantity, effects on fisheries and recreational activities, and effects of dams and inundation. A least-cost, or integrated management process, selects the combination of electricity supply and demand sources that have the least social cost. Total externality costs are estimated, based on emissions or effects from each source multiplied by unit costs, and control measures selected. The external costs are combined with the usual fixed and variable cost calculations to provide a total social cost measure. This monetization procedure allows a complete accounting of all costs to society on an equal basis. 53 refs., 4 figs

  14. Antidepressants and breast and ovarian cancer risk: a review of the literature and researchers' financial associations with industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lisa; Shi, Ling; Creasey, David E; Anaya-McKivergan, Maria; Myers, Jessica A; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2011-04-06

    Antidepressant (AD) use has been purported to increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, although both epidemiological and pre-clinical studies have reported mixed results. Previous studies in a variety of biomedical fields have found that financial ties to drug companies are associated with favorable study conclusions. We searched English-language articles in MEDLINE, PsychINFO, the Science Citations Index and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (through November 2010). A total of 61 articles that assessed the relationship between breast and ovarian cancer and AD use and articles that examined the effect of ADs on cell growth were included. Multi-modal screening techniques were used to investigate researchers' financial ties with industry. A random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the findings from the epidemiological literature. Thirty-three percent (20/61) of the studies reported a positive association between ADs and cancer. Sixty-seven percent (41/61) of the studies reported no association or antiproliferative effect. The pooled odds ratio for the association between AD use and breast/ovarian cancer in the epidemiologic studies was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.03-1.20). Researchers with industry affiliations were significantly less likely than researchers without those ties to conclude that ADs increase the risk of breast or ovarian cancer. (0/15 [0%] vs 20/46 [43.5%] (Fisher's Exact test P = 0.0012). Both the pre-clinical and clinical data are mixed in terms of showing an association between AD use and breast and ovarian cancer. The possibility that ADs may exhibit a bi-phasic effect, whereby short-term use and/or low dose antidepressants may increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, warrants further investigation. Industry affiliations were significantly associated with negative conclusions regarding cancer risk. The findings have implications in light of the 2009 USPSTF guidelines for breast cancer screening and for the

  15. Clinical Research Abstracts of the British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, M J; Hewetson, M; Pöytäkangas, M R

    2015-09-01

    Professor Thomas Spillmann and the staff of Equine College Ypäjä and the University of Helsinki Equine Teaching Hospital. The cooperation of horse owners is gratefully acknowledged. Ethical animal research: The study protocol was approved by the National Animal Experiment Board of Finland (Eläinkoelautakunta ELLA, Request for Animal Experiments, ref. no. ESAVI-2010-06567/Ym-23). For client-owned animals, owner informed consent was obtained. This study was funded by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. Competing interests: None declared. © 2015 The Author(s). Equine Veterinary Journal © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  16. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tohoku Earthquake-associated Marine Sciences: the research project for the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hara, Motoyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Fujikura, Kasunori; Sonoda, Akira

    2015-04-01

    At 2:46 pm on March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake (M 9.0) occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Region, Japan. The subsequent Tsunamis hit the coasts and seriously damaged fishing villages and towns in the area. Tohoku Region faces Northwestern Pacific where is one of the most productive oceans on the Earth. Then, what happened to the marine ecosystems in the Tohoku Region? What happened to the fishery bioresources? What is the mechanism to sustain high productivity in the Region? Is the ecosystem restoring after 4 years? What is required for the recovery of fisheries in the area? In order to answer these questions, the 10 years research project, TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) was launched in January 2012 funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) to conduct comprehensive research on the area. Tohoku University (TU), Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo (AORIUT), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), and 25 other institutions are conducting research for this project in close association with local government and fishery people. Currently, approximately 400 people (200 scientists, 160 students and others) covering physical, chemical, biological, and geological sciences including modeling take part in the project from all over Japan. MEXT also supports TEAMS by constructing R/V Shinsei Maru in 2013 for the oceanic investigations in the region. In this report, the overview of the ecosystem before and after the disaster, major findings and challenges of TEAMS will be described.

  18. Information Literacy Threshold Concepts and the Association of College and Research Libraries' Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Schaub

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 release of the Association of College and Research Libraries’ Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education had a significant impact on information literacy scholarship and practice in the United States. The revision process of the previous Competency Standards and the purpose and implementation of the new Framework are still widely discussed as librarians work out what the Framework means to individual institutions and to information literacy as a whole. Organized around six threshold concepts in information literacy as identified in recent research, the Framework reflects developments in the information landscape as threshold concepts have become influential. The authors, who began their research in threshold concepts at the same time as the use and discussion of information literacy threshold concepts increased in the United States, discuss how their work fits into a larger, national conversation on conceptual information literacy instruction and the creation of a high-profile document.   Die Verabschiedung des Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education der Association of College and Research Libraries 2014 hatte beachtliche Auswirkungen auf Theorie und Praxis der Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz in den USA. Der Überarbeitungsprozess der früheren Standards Informationskompetenz sowie Zielrichtung und Umsetzung des neuen Framework werden nach wie vor breit diskutiert, da Bibliothekar/inn/e/n nun konkretisieren, was das Framework für ihre jeweilige Einrichtung und für Informationskompetenz insgesamt bedeutet. Indem es um sechs threshold concepts gruppiert ist, die die aktuelle Forschung zu Informationskompetenz identifiziert hat, bezieht das Framework gezielt Entwicklungen der Informationslandschaft auf diese richtungsweisenden threshold concepts. Die Autorinnen, die ihre Untersuchungen zu threshold concepts just zu der Zeit begannen, zu der der Einsatz von und die Diskussion um threshold concepts in

  19. [Attractiveness of France for international clinical research: 8th survey conducted by Leem (French association for pharmaceutical companies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaup, Ariane; Barthélémy, Philippe; Pouletty-Lefebvre, Brigitte; Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Zetlaoui, Jean; Borel, Thomas

    2018-04-18

    The Leem (French association of pharmaceutical companies) has conducted the eighth survey on attractiveness of France for clinical research. It serves to measure France's global competitiveness for international clinical trials and assess its strengths and areas of excellence. It also highlights the potential for progress and emerging trends at a time when the regulatory environment in France and Europe is undergoing change. This survey has been updated every two years since 2002 using the same methodology. It assesses the current status of research undertaken in France by the pharmaceutical industry between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015. Thirty companies (62% of the French market) have participated in this 8th survey which involved 3474 centers (versus 2860 in 2014) and 16,622 patients (versus 14,634 in 2014) enrolled in France across 586 clinical trials (versus 613 in 2014). This survey shows a reduction in the number of phase I and phase II trials. It also confirms that the studies conducted in France are primarily concerned with oncology (45%). Despite improvements across hospital contracts times (due to the adoption of the sole agreement) and performance indicators in trials (such as the number of patients enrolled by center), trial setup times in France are still overly lengthy (with stable times by French authorities). Ensuring that clinical research remains a priority issue for country is crucial for patients because of rapid access to innovation but also for the vitality of the French economy. Constructive dialogue with stakeholders on the subject of clinical research is essential to enhance the attractiveness of France and to improve the continuum between research, innovation and care. Copyright © 2018 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. What Performance Analysts Need to Know About Research Trends in Association Football (2012-2016): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Hugo; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; McRobert, Allistair; Figueiredo, António

    2018-04-01

    Evolving patterns of match analysis research need to be systematically reviewed regularly since this area of work is burgeoning rapidly and studies can offer new insights to performance analysts if theoretically and coherently organized. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of published articles on match analysis in adult male football, identify and organize common research topics, and synthesize the emerging patterns of work between 2012 and 2016, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Web of Science database was searched for relevant published studies using the following keywords: 'football' and 'soccer', each one associated with the terms 'match analysis', 'performance analysis', 'notational analysis', 'game analysis', 'tactical analysis' and 'patterns of play'. Of 483 studies initially identified, 77 were fully reviewed and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Results showed that research mainly focused on (1) performance at set pieces, i.e. corner kicks, free kicks, penalty kicks; (2) collective system behaviours, captured by established variables such as team centroid (geometrical centre of a set of players) and team dispersion (quantification of how far players are apart), as well as tendencies for team communication (establishing networks based on passing sequences), sequential patterns (predicting future passing sequences), and group outcomes (relationships between match-related statistics and final match scores); and (3) activity profile of players, i.e. playing roles, effects of fatigue, substitutions during matches, and the effects of environmental constraints on performance, such as heat and altitude. From the previous review, novel variables were identified that require new measurement techniques. It is evident that the complexity engendered during performance in competitive soccer requires an integrated approach that considers multiple aspects. A

  1. Contribution of genome-wide association studies to scientific research: a pragmatic approach to evaluate their impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito A G Ricigliano

    Full Text Available The factual value of genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the understanding of multifactorial diseases is a matter of intense debate. Practical consequences for the development of more effective therapies do not seem to be around the corner. Here we propose a pragmatic and objective evaluation of how much new biology is arising from these studies, with particular attention to the information that can help prioritize therapeutic targets. We chose multiple sclerosis (MS as a paradigm disease and assumed that, in pre-GWAS candidate-gene studies, the knowledge behind the choice of each gene reflected the understanding of the disease prior to the advent of GWAS. Importantly, this knowledge was based mainly on non-genetic, phenotypic grounds. We performed single-gene and pathway-oriented comparisons of old and new knowledge in MS by confronting an unbiased list of candidate genes in pre-GWAS association studies with those genes exceeding the genome-wide significance threshold in GWAS published from 2007 on. At the single gene level, the majority (94 out of 125 of GWAS-discovered variants had never been contemplated as plausible candidates in pre-GWAS association studies. The 31 genes that were present in both pre- and post-GWAS lists may be of particular interest in that they represent disease-associated variants whose pathogenetic relevance is supported at the phenotypic level (i.e. the phenotypic information that steered their selection as candidate genes in pre-GWAS association studies. As such they represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interestingly, our analysis shows that some of these variants are targets of pharmacologically active compounds, including drugs that are already registered for human use. Compared with the above single-gene analysis, at the pathway level GWAS results appear more coherent with previous knowledge, reinforcing some of the current views on MS pathogenesis and related therapeutic research. This study presents a

  2. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 3 – Interventions for Subacute WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature.

  3. Derivation of the source term, dose results and associated radiological consequences for the Greek Research Reactor – 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Charalampos, E-mail: chpappas@ipta.demokritos.gr; Ikonomopoulos, Andreas; Sfetsos, Athanasios; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Varvayanni, Melpomeni; Catsaros, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Source term derivation of postulated accident sequences in a research reactor. • Various containment ventilation scenarios considered for source term calculations. • Source term parametric analysis performed in case of lack of ventilation. • JRODOS employed for dose calculations under eighteen modeled scenarios. • Estimation of radiological consequences during typical and adverse weather scenarios. - Abstract: The estimated source term, dose results and radiological consequences of selected accident sequences in the Greek Research Reactor – 1 are presented and discussed. A systematic approach has been adopted to perform the necessary calculations in accordance with the latest computational developments and IAEA recommendations. Loss-of-coolant, reactivity insertion and fuel channel blockage accident sequences have been selected to derive the associated source terms under three distinct containment ventilation scenarios. Core damage has been conservatively assessed for each accident sequence while the ventilation has been assumed to function within the efficiency limits defined at the Safety Analysis Report. In case of lack of ventilation a parametric analysis is also performed to examine the dependency of the source term on the containment leakage rate. A typical as well as an adverse meteorological scenario have been defined in the JRODOS computational platform in order to predict the effective, lung and thyroid doses within a region defined by a 15 km radius downwind from the reactor building. The radiological consequences of the eighteen scenarios associated with the accident sequences are presented and discussed.

  4. Use of I.G.R.T. for prostate cancers (O.B.I.-C.B.C.T. VarianTM, ExacTrac BrainLABTM and M.V.C.T. Tomo-therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpon, G.; Llagostera, C.; Lisbona, A.; Le Blanc, M.; Rio, E.; Supiot, S.; Mahe, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to report the experience of image-guided radiotherapy at the C.L.C.C. Nantes-Atlantique using three repositioning imaging devices, the ExacTrac (BrainLABTM), the on-board imager cone beam computed tomography (O.B.I.-C.B.C.T.) (Varian TM ) and the M.V.C.T. (Tomotherapy Inc TM ), in the case of prostate external radiotherapy.Material and methods: For each linac and its imaging device, a treatment plan was described. Moreover, studies concerning calculated shifts after imaging sessions were achieved. Using ExacTrac, for eight patients, a study compared daily shifts based on bony anatomy or on implanted markers. Considering mean values of displacements over a course of radiotherapy, dosimetric impact was evaluated. With the O.B.I.-C.B.C.T., two imaging modalities were used, kV-kV (0. and 270.) and C.B.C.T.. Up to now, whatever the images, displacements were calculated using the bony anatomy. For both modalities and for 26 patients, shifts were compared. Since the beginning of the Tomotherapy HiArt use, mega voltage cone tomography (M.V.C.T.) was performed for each session of each patient. For 12 patients, mean displacements were calculated after five fractions. Then the deviations to those values were calculated. This was done to show the relevance of daily M.V.C.T.. Results and conclusion: This work allows us to report the use of three repositioning imaging devices in the radiotherapy department. At least: they provide an efficient positioning tool. And they let us see the future radiotherapy which would probably be the dose-guided radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  5. Electronic tissue compensation achieved with both dynamic and static multileaf collimator in eclipse treatment planning system for Clinac 6 EX and 2100 CD Varian linear accelerators: Feasibility and dosimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinhikar Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC and static multileaf collimator (SMLC, along with three-dimensional treatment planning system (3-D TPS, open the possibility of tissue compensation. A method using electronic tissue compensator (ETC has been implemented in Eclipse 3-D TPS (V 7.3, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA at our center. The ETC was tested for head and neck conformal radiotherapy planning. The purpose of this study was to verify the feasibility of DMLC and SMLC in head and neck field irradiation for delivering homogeneous dose in the midplane at a pre-defined depth. In addition, emphasis was given to the dosimetric aspects in commissioning ETC in Eclipse. A Head and Neck Phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, USA was used for the dosimetric verification. Planning was carried out for both DMLC and SMLC ETC plans. The dose calculated at central axis by eclipse with DMLC and SMLC was noted. This was compared with the doses measured on machine with ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD. The calculated isodose curves and profiles were compared with the measured ones. The dose profiles along the two major axes from Eclipse were also compared with the profiles obtained from Amorphous Silicon (AS500 Electronic portal imaging device (EPID on Clinac 6 EX machine. In uniform dose regions, measured dose values agreed with the calculated doses within 3%. Agreement between calculated and measured isodoses in the dose gradient zone was within 3 mm. The isodose curves and the profiles were found to be in good agreement with the measured curves and profiles. The measured and the calculated dose profiles along the two major axes were flat for both DMLC and SMLC. The dosimetric verification of ETC for both the linacs demonstrated the feasibility and the accuracy of the ETC treatment modality for achieving uniform dose distributions. Therefore, ETC can be used as a tool in head and neck treatment planning optimization for improved dose uniformity.

  6. Advances in limnological and oceanographic research in Italy: the history of the Italian Association of Limnology and Oceanography (AIOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pusceddu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the 35th year from the publication of the first issue of the Proceedings of the Italian Association of Limnology and Oceanography (AIOL we present here the results of a meta-analysis of all of the material included in the AIOL Proceedings, with the aim of analysing the last 30 years history of aquatic science in Italy as mirrored by the science presented by the AIOL members. The results of this meta-analysis were presented in September 2006 in Paris, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the ‘Institut oce´anographique, fondation Albert Ier, prince de Monaco’. We have screened the 17 volumes of the Proceedings and classified the articles into papers dealing with: (i Biology and Ecology; (ii Chemistry; (iii Physics, and (iv Geology, which represent the most relevant ‘disciplines’ of the AIOL. The articles were also classified as ‘oceanographic’ or ‘limnological’ papers, including all marine and freshwater aspects, respectively. Articles were finally classified on the basis of the environment where the studies were carried out: the water column or the benthic environment. The results of this analysis highlight the presence of wide fluctuations in the number of publications produced by the AIOL scientific community during more then three decades of the activity of the association in Italy. We also show that these fluctuations were associated with variable fluctuations in the availability of funding for aquatic research. The overall picture of the scientific outputs of the AIOL members as revealed by the analysis of the papers published on the AIOL Proceedings indicates that the Association had a fruitful activity during the last part of the past century, but experienced a major flaw during the first years of this century. Only in the last few years such activity restarted, thus giving rise to a possible new deal in the development of aquatic science in Italy.

  7. The Association between Four Citation Metrics and Peer Rankings of Research Influence of Australian Researchers in Six Fields of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Gemma Elizabeth; Haynes, Abby; Chapman, Simon; Hall, Wayne D.

    2011-01-01

    Doubt about the relevance, appropriateness and transparency of peer review has promoted the use of citation metrics as a viable adjunct or alternative in the assessment of research impact. It is also commonly acknowledged that research metrics will not replace peer review unless they are shown to correspond with the assessment of peers. This paper evaluates the relationship between researchers' influence as evaluated by their peers and various citation metrics representing different aspects of research output in 6 fields of public health in Australia. For four fields, the results showed a modest positive correlation between different research metrics and peer assessments of research influence. However, for two fields, tobacco and injury, negative or no correlations were found. This suggests a peer understanding of research influence within these fields differed from visibility in the mainstream, peer-reviewed scientific literature. This research therefore recommends the use of both peer review and metrics in a combined approach in assessing research influence. Future research evaluation frameworks intent on incorporating metrics should first analyse each field closely to determine what measures of research influence are valued highly by members of that research community. This will aid the development of comprehensive and relevant frameworks with which to fairly and transparently distribute research funds or approve promotion applications. PMID:21494691

  8. The association between four citation metrics and peer rankings of research influence of Australian researchers in six fields of public health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Elizabeth Derrick

    Full Text Available Doubt about the relevance, appropriateness and transparency of peer review has promoted the use of citation metrics as a viable adjunct or alternative in the assessment of research impact. It is also commonly acknowledged that research metrics will not replace peer review unless they are shown to correspond with the assessment of peers. This paper evaluates the relationship between researchers' influence as evaluated by their peers and various citation metrics representing different aspects of research output in 6 fields of public health in Australia. For four fields, the results showed a modest positive correlation between different research metrics and peer assessments of research influence. However, for two fields, tobacco and injury, negative or no correlations were found. This suggests a peer understanding of research influence within these fields differed from visibility in the mainstream, peer-reviewed scientific literature. This research therefore recommends the use of both peer review and metrics in a combined approach in assessing research influence. Future research evaluation frameworks intent on incorporating metrics should first analyse each field closely to determine what measures of research influence are valued highly by members of that research community. This will aid the development of comprehensive and relevant frameworks with which to fairly and transparently distribute research funds or approve promotion applications.

  9. The association between four citation metrics and peer rankings of research influence of Australian researchers in six fields of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Gemma Elizabeth; Haynes, Abby; Chapman, Simon; Hall, Wayne D

    2011-04-06

    Doubt about the relevance, appropriateness and transparency of peer review has promoted the use of citation metrics as a viable adjunct or alternative in the assessment of research impact. It is also commonly acknowledged that research metrics will not replace peer review unless they are shown to correspond with the assessment of peers. This paper evaluates the relationship between researchers' influence as evaluated by their peers and various citation metrics representing different aspects of research output in 6 fields of public health in Australia. For four fields, the results showed a modest positive correlation between different research metrics and peer assessments of research influence. However, for two fields, tobacco and injury, negative or no correlations were found. This suggests a peer understanding of research influence within these fields differed from visibility in the mainstream, peer-reviewed scientific literature. This research therefore recommends the use of both peer review and metrics in a combined approach in assessing research influence. Future research evaluation frameworks intent on incorporating metrics should first analyse each field closely to determine what measures of research influence are valued highly by members of that research community. This will aid the development of comprehensive and relevant frameworks with which to fairly and transparently distribute research funds or approve promotion applications.

  10. The evaluation of research papers in the XXI century. The Open Peer Discussion system of the World Economics Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ietto-Gillies, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    The paper starts with a brief discussion of the traditional peer review (TPR) system of research evaluation, its role, and the criticisms levelled at it. An analysis of specific problems in economics leads to a full discussion of the Open Peer Review (OPR) system developed by the World Economics Association (WEA) and the principles behind it. The system is open in the following two respects: (a) disclosure of names of authors and reviewers; and (b) inclusivity of potential reviewers in terms of paradigmatic approaches, country, and community. The paper then discusses the applicability of the same system to other disciplines. In doing so, it stressed the aims of various evaluation systems and the possible pitfalls of rating systems. It also speculates on the future of journal publication.

  11. Merging Electronic Health Record Data and Genomics for Cardiovascular Research: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer L; Ryan, John J; Bray, Bruce E; Brown, Candice; Lanfear, David; Newby, L Kristin; Relling, Mary V; Risch, Neil J; Roden, Dan M; Shaw, Stanley Y; Tcheng, James E; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Wang, Thomas N; Weintraub, William S

    2016-04-01

    The process of scientific discovery is rapidly evolving. The funding climate has influenced a favorable shift in scientific discovery toward the use of existing resources such as the electronic health record. The electronic health record enables long-term outlooks on human health and disease, in conjunction with multidimensional phenotypes that include laboratory data, images, vital signs, and other clinical information. Initial work has confirmed the utility of the electronic health record for understanding mechanisms and patterns of variability in disease susceptibility, disease evolution, and drug responses. The addition of biobanks and genomic data to the information contained in the electronic health record has been demonstrated. The purpose of this statement is to discuss the current challenges in and the potential for merging electronic health record data and genomics for cardiovascular research. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Association between family history of mood disorders and clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder: results from the Brazilian bipolar research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Mariangeles; Nery, Fabiano G; Sato, Rodrigo; Scippa, Angela; Kapczinski, Flavio; Lafer, Beny

    2014-06-01

    To compare clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder (BD) in patients with and without a family history of mood disorders (FHMD) in a large sample from the Brazilian Research Network of Bipolar Disorders. Four-hundred eighty-eight DSM-IV BD patients participating in the Brazilian Research Network of Bipolar Disorders were included. Participants were divided between those with FHMD (n=230) and without FHMD (n=258). We compared these two groups on demographic and clinical variables and performed a logistic regression to identify which variables were most strongly associated with positive family history of mood disorders. BD patients with FHMD presented with significantly higher lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, substance abuse, and were more likely to present history of suicide attempts, family history of suicide attempts and suicide, and more psychiatric hospitalizations than BD patients without FHMD. Logistic regression showed that the variables most strongly associated with a positive FHMD were any comorbid anxiety disorder, comorbid substance abuse, and family history of suicide. Cross-sectional study and verification of FHMD by indirect information. BD patients with FHMD differ from BD patients without FHMD in rates of comorbid anxiety disorder and substance abuse, number of hospitalizations and suicide attempts. As FHMD is routinely assessed in clinical practice, these findings may help to identify patients at risk for particular manifestations of BD and may point to a common, genetically determined neurobiological substrate that increases the risk of conditions such as comorbidities and suicidality in BD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder: Part 1 – Overview and Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in a substantial socioeconomic burden throughout the industrialized world, wherever costs are documented. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence of their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence supporting various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the first in a five-part series, provides an overview of the review methodology as well as a summary and discussion of the review’s main findings. Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria, 40 of which were randomized controlled trials. The majority of studies (n=47 evaluated treatments initiated in the chronic stage of the disorder, while 23 evaluated treatments for acute WAD and 13 assessed therapies for subacute WAD. Exercise and mobilization programs for acute and chronic WAD had the strongest supporting evidence, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various protocols. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support any treatment for subacute WAD. For patients with chronic WAD who do not respond to conventional treatments, it appears that radiofrequency neurotomy may be the most effective treatment option. The present review found a relatively weak but growing research base on which one could make recommendations for patients at any stage of the WAD continuum. Further research is needed to determine which treatments are most effective at reducing the disabling symptoms associated with WAD.

  14. Assessment of uncertainties associated with characterization of geological environment in the Tono area. Japanese fiscal year, 2006 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toida, Masaru; Suyama, Yasuhiro; Seno, Shoji; Atsumi, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Nobuhisa

    2008-03-01

    'Geoscientific research' performed at the Tono Geoscience Center is developing site investigation, characterization and assessment techniques for understanding of geological environment. Their important themes are to establish a methodology for analyzing uncertainties in heterogeneous geological environment, and to develop investigation techniques for reducing the uncertainties efficiently. This study proposes a new approach where all the possible options in the models and data-sets that cannot be excluded in the light of the evidence available, are identified. This approach enables uncertainties associated with the understanding at a given stage of the site characterization to be made explicitly using an uncertainty analysis technique based on Fuzzy geostatistics. This, in turn, supports the design of the following investigation stage to reduce the uncertainties efficiently. In the study, current knowledge had been compiled, and the technique had been advanced through geological modeling and groundwater analyses in the Tono area. This report systematized the uncertainty analysis methodology associated with the characterization of the geological environment, and organized the procedure of the methodology with the application examples in the study. This report also dealt with investigation techniques for reducing the uncertainties efficiently, and underground facility design options for handling geological uncertainties based on the characterization of the geological environment. (author)

  15. Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance consensus treatment plans for juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated and idiopathic chronic anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Han, Sheila T; Lo, Mindy S; Henderson, Lauren A; Lerman, Melissa A; Abramson, Leslie; Cooper, Ashley M; Parsa, Miriam F; Zemel, Lawrence S; Ronis, Tova; Beukelman, Timothy; Cox, Erika; Sen, H Nida; Holland, Gary N; Brunner, Hermine I; Lasky, Andrew; Rabinovich, C Egla

    2018-05-28

    Systemic immunosuppressive treatment of pediatric chronic anterior uveitis (CAU), both juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated and idiopathic varies, making it difficult to identify best treatments. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) developed consensus treatment plans (CTPs) for CAU for the purpose of reducing practice variability and allowing future comparison of treatments by comparative effectiveness analysis techniques. A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, ophthalmologists with uveitis expertise, and a lay advisor comprised the CARRA uveitis workgroup who performed literature review on pharmacologic treatments, held teleconferences, and developed a case-based survey administered to the CARRA membership to delineate treatment practices. We utilized 3 face-to-face consensus meetings using nominal group technique to develop CTPs. The survey identified areas of treatment practice variability. We developed 2 CTPs for the treatment of CAU, case definitions, and monitoring parameters. The first CTP is directed at children naïve to steroid-sparing medication, and the second at children initiating biologic therapy with options for methotrexate, adalimumab and infliximab. We defined a core dataset and outcome measures with data collection at 3 and 6 months after therapy initiation. The CARRA membership voted acceptance of the CTPs with a >95% (N = 233) approval. Using consensus methodology, two standardized CTPs were developed for systemic immunosuppressive treatment of CAU. These CTPs are not meant as treatment guidelines, but are designed for further pragmatic research within the CARRA research network. Use of these CTPs in a prospective comparison effectiveness study should improve outcomes by identifying best practice options. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. [Current modalities and concepts on access and use of biospecimen samples and associated data for research from human biobanks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Roman; Semler, Sebastian Claudius

    2016-03-01

    It is accepted worldwide that biospecimen and data sharing (BDS) play an essential role for the future of medical research to improve diagnostics and prognostics, e.g. by validated biomarkers. BDS is also pivotal to the development of new therapeutic treatments and for the improvement of population health. Human biobanks can generate an added value to this need by providing biospecimens and/or associated data to researchers. An inspection of several examples of epidemiological as well as clinical/disease-oriented biobanks in Germany shows that best practice procedures (BPP) that are internationally agreed on are being installed for biospecimen and/or data access. In general, fair access is aimed at requiring a written application by the requesting scientist, which is then peer-reviewed for scientific and ethical validity by the Biobank. Applied BPP take into account (i) patient education/agreement according to the informed consent model, (ii) privacy protection, (iii) intellectual property rights, the (iv) notification obligation of health-related findings (including incidental findings), the (v) use of material (MTA) and data transfer agreements (DTA) for mutual legal security, the avoidance of conflicts of interests, as well as for cost recovery/fee for service as a basis for sustainability of the biobank. BPP are rooted in the self-regulation efforts of life sciences and are supported by parent ethics committees in Germany. Central biobank registries displaying aggregated information on biospecimens stored and the research foci constitute an important tool to make biobanks that are scattered across the country visible to each other, and, can thus promote access to hitherto unknown biospecimen and data resources.

  17. Guide to the assessment of physical activity: Clinical and research applications: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strath, Scott J; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Ekelund, Ulf; Freedson, Patty S; Gary, Rebecca A; Richardson, Caroline R; Smith, Derek T; Swartz, Ann M

    2013-11-12

    The deleterious health consequences of physical inactivity are vast, and they are of paramount clinical and research importance. Risk identification, benchmarks, efficacy, and evaluation of physical activity behavior change initiatives for clinicians and researchers all require a clear understanding of how to assess physical activity. In the present report, we have provided a clear rationale for the importance of assessing physical activity levels, and we have documented key concepts in understanding the different dimensions, domains, and terminology associated with physical activity measurement. The assessment methods presented allow for a greater understanding of the vast number of options available to clinicians and researchers when trying to assess physical activity levels in their patients or participants. The primary outcome desired is the main determining factor in the choice of physical activity assessment method. In combination with issues of feasibility/practicality, the availability of resources, and administration considerations, the desired outcome guides the choice of an appropriate assessment tool. The decision matrix, along with the accompanying tables, provides a mechanism for this selection that takes all of these factors into account. Clearly, the assessment method adopted and implemented will vary depending on circumstances, because there is no single best instrument appropriate for every situation. In summary, physical activity assessment should be considered a vital health measure that is tracked regularly over time. All other major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and smoking) are assessed routinely. Physical activity status should also be assessed regularly. Multiple physical activity assessment methods provide reasonably accurate outcome measures, with choices dependent on setting-specific resources and constraints. The present scientific statement provides a guide to

  18. Nurses’ research utilization two years after graduation—a national survey of associated individual, organizational, and educational factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nurses’ research utilization (RU) as part of evidence-based practice is strongly emphasized in today’s nursing education and clinical practice. The primary aim of RU is to provide high-quality nursing care to patients. Data on newly graduated nurses’ RU are scarce, but a predominance of low use has been reported in recent studies. Factors associated with nurses’ RU have previously been identified among individual and organizational/contextual factors, but there is a lack of knowledge about how these factors, including educational ones, interact with each other and with RU, particularly in nurses during the first years after graduation. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify factors that predict the probability for low RU among registered nurses two years after graduation. Methods Data were collected as part of the LANE study (Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education), a Swedish national survey of nursing students and registered nurses. Data on nurses’ instrumental, conceptual, and persuasive RU were collected two years after graduation (2007, n = 845), together with data on work contextual factors. Data on individual and educational factors were collected in the first year (2002) and last term of education (2004). Guided by an analytic schedule, bivariate analyses, followed by logistic regression modeling, were applied. Results Of the variables associated with RU in the bivariate analyses, six were found to be significantly related to low RU in the final logistic regression model: work in the psychiatric setting, role ambiguity, sufficient staffing, low work challenge, being male, and low student activity. Conclusions A number of factors associated with nurses’ low extent of RU two years postgraduation were found, most of them potentially modifiable. These findings illustrate the multitude of factors related to low RU extent and take their interrelationships into account. This knowledge might serve as useful input in

  19. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  20. Doing Institutional Research: A Focus on Professional Development. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research (9th, Durham, New Hampshire, October 17-19, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Diana M., Ed.

    Institutional research that focuses on professional development is addressed in 35 papers from the 1982 meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research. Titles and authors include the following: "Modeling College Student Adjustment and Retention for the Individual Institution" (Norman D. Aitken); "The Development Saga of an…

  1. Use of geographic information systems to assess the error associated with the use of place of residence in injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L; Pike, Ian; Friger, Michael; Griesdale, Donald

    In any spatial research, the use of accurate location data is critical to the reliability of the results. Unfortunately, however, many of the administrative data sets used in injury research do not include the location at which the injury takes place. The aim of this paper is to examine the error associated with using place of residence as opposed to place of injury when identifying injury hotspots and hospital access. Traumatic Brian Injury (TBI) data from the BC Trauma Registry (BCTR) was used to identify all TBI patients admitted to BC hospitals between January 2000 and March 2013. In order to estimate how locational error impacts the identification of injury hotspots, the data was aggregated to the level of dissemination area (DA) and census tract (CT) and a linear regression was performed using place of residence as a predictor for place of injury. In order to assess the impact of locational error in studies examining hospital access, an analysis of the driving time between place of injury and place of residence and the difference in driving time between place of residence and the treatment hospital, and place of injury and the same hospital was conducted. The driving time analysis indicated that 73.3 % of the injuries occurred within 5 min of place of residence, 11.2 % between five and ten minutes and 15.5 % over 20 min. Misclassification error occurs at both the DA and CT level. The residual map of the DA clearly shows more detailed misclassification. As expected, the driving time between place of residence and place of injury and the difference between these same two locations and the treatment hospital share a positive relationship. In fact, the larger the distance was between the two locations, the larger the error was when estimating access to hospital. Our results highlight the need for more systematic recording of place of injury as this will allow researchers to more accurately pinpoint where injuries occur. It will also allow researchers to

  2. Comparison of Online 6 Degree-of-Freedom Image Registration of Varian TrueBeam Cone-Beam CT and BrainLab ExacTrac X-Ray for Intracranial Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Shi, Wenyin; Andrews, David; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Lu, Bo; Yu, Yan; Dicker, Adam; Liu, Haisong

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to compare online 6 degree-of-freedom image registrations of TrueBeam cone-beam computed tomography and BrainLab ExacTrac X-ray imaging systems for intracranial radiosurgery. Phantom and patient studies were performed on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (version 2.5), which is integrated with a BrainLab ExacTrac imaging system (version 6.1.1). The phantom study was based on a Rando head phantom and was designed to evaluate isocenter location dependence of the image registrations. Ten isocenters at various locations representing clinical treatment sites were selected in the phantom. Cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac X-ray images were taken when the phantom was located at each isocenter. The patient study included 34 patients. Cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac X-ray images were taken at each patient's treatment position. The 6 degree-of-freedom image registrations were performed on cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac, and residual errors calculated from cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac were compared. In the phantom study, the average residual error differences (absolute values) between cone-beam computed tomography and ExacTrac image registrations were 0.17 ± 0.11 mm, 0.36 ± 0.20 mm, and 0.25 ± 0.11 mm in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions, respectively. The average residual error differences in the rotation, roll, and pitch were 0.34° ± 0.08°, 0.13° ± 0.09°, and 0.12° ± 0.10°, respectively. In the patient study, the average residual error differences in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were 0.20 ± 0.16 mm, 0.30 ± 0.18 mm, 0.21 ± 0.18 mm, respectively. The average residual error differences in the rotation, roll, and pitch were 0.40°± 0.16°, 0.17° ± 0.13°, and 0.20° ± 0.14°, respectively. Overall, the average residual error differences were cone-beam computed tomography image registration in intracranial treatments.

  3. Awareness, adoption, and application of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) Framework for Information Literacy in health sciences libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Stephanie J; Knapp, Maureen

    2017-10-01

    In early 2016, the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) officially adopted a conceptual Framework for Information Literacy (Framework) that was a significant shift away from the previous standards-based approach. This study sought to determine (1) if health sciences librarians are aware of the recent Framework for Information Literacy; (2) if they have used the Framework to change their instruction or communication with faculty, and if so, what changes have taken place; and (3) if certain librarian characteristics are associated with the likelihood of adopting the Framework. This study utilized a descriptive electronic survey. Half of all respondents were aware of and were using or had plans to use the Framework. Academic health sciences librarians and general academic librarians were more likely than hospital librarians to be aware of the Framework. Those using the Framework were mostly revising and creating content, revising their teaching approach, and learning more about the Framework. Framework users commented that it was influencing how they thought about and discussed information literacy with faculty and students. Most hospital librarians and half the academic health sciences librarians were not using and had no plans to use the Framework. Librarians with more than twenty years of experience were less likely to be aware of the Framework and more likely to have no plans to use it. Common reasons for not using the Framework were lack of awareness of a new version and lack of involvement in formal instruction. The results suggest that there is room to improve awareness and application of the Framework among health sciences librarians.

  4. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (31st, Orlando, FL, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    For the thirty-first year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) sponsored the publication of these Proceedings. Papers were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. This year's Proceedings has two sections--Section 1 includes research and development papers and…

  5. The Joy of Teaching Literacy. The Thirty-Fourth Yearbook: A Double Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Linda, Ed.; Boggs, Merry, Ed.; Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Morrision, Timothy, Ed.; Garza-Garcia, Lizabeth, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers (ALER) Yearbook, Volume 34, includes papers presented at the annual conference, which have gone through a double peer review process. It also includes the Presidential Address and the keynote addresses given at the conference. For ALER's 55th annual meeting, the Association of Literacy…

  6. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  7. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 4 – Noninvasive Interventions for Chronic WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence for various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the fourth in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for noninvasive interventions initiated during the chronic phase of WAD. Twenty-two studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, 12 of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodological quality (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. For the treatment of chronic WAD, there is evidence to suggest that exercise programs are effective in relieving whiplash-related pain, at least over the short term. While the majority of a subset of nine studies supported the effectiveness of interdisciplinary interventions, the two randomized controlled trials provided conflicting results. Finally, there was limited evidence, consisting of one supportive case series each, that both manual joint manipulation and myofeedback training may provide some benefit. Based on the available research, exercise programs were the most effective noninvasive treatment for patients with chronic WAD, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various exercise regimens.

  8. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology into NASA Programs Associated with the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Aeronautics and Mission Directorate (ARMD) programs. Other Government and commercial program managers can also find this information useful.

  9. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Review. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  10. Access and benefits sharing of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in northern Canada: understanding the legal environment and creating effective research agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Geary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK. Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design. Review. Results. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.

  11. General Aspects and First Progress Report on a Frame of a Research on Specific Professional Knowledge of Chemistry Teachers Associated with the Notion of Chemical Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Perafán Echeverri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of research about professional teacher’s knowledge, our business is to identify and to characterize with case study method, a kind of specific professional teacher´s knowledge of Chemistry professorate, associated to the chemical nomenclature notion. This kind of research guides the sight to the teaching contents, but it postulates the teacher as an essential actor of that knowledge, rather than ignore of the other actors (didactic community, researchers, specialists, students, etc. our research realizes the specific construction that the teacher makes, beyond the «spontaneous epistemologies» category, between others, which seems to deny an academic and discipline character of the built knowledge by the teachers. First, we show a brief reference to the research program on professional teacher´s knowledge which frames in the development of research line about Specific Professional Teacher´s Knowledge associated with Particular Categories, which belongs to the research group «Por las Aulas Colombianas- INVAUCOL». After that, we show a short justification about the choice of the particular category: chemical nomenclature, as a studied object, besides the historical importance that it has to the professional teaching consolidation, recognizing the teacher´s specific contributions to discipline body construction of school knowledge. Finally, weset in consideration some general methodological criteria defined in this research, and we show too, some preliminary reflections derived from field work in thepresent state of the project.

  12. Organizational participatory research: a systematic mixed studies review exposing its extra benefits and the key factors associated with them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Paula L; Pluye, Pierre; Loignon, Christine; Granikov, Vera; Wright, Michael T; Pelletier, Jean-François; Bartlett-Esquilant, Gillian; Macaulay, Ann C; Haggerty, Jeannie; Parry, Sharon; Repchinsky, Carol

    2017-10-10

    In health, organizational participatory research (OPR) refers to health organization members participating in research decisions, with university researchers, throughout a study. This non-academic partner contribution to the research may take the form of consultation or co-construction. A drawback of OPR is that it requires more time from all those involved, compared to non-participatory research approaches; thus, understanding the added value of OPR, if any, is important. Thus, we sought to assess whether the OPR approach leads to benefits beyond what could be achieved through traditional research. We identified, selected, and appraised OPR health literature, and at each stage, two team members independently reviewed and coded the literature. We used quantitative content analysis to transform textual data into reliable numerical codes and conducted a logistic regression to test the hypothesis that a co-construction type OPR study yields extra benefits with a greater likelihood than consultation-type OPR studies. From 8873 abstracts and 992 full text papers, we distilled a sample of 107 OPR studies. We found no difference between the type of organization members' participation and the likelihood of exhibiting an extra benefit. However, the likelihood of an OPR study exhibiting at least one extra benefit is quadrupled when the impetus for the study comes from the organization, rather than the university researcher(s), or the organization and the university researcher(s) together (OR = 4.11, CI = 1.12-14.01). We also defined five types of extra benefits. This review describes the types of extra benefits OPR can yield and suggests these benefits may occur if the organization initiates the OPR. Further, this review exposes a need for OPR authors to more clearly describe the type of non-academic partner participation in key research decisions throughout the study. Detailed descriptions will benefit others conducting OPR and allow for a re-examination of the

  13. Association of Research Self-Efficacy with Medical Student Career Interests, Specialization, and Scholarship: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S. Beth; Prayson, Richard A.; Dannefer, Elaine F.

    2015-01-01

    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal…

  14. Drawbacks and benefits associated with inter-organizational collaboration along the discovery-development-delivery continuum: a cancer research network case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Provan, Keith G; Johnson, Kimberly J; Leischow, Scott J

    2012-07-25

    The scientific process around cancer research begins with scientific discovery, followed by development of interventions, and finally delivery of needed interventions to people with cancer. Numerous studies have identified substantial gaps between discovery and delivery in health research. Team science has been identified as a possible solution for closing the discovery to delivery gap; however, little is known about effective ways of collaborating within teams and across organizations. The purpose of this study was to determine benefits and drawbacks associated with organizational collaboration across the discovery-development-delivery research continuum. Representatives of organizations working on cancer research across a state answered a survey about how they collaborated with other cancer research organizations in the state and what benefits and drawbacks they experienced while collaborating. We used exponential random graph modeling to determine the association between these benefits and drawbacks and the presence of a collaboration tie between any two network members. Different drawbacks and benefits were associated with discovery, development, and delivery collaborations. The only consistent association across all three was with the drawback of difficulty due to geographic differences, which was negatively associated with collaboration, indicating that those organizations that had collaborated were less likely to perceive a barrier related to geography. The benefit, enhanced access to other knowledge, was positive and significant in the development and delivery networks, indicating that collaborating organizations viewed improved knowledge exchange as a benefit of collaboration. 'Acquisition of additional funding or other resources' and 'development of new tools and methods' were negatively significantly related to collaboration in these networks. So, although improved knowledge access was an outcome of collaboration, more tangible outcomes were not being

  15. Navigating the Literacy Waters: Research, Praxis, and Advocacy. The Twenty-Ninth Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Martha M., Ed.; Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Falk-Ross, Francine, Ed.; Sampson, Mary Beth, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the research and papers presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the College Reading Association in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in October, 2006. This Yearbook begins with Karen Bromley's presidential address, which explored the future of writing by discussing four predictions: the notion that pens and pencils will be…

  16. Association of research self-efficacy with medical student career interests, specialization, and scholarship: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S Beth; Prayson, Richard A; Dannefer, Elaine F

    2015-05-01

    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory-Short Form (CRAI-SF) items at matriculation (n = 128) or graduation (n = 111) during 2009-2013. Parametric statistics were used to compare CRAI-SF scales to domains proposed in SCCT: trainees' characteristics (gender, training level, advanced degree), career interests, career intentions (medical specialty), and performance (peer-reviewed publications and required thesis topic). A number of lessons emerged in using theory to frame the evaluation of a complex educational program. Graduates rated their research self-efficacy significantly higher on all six CRAI-SF scales with large effect sizes (>.90) on five scales (Conceptualizing a Study, Study Design and Analysis, Responsible Research Conduct, Collaborating with Others, and Reporting a Study). Women and men did not have significantly different scores on CRAI-SF scales (p > .05), suggesting that the research program provides adequate supports for women students. Most thesis projects addressed clinical (36.9 %, n = 41) or translational (34.2 %, n = 38) research topics. The CRAI-SF discriminated between medical school matriculates and graduates, suggesting that research self-efficacy increases with mastery experiences. No significant relationships occurred between CRAI-SF scores and graduates' thesis topics or chosen clinical specialty. Correlations demonstrated significant relationships between graduates' perceptions of research self-efficacy and their interest in clinical research careers.

  17. Chameleon Effects in Homework Research: The Homework-Achievement Association Depends on the Measures Used and the Level of Analysis Chosen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois; Neumann, Marko; Ludtke, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Using a data set specifically tailored to homework research, with a sample of 1275 students from 70 classes in Switzerland, the association between homework and achievement in French as a second language was tested at three levels (class level, between-student level, and within-student level). The strength and direction of the homework-achievement…

  18. OCP TECD Report - TARDEC Blast Mitigation Program (BMP) and National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Michigan (MI) Chapter Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Standard, MIL-STD-3058, Occupant-Centric Protection for Military Ground Vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Occupant Centric Platform Technology-Enabled...Capability Demonstration (OCP TECD), Occupant-centric, Occupant Protection , Underbody Blast, National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA...Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  19. Literacy Is Transformative. The Thirty-Fifth Yearbook A Doubled Peer Reviewed Publication of the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Martin, Linda, Ed.; Haas, Leslie, Ed.; Garza-Garcia, Lizabeth, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    For their 56th annual meeting, the Association of Educators and Researchers (ALER) met in Grand Rapids, Michigan at the Amway Grand Hotel. This year's conference theme was Literacy Is Transformative, which was also used as the title for this year's Yearbook, Volume 35. Included are double-peer reviewed papers, the presidential address,…

  20. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (28th, Orlando, Florida, 2005). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For the twenty-eighth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  1. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (28th, Orlando, Florida, 2005). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For the twenty-eighth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  2. A 25-year analysis of the American College of Gastroenterology research grant program: factors associated with publication and advancement in academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Seth D; Dellon, Evan S; Bright, Stephanie D; Shaheen, Nicholas J

    2009-05-01

    The American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) has awarded research grants for 25 years. We assessed the characteristics of grant recipients, their current academic status, and the likelihood of publication resulting from the grant. Demographic data, the year and amount of award, title of project, and recipient's institution were extracted from ACG databases. Using ACG reports and medical literature search engines, we assessed publication based on grant-funded research, as well as career publication record. We also determined the current position of awardees. A similar analysis was performed for recipients of junior investigator awards. A total of 396 clinical research awards totaling $5,374,497 ($6,867,937 in 2008 dollars) were awarded to 341 recipients in the 25 years between 1983 and 2008. The most commonly funded areas of research were endoscopy (22% of awards) and motility/functional disorders (21%). At least one peer-reviewed publication based on grant-funded research occurred with 255 of the 368 awards (69%) for 1983-2006 [corrected]. Higher award value was associated with subsequent publication. Of the 313 awardees over the same period, 195 (62%) are currently in academic positions [corrected]. Factors associated with staying in academics included higher award value (P academics. Overall, the mean cost in grant dollars per published paper based on the research was $14,875. The majority of ACG grant recipients published the results of their research and remained in academics. Higher amount of award, holding an advanced degree, and publication were associated with careers in academics. The ACG research grant award program is an important engine of investigation, publication, and academic career development in the field of gastroenterology.

  3. COPD exacerbations associated with the modified Medical Research Council scale and COPD assessment test among Humana Medicare members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale MK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Margaret K Pasquale,1 Yihua Xu,1 Christine L Baker,2 Kelly H Zou,3 John G Teeter,4 Andrew M Renda,5 Cralen C Davis,1 Theodore C Lee,6 Joel Bobula2 1Comprehensive Health Insights, Inc., Humana Inc., Louisville, KY, 2Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health & Value, Pfizer Inc., 3Statistical Center for Outcomes, Real-World and Aggregate Data, Global Innovative Pharma Business, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, 4Global Medical Development, Global Innovative Pharma Business, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT, 5Retail Strategy & Execution, Humana Inc., Louisville, KY, 6Global Medical Affairs, Global Innovative Pharma Business, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: The Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines recommend assessment of COPD severity, which includes symptomatology using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC or COPD assessment test (CAT score in addition to the degree of airflow obstruction and exacerbation history. While there is great interest in incorporating symptomatology, little is known about how patient reported symptoms are associated with future exacerbations and exacerbation-related costs.Methods: The mMRC and CAT were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 4,000 Medicare members aged >40 years, diagnosed with COPD (≥2 encounters with International Classification of Dis­eases-9th Edition Clinical Modification: 491.xx, 492.xx, 496.xx, ≥30 days apart. The exacerbations and exacerbation-related costs were collected from claims data during 365-day post-survey after exclusion of members lost to follow-up or with cancer, organ transplant, or pregnancy. A logistic regression model estimated the predictive value of exacerbation history and symptomatology on exacerbations during follow-up, and a generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution estimated the predictive value of exacerbation history and symptomatology on exacerbation-related costs.Results: Among a total of 1,159 members who returned the

  4. 77 FR 38831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Tizen Association...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... its name to Tizen Association (``Tizen''). In addition, Huawei Device Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, PEOPLE'S... Ridge, NJ, and Wind River Systems, Alameda, CA. No other changes have been made in either the membership...

  5. Bye-laws and partnership agreements of the members of the Association of Government-Sponsored Research Organizations (AGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    There are currently thirteen members of the AGF, government-sponsored research organizations who together employ more than 22.000 people and an annual budget of about DM 2.5 billions, thus representing the largest, compact research potential of the Federal Republic of Germany and building one of the most essential elements of the German scientific research system. The research organizations are financed from Federal Government funds and by contributions from the Federal Land the organization is domiciled, each at a ratio of 90 to 10. Influence and control by the Federal Government is exerted by way of Government representatives having a seat and a vote in the executive bodies of the organization, and by way of budgetary powers. Ever since their establishment, the government-sponsored research organizations have to find a balance between the two poles of scientific and legal independence on the one hand, and governmental influence on the other. Their wish for more effectively safeguarding their common interests have induced the research organizations to establish the AGF on January 30, 1970. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Are leaders' well-being, behaviours and style associated with the affective well-being of their employees? A systematic review of three decades of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm

    2010-01-01

    This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion.......g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees’ stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress...... and affective well-being. Leader behaviours, the relationship between leaders and their employees and specific leadership styles were all associated with employee stress and affective well-being. It is recommended that future studies include more qualitative data, use standardise questionnaires and examine...

  7. TU-CD-BRB-07: Identification of Associations Between Radiologist-Annotated Imaging Features and Genomic Alterations in Breast Invasive Carcinoma, a TCGA Phenotype Research Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A; Net, J [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Brandt, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Huang, E [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Freymann, J; Kirby, J [Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Burnside, E [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Morris, E; Sutton, E [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Bonaccio, E [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Giger, M; Jaffe, C [Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Ganott, M; Zuley, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center - Magee Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Le-Petross, H [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dogan, B [UT MDACC, Houston, TX (United States); Whitman, G [UTMDACC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine associations between radiologist-annotated MRI features and genomic measurements in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods: 98 TCGA patients with BRCA were assessed by a panel of radiologists (TCGA Breast Phenotype Research Group) based on a variety of mass and non-mass features according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Batch corrected gene expression data was obtained from the TCGA Data Portal. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess correlations between categorical image features and tumor-derived genomic features (such as gene pathway activity, copy number and mutation characteristics). Image-derived features were also correlated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) status. Multiple hypothesis correction was done using Benjamini-Hochberg FDR. Associations at an FDR of 0.1 were selected for interpretation. Results: ER status was associated with rim enhancement and peritumoral edema. PR status was associated with internal enhancement. Several components of the PI3K/Akt pathway were associated with rim enhancement as well as heterogeneity. In addition, several components of cell cycle regulation and cell division were associated with imaging characteristics.TP53 and GATA3 mutations were associated with lesion size. MRI features associated with TP53 mutation status were rim enhancement and peritumoral edema. Rim enhancement was associated with activity of RB1, PIK3R1, MAP3K1, AKT1,PI3K, and PIK3CA. Margin status was associated with HIF1A/ARNT, Ras/ GTP/PI3K, KRAS, and GADD45A. Axillary lymphadenopathy was associated with RB1 and BCL2L1. Peritumoral edema was associated with Aurora A/GADD45A, BCL2L1, CCNE1, and FOXA1. Heterogeneous internal nonmass enhancement was associated with EGFR, PI3K, AKT1, HF/MET, and EGFR/Erbb4/neuregulin 1. Diffuse nonmass enhancement was associated with HGF/MET/MUC20/SHIP

  8. The association between paternal sensitivity and infant-father attachment security: a meta-analysis of three decades of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Nicole; Tharner, Anne; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Volling, Brenda L; Verhulst, Frank C; Lambregtse-Van den Berg, Mijke P; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-12-01

    For almost three decades, the association between paternal sensitivity and infant-father attachment security has been studied. The first wave of studies on the correlates of infant-father attachment showed a weak association between paternal sensitivity and infant-father attachment security (r = .13, p infant-father attachment based on all studies currently available is presented, and the change over time of the association between paternal sensitivity and infant-father attachment is investigated. Studies using an observational measure of paternal interactive behavior with the infant, and the Strange Situation Procedure to observe the attachment relationship were included. Paternal sensitivity is differentiated from paternal sensitivity combined with stimulation in the interaction with the infant. Higher levels of paternal sensitivity were associated with more infant-father attachment security (r = .12, p attachment security than sensitive interactions without stimulation of play. Despite possible changes in paternal role patterns, we did not find stronger associations between paternal sensitivity and infant attachment in more recent years.

  9. Research Note. Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections and associated lesions in wolves (Canis lupus from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacher A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections in wolves (Canis lupus in Europe are limited and data on associated lesions are lacking. In the present study urinary bladders, nasal turbinates and faecal samples from 8 necropsied wolves were examined for P. plica and E. böhmi infections and associated lesions. P. plica was identified in the bladder of four wolves. At histological examination, follicular chronic cystitis and eosinophilic cystitis were found. E. böhmi nematodes and eggs were identified from the nasal turbinates and rectal faecal samples of three wolves. Worms and eggs were found embedded in the mucosa among the nasal bone laminae. Two wolves were found coinfected by P. plica and E. böhmi. This is the first report of P. plica and E. böhmi infections in wolves from Italy and the first description of pathological lesions associated with P. plica infection in wolves.

  10. Establishing an ethical climate in support of research integrity: efforts and activities of the American Sociological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iutcovich, Joyce M; Kennedy, John M; Levine, Felice J

    2003-04-01

    The article provides an overview of the recent efforts and activities of the American Sociological Association (ASA) to keep its Code of Ethics visible and relevant to its membership. The development process and challenges associated with the most recent revision of the ASA's code are reviewed, the current education and support activities are described, and other strategies for taking a proactive and leadership role in establishing an ethical climate are proposed. In conclusion, while the ASA has made significant progress in this area, it recognizes that a lot of work remains.

  11. Associations between personal exposures to VOCs and alterations in cardiovascular physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) - presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007...

  12. Associations between Personal Exposures to VOCs and Alterations in Cardiovascular Physiology: Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An adult cohort consisting of 63 participants engaged in the US EPA’s recent Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) and a University of Michigan cardiovascular sub-study conducted during summer and winter periods over 3 years between 2004 and 2007 (5 seas...

  13. The Associations between Language Aptitude and Second Language Grammar Acquisition: A Meta-Analytic Review of Five Decades of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a meta-analysis that synthesizes the empirical research on the role of language aptitude in second language grammar acquisition. A total of 33 study reports were identified including 17 predictive studies that investigated the correlations between aptitude and ultimate L2 attainment and 16 interactional studies that examined the…

  14. Rodent model choice has major impact on variability of standard preclinical readouts associated with diabetes and obesity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Victoria Svop; Porsgaard, Trine; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the phenotypic variation in commonly used experimental readouts within obesity and diabetes research, for four of the most frequently used mouse strains: inbred C57BL/6 and BALB/c and outbred NMRI and CD-1 mice. The variation for all readouts was examined by calculating the coefficient...

  15. Structural map of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus RNA provides clues to molecular interactions | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from CCR have generated a comprehensive structural map of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA, a long non-coding RNA that helps the virus evade detection by its host’s immune system. The findings open new oppportunites to study the life cycle of this cancer-causing virus.  Learn more...

  16. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities: A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitades Gebre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus (ZIKAV infection and microcephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barré syndrome. ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos (Aedes species, but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva, blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical presentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  17. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities: A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades Gebre; Nikkiah Forbes; Teshome Gebre

    2016-01-01

    On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus(ZIKAV) infection and microcephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barre′ syndrome.ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos(Aedes species), but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva,blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical presentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  18. Is dyslexia necessarily associated with negative feelings of self-worth? A review and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Robert

    2008-08-01

    This paper will provide an overview of research in the past 20 years into the relationship between dyslexia and various aspects of self-perception, including self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy and locus of control. Problems are identified relating to the measurement of some of the most widely used constructs, as is the need for more precise identification of key variables relating to them. Critical issues concerning the assumptions that can be drawn from largely correlational data are highlighted also. The conclusion is drawn that an alternative approach to research in this area is required to enhance our understanding of how those suffering from learning disabilities of a dyslexic nature develop a positive or negative sense of identity. Suggestions are made as to how this can be achieved by drawing upon attribution theory and other aspects of social psychology. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Active learning in research methods classes is associated with higher knowledge and confidence, though not evaluations or satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James Allen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research methods and statistics are regarded as difficult subjects to teach, fueling investigations into techniques that increase student engagement. Students enjoy active learning opportunities like hands-on demonstrations, authentic research participation, and working with real data. However, enhanced enjoyment does not always correspond with enhanced learning and performance. In this study, we developed a workshop activity in which students participated in a computer-based experiment and used class-generated data to run a range of statistical procedures. To enable evaluation, we developed a parallel, didactic/canned workshop, which was identical to the activity-based version, except that students were told about the experiment and used a pre-existing/canned dataset to perform their analyses. Tutorial groups were randomized to one of the two workshop versions, and 39 students completed a post-workshop evaluation questionnaire. A series of generalized linear mixed models suggested that, compared to the students in the didactic/canned condition, students exposed to the activity-based workshop displayed significantly greater knowledge of the methodological and statistical issues addressed in class, and were more confident about their ability to use this knowledge in the future. However, overall evaluations and satisfaction between the two groups were not reliably different. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. 12th Quadrennial Congress of the International Association for Radiation Research incorporating the 50th Annual Meeting of Radiation Research Society, RANZCR Radiation Oncology Annual Scientific Meeting and AINSE Radiation Science Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The 12th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR2003), for the first time held in the Southern Hemisphere under the auspices of the International Association of Radiation Research (IARR). The Australian affiliate of IARR is the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE). As with recent Congresses, the annual scientific meeting of the Radiation Research Society will be incorporated into the program. The Congress will be further enhanced by the integration of the annual scientific meeting of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and the AINSE Radiation Science Conference. An exciting programme was presented with the main threads being radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation chemistry/physics, radiation protection and the environment. Items in INIS scope have been separately indexed

  1. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.

  2. Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5–7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Mason, Catherine K; de Vocht, Frank; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited data is available about incidence of acute transient symptoms associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners. We aimed to assess the incidence of these symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with MRI scanners, and their association with static magnetic field exposure. Methods We performed an observational study among 361 employees of 14 clinical and research MRI facilities in The Netherlands. Each participant completed a diary during one or more work shifts inside and/or outside the MRI facility, reporting work activities and symptoms (from a list of potentially MRI-related symptoms, complemented with unrelated symptoms) experienced during a working day. We analysed 633 diaries. Exposure categories were defined by strength and type of MRI scanner, using non-MRI shifts as the reference category for statistical analysis. Non-MRI shifts originated from MRI staff who also participated on MRI days, as well as CT radiographers who never worked with MRI. Results Varying per exposure category, symptoms were reported during 16–39% of the MRI work shifts. We observed a positive association between scanner strength and reported symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with closed-bore MRI scanners of 1.5 Tesla (T) and higher (1.5 T OR=1.88; 3.0 T OR=2.14; 7.0 T OR=4.17). This finding was mainly driven by reporting of vertigo and metallic taste. Conclusions The results suggest an exposure-response association between exposure to strong static magnetic fields (and associated motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields) and reporting of transient symptoms on the same day of exposure. Trial registration number 11-032/C PMID:24714654

  3. Mining Research on Vibration Signal Association Rules of Quayside Container Crane Hoisting Motor Based on Apriori Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chencheng; Tang, Gang; Hu, Xiong

    2017-07-01

    Shore-hoisting motor in the daily work will produce a large number of vibration signal data,in order to analyze the correlation among the data and discover the fault and potential safety hazard of the motor, the data are discretized first, and then Apriori algorithm are used to mine the strong association rules among the data. The results show that the relationship between day 1 and day 16 is the most closely related, which can guide the staff to analyze the work of these two days of motor to find and solve the problem of fault and safety.

  4. Associations between rate of force development metrics and throwing velocity in elite team handball players: a short research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mário C; Saavedra, Francisco J; Abrantes, Catarina; Aidar, Felipe J

    2011-09-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring participant's development in distinct sports, yet limited and contradictory data are available in trained subjects. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ball throwing velocity during a 3-step running throw in elite team handball players and selected measures of rate of force development like force, power, velocity, and bar displacement during a concentric only bench press exercise in elite male handball players. Fitteen elite senior male team handball players volunteered to participate. Each volunteer had power and bar velocity measured during a concentric only bench press test with 25, 35, and 45 kg as well as having one-repetition maximum strength determined. Ball throwing velocity was evaluated with a standard 3-step running throw using a radar gun. The results of this study indicated significant associations between ball velocity and time at maximum rate of force development (0, 66; pvelocity was only median associated with maximum rate of force development with light loads. A training regimen designed to improve ball-throwing velocity in elite male team handball players should emphasize bench press movement using light loads.

  5. The association between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures: a review of the evidence and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza

    2008-11-01

    Physical activity helps maintain mobility, physical functioning, bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength, balance and, therefore, may help prevent falls and fractures among the elderly. Meanwhile, it is theoretically possible that physical activity increases risk of fractures as it may increase risk of falls and has only a modest effect on BMD. This review aims to assess the potential causal association between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures from an epidemiological viewpoint. As the medical literature lacks direct evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with fracture end points, a meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies with hip fracture end point is presented. The current evidence base regarding the link between exercise and fracture risk determinants (namely, falls, BMD, and bone quality) are also summarized. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is associated with a hip fracture risk reduction of 45% (95% CI, 31-56%) and 38% (95% CI, 31-44%), respectively, among men and women. Risk of falling is suggested to be generally reduced among physically active people with a potential increased risk in the most active and inactive people. Positive effects of physical activity on BMD and bone quality are of a questionable magnitude for reduction of fracture risk. The complexity of relationship between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures points out to the need for RCTs to be conducted with fractures as the primary end point.

  6. Research Problems Associated with Limiting the Applied Force in Vibration Tests and Conducting Base-Drive Modal Vibration Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1995-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to make a case for developing and conducting vibration tests which are both realistic and practical (a question of tailoring versus standards). Tests are essential for finding things overlooked in the analyses. The best test is often the most realistic test which can be conducted within the cost and budget constraints. Some standards are essential, but the author believes more in the individual's ingenuity to solve a specific problem than in the application of standards which reduce problems (and technology) to their lowest common denominator. Force limited vibration tests and base-drive modal tests are two examples of realistic, but practical testing approaches. Since both of these approaches are relatively new, a number of interesting research problems exist, and these are emphasized herein.

  7. Review and Evaluation of Updated Research on the Health Effects Associated with Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauer, Lawrence T.; Brooks, Antone L.; Hoel, David G.; Morgan, William F.; Stram, Daniel; Tran, Phung

    2010-01-01

    Potential health effects of low levels of radiation have predominantly been based on those effects observed at high levels of radiation. The authors have reviewed more than 200 percent publications in radiobiology and epidermiology related to low dose radiation and concluded that recent radiobiological studies at low-doses; that doses <100 mSv in a single exposure appear to be too small to allow epidermiological detection of statistically significant excess cancers in the presence of naturally occurring cancers; that low dose radiation research should to holistic, systems-based approaches to develop models that define the shape of the dose-response relationships at low doses; and that these results should be combined with the latest epidermiology to produce a comprehensive understanding of radiation effects that addresses both damage, likely with a linear effect, and response, possibly with non-linear consequences.

  8. [Advances in application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 system in stem cells research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S J; Huo, J H; Geng, Z J; Sun, X Y; Fu, X B

    2018-04-20

    Gene engineering has attracted worldwide attention because of its ability of precise location of disease mutations in genome. As a new gene editing technology, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system is simple, fast, and accurate to operate at a specific gene site. It overcomes the long-standing problem of conventional operation. At the same time, stem cells are a good foundation for establishing disease model in vitro. Therefore, it has great significance to combine stem cells with the rapidly developing gene manipulation techniques. In this review, we mainly focus on the mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its application in stem cell genomic editing, so as to pave the way for promoting rapid application and development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

  9. The distribution of P-values in medical research articles suggested selective reporting associated with statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P values values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The NEIL Memory Research Unit: psychosocial, biological, physiological and lifestyle factors associated with healthy ageing: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Caoimhe; Coen, Robert F; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Brennan, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Population ageing is a global phenomenon that has characterised demographic trends during the 20th and 21st century. The rapid growth in the proportion of older adults in the population, and resultant increase in the incidence of age-related cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease, brings significant social, economic and healthcare challenges. Decline in cognitive abilities represents the most profound threat to active and healthy ageing. Current evidence suggests that a significant proportion of cases of age-related cognitive decline and dementia may be preventable through the modification of risk factors including education, depressive symptomology, physical activity, social engagement and participation in cognitively stimulating activities. The NEIL Memory Research Unit cohort study was established to investigate factors related to brain health and the maintenance of cognitive function. A cohort of 1000 normally ageing adults aged 50 years and over are being recruited to participate in comprehensive assessments at baseline, and at follow-up once every 2 years. The assessment protocol comprises a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, some basic physical measures, psychosocial scales, questionnaire measures related to a range of health, lifestyle and behavioural factors, and a measure of resting state activity using electroencephalography (EEG). The NEIL Memory Research Unit cohort study will address key questions about brain health and cognitive ageing in the population aged 50+, with a particular emphasis on the influence of potentially modifiable factors on cognitive outcomes. Analyses will be conducted with a focus on factors involved in the maintenance of cognitive function among older adults, and therefore will have the potential to contribute significant knowledge related to key questions within the field of cognitive ageing, and to inform the development of public health interventions aimed at preventing cognitive decline and promoting

  11. Effects and risks associated with novel psychoactive substances: mislabeling and sale as bath salts, spice, and research chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Nicolas; Mikus, Gerd; Czock, David

    2014-02-28

    The number of newly reported psychoactive substances in Europe is now higher than ever. In order to evade legal restrictions, old and novel psychoactive substances from medical research and their derivatives are commonly mislabeled as "not for human consumption" and offered for sale on the Internet and elsewhere. Such substances are widely taken by young people as "club drugs." Their consumption must be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric, neurological, cardiovascular, or metabolic disturbances of unclear origin in a young patient. Selective review of pertinent literature retrieved by a PubMed search, including publications by government-sponsored organizations. From 2010 to 2012, 163 substances were reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), mostly either synthetic cannabinoids (39.3%) or synthetic cathinones (16.6%). Synthetic cannabinoids alter mood and perception; intoxications cause agitation, tachy cardia, and arterial hypertension. Synthetic cathinones are hallucinogenic stimulants with predominantly cardiovascular and psychiatric side effects. Severe intoxications cause serotonin syndrome and potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis. Substances in either of these classes often escape detection in screening tests. Young persons who present with agitation and cardiovascular and/or psychiatric manifestations of unclear origin and whose drug screening tests are negative may be suffering from an intoxication with a novel psychoactive substance. Physicians should know the classes of such substances and their effects. Targeted toxicological analysis can be carried out in a toxicology laboratory or a facility for forensic medicine.

  12. Developmental Assessments during Injury Research: Is Enrollment of Very Young Children in Crèches Associated with Better Scores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Nair

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Study is part of a larger intervention on “saving of lives from drowning (SoLiD” where children were enrolled either into crèches (daycare centers or playpens to prevent drowning in rural Bangladesh. Sampling ~1000 children between the ages of 9–17 months, we compared problem-solving, communication, motor and personal-social outcomes assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire in the two interventions. After controlling for variables such as home stimulation in multivariate regressions, children in crèches performed about a quarter of a standard deviation better in total scores (p < 0.10 and 0.45 standard deviations higher in fine motor skills (p < 0.05. Moreover, once the sample was stratified by length of exposure to the intervention, then children in crèches performed significantly better in a number of domains: those enrolled the longest (about 5 months have higher fine motor (1.47, p < 0.01, gross motor (0.40, p < 0.05 and personal-social skills (0.95, p < 0.01 than children in playpens. In addition, children in crèches with the longer exposure (about 5 months have significantly higher personal-social and problem-solving scores than those in crèches with minimum exposure. Enrollment in crèches of very young children may be positively associated with psychosocial scores after accounting for important confounding variables.

  13. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix C, marine transport and associated environmental impacts. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix C to a Draft Environmental Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. Shipment of any material via ocean transport entails risks to both the ship's crew and the environment. The risks result directly from transportation-related accidents and, in the case of radioactive or other hazardous materials, also include exposure to the effects of the material itself. This appendix provides a description of the approach used to assess the risks associated with the transport of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel from a foreign port to a U.S. port(s) of entry. This appendix also includes a discussion of the shipping configuration of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel, the possible types of vessels that could be used to make the shipments, the risk assessment methodology (addressing both incident-free and accident risks), and the results of the analyses. Analysis of activities in the port(s) is described in Appendix D. The incident-free and accident risk assessment results are presented in terms of the per shipment risk and total risks associated with the basic implementation of Management Alternative 1and other implementation alternatives. In addition, annual risks from incident-free transport are developed

  14. Final Research Performance Report - Small Molecular Associative Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Robert M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-12-31

    The initial objective of this project was to promote the application of a CO2 thickener for improved mobility control during CO2 EOR based on solubility tests, viscosity tests, and core floods. Ultimately, it was demonstrated that the CO2-soluble polymeric thickeners are much better suited for use a CO2-soluble conformance control agents for diverting the flow of CO2 away from thief zones. Our team generated several effective small molecule CO2 thickeners with ARPA-e funding. Unfortunately, none of these small molecule thickeners could dissolve in CO2 without the addition of unacceptably large amounts of hexane or toluene as a co-solvent Therefore none were viable candidates for the core flooding studies associated with NETL award. Therefore during the entire core flood testing program associated with this NETL award, our team used only the most promising polymeric CO2 thickener, a polyfluoroacrylate (PFA). In order to produce an environmentally benign polymer, the monomer used to make the new polymers used in this study was a fluoroacrylate that contains only six fluorinated carbons. We verified CO2 solubility with a phase behavior cell. The thickening potential of all polymer samples was substantiated with a falling ball viscometer and a falling cylinder viscometer at Pitt. Two different viscometers were used to determine the increase in CO2 viscosity that could be achieved via the dissolution of PFA. Praxair, which has an interest in thickening CO2 for pilot EOR projects and for waterless hydraulic fracturing, agreed to measure the viscosity of CO2-PFA solutions at no cost to the project. Falling cylinder viscometery was conducted at Pitt in our windowed high pressure phase behavior cell. Both apparatuses indicated that at very low shear rates the CO2 viscosity increased by a factor of roughly 3.5 when 1wt% PFA was

  15. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the IAEA in December 1987 and now comprises twenty-three participants from twenty-one countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques used include neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the second research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes and have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa incidence and survival: 5-year experience of the Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association of America (DebRA) nurse educator, 2007 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Mancuso, Geraldine; Kopelan, Brett; Azizkhan, Richard G; Lucky, Anne W

    2014-01-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a particularly devastating type of epidermolysis bullosa, especially in the newborn period. Data about the number of new cases of JEB in the United States were collected from the records of the Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association of America (DebRA) nurse educator. Seventy-one children with JEB were reported to have been born in the 5 years between 2007 and 2011, reflecting an incidence of at least 3.59 per million per year, significantly higher than previously estimated (2.04 per million). There was a high prevalence of morbidity and infant mortality of at least 73%, as 52 of the 71 cases proved fatal by June 2012. These data emphasize the need for future research to develop treatment and ultimately a cure for this disorder. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the IAEA in December 1987 and now comprises nineteen participants from seventeen countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques used include neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the third research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes and have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/Adult Congenital Heart Association Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M.; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S.; Daniels, Curt J.; Fuller, Stephanie M.P.N.; Honein, Margaret A.; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mahle, William T.; Mann, Douglas L.; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W.; Pearson, Gail D.; Starling, Randall C.; Tringali, Glenn R.; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C.; Califf, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD (ACHD). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary Working Group to identify high-impact research questions in ACHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy. PMID:27102511

  19. Associations between Grawe's general mechanisms of change and Young's early maladaptive schemas in psychotherapy research: a comparative study of change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Johannes V; Jacob, Gitta A; Götz, Lea; Sammet, Isa; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at analyzing associations between Grawe's general mechanisms of change and Young's early maladaptive schemas (EMS). Therefore, 98 patients completed the Scale for the Multiperspective Assessment of General Change Mechanisms in Psychotherapy (SACiP), the Young Shema Questionnaire-Short Form Revised (YSQ S3R), and diverse outcome measures at the beginning and end of treatment. Our results are important for clinical applications, as we demonstrated strong predictive effects of change mechanisms on schema domains using regression analyses and cross-lagged panel models. Resource activation experiences seem to be especially crucial in fostering alterations in EMS, as this change mechanism demonstrated significant associations with several schema domains. Future research should investigate these aspects in more detail using observer-based micro-process analyses.

  20. Impact of varying the definition of myopia on estimates of prevalence and associations with risk factors: time for an approach that serves research, practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Phillippa M; Bountziouka, Vasiliki; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2018-02-03

    Refractive error is an increasing global public health concern that requires robust and reliable research to identify modifiable risk factors and provide accurate estimates of population burden. We investigated the impact of reclassification of individuals when using different threshold values of spherical equivalent (SE) to define myopia, on estimates of frequency, distribution and associations with risk factors, to inform current international initiatives to standardise definitions. A random sample of 1985 individuals from the 1958 British birth cohort, at age 44, had autorefraction and self-reported on educational attainment and social class.Refraction status assigned in three different models using SE: (A) moderate to high myopia -3 diopters (D) or more extreme (≤-3.00D), (B) hypermetropia +1.00D or more extreme (≥+1.00D) and (C) mild myopia using three different thresholds: -1.00D, -0.75D or -0.50D, hence reciprocal changes in definition of emmetropia. Frequency estimates and associations with risk factors altered significantly as the threshold value for myopia moved towards SE 0.0D: prevalence of mild myopia increased from 28% to 47%, the association with highest educational attainment attenuated and with higher social class strengthened, with changes in risk ratios of approximately 20%. Even small changes in the threshold definition of myopia (±0.25D) can significantly affect the conclusions of epidemiological studies, creating both false-positive and false-negative associations for specific risk factors. An international classification for refractive error, empirically evidenced and cognisant of the question(s) being addressed and the population(s) being studied, is needed to serve better translational research, practice and policy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Higher FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 allele burdens are associated with PTSD and interact with trauma exposure: implications for neuropsychiatric research and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscarino JA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino1,2, Porat M Erlich1,3, Stuart N Hoffman4, Xiaopeng Zhang51Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USAObjective: The study aim was to assess the cumulative burden of polymorphisms located within four genetic loci previously associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD among outpatients at risk for PTSD.Methods: Diagnostic interviews were completed and DNA samples collected among 412 pain patients to determine if FKBP5 (rs9470080, COMT (rs4680, CHRNA5 (rs16969968, and CRHR1 (rs110402 single nucleotide polymorphisms were cumulatively associated with increased risk for PTSD.Results: In bivariate analyses, it was found that a count of specific PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (allele range = 0–6, mean count = 2.92, standard deviation = 1.36 was associated with lifetime (t [409] = 3.430, P = 0.001 and early onset PTSD (t [409] = 4.239, P = 0.000028. In logistic regression, controlling for demographic factors, personality traits, and trauma exposures, this risk allele count remained associated with both lifetime (odds ratio = 1.49, P = 0.00158 and early onset PTSD (odds ratio = 2.36, P = 0.000093. Interaction effects were also detected, whereby individuals with higher risk allele counts and higher trauma exposures had an increased risk of lifetime PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.026 and early onset PTSD (allele count × high trauma, P = 0.016 in these logistic regressions. Those with no or few risk alleles appeared resilient to PTSD, regardless of exposure history.Conclusion: A cumulative risk allele count involving four single nucleotide polymorphisms located within the FKBP5, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genes are associated with PTSD. Level of trauma exposure

  2. Report on research and development work 1985 on the nuclear fusion project. Annual report of the Association KfK-Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe and the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics together form the Nuclear Fusion Development Association. The partners collaborate with the aim of creating the physical and technical preconditions for the use of the energy released by nuclear fusion and to plan and carry out future large-scale experiments. The work of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe on fusion with magnetic containment is included in the nuclear fusion project and is part of the European fusion technology programme. The work is supported by an association contract between KfK and Euratom by the European Commission. Connections are built up between areas of work and new projects are prepared by supplementary KfK contributions, mostly studies. This is done with regard to the expansion of the technology programme to be expected for future years and the planning activities for NET. The reports collected here are contributions of the KfK institutes in 1985. The appendix contains a list of the tasks which KfK has taken over from the fusion technology programme of the EEC. References to the institutes' contributions make the assignment of textual contributions easier. (orig.) [de

  3. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W

    2015-02-01

    Combustible tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include e-cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or formers smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the public's health; however, definitive data are lacking. AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the FDA and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Understanding the association between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries: Next steps for research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Kim, Rockli; Krishna, Aditi; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-11-01

    Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes. This review highlights three key findings. First, the variability in child development tools and metrics used among studies and the differences in the timing and frequency of the assessments complicate comparisons across study findings. Second, considerable evidence from across many countries supports an association between stunting and poor child development despite methodological differences and heterogeneity in the magnitude of associations. Further, effect sizes differ by developmental domain with greater associations shown for cognitive/schooling outcomes. How stunting influences child development, which domains of child development are more affected, and how the various domains of child development influence one another require further experimental research to test causal pathways. Finally, there is mixed evidence of the additive effect of nutrition + stimulation interventions on child development. However, understanding best methods for improving child developmental outcomes - either through nutrition programs or through integrated nutrition + psychosocial stimulation programs (or nutrition + other program interventions) - is a key area of further inquiry. Given that nearly 40% of children under age five suffer from loss of developmental potential - for which stunting is likely one of the key risk factors - reductions in stunting could have tremendous implications for child development

  5. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  6. Using the Research Domain Criteria Framework to Explore Associations Between MMPI-2-RF Constructs and Physiological Variables Assessed by Eye-Tracker Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, David M; Achee, Margaret C; Cannon, Elissa M; Harrop, Tiffany M; Poynter, William D

    2017-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health has proposed a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychopathology, abandoning the traditional categorical model in favor of one based on hierarchically organized dimensional constructs (Insel et al., 2010 ). One explicit goal of this initiative, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, is to facilitate the incorporation of newly available neurobiologic variables into research on psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011 ) represents a similar paradigm shift, also adopting a hierarchical arrangement of dimensional constructs. This study examined associations between MMPI-2-RF measures of psychopathology and eye-movement metrics. Participants were college students (n = 270) who completed the MMPI-2-RF and then viewed a sequence of 30-s video clips. Results show a pattern of positive correlations between pupil size and emotional/internalizing dysfunction scales when viewing video eliciting negative emotional reactions, reflecting greater arousability in individuals with higher scores on these measures. In contrast, when viewing stimuli depicting angry, threatening material, a clear pattern of negative correlations was found between pupil size and behavioral/externalizing trait measures. These data add to the construct validity of the MMPI-2-RF and support the use of the RDoC matrix as a framework for research on psychopathology.

  7. MODERN DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CHEST TRAUMA ASSOCIATED WITH THE FALL FROM A HEIGHT IN THE REPUBLIC RESEARCH CENTRE OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Khadzhibayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The rate of the multisystem chest trauma and mortality in patients with catatrauma remains high.OBJECTIVE. To study the diagnosis and treatment of the multisystem chest trauma in patients associated with the fall from a height.MATERIAL AND METHODS. 243 patients (208 multisystem injuries and 35 isolated injuries with a chest trauma associated with the fall from a height were examined in the surgical department of Republic research centre of emergency medicine. We performed X-ray, CT and endosurgical examinations.RESULTS. Instrumental examination revealed pneumothorax and hydrothorax in 24.4% and 22.6% of victims respectively. The rib injuries were observed in 181 patients, sternum fractures in 8 victims and thoracic vertebrae fractures in 84 patients. The puncture and thoracocentesis of the pleural cavities were performed in 85 cases. The thoracoscopy was performed in 21 patients, the thoracotomy – in 15 patients, suturing of the lung – in 22 patients, coagulation – in 15 patients, external plate fixation of multiple injured ribs – in 10 patients. The mortality rate was 21.4%.CONCLuSION. The specifics of the multisystem chest trauma associated with the fall from a height is the development of hemothorax and pneumothorax. Thoracocentesis and videothoracoscopy allow to diagnose and stop the hemorrhage properly, to restore the lung rupture and perform the thoracotomy in severe cases, as well as reduce of complications frequency and mortality rate. 

  8. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Moretti

    Full Text Available Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs.A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction.Three-hundred and eleven (57% out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72% participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49% declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79% of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%. Overall, 246 residents (79% gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools.The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the access to research opportunity are needed; the

  9. Urological research in sub-Saharan Africa: a retrospective cohort study of abstracts presented at the Nigerian Association of Urological Surgeons conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Jibril Oyekunle

    2013-11-14

    Nigeria is one of the top three countries in Africa in terms of science research output and Nigerian urologists' biomedical research output contributes to this. Each year, urologists in Nigeria gather to present their recent research at the conference of the Nigerian Association of Urological Surgeons (NAUS). These abstracts are not thoroughly vetted as are full length manuscripts published in peer reviewed journals but the information they disseminate may affect clinical practice of attendees. This study aims to describe the characteristics of abstracts presented at the annual conferences of NAUS, the quality of the abstracts as determined by the subsequent publication of full length manuscripts in peer-review indexed journals and the factors that influence such successful publication. Abstracts presented at the 2007 to 2010 NAUS conferences were identified through conference abstracts books. Using a strict search protocol, publication in peer-reviewed journals was determined. The abstracts characteristics were analyzed and their quality judged by subsequent successful publishing of full length manuscripts. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0 software to determine factors predictive of successful publication. Only 75 abstracts were presented at the NAUS 2007 to 2010 conferences; a quarter (24%) of the presented abstracts was subsequently published as full length manuscripts. Median time to publication was 15 months (range 2-40 months). Manuscripts whose result data were analyzed with 'beyond basic' statistics of frequencies and averages were more likely to be published than those with basic or no statistics. Quality of the abstracts and thus subsequent publication success is influenced by the use of 'beyond basic' statistics in analysis of the result data presented. There is a need for improvement in the quality of urological research from Nigeria.

  10. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... We are listed under Research Associations category. .... important squares, Hidalgo Square in Mexico City, Plaza Santa Anna in Spain and Antarvasna ... source material efficiency; understand the power of God and a spirit of ...

  11. Nutrigenomics, the Microbiome, and Gene-Environment Interactions: New Directions in Cardiovascular Disease Research, Prevention, and Treatment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane F; Allayee, Hooman; Gerszten, Robert E; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Ordovás, José M; Rimm, Eric B; Wang, Thomas J; Bennett, Brian J

    2016-06-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and are strongly linked to both genetic and nutritional factors. The field of nutrigenomics encompasses multiple approaches aimed at understanding the effects of diet on health or disease development, including nutrigenetic studies investigating the relationship between genetic variants and diet in modulating cardiometabolic risk, as well as the effects of dietary components on multiple "omic" measures, including transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, epigenetic modifications, and the microbiome. Here, we describe the current state of the field of nutrigenomics with respect to cardiometabolic disease research and outline a direction for the integration of multiple omics techniques in future nutrigenomic studies aimed at understanding mechanisms and developing new therapeutic options for cardiometabolic disease treatment and prevention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.

  13. Is operations research really research?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other concepts that are associated with academic research include rigour, .... When a practitioner applies a standard tool, such as linear programming, to solve a ... solving the problem, but he is not adding anything new to the body of OR ...

  14. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the Agency in December 1987 and now comprises nineteen participants from seventeen countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques being used in this programme include neutron activation analysis (NAA), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes. The main outcome of the meeting was agreement to include a ''core'' programme comprising studies of (1) aerosols collected from areas of low and high pollution, (2) coal fly ash composition, and (3) leaching of toxic elements from coal fly ash

  15. Capability beliefs regarding evidence-based practice are associated with application of EBP and research use: validation of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Lars; Boström, Anne-Marie; Gustavsson, J Petter

    2012-08-01

    Beliefs about capabilities, or self-efficacy, is a construct originating in social cognitive psychology. Capability beliefs have been found to be positively associated with intention and healthcare practice behaviour. A measure of an individual's beliefs about his/her capability to apply the components of evidence-based practice (EBP) has potential to be useful in implementation research. To evaluate the concurrent validity and internal structure of a new scale measuring nurses' capability beliefs regarding EBP. Data were taken from a prospective longitudinal study in Sweden (the Longitudinal Analyses of Nursing Education and Entry in Worklife [LANE]). A cohort of nursing students who graduated in the autumn of 2004 that was followed up 2 years after their graduation was used (n= 1,256). Concurrent validity was tested relating different levels of capability beliefs to extent of research use and application of EBP. An item-response approach was applied in the evaluation of internal structure of the proposed scale (six items). The psychometric analyses indicated that the six items could be summed to reflect a one-dimensional scale. Nurses with the highest level of capability beliefs reported that they used research findings in clinical practice more than twice as often as those with lower levels of capability beliefs. They also participated in the implementation of evidence seven times more often. There is a need for further studies of the construct and predictive validity of the scale. It should also be validated in other groups of health professionals. Learning including mastery experiences, role modelling, social persuasion, and manageable stress could be used in undergraduate education as well as practice development to increase beliefs about capabilities which might open the way to increased application of EBP in healthcare practice. This new measure is well grounded in social cognitive theory, functions as a one-dimensional scale and possesses promising

  16. Dense genotyping of immune-related loci identifies variants associated with clearance of HPV among HIV-positive women in the HIV epidemiology research study (HERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci L Sudenga

    Full Text Available Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV is a necessary and causal factor of cervical cancer. Most women naturally clear HPV infections; however, the biological mechanisms related to HPV pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Host genetic factors that specifically regulate immune response could play an important role. All HIV-positive women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS with a HR-HPV infection and at least one follow-up biannual visit were included in the study. Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV using type-specific HPV hybridization assays. Type-specific HPV clearance was defined as two consecutive HPV-negative tests after a positive test. DNA from participants was genotyped for 196,524 variants within 186 known immune related loci using the custom ImmunoChip microarray. To assess the influence of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP with HR-HPV clearance, the Cox proportional hazards model with the Wei-Lin-Weissfeld approach was used, adjusting for CD4+ count, low risk HPV (LR-HPV co-infection, and relevant confounders. Three analytical models were performed: race-specific (African Americans (n = 258, European Americans (n = 87, Hispanics (n = 55, race-adjusted combined analysis, and meta-analysis of pooled independent race-specific analyses. Women were followed for a median time of 1,617 days. Overall, three SNPs (rs1112085, rs11102637, and rs12030900 in the MAGI-3 gene and one SNP (rs8031627 in the SMAD3 gene were associated with HR-HPV clearance (p<10(-6. A variant (rs1633038 in HLA-G were also significantly associated in African American. Results from this study support associations of immune-related genes, having potential biological mechanism, with differential cervical HR-HPV infection outcomes.

  17. Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serig, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…

  18. Wood Protection Research Council: Research Priorities 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A Clausen; Frederick Green III; Grant T. Kirker; Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and comments from the inaugural Wood Protection Research Council meeting. Research needs for the wood protection industry were identified and prioritized. Methods for successfully addressing research needs were discussed by industry, academia, and association representatives.

  19. Measuring mortality due to HIV-associated tuberculosis among adults in South Africa: Comparing verbal autopsy, minimally-invasive autopsy, and research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlali, Mpho; Fielding, Katherine L.; Charalambous, Salome; Chihota, Violet N.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Johnson, Suzanne; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Martinson, Neil A.; Omar, Tanvier; Kahn, Kathleen; Chandramohan, Daniel; Grant, Alison D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to reduce tuberculosis (TB) deaths by 95% by 2035; tracking progress requires accurate measurement of TB mortality. International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes do not differentiate between HIV-associated TB and HIV more generally. Verbal autopsy (VA) is used to estimate cause of death (CoD) patterns but has mostly been validated against a suboptimal gold standard for HIV and TB. This study, conducted among HIV-positive adults, aimed to estimate the accuracy of VA in ascertaining TB and HIV CoD when compared to a reference standard derived from a variety of clinical sources including, in some, minimally-invasive autopsy (MIA). Methods and findings Decedents were enrolled into a trial of empirical TB treatment or a cohort exploring diagnostic algorithms for TB in South Africa. The WHO 2012 instrument was used; VA CoD were assigned using physician-certified VA (PCVA), InterVA-4, and SmartVA-Analyze. Reference CoD were assigned using MIA, research, and health facility data, as available. 259 VAs were completed: 147 (57%) decedents were female; median age was 39 (interquartile range [IQR] 33–47) years and CD4 count 51 (IQR 22–102) cells/μL. Compared to reference CoD that included MIA (n = 34), VA underestimated mortality due to HIV/AIDS (94% reference, 74% PCVA, 47% InterVA-4, and 41% SmartVA-Analyze; chance-corrected concordance [CCC] 0.71, 0.42, and 0.31, respectively) and HIV-associated TB (41% reference, 32% PCVA; CCC 0.23). For individual decedents, all VA methods agreed poorly with reference CoD that did not include MIA (n = 259; overall CCC 0.14, 0.06, and 0.15 for PCVA, InterVA-4, and SmartVA-Analyze); agreement was better at population level (cause-specific mortality fraction accuracy 0.78, 0.61, and 0.57, for the three methods, respectively). Conclusions Current VA methods underestimate mortality due to HIV-associated TB. ICD and VA methods need modifications that allow for more specific

  20. Identification, validation, and clinical implementation of tumor-associated biomarkers to improve therapy concepts, survival, and quality of life of cancer patients: tasks of the Receptor and Biomarker Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Harbeck, N.; Daidone, M.G.; Brynner, N.; Duffy, M.J.; Foekens, J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Guiding principles are provided and discussed on how to inform the physician scientist and cancer researcher about quality control systems to enable a consistent assessment of the clinical value of tumor-associated biomarkers. Next to cancer research itself, the Receptor and Biomarker Group of the

  1. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2001 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada (fusao), do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-07-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic.

  2. Organization of research team for nano-associated safety assessment in effort to study nanotoxicology of zinc oxide and silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1,* Sung Ha Park,2,* Jong-Kwon Lee,3 Jayoung Jeong,3 Ja Hei Kim,4 Eun-Ho Meang,5 Tae Hyun Yoon,6 Seok Tae Lim,7 Jae-Min Oh,8 Seong Soo A An,9 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 3Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungchungbuk-do, 4Consumers Korea, Chongro-ku, 5General toxicology team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, 6Laboratory of Nanoscale Characterization and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, 7Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Jellabuk-Do, 8Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Gangwon-do, 9Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea *Authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Currently, products made with nanomaterials are used widely, especially in biology, biotechnologies, and medical areas. However, limited investigations on potential toxicities of nanomaterials are available. Hence, diverse and systemic toxicological data with new methods for nanomaterials are needed. In order to investigate the nanotoxicology of nanoparticles (NPs, the Research Team for Nano-Associated Safety Assessment (RT-NASA was organized in three parts and launched. Each part focused on different contents of research directions: investigators in part I were responsible for the efficient management and international cooperation on nano-safety studies; investigators in part II performed the toxicity evaluations on target organs such as assessment of genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, or skin penetration; and investigators in part III evaluated the toxicokinetics of NPs with newly developed

  3. Alzheimer's Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not share your information. * Required. View archives. Alzheimer's impact is growing Alzheimer's disease is the sixth- ... Last Updated: Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association advances research ...

  4. Enabling social listening for cardiac safety monitoring: Proceedings from a drug information association-cardiac safety research consortium cosponsored think tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Harry A; Malik, Raleigh E; Bhattacharya, Mondira; Campbell, Kevin R; Okun, Sally; Pierce, Carrie; Terkowitz, Jeffrey; Turner, J Rick; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Powell, Gregory E

    2017-12-01

    This white paper provides a summary of the presentations and discussions from a think tank on "Enabling Social Listening for Cardiac Safety Monitoring" trials that was cosponsored by the Drug Information Association and the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, and held at the White Oak headquarters of the US Food and Drug Administration on June 3, 2016. The meeting's goals were to explore current methods of collecting and evaluating social listening data and to consider their applicability to cardiac safety surveillance. Social listening is defined as the act of monitoring public postings on the Internet. It has several theoretical advantages for drug and device safety. First, these include the ability to detect adverse events that are "missed" by traditional sources and the ability to detect adverse events sooner than would be allowed by traditional sources, both by affording near-real-time access to data from culturally and geographically diverse sources. Social listening can also potentially introduce a novel patient voice into the conversation about drug safety, which could uniquely augment understanding of real-world medication use obtained from more traditional methodologies. Finally, it can allow for access to information about drug misuse and diversion. To date, the latter 2 of these have been realized. Although regulators from the Food and Drug Administration and the United Kingdom's Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency participated in the think tank along with representatives from industry, academia, and patient groups, this article should not be construed to constitute regulatory guidance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The USNRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has developed a program for nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) to achieve an understanding of nuclear plant aging, its potential effects on safety, and methods for its detection and mitigation, sufficient for addressing safety and regulatory issues and supporting regulatory decisions on issues. Specifically, the NRC has aggressive research and regulatory programs associated with aging effects on piping, steam generators, containments, structures, and electrical and mechanical systems and components. In addition to safety assessment for the original license period for nuclear power plants, this aging information will be extremely useful in providing technical bases for efficient and effective regulation associated with possible license extension. This paper discusses the major activities of USNRC sponsored aging research program and recommends an approach to manage and handle aging at nuclear power plants

  6. Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Dewey, Michael E; Acosta, Isaac; Jotheeswaran, Amuthavalli T; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Results of the few cohort studies from countries with low incomes or middle incomes suggest a lower incidence of dementia than in high-income countries. We assessed incidence of dementia according to criteria from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV, the effect of dementia at baseline on mortality, and the independent effects of age, sex, socioeconomic position, and indicators of cognitive reserve. Methods We did a population-based cohort study of all people aged 65 years and older living in urban sites in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, and China, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia 3–5 years after cohort inception. We used questionnaires to obtain information about age in years, sex, educational level, literacy, occupational attainment, and number of household assets. We obtained information about mortality from all sites. For participants who had died, we interviewed a friend or relative to ascertain the likelihood that they had dementia before death. Findings 12 887 participants were interviewed at baseline. 11 718 were free of dementia, of whom 8137 (69%) were reinterviewed, contributing 34 718 person-years of follow-up. Incidence for 10/66 dementia varied between 18·2 and 30·4 per 1000 person-years, and were 1·4–2·7 times higher than were those for DSM-IV dementia (9·9–15·7 per 1000 person-years). Mortality hazards were 1·56–5·69 times higher in individuals with dementia at baseline than in those who were dementia-free. Informant reports suggested a high incidence of dementia before death; overall incidence might be 4–19% higher if these data were included. 10/66 dementia incidence was independently associated with increased age (HR 1·67; 95% CI 1·56–1·79), female sex (0·72; 0·61–0·84), and low education (0·89; 0·81–0·97), but not with occupational attainment (1

  7. Validation of Varian's AAA algorithm with focus on lung treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roende, Heidi S.; Hoffmann, Lone

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the accuracy of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). A variety of different field configurations in homogeneous and in inhomogeneous media (lung geometry) was tested for the AAA algorithm. It was also tested against the present Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) algorithm. Materials and methods. Two dimensional (2D) dose distributions were measured for a variety of different field configurations in solid water with a 2D array of ion chambers. The dose distributions of patient specific treatment plans in selected transversal slices were measured in a Thorax lung phantom with Gafchromic dosimetry films. A Farmer ion chamber was used to check point doses in the Thorax phantom. The 2D dose distributions were evaluated with a gamma criterion of 3% in dose and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) for the 2D array measurements and for the film measurements. Results. For AAA, all fields tested in homogeneous media fulfilled the criterion, except asymmetric fields with wedges and intensity modulated plans where deviations of 5 and 4%, respectively, were seen. Overall, the measured and calculated 2D dose distributions for AAA in the Thorax phantom showed good agreement - both for 6 and 15 MV photons. More than 80% of the points in the high dose regions met the gamma criterion, though it failed at low doses and at gradients. For the PBC algorithm only 30-70% of the points met the gamma criterion. Conclusion. The AAA algorithm has been shown to be superior to the PBC algorithm in heterogeneous media, especially for 15 MV. For most treatment plans the deviations in the lung and the mediastinum regions are below 3%. However, the algorithm may underestimate the dose to the spinal cord by up to 7%

  8. Analisis Throughput Varian TCP Pada Model Jaringan WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Taruk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a protocol that works at the transport layer of the OSI model. TCP was originally designed more destined for a wired network. However, to meet the need for the development of a very fast network technology based on the needs of the use by the user, it needs further development to the use of TCP on wireless devices. One implementation of a wireless network based on Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX network is a model that offers a variety advantage, particularly in terms of access speed. In this case, use NS-2 to see throughput at TCP variants tested, namely TCP-Tahoe, TCP-Reno, TCP-Vegas, and TCP-SACK over WiMAX network model, with few observations scenarios. The first is a look at each of these variants throughput of TCP when only one particular variant of the work in the network. Second observe all variants of TCP throughput at the same time and have the equivalent QoS, but with the possibility of a small congestion based on the capacity of the link is made sufficient. Third observed throughput with multi congestion. In WiMAX network has scheduling services are UGS, rtPS and ertPS using UDP protocol and nrtPS and BE using the TCP Protocol. By using the software network simulator (NS-2 to obtain performance comparison TCP protocol-based services on the WiMAX network with QoS parameters are throughput, packet loss, fairness and time delay.

  9. CBH1 homologs and varian CBH1 cellulase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Neefe, Paulien

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

  10. Achievement report on research and development in fiscal 1989 for fundamental technologies for next generation industries. Research and development on photoreactive materials (Research on control of association status of photochromic compounds); 1989 nendo hikari hanno zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Photochromic kagobutsu no kaigo jotai seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    With an objective of creating ultra-high density organic photo recording elements for photon mode recording and rewritable wavelength multiplex recording by utilizing control of association status of photochromic compound, research and development has been performed. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1989. In developing the materials, verification was made on effectiveness of the newly structured positive polarity model. The method was used to attempt synthesis of four kinds of new spiropyrane, among which it was discovered that BSP1822 forms J-association complex in the long wavelength region. In the thin film forming technology, the J-association complex of BSP1822 was stabilized successfully in the film mixed with bi-molecular film forming material. In order to develop a technology to form dry photochromic thin films, an organic molecular beam epitaxial device and a thin film structure analyzer were introduced. In the elucidation and research on fundamental properties, discussions were given on properties of the SP1822LB film revealed by the steady-state light and laser pulse light. Furthermore, the molecular orientation of the SP1801 on the air-water interface was investigated, and molecular models on the air-water interface were considered. (NEDO)

  11. The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Association between Gluten-Free Diet Adherence and Symptoms in Celiac Disease: Analysis of a Patient Powered Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Andrew M; Geller, Marilyn G; Zylberberg, Haley M; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin

    2018-04-26

    The prevalence of depression in celiac disease (CD) is high, and patients are often burdened socially and financially by a gluten-free diet. However, the relationship between depression, somatic symptoms and dietary adherence in CD is complex and poorly understood. We used a patient powered research network (iCureCeliac ® ) to explore the effect that depression has on patients' symptomatic response to a gluten-free diet (GFD). We identified patients with biopsy-diagnosed celiac disease who answered questions pertaining to symptoms (Celiac Symptom Index (CSI)), GFD adherence (Celiac Dietary Adherence Test (CDAT)), and a 5-point, scaled question regarding depressive symptoms relating to patients' celiac disease. We then measured the correlation between symptoms and adherence (CSI vs. CDAT) in patients with depression versus those without depression. We also tested for interaction of depression with regard to the association with symptoms using a multiple linear regression model. Among 519 patients, 86% were female and the mean age was 40.9 years. 46% of patients indicated that they felt "somewhat," "quite a bit," or "very much" depressed because of their disorder. There was a moderate correlation between worsened celiac symptoms and poorer GFD adherence ( r = 0.6, p symptoms and worsening dietary adherence ( r = 0.5, p symptoms related to their disorder, correlation between adherence and symptoms was weaker than those without depressive symptoms. This finding was confirmed with a linear regression analysis, showing that depressive symptoms may modify the effect of a GFD on celiac symptoms. Depressive symptoms may therefore mask the relationship between inadvertent gluten exposure and symptoms. Additional longitudinal and prospective studies are needed to further explore this potentially important finding.

  12. Comprehensive Psychopathological Assessment Based on the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System: Development, Methodological Foundation, Application in Clinical Routine, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Haug, Achim; Fähndrich, Erdmann; Rösler, Michael; Trabert, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The documentation of psychopathology is core to the clinical practice of the psychiatrist and clinical psychologist. However, both in initial as well as further training and specialization in their fields, this particular aspect of their work receives scanty attention only. Yet, for the past 50 years, the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) System has been in existence and available as a tool to serve precisely the purpose of offering a systematic introduction to the terminology and documentation of psychopathology. The motivation for its development was based on the need for an assessment procedure for the reliable documentation of the effectiveness of newly developed psychopharmacological substances. Subsequently, the AMDP-System began to be applied in the context of investigations into a number of methodological issues in psychiatry (e.g., the frequency and specificity of particular symptoms, the comparison of rating scales). The System then became increasingly important also in clinical practice and, today, represents the most used instrument for the documentation of psychopathology in the German-speaking countries of Europe. This paper intends to offer an overview of the AMDP-System, its origins, design, and functionality. After an initial account of the history and development of the AMDP-System, the discussion will in turn focus on the System’s underlying methodological principles, the transfer of clinical skills and competencies in its practical application, and its use in research and clinical practice. Finally, potential future areas of development in relation to the AMDP-System are explored. PMID:28439242

  13. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the California Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate Project and its associated Marine Mammal Research Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    acoustic study off Pt. Barrow, Alaska (SC/40/ PS4 ). Reports of the International Whaling Commission. 39:297-303. Clark, C.W., W.T. Ellison and K...California ATOC MMRP Research Protocol C-57 C-3 RESEARCH PROTOCOL INTRODUCTION The marine mammal research program (MMRP) described here is motivated by

  14. Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.

  15. ISOLDE PH team, from left to right: Jennifer Weterings (user support), Susanne Kreim (research fellow), Marek Pfützner (scientific associate), Maria Garcia Borge (team leader), Elisa Rapisarda (research fellow) , Magdalena Kowalska (physics coordinator), Jan Kurcewicz (applied fellow), Monika Stachura (applied fellow). Not in the photo: Kara Lynch (PhD student).

    CERN Multimedia

    Visual Media Office

    2013-01-01

    ISOLDE PH team, from left to right: Jennifer Weterings (user support), Susanne Kreim (research fellow), Marek Pfützner (scientific associate), Maria Garcia Borge (team leader), Elisa Rapisarda (research fellow) , Magdalena Kowalska (physics coordinator), Jan Kurcewicz (applied fellow), Monika Stachura (applied fellow). Not in the photo: Kara Lynch (PhD student).

  16. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... Available online at http://www.jfas.inf nd Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 e. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. L INFORMATION BASED SCHOLARY PAPER RECOMMEN. SYSTEM USING BIG DATA ...

  17. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    To this effect, two basic research with these research ... In this area, Ho conducted a research on a topic “Effectiveness o .... questioning, making a list, clustering, preparing a scratch .... three data collection instruments by using quantitative and.

  18. The Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Association between Gluten-Free Diet Adherence and Symptoms in Celiac Disease: Analysis of a Patient Powered Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Joelson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of depression in celiac disease (CD is high, and patients are often burdened socially and financially by a gluten-free diet. However, the relationship between depression, somatic symptoms and dietary adherence in CD is complex and poorly understood. We used a patient powered research network (iCureCeliac® to explore the effect that depression has on patients’ symptomatic response to a gluten-free diet (GFD. Methods: We identified patients with biopsy-diagnosed celiac disease who answered questions pertaining to symptoms (Celiac Symptom Index (CSI, GFD adherence (Celiac Dietary Adherence Test (CDAT, and a 5-point, scaled question regarding depressive symptoms relating to patients’ celiac disease. We then measured the correlation between symptoms and adherence (CSI vs. CDAT in patients with depression versus those without depression. We also tested for interaction of depression with regard to the association with symptoms using a multiple linear regression model. Results: Among 519 patients, 86% were female and the mean age was 40.9 years. 46% of patients indicated that they felt “somewhat,” “quite a bit,” or “very much” depressed because of their disorder. There was a moderate correlation between worsened celiac symptoms and poorer GFD adherence (r = 0.6, p < 0.0001. In those with a positive depression screen, there was a moderate correlation between worsening symptoms and worsening dietary adherence (r = 0.5, p < 0.0001 whereas in those without depression, the correlation was stronger (r = 0.64, p < 0.0001. We performed a linear regression analysis, which suggests that the relationship between CSI and CDAT is modified by depression. Conclusions: In patients with depressive symptoms related to their disorder, correlation between adherence and symptoms was weaker than those without depressive symptoms. This finding was confirmed with a linear regression analysis, showing that depressive symptoms may

  19. NEWS! Taking it to another level! A research into how the national associations of European World Shops can increase their professionalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Marjolein

    2004-01-01

    NEWS! is the Network of European World Shops which coordinates the cooperation of the affiliated national associations of World Shops. World Shops are not-for-profit organisations that sell all kinds of Fair Trade products. Their national associations support the World Shops in their selling

  20. Quality assurance and quality control of analytic data produced within the Association for Research on Heavy Metal Emissions; Qualitaetssicherung und Qualitaetskontrolle der analytischen Daten aus dem Forschungsverbund Edelmetallemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegscheider, W [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Analytische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In many fields of scientific research formalised quality assurance is not common practice. The present promotional measure by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research was nevertheless provided with an own research project for external quality assurance. This paper reports on the orientation and execution of the project. [Deutsch] Formalisierte Qualitaetssicherung ist ueber weite Bereiche in der naturwissenschaftlichen Forschung nicht ueblich. Fuer diese Foerdermassnahme des BMBF wurde dennoch ein eigenes Forschungsvorhaben zur externen Qualitaetssicherung eingerichtet ueber dessen Ausrichtung und Durchfuehrung im folgenden berichtet wird. (orig.)