Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...
Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph U; McGrath, Nuala; Larson, Heidi J; Bojang, Kalifa; Chandramohan, Daniel
Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, EthxWeb and Bioethics Literature Database (BELIT). We also examined African Index Medicus and Google Scholar for relevant publications on informed consent comprehension in clinical studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria; meta-analysis was possible in 21 studies. We further conducted a direct comparison of participants' comprehension on domains of informed consent in all eligible studies. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent varies considerably from country to country and depends on the nature and complexity of the study. Meta-analysis showed that 47% of a total of 1633 participants across four studies demonstrated comprehension about randomisation (95% CI 13.9-80.9%). Similarly, 48% of 3946 participants in six studies had understanding about placebo (95% CI 19.0-77.5%), while only 30% of 753 participants in five studies understood the concept of therapeutic misconception (95% CI 4.6-66.7%). Measurement tools for informed consent comprehension were developed with little or no validation. Assessment of comprehension was carried out at variable times after disclosure of study information. No uniform definition of informed consent comprehension exists to form the basis for development of an appropriate tool to measure comprehension in African participants. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent is poor among study participants across Africa. There is a vital need to develop a uniform definition for
Parris, Sheri R; Morrow, Lesley Mandel
All key issues of research and practice in comprehension instruction are addressed in this highly regarded professional resource and course text. Leading scholars examine the processes that enable students to make meaning from what they read--and how this knowledge can be applied to improve teaching at all grade levels. Best practices for meeting the needs of diverse elementary and secondary students are identified. Essential topics include strategies for comprehending different types of texts, the impact of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), cutting-edge assessment approaches, and the gr
ARTICLE. Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa, Tygerberg,. W Cape ... determined by questionnaire; anunquantified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine usual food intake. Biochemical ..... complementary foods, incorrect preparation of formula feeds, and frequent ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — To conduct fundamental and developmental research on new and improved application technologies to protect floricultural, nursery, landscape, turf, horticultural, and...
The article discusses the research work done at the Uranium Chemistry Research Unit of the University of Port Elizabeth. The initial research programme dealt with fundamental aspects of uranium chemistry. New uranium compounds were synthesized and their chemical properties were studied. Research was also done to assist the mining industry, as well as on nuclear medicine. Special mentioning is made of the use of technetium for medical diagnosis and therapy
McNamara, Danielle S.; Kendeou, Panayiota
The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decoding processes and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is…
Brown, Barry N.
Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…
John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson
Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, extensive research has been conducted comparing reading comprehension from printed text and computer screens. The conclusions, however, are not very consistent. As reading from computer screens requires a certain degree of individual technical skill, such variables should be objectively taken into consideration when conducting an experiment regarding the comparison between print and screen reading. This study analyses the difference in the level of understanding of the two presentational formats (text on printed pages and hypertext on computer screens for people between 45-54 years of age (i.e. “middleaged” adults. In our experimental findings there were no significant differences between the levels of comprehension for print and screen presentations. With regard to individual differences in gender, age group and educational level, the findings are as follows: gender and education effects on print reading comprehension performance were significant, while those on screen reading comprehension performance were not. For middle-aged computer learners, the main effect of age group on both print and screen reading comprehension performance was insignificant. In contrast, linear texts of traditional paper-based material are better for middle-aged readers’ literal text comprehension, while hypertext is beneficial to their inferential text comprehension. It is also suggested that hypermedia could be used as a cognitive tool for improving middle-aged adults’ inferential abilities on reading comprehension, provided that they were trained adequately to use available computers.
Danielle S. McNAMARA
Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.
Danielle S. McNamara
Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decoding processes and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between reading processes and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’ reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.
Sain, Noridah; Bown, Andy; Fluck, Andrew; Kebble, Paul
In order to enhance second language (L2) acquisition, English as a Second Language (ESL) students are encouraged to exploit the abundant information and opportunities for authentic language use afforded by the Internet. This study investigated the online research and comprehension strategies employed by ESL learners in a public university in…
Rea, Louis M
The industry standard guide, updated with new ideas and SPSS analysis techniques Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide Fourth Edition is the industry standard resource that covers all major components of the survey process, updated to include new data analysis techniques and SPSS procedures with sample data sets online. The book offers practical, actionable guidance on constructing the instrument, administrating the process, and analyzing and reporting the results, providing extensive examples and worksheets that demonstrate the appropriate use of survey and data tech
Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng
With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.
Full Text Available With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.
Stewart, Courtney A.
Wind energy has been lauded as a resource for the United States to lessen its dependency on foreign fuels, reduce carbon output, and potentially create millions of jobs. Accordingly, wind energy is in the forefront of many government officials' minds throughout the United States; however, there are several barriers to wind farm development. This research reviews the social and political barriers to wind farm development and examines the successful renewable energy policies that have been used throughout Europe and the United States. This research consists of interviews with various stakeholders in the PJM region who compare and contrast renewable energy policies in Europe from those in the United States. The resulting information from the interviews creates a comprehensive policy framework that policy makers at all levels of government can utilize and refer to when discussing and drafting wind energy legislation.
Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...
The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning : efforts to improve transportation efficiency, safety and sustainability on critical : highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor (CHC) program. : It is i...
Niehuis, Reinhard; Kroll, Norbert; Behrends, Kathrin
The book reports on advanced solutions to the problem of simulating wing and nacelle stall, as presented and discussed by internationally recognized researchers at the Closing Symposium of the DFG Research Unit FOR 1066. Reliable simulations of flow separation on airfoils, wings and powered engine nacelles at high Reynolds numbers represent great challenges in defining suitable mathematical models, computing numerically accurate solutions and providing comprehensive experimental data for the validation of numerical simulations. Additional problems arise from the need to consider airframe-engine interactions and inhomogeneous onset flow conditions, as real aircraft operate in atmospheric environments with often-large distortions. The findings of fundamental and applied research into these and other related issues are reported in detail in this book, which targets all readers, academics and professionals alike, interested in the development of advanced computational fluid dynamics modeling for the simulation of...
Reviews studies examining differences in moral schema development, using techniques that range from measuring implicit knowledge (such as the defining issues test) and explicit knowledge (such as with the moral judgment interview). Finds significant differences in the comprehension of moral narratives based on age/education and level of expertise.…
Silas E. Burris
Full Text Available Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children’s play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children’s later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives.
Burris, Silas E.; Brown, Danielle D.
Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children's play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation) proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children's later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives) with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability of narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives. PMID:24659973
Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, Samir
Comprehension of informed consent form has not achieved the attention it deserves. We made a 24-item questionnaire to assess clinical research participants' comprehension of informed consent form (Contemp Clin Trials 2009;30:427-30). Due to repeated requests by clinical researchers in our country and abroad, we are publishing the questionnaire in this article. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zemore, Sarah E
In light of the inconsistent evidence associating acculturation with drinking outcomes among Latinos in the United States, the current paper comprehensively reviews the literature on this topic. Studies were eligible for review if they (1) were published in a refereed journal, (2) were published in English, (3) sampled Latino/Hispanic adults aged 18+, (4) examined self-reported drinking behavior, alcohol-related problems, and/or alcohol abuse/dependence, and (5) reported original results or unique analyses from a larger dataset. The review includes only studies using composite scales of acculturation. Studies were identified via electronic databases (i.e., PSYCHINFO, ETOH, and PUBMED) using search terms, and combinations thereof, including "acculturat*," "alcohol*," "Latino," and "Hispanic." This search was supplemented by recursive checking and author searches. Thirty-two articles were identified and coded on methodological characteristics; results from 24 disaggregating genders and using appropriate outcomes were summarized. Higher acculturation was very consistently associated with higher odds of drinking among women, even controlling for demographic covariates. The evidence for women also suggested associations between higher acculturation and heavier drinking on other outcomes, including total volume, drinking frequency, typical quantity, heavy/problem drinking, drinking problems, and abuse/dependence, despite some null results. Relationships were weaker and ambiguous among men. Some evidence suggested that highly acculturated men are (compared with peers low on acculturation) more prone to drink, and perhaps as a result, can show higher consumption and problems. However, results also implied that, among male drinkers, higher acculturation may be associated with a lighter drinking pattern. Important study limitations were identified, including low power, aggregation of nondrinkers with drinkers, restrictive sampling, measurement issues, and analytical issues
Yu Zhentao; Yu Yanbin
The global atmosphere pollution is becoming more and more serious, affecting the human existence and development. Besides, the high spectrum resolution remote sensing technique, which has been applied to observe topographic features, identify military objectives and distinguish lithology and vegetation, has the relation to atmosphere quality and is influenced by atmosphere pollution (including radon pollution) and dust content in the atmosphere, it is imperative to monitor atmosphere quality. Based upon the selection of some main parameters evaluating atmospheric quality and necessary equipment, the author introduces the design of multiple airborne comprehensive survey system of atmosphere quality and how to deal with problems that crop up during the hardware designing and software programming
Hamilton, E.I.; Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.
The report consists of the results of an evaluation of research priorities for the environmental radioactivity of estuaries, (and near shore waters) of the United Kingdom. The format of this report is:(i) general conclusions for the future requirements for research in the field of environmental radioactivity; (ii) an overview of some specific recommendations for research; and (iii) an appendix in which a comprehensive evaluation of the research priorities for specific areas of research are given. On the basis that man is the prime target for concern and protection, special attention has been given to the environment in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, which is the source of major releases of a variety of radionuclides into the natural environment. Subjects covered in the Appendix are: site factors; pathways to man; source term; hot particles; terrestrial inputs; surveys and monitoring; analysis; organics; field versus laboratory data; biology; bioaccumulation factors; some bioaccumulators of radioactivity; bioturbation; bacteria; genetics; natural change; sediment; resuspension; surfaces; Ksub(d) factors; pore liquids; diagenesis and the ageing processes; airborne transport of radionuclides; models; natural radioactivity; public opinion; recreation; the ICRP; the ALARA principle; decommissioning of nuclear power stations; identification of research requirements; environmental radioactivity - the national effort. (U.K.)
Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas
Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.
Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup
be used in future studies about how research fields with interest in an empirical phenomenon, e.g. CRM and ITIL, evolve and as a guide for researchers providing them with insight into what has been published, where to publish ERP-related research and how to study it. Contribution of figures and numbers...
Glen R. Longhurst; Robert A. Anderl; M. Kay Adleer-Flitton; Gretchen E. Matthern; Troy J. Tranter; Kendall J. Hollis
While most active research involving beryllium in the United States remains tied strongly to biological effects, there are several areas of technology development in the last two years that should be mentioned. (1) Beryllium disposed of in soil vaults at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been encapsulated in-situ by high-temperature and pressure injection of a proprietary wax based material to inhibit corrosion. (2) A research program to develop a process for removing heavy metals and cobalt from irradiated beryllium using solvent extraction techniques has been initiated to remove components that prevent the beryllium from being disposed of as ordinary radioactive waste. (3) The JUPITER-II program at the INL Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has addressed the REDOX reaction of beryllium in molten Flibe (a mixture of LiF and BeF2) to control tritium, particularly in the form of HF, bred in the Flibe by reactions involving both beryllium and lithium. (4) Work has been performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to produce beryllium high heat flux components by plasma spray deposition on macro-roughened substrates. Finally, (5) corrosion studies on buried beryllium samples at the RWMC have shown that the physical form of some of the corroded beryllium is very filamentary and asbestos-like. This form of beryllium may exacerbate the contraction of chronic beryllium disease
"Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic
In December 1988, by resolution 43/75N, the United Nations General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to carry out a comprehensive update of a 1980 study on nuclear weapons. The study was to take into account recent relevant studies, and consider the political, legal and security aspects of: (a) nuclear arsenals and pertinent technological developments; (b) doctrines concerning nuclear weapons; (c) efforts to reduce nuclear weapons; (d) physical, environmental, medical and other effects of the use of nuclear weapons and of nuclear testing; (e) efforts to achieve a comprehensive nuclear-test ban; (f) efforts to prevent the use of nuclear weapons and their horizontal and vertical proliferation; and (g) the question of verification of compliance with nuclear-arms limitation agreements. The Group's report is presented in nine chapters, eight of which are summarized here; chapter 9, entitled ''Conclusions'', is included in its entirety. In his foreword to the report, the Secretary-General observes that the study represents the most comprehensive review of the relevant developments in the field over the last decade and was carried out during a period of ''far-reaching changes in international relations'' and an ''unprecedented evolution in the relationship between East and West''. This period experienced for the first time the initiation of an effective process of reduction of nuclear weapon stockpiles
Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup
During the past decade ERP has attracted attention from both academic and industrial communities (Shehab, Sharp et al. 2004) and we feel that now is an opportune time for the ERP field to ask how the field has evolved and what its present state is (Chen and Hirschheim 2004). The purpose of this p...... and with an End-Note-database1 containing bibliographical data to be used in future research....... be used in future studies about how research fields with interest in an empirical phenomenon, e.g. CRM and ITIL, evolve and as a guide for researchers providing them with insight into what has been published, where to publish ERP-related research and how to study it. Contribution of figures and numbers...
Gersten, Russell; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Williams, Joanna P.; Baker, Scott
Reviews research on reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities focusing on studies on instruction to improve comprehension of narrative text and expository text. Discusses emerging issues in the field, including use of socially mediated strategies, teaching multiple strategies to students, and teaching specific strategies as…
Roč. 46, č. 6 (2010), s. 1011-1033 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : survey research methods * survey accuracy * total survey error Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2010 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/uploads/59721bea5c0b259680447db14fee230ccf19f1ce_KREJCI%20SC2010-6-2.pdf
Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard; Venable, John
Evaluation is a central and essential activity in conducting rigorous Design Science Research (DSR), yet there is surprisingly little guidance about designing the DSR evaluation activity beyond suggesting possible methods that could be used for evaluation. This paper extends the notable exception...
Progress is reported in the following research areas: cesium fixation in aluminosilicates and supercalcine development; low sodium wastes and high sodium wastes. Phase relations in the appropriate (for supercalcine) portion of the Cs 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system are being investigated. Several compatibility lines (tie lines) have been established on the phase diagram. Methods of preparing pure single phases of CsAlSiO 4 and CsAlSi 2 O 6 (pollucite) are being developed. Compatibility studies continue to be the basis of supercalcine crystalline phase formation modeling
Mayer, Igor; Bekebrede, Geertje; Harteveld, Casper; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi; van Ruijven, Theo; Lo, Julia; Kortmann, Rens; Wenzler, Ivo
The authors present the methodological background to and underlying research design of an ongoing research project on the scientific evaluation of serious games and/or computer-based simulation games (SGs) for advanced learning. The main research questions are: (1) what are the requirements and design principles for a comprehensive social…
Calvet, Xavier; Panés, Julián; Alfaro, Noelia; Hinojosa, Joaquin; Sicilia, Beatriz; Gallego, Marta; Pérez, Ildefonso; Lázaro y de Mercado, Pablo; Gomollón, Fernando; Aldeguera, Xavier; Alós, Rafael; Andreu, Montserrat; Barreiro, Manu; Bermejo, Fernando; Casis, Begoña; Domenech, Eugeni; Espín, Eloy; Esteve, Maria; García-Sánchez, Valle; López-Sanromán, Antonio; Martínez-Montiel, Pilar; Luis Mendoza, Juan; Gisbert, Javier P; Vera, Maribel; Dosal, Angelina; Sánchez, Elena; Marín, Laura; Sanromán, Luciano; Pinilla, Pilar; Murciano, Francisca; Torrejón, Antonio; Ramón García, José; Ortega, Mayte; Roldán, Julio
While it is commonly accepted that Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Comprehensive Care Units (ICCUs) facilitate the delivery of quality care to Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients, it remains unclear how an ICCU should be defined or evaluated. The aim of the present study was to develop a comprehensive set of Quality Indicators (QIs) of structure, process, and outcomes for defining and evaluating an ICCU. A Delphi consensus-based approach with a standardized three-step process was used to identify a core set of QIs. The process included an exhaustive search using complementary approaches to identify potential QIs, and two Delphi voting rounds to select the QIs defining the core requirements for an ICCU. The consensus selected a core set of 56 QIs (12 structure, 20 process and 24 outcome). Structure and process QIs highlighted the need for multidisciplinary management and continuity of care. The minimal IBD team should include an IBD nurse, gastroenterologists, radiologists, surgeons, endoscopists and stoma management specialists. ICCUs should be able to provide both outpatient and inpatient care and admission should not break the continuity of care. Outcome QIs focused on the adequate prophylaxis of disease complication and drug adverse events, the need to monitor appropriateness of treatment and the need to reinforce patient autonomy by providing adequate information and facilitating the patients' participation in their own care. The present Delphi consensus identified a set of core QIs that may be useful for evaluating and certifying ICCUs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Valasek, John; Murray, Seth C.; Bishop, Michael P.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advantages over manned vehicles for agricultural remote sensing. Flying UAVs is less expensive, is more flexible in scheduling, enables lower altitudes, uses lower speeds, and provides better spatial resolution for imaging. The main disadvantage is that, at lower altitudes and speeds, only small areas can be imaged. However, on large farms with contiguous fields, high-quality images can be collected regularly by using UAVs with appropriate sensing technologies that enable high-quality image mosaics to be created with sufficient metadata and ground-control points. In the United States, rules governing the use of aircraft are promulgated and enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and rules governing UAVs are currently in flux. Operators must apply for appropriate permissions to fly UAVs. In the summer of 2015 Texas A&M University's agricultural research agency, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, embarked on a comprehensive program of remote sensing with UAVs at its 568-ha Brazos Bottom Research Farm. This farm is made up of numerous fields where various crops are grown in plots or complete fields. The crops include cotton, corn, sorghum, and wheat. After gaining FAA permission to fly at the farm, the research team used multiple fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs along with various sensors to collect images over all parts of the farm at least once per week. This article reports on details of flight operations and sensing and analysis protocols, and it includes some lessons learned in the process of developing a UAV remote-sensing effort of this sort.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the United States Government`s (USG) research and development (R&D) functions for monitoring nuclear explosions in the context of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This responsibility includes the November 1993 transfer of the Department of Defense`s (DoD) CTBT R&D responsibility to DOE. The DOE research program builds on the broad base of USG expertise developed historically and includes R&D for detecting, locating, identifying, and characterizing nuclear explosions in all environments. The Office of Research and Development (NN-20), within the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, formulates and executes the efforts necessary to meet the Department`s responsibilities. The following DOE laboratories as a team will support NN-20 in implementing the program plan: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. DOE has committed to a cooperative program that draws upon the core competencies of the national laboratories and upon the strengths of other government agencies and the private sector (academia and industry). The integration of resources under a common direction will allow the program to be flexible and responsive to changing technical and policy requirements while maximizing the effectiveness of funding appropriations. DOE will develop and demonstrate appropriate technologies, algorithms, procedures, and integrated systems in a cost-effective and timely manner. The program comprises seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound monitoring; on-site inspection; space-based monitoring; and automated data processing elements.
Full Text Available Background: Researchers in tobacco control are concerned about the increasing prevalence of waterpipe smoking in the United States, which may pose similar risks as cigarette smoking. This review explores the prevalence of waterpipe smoking in the United States as well as the shortcomings of current U.S. policy for waterpipe control and regulation. Methods: Researchers conducted a literature review for waterpipe articles dated between 2004 and 2015 using five online databases: MEDLINE, CINHAHL, ScienceDirect, PMC, and Cochrane Library. Results: To date, few studies have explored the marketing and regulation of waterpipe smoking in the U.S., which has increased in the last ten years, especially among women, adolescents, and young adults. Data indicate that the majority of waterpipe smokers are unaware of the potential risks of use. In addition, current tobacco control policies do not address waterpipe smoking, enabling tobacco companies to readily market and sell waterpipe products to young adults, who are at risk for becoming lifelong smokers. Conclusion: Policy makers in the area of public health need to update existing tobacco regulations to include waterpipe smoking. Similarly, public health researchers should develop public health campaigns and interventions to address the increasing rates of waterpipe smoking in the United States.
Medeiros, Adriane Calvetti de; Siqueira, Hedi Crecencia Heckler de; Zamberlan, Claudia; Cecagno, Diana; Nunes, Simone Dos Santos; Thurow, Mara Regina Bergmann
Identifying the elements that promote comprehensiveness and humanization of nursing care management in the Intensive Care Unit, with an ecosystemic approach. A documentary qualitative study. The method of documentary analysis was used for data analysis. Four pre-established categories were identified - Technical; Organizational; Technological; and Humanizing Dimensions. Data resulted in forming two sub-categories that integrate the humanizing dimension category, namely 'Comprehensiveness in healthcare actions' and 'Integrating processes and promoters of humanization,' bringing forth implications and challenges in forms of managing health work processes, enabling organizational, structural and managerial changes to the provided healthcare. It was considered that all structural elements in managing nursing care with a focus on the needs of users should be in line with public policies and the principles of comprehensiveness and humanization, thus possessing strong potential for transforming health practices. Identificar os elementos capazes de promover a integralidade e a humanização na gestão do cuidado de enfermagem na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, com enfoque ecossistêmico. Pesquisa documental, de natureza qualitativa. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se do método da análise documental. SForam identificadas quatro categorias preestabelecidas ‒ Dimensões: Técnica; Organizacional; Tecnológica e Humanizadora. Os dados resultantes das duas subcategorias que integraram a categoria Dimensão Humanizadora, Integralidade nas ações do cuidado e Processos integradores e promotores de humanização, trazem implicações e desafios nos modos de gerir os processos de trabalho em saúde, o que possibilita transformações organizacionais, estruturais e gerenciais na produção do cuidado. Considera-se que na gestão do cuidado de enfermagem todos os elementos estruturantes, com enfoque nas necessidades dos usuários, devem estar em consonância com as políticas p
Han, Shenchao; Yang, Yanchun; Liu, Yude; Zhang, Peng; Li, Siwei
It is effective to reduce haze in winter by changing the distributed heat supply system. Thus, the studies on comprehensive index system and scientific evaluation method of distributed heat supply project are essential. Firstly, research the influence factors of heating modes, and an index system with multiple dimension including economic, environmental, risk and flexibility was built and all indexes were quantified. Secondly, a comprehensive evaluation method based on AHP was put forward to analyze the proposed multiple and comprehensive index system. Lastly, the case study suggested that supplying heat with electricity has great advantage and promotional value. The comprehensive index system of distributed heating supply project and evaluation method in this paper can evaluate distributed heat supply project effectively and provide scientific support for choosing the distributed heating project.
from DuPont Pharmaceuticals (Wilmington, DE) and V-7® preservation buffer was obtained from Vitron, Inc. (Tucson, AZ). Toxicity assays required the...gauge catheters (Angiocath®, Deseret Pharmaceuticals , Sandy, UT). The liver is flushed with 3.0 mL sterile heparin (1000 units/mL) (Elkins-Sinn, Cherry...Toxicology and Ecotoxicology . Mattie, Marit, Flemming, Cooper, The Effects of JP-8 Jet Fuel on Sprague-Dawley Male Rats After a 90-day Expo- sure by Oral
Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)
Warren, N. Jill [Editor
These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.
LAZARSFELD, PAUL F.; SIEBER, SAM D.
THE CHIEF TECHNICAL PROBLEM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO MEASURE THE NUMEROUS SOCIAL CONDITIONS WHICH MIGHT CONCEIVABLY IMPINGE ON THE PRODUCTION OF RESEARCH AND OF RESEARCHERS BY GRADUATE SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION. THE TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED INCLUDED (1) QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS OF EDUCATION DEANS, RESEARCH COORDINATORS, DIRECTORS OF RESEARCH UNITS, PROJECT…
Powers, Christina M; Grieger, Khara; Meacham, Connie A; Gooding, Meredith Lassiter; Gift, Jeffrey S; Lehmann, Geniece M; Hendren, Christine O; Davis, J Michael; Burgoon, Lyle
Risk assessments and risk management efforts to protect human health and the environment can benefit from early, coordinated research planning by researchers, risk assessors, and risk managers. However, approaches for engaging these and other stakeholders in research planning have not received much attention in the environmental scientific literature. The Comprehensive Environmental Assessment (CEA) approach under development by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is a means to manage complex information and input from diverse stakeholder perspectives on research planning that will ultimately support environmental and human health decision making. The objectives of this article are to 1) describe the outcomes of applying lessons learned from previous CEA applications to planning research on engineered nanomaterial, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 2) discuss new insights and refinements for future efforts to engage stakeholders in research planning for risk assessment and risk management of environmental issues. Although framed in terms of MWCNTs, this discussion is intended to enhance research planning to support assessments for other environmental issues as well. Key insights for research planning include the potential benefits of 1) ensuring that participants have research, risk assessment, and risk management expertise in addition to diverse disciplinary backgrounds; 2) including an early scoping step before rounds of formal ratings; 3) using a familiar numeric scale (e.g., US dollars) versus ordinal rating scales of "importance"; 4) applying virtual communication tools to supplement face-to-face interaction between participants; and 5) refining criteria to guide development of specific, actionable research questions. © 2015 SETAC.
and of a clinically observable tumor. These experiments, however, are feasible with currently available technology . An important aspect of simulation...S.M. 1986. Carcinogenesis modeling: From molecular biology to epidemiology. Ann. Rev. Public Helth . 7:151-169. Moolgavkar, S.., N.E. Day, and R.G...TH) of the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory (AAMRL). The objective was to employ new exposure system technology to provide TH with
Full Text Available Niklas Ekerstad,1,2 Björn W Karlson,3 Synneve Dahlin Ivanoff,4 Sten Landahl,5 David Andersson,6 Emelie Heintz,7 Magnus Husberg,2 Jenny Alwin2 1Department of Cardiology, NU (NÄL-Uddevalla Hospital Group, Trollhattan, 2Division of Health Care Analysis, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, 4Centre for Ageing and Health, AGECAP, Department of Health and Rehabilitation, 5Department of Geriatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 6Division of Economics, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, 7Health Outcomes and Economic Evaluation Research Group, Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute care of frail elderly patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA unit is superior to the care in a conventional acute medical care unit. Design: This is a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled, one-center intervention study. Setting: This study was conducted in a large county hospital in western Sweden. Participants: The study included 408 frail elderly patients, aged ≥75 years, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n=206 or control group (n=202. Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female. Intervention: This organizational form of care is characterized by a structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care at an acute elderly care unit. Measurements: The primary outcome was the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL 3 months after discharge from hospital, measured by the Health Utilities Index-3 (HUI-3. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, rehospitalizations, and hospital care costs. Results: After adjustment by
Bairstow, R.; Barlow, J.; Mace, P.R.; Seller, P.; Waters, M.; Watson, J.G.
A distributed data acquisition system has been developed by the Bubble Chamber Research Group at the Rutherford Appleton laboratory for use with their film measuring machines. The system is based upon a set of microcomputers linked together with a VAX 11/780 computer, in a local area computer network. This network is of the star type and uses a packet switching technique. Each film measuring machine is equipped with a microcomputer which controls the function of the table, buffers data and enhances the interface between operators and machines. This paper provides a detailed description of each microcomputer and can be used as a reference manual for these computers. (author)
Paris, Adeline; Brandt, Christian; Cornu, Catherine; Maison, Patrick; Thalamas, Claire; Cracowski, Jean-Luc
International guidelines on ethics in biomedical research require that the informed consent of all enrolled participants is obtained. A written document describing the research, the informed consent (IC) document, must be given to all participants by the investigator. Most IC documents are long, containing much information. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the modification of the IC document by a working group or systematic improvement in its lexicosyntactic readability can improve comprehension of the written information given to patients participating in biomedical research. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were randomized to read one of the three versions of the IC document: unchanged document, document modified using systematic improvement of lexicosyntactic readability and document modified by a working group. Neither the improvement in the lexicosyntactic readability, nor the intervention of the working group significantly improved the score of objective comprehension for the subjects included in this study: it was 66.6 (95% confidence interval 64.0, 69.2) for the control group, 68.8 (66.2, 71.4) for the group with the document improved for lexicosyntactic readability and 69.2 (66.0, 72.4) for the group who read the document improved by the working group (P= 0.38). We failed to show that improving IC document comprehension through a lexicosyntactic approach or by a working group leads to better comprehension.
Dumon, Wilfried; Aldous, Joan
Presents how and why programs embodying family policy in Western Europe and the United States differ. By indicating current changes in these programs and how political decisions affect them, fruitful areas for family policy research are suggested. Family policy meeting needs of pragmatically defined parent-child units will be most successful.…
von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Mi Bonde, Marie; Brunner, Nicole; Hemkens, Lars G; Rutquist, Marielle; Bhatnagar, Neera; Guyatt, Gordon H; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Briel, Matthias
To systematically survey existing definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality, both developed by stakeholder groups as well as in the medical literature. This study serves as a first step in the development of a comprehensive framework for the quality of clinical research. We systematically and in duplicate searched definitions, concepts and criteria of clinical research quality on websites of stakeholders in clinical research until no further insights emerged and in MEDLINE up to February 2015. Stakeholders included governmental bodies, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, academic and commercial contract research organizations, initiatives, research ethics committees, patient organizations and funding agencies from 13 countries. Data synthesis involved descriptive and qualitative analyses following the Framework Method on definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality. Descriptive codes were applied and grouped into clusters to identify common and stakeholder-specific quality themes. Stakeholder concepts on how to assure quality throughout study conduct or articles on quality assessment tools were common, generally with no a priori definition of the term quality itself. We identified a total of 20 explicit definitions of clinical research quality including varying quality dimensions and focusing on different stages in the clinical research process. Encountered quality dimensions include ethical conduct, patient safety/rights/priorities, internal validity, precision of results, generalizability or external validity, scientific and societal relevance, transparency and accessibility of information, research infrastructure and sustainability. None of the definitions appeared to be comprehensive either in terms of quality dimensions, research stages, or stakeholder perspectives. Clinical research quality is often discussed but rarely defined. A framework defining clinical research quality across stakeholders
Hurley, Donna S.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Msall, Michael E.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Dewald, Julius P.
Cerebral palsy is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability in children. The condition requires medical, educational, social, and rehabilitative resources throughout the life span. Several countries have developed population-based registries that serve the purpose of prospective longitudinal collection of etiologic, demographic, and functional severity. The United States has not created a comprehensive program to develop such a registry. Barriers have been large population size, poor interinstitution collaboration, and decentralized medical and social systems. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry was created to fill the gap between population and clinical-based cerebral palsy registries and promote research in the field. This is accomplished by connecting persons with cerebral palsy, as well as their families, to a network of regional researchers. This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad. PMID:21677201
... research misconduct proceedings reveal behavior that may be criminal in nature at any point during the... United States Department of Agriculture Research Misconduct Regulations for Extramural Research AGENCY... Federal Policy on Research Misconduct applicable to extramural research. The regulation defines research...
Apr 14, 2016 ... Local and regional experts including researchers, consultants, and academics convened in Cotonou, Benin, on February 26, 2015 to launch a Research Chair on EcoHealth. The Chair unites four West African universities that have pledged to reduce air pollution and non-communicable respiratory ...
The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…
Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.
Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.
Schwirian, Patricia M.; Byers, Sandra R.
This paper discusses the microcomputer in clinical nursing research. There are six general areas in which computers have been useful to nurses: nursing notes and charting; patient care plans; automated monitoring of high-tech nursing units; HIS and MIS systems; personnel distribution systems; and education. Three alternative models for the conduct of clinical nursing research in a hospital are described. The first is a centralized model relying on the bureaucratic structure of the hospital. Second is a decentralized network of professional nurses and research support personnel woven together by a Clinical Nurse Researcher, and third is a dedicated clinical nursing research unit. Microcomputers have five characteristics which make them vital tools for nurse researchers: user-friendliness; environment friendliness; low cost; ease of interface with other information systems; and range and quality of software.
Fu, Qiang; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiaoman; Jiang, Huilin; Liu, Zhi
The laser transmission characteristics affected in the complex channel environment, which limits the performance of laser equipment and engineering application severely. The article aim at the influence of laser transmission in atmospheric and seawater channels, summarizes the foreign researching work of the simulation and comprehensive test regarding to the laser transmission characteristics in complex environment. And researched the theory of atmospheric turbulence effect, water attenuation features, and put forward the corresponding theoretical model. And researched the simulate technology of atmospheric channel and sea water channel, put forward the analog device plan, adopt the similar theory of flowing to simulate the atmosphere turbulence .When the flowing has the same condition of geometric limits including the same Reynolds, they must be similar to each other in the motivation despite of the difference in the size, speed, and intrinsic quality. On this basis, set up a device for complex channel simulation and comprehensive testing, the overall design of the structure of the device, Hot and Cold Air Convection Simulation of Atmospheric Turbulence, mainly consists of cell body, heating systems, cooling systems, automatic control system. he simulator provides platform and method for the basic research of laser transmission characteristics in the domestic.
Béranger, Agathe; Pierron, Charlotte; de Saint Blanquat, Laure; Bouazza, Naïm; Jean, Sandrine; Chappuy, Hélène
This study evaluated the first interaction (FI) between parents and health care providers at the time of admission of a child in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and explored the extent to which parents understood the medical information. This prospective study took place in three French university-affiliated PICUs. Forty-two parents of 30 children were interviewed. The physician and nurse who took care of the child completed a questionnaire. We evaluated parents' comprehension (excellent, fair, or poor) by comparing parents' and physicians' responses to six items: diagnosis, affected organ, reason for hospitalization, prognosis, treatments, and further investigations. Parent-physician FI occurred within 24 h of child's admission. Two thirds of the parents were dissatisfied to wait before receiving information. Most of the parents had an excellent comprehension of the affected organ (n = 25/28, 89.3%) and prognosis (n = 26/30, 86.7%). Two thirds of the parents understood the reason for hospitalization (n = 18/28, 64.3%) and diagnosis (n = 19/30, 63.3%). Less than half the parents understood child's treatments (n = 10/30, 33.3%) and further investigations (n = 8/21, 38.1%). When a nurse delivered information on treatment, parental comprehension improved (p = 0.053). Parents complained of their wait time before receiving information. Most of them had an excellent comprehension. An improved communication between nurses and physicians is mandatory, and the active participation of nurses to give information to the parents should be encouraged. What is known: • In pediatric intensive care unit, health care providers deliver information to parents on their child's condition, which fosters the trust between them to build a partnership. • Various guidelines exist to help health care providers communicate with parents in PICU, but never mention the specific time of admission. What is new: • Even though parents could wait before
Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy
The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Izumi V. Hinkson
Full Text Available Advancements in next-generation sequencing and other -omics technologies are accelerating the detailed molecular characterization of individual patient tumors, and driving the evolution of precision medicine. Cancer is no longer considered a single disease, but rather, a diverse array of diseases wherein each patient has a unique collection of germline variants and somatic mutations. Molecular profiling of patient-derived samples has led to a data explosion that could help us understand the contributions of environment and germline to risk, therapeutic response, and outcome. To maximize the value of these data, an interdisciplinary approach is paramount. The National Cancer Institute (NCI has initiated multiple projects to characterize tumor samples using multi-omic approaches. These projects harness the expertise of clinicians, biologists, computer scientists, and software engineers to investigate cancer biology and therapeutic response in multidisciplinary teams. Petabytes of cancer genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, proteomic, and imaging data have been generated by these projects. To address the data analysis challenges associated with these large datasets, the NCI has sponsored the development of the Genomic Data Commons (GDC and three Cloud Resources. The GDC ensures data and metadata quality, ingests and harmonizes genomic data, and securely redistributes the data. During its pilot phase, the Cloud Resources tested multiple cloud-based approaches for enhancing data access, collaboration, computational scalability, resource democratization, and reproducibility. These NCI-led efforts are continuously being refined to better support open data practices and precision oncology, and to serve as building blocks of the NCI Cancer Research Data Commons.
Dillman, Charles J.
Assisted by a team of physicians and sports scientists, the United States Ski Team has developed its own sports medicine program, the purpose of which is to assist coaches and athletes in controlling and optimizing factors which influence skiing performance. A number of biomechanical research projects which have been undertaken as part of this…
Schwirian, Patricia M.; Byers, Sandra R.
This paper discusses the microcomputer in clinical nursing research. There are six general areas in which computers have been useful to nurses: nursing notes and charting; patient care plans; automated monitoring of high-tech nursing units; HIS and MIS systems; personnel distribution systems; and education.
Dana Mitchell; Renee Ayala; [Compilers
The Forest Operations Unit of the Southern Research Station has been studying biomass-related topics since 1977. This CD aids the reader by organizing these publications in one easy-to-use CD. This CD is comprised of an executive summary, two bibliographies, individual publications (in PDF format), and a keyword listing. The types of publications included on this CD...
The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...
Jermoumi, M; Ngwa, W [University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA (United States); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Korideck, H; Zygmanski, P; Berbeco, R; Makrigiorgos, G; Cormack, R [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)
Purpose: Use of Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) systems for conducting state-of-the-art image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) research on small animals has become more common over the past years. The purpose of this work is to develop and test the suitability and performance of a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) phantom for the SARRP. Methods: A QA phantom was developed for carrying out daily, monthly and annual QA tasks including imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning system (TPS) performance evaluation of the SARRP. The QA phantom consists of nine (60×60×5 mm3) KV-energy tissue equivalent solid water slabs that can be employed for annual dosimetry QA with film. Three of the top slabs are replaceable with ones incorporating Mosfets or OSLDs arranged in a quincunx pattern, or a slab drilled to accommodate an ion chamber insert. These top slabs are designed to facilitate routine daily and monthly QA tasks such as output constancy, isocenter congruency test, treatment planning system (TPS) QA, etc. One slab is designed with inserts for image QA. A prototype of the phantom was applied to test the performance of the imaging, planning and treatment delivery systems. Results: Output constancy test results showed daily variations within 3%. For isocenter congruency test, the phantom could be used to detect 0.3 mm deviations of the CBCT isocenter from the radiation isocenter. Using the Mosfet in phantom as target, the difference between TPS calculations and measurements was within 5%. Image-quality parameters could also be assessed in terms of geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity, etc. Conclusion: The developed phantom can be employed as a simple tool for comprehensive performance evaluation of the SARRP. The study provides a reference for development of a comprehensive quality assurance program for the SARRP, with proposed tolerances and frequency of required tests.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive evidence on the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV as a public health problem worldwide, insubstantial progress has been made in the development and implementation of sufficiently comprehensive health services. This study aimed to implement, evaluate and adapt a published protocol for the screening and management of IPV and to recommend a model of care that could be taken to scale in our underdeveloped South African primary health care system. Methods Professional action research utilised a co-operative inquiry group that consisted of four nurses, one doctor and a qualitative researcher. The inquiry group implemented the protocol in two urban and three rural primary care facilities. Over a period of 14 months the group reflected on their experience, modified the protocol and developed recommendations on a practical but comprehensive model of care. Results The original protocol had to be adapted in terms of its expectations of the primary care providers, overly forensic orientation, lack of depth in terms of mental health, validity of the danger assessment and safety planning process, and need for ongoing empowerment and support. A three-tier model resulted: case finding and clinical care provision by primary care providers; psychological, social and legal assistance by ‘IPV champions’ followed by a group empowerment process; and then ongoing community-based support groups. Conclusion The inquiry process led to a model of comprehensive and intersectoral care that is integrated at the facility level and which is now being piloted in the Western Cape, South Africa.
Esparza, Miguel; Segundo, Juan; Nunez, Ciro
The undesirable harmonic distortion produced by distributed generation units (DGUs) based on power-electronic inverters presents operating and power-quality challenges in electric systems. The level of distortion depends on the internal elements of the DGUs as well as on the characteristics...... of the grid, loads, and controls, among others. This paper presents a comprehensive method, focused on power-quality indexes and efficiency for the design of microgrids with multiple DGUs interconnected to the ac grid through three-phase multi-Megawatt medium-voltage pulsewidth...
Yang, Zhile; Li, Kang; Niu, Qun; Xue, Yusheng
Highlights: • A new UCsRP problem with flexible integrations is established. • A novel multi-zone sampling method is proposed for scenarios generation. • A meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. • A comprehensive study is conducted considering multiple weathers and seasons. • The economic effects of various scenarios are evaluated and compared. - Abstract: Significant penetration of renewable generations (RGs) and mass roll-out of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will pay a vital role in delivering the low carbon energy future and low emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) that are responsible for the global climate change. However, it is of considerable difficulties to precisely forecast the undispatchable and intermittent wind and solar power generations. The uncoordinated charging of PEVs imposes further challenges on the unit commitment in modern grid operations. In this paper, all these factors are comprehensively investigated for the first time within a novel hybrid unit commitment framework, namely UCsRP, which considers a wide range of scenarios in renewable generations and demand side management of dispatchable PEVs load. UCsRP is however an extremely challenging optimisation problem not only due to the large scale, mixed integer and nonlinearity, but also due to the double uncertainties relating to the renewable generations and PEV charging and discharging. In this paper, a meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. A key to improve the reliability of the unit commitment is to generate a range of scenarios based on multiple distributions of renewable generations under different prediction errors and extreme predicted value conditions. This is achieved by introducing a novel multi-zone sampling method. A comprehensive study considering four different cases of unit commitment problems with various weather and season scenarios using real power system data are conducted and solved, and smart
Chvetzoff, Gisèle; Chvetzoff, Roland; Devaux, Yves; Teil, A; Chalencon, J; Lancry, L; Kante, V; Poncelas, C; Sontag, P; Tretiakoff, C; Philip, T
Lyon comprehensive cancer center developed a home care-coordinating unit (HCCU) allowing a wide range of cancer care at home. We present the results of an organisational and strategical analysis of the unit, in relation with internal and external contexts. We describe the functioning of the unit, modelled from the daily follow-up of professionnels. Patient discharge is initiated by the oncologist at the inpatient clinic, at the day-hospital or at outpatient visit. After consent of the patient and relatives, the HCCU (nurses and medical oncologists) evaluates patient's needs, organises hospital discharge (contacts with community nurses and general practitioner, supply of medical appliances and drugs), and provides follow-up and counselling to patient and caregivers. The HCCU works in a challenging environment, with both partners and competitors. Within the hospital, it collaborates with all other units. Outside the hospital, partners are, besides patients themselves; general practitioners and community nurses home care agencies and network services, private medical appliance providers, and public health authorities. The unit might evolve towards formal home hospitalisation or community-hospital network. Collaboration of both structure closely associated with hospital could allow to provide continuous and graduated care by the same caregivers even if administrative structures change.
The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...
Lerouge, Ch.; Herino, R.; Delville, R.; Allegre, R.
For a big country as the United States, the solar energy can be a solution for the air quality improvement, the greenhouse gases fight and the reduction of the dependence to the imported petroleum and also for the economic growth by the increase of the employment in the solar industry sector. This document takes stock on the photovoltaic in the United States in the industrial and research domains. The american photovoltaic industry is the third behind the Japan and the Germany. (A.L.B.)
Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R
In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research.
Hochheiser, Harry; Aronow, Bruce J.; Artinger, Kristin; Beaty, Terri H.; Brinkley, James F.; Chai, Yang; Clouthier, David; Cunningham, Michael L.; Dixon, Michael; Donahue, Leah Rae; Fraser, Scott E.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Iwata, Junichi; Klein, Ophir; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Stephen; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Postlethwait, John; Potter, Steven; Shapiro, Linda; Spritz, Richard; Visel, Axel; Weinberg, Seth M.; Trainor, Paul A.
The FaceBase Consortium consists of ten interlinked research and technology projects whose goal is to generate craniofacial research data and technology for use by the research community through a central data management and integrated bioinformatics hub. Funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and currently focused on studying the development of the middle region of the face, the Consortium will produce comprehensive datasets of global gene expression patterns, regulatory elements and sequencing; will generate anatomical and molecular atlases; will provide human normative facial data and other phenotypes; conduct follow up studies of a completed genome-wide association study; generate independent data on the genetics of craniofacial development, build repositories of animal models and of human samples and data for community access and analysis; and will develop software tools and animal models for analyzing and functionally testing and integrating these data. The FaceBase website (http://www.facebase.org) will serve as a web home for these efforts, providing interactive tools for exploring these datasets, together with discussion forums and other services to support and foster collaboration within the craniofacial research community. PMID:21458441
Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the objectives, research design, methodology, and primary findings of the Isfahan Comprehensive Elderly Study (ICES. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 603 elderly persons (aged 60 and over were selected by multistage cluster sampling method from Isfahan, Iran, in 2016 comprehensive questionnaires along with a detailed interview were used to collect information on personal, family, socioeconomic, health and social services characteristics, life styles, physical illnesses and chronic diseases, mental, emotional and cognition disorders, quality of life, disabilities, sleep quality, social supports, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, and of participants. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD age of participants was 69.66 ± 6.31 years, consisting of 50.75% females. About 23% of elderly persons were at the risk of malnutrition and 4.5% were current smoker. Severe and mild depression were documented in 9.3% and 30.2% among included study subjects, respectively. About half of the participants had hypertension, and 26.8% suffered from cardiovascular disease. The mean ± SD of total score of Geriatric Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Older People's Quality of Life, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was 8.84 ± 6.79, 14.76 ± 5.92, 133.99 ± 10.55, 142.04 ± 120.53, and 6.17 ± 3.44, respectively. Elderly males had significantly higher life satisfaction and self-efficacy and better cognitive function than females (P < 0.01. Conclusion: The findings of current study provided a comprehensive overview of the current health status and lifestyle of older adults in Isfahan city. The ICES could help policy makers to design appropriate prevention and interventional programs and policies to cover the specific needs of the elderly population.
Nowrouzi, Behdin; Giddens, Emilia; Gohar, Basem; Schoenenberger, Sandrine; Bautista, Mary Christine; Casole, Jennifer
Workplace environment is related to the physical and psychological well-being, and quality of work life (QWL) for nurses. The aim of this paper was to perform a comprehensive literature review on nurses' quality of work life to identify a comprehensive set of QWL predictors for nurses employed in the United States and Canada. Using publications from 2004-2014, contributing factors to American and Canadian nurses' QWL were analyzed. The review was structured using the Work Disability Prevention Framework. Sixty-six articles were selected for analysis. Literature indicated that changes are required within the workplace and across the health care system to improve nurses' QWL. Areas for improvement to nurses' quality of work life included treatment of new nursing graduates, opportunities for continuing education, promotion of positive collegial relationships, stress-reduction programs, and increased financial compensation. This review's findings support the importance of QWL as an indicator of nurses' broader work-related experiences. A shift in health care systems across Canada and the United States is warranted where health care delivery and services are improved in conjunction with the health of the nurses working in the system.
Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W.; Painter, Thomas M.; Gelaude, Deborah J.; Fasula, Amy M.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Freeman, Arin E.; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H.; Purcell, David W.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities. PMID:22217681
This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The scope of the audit at the ITRI was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; soils, sediments, and biota; surface water/drinking water; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; quality assurance; radiation; inactive waste sites; environmental management; and environmental monitoring programs. Specifically assessed was the compliance of ITRI operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; internal operating standards; and best management practices. Onsite activities included inspection of ITRI facilities and operations; review of site documents; interviews with DOE and contractor personnel, as well as representatives from state regulatory agencies; and reviews of previous appraisals. Using these sources of information, the environmental audit team developed findings, which fell into two general categories: compliance findings and best management practice findings. Each finding also identifies apparent causal factor(s) that contributed to the finding and will assist line management in developing ''root causes'' for implementing corrective actions
Chai, Jianping; Bai, Xuesong; Zhou, Hongjun; Yin, Fulian
As for shortcomings of the comprehensive evaluation system on traditional TV programs such as single data source, ignorance of new media as well as the high time cost and difficulty of making surveys, a new evaluation of TV series is proposed in this paper, which has a perspective in cross-platform multidimensional evaluation after broadcasting. This scheme considers the data directly collected from cable television and the Internet as research objects. It's based on TOPSIS principle, after preprocessing and calculation of the data, they become primary indicators that reflect different profiles of the viewing of TV series. Then after the process of reasonable empowerment and summation by the six methods(PCA, AHP, etc.), the primary indicators form the composite indices on different channels or websites. The scheme avoids the inefficiency and difficulty of survey and marking; At the same time, it not only reflects different dimensions of viewing, but also combines TV media and new media, completing the multidimensional comprehensive evaluation of TV series on cross-platform.
Woo Jessica G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is associated with the early development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, to date, traditional methods of research have failed to identify effective prevention and treatment strategies, and large numbers of children and adolescents continue to be at high risk of developing weight-related disease. Aim To establish a unique 'biorepository' of data and biological samples from overweight and obese children, in order to investigate the complex 'gene × environment' interactions that govern disease risk. Methods The 'Childhood Overweight BioRepository of Australia' collects baseline environmental, clinical and anthropometric data, alongside storage of blood samples for genetic, metabolic and hormonal profiles. Opportunities for longitudinal data collection have also been incorporated into the study design. National and international harmonisation of data and sample collection will achieve required statistical power. Results Ethical approval in the parent site has been obtained and early data indicate a high response rate among eligible participants (71% with a high level of compliance for comprehensive data collection (range 56% to 97% for individual study components. Multi-site ethical approval is now underway. Conclusions In time, it is anticipated that this comprehensive approach to data collection will allow early identification of individuals most susceptible to disease, as well as facilitating refinement of prevention and treatment programs.
This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The scope of the audit at the ITRI was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; soils, sediments, and biota; surface water/drinking water; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; quality assurance; radiation; inactive waste sites; environmental management; and environmental monitoring programs. Specifically assessed was the compliance of ITRI operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; internal operating standards; and best management practices. Onsite activities included inspection of ITRI facilities and operations; review of site documents; interviews with DOE and contractor personnel, as well as representatives from state regulatory agencies; and reviews of previous appraisals. Using these sources of information, the environmental audit team developed findings, which fell into two general categories: compliance findings and best management practice findings. Each finding also identifies apparent causal factor(s) that contributed to the finding and will assist line management in developing ``root causes`` for implementing corrective actions.
Over the past two decades, the Slovenian real estate market has experienced major changes. Increasing purchasing power and customer needs lead to an extensive increase in construction. The described phenomenon may lead to poor construction quality and in this respect, Slovenia was no exception. The master thesis addresses the quality of housing units from the point of view of potential customers who want to know what to expect for their money. In this context, first, the propertie...
Bryson, John; Coe, Gary; Swami, Nadia; Murphy-Kane, Patricia; Seccareccia, Dori; Le, Lisa W; Rodin, Gary; Zimmermann, Camilla
We examined administrative outcomes after opening an oncology acute palliative care unit (APCU), to determine attainment of administrative targets related to the unit's function of acute palliation. We retrospectively reviewed the administrative database for our APCU for the 5 years following its opening in 2003. Data were abstracted on demographic information, as well as source of admission, primary reason for admission, discharge destination, inpatient death rate, and length of stay. Linear regression and the Cochran-Armitage trend test were used for analysis. In keeping with targets set at the unit's opening, our primary hypotheses were that outpatient admissions, admissions for symptom control, and discharges home would increase over the study period; secondary hypotheses were that length of stay and inpatient death rate would decrease. There were 1748 admissions during the study period: the median age was 64, 54% were women, and the most common cancer sites were gastrointestinal (24%), lung (20%), and gynecologic (13%). There were significant changes for all primary endpoints: outpatient admissions increased from 47% to 70% (p administrative targets for an APCU is possible with appropriate admission criteria, adequate community resources, and education of patients, families and health professionals regarding the model of care.
Reventlow, Susanne; Broholm, Katalin Alexa Király; Mäkelä, Marjukka
In Denmark the general practice research units operating in connection with universities provide a home base, training and methodology support for researchers in the field from medical students to general practitioners carrying out practical work. Research issues frequently require a multidisciplinary approach and use of different kinds of materials. Problems arising from the practical work of general practitioners take priority in the wide selection of topics. The units have networked efficiently with organizations of general practitioners and medical education. The combination of research environments has created synergy benefiting everybody and increased the scientific productivity and visibility of the field.
Gillett, G R
There are widely acknowledged ethical issues in enrolling unconscious patients in research trials, particularly in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. An analysis of those issues shows that, by and large, patients are better served in units where research is actively taking place for several reasons: i) they do not fall prey to therapeutic prejudices without clear evidential support, ii) they get a chance of accessing new and potentially beneficial treatments, iii) a climate of careful monitoring of patients and their clinical progress is necessary for good clinical research and affects the care of all patients and iv) even those not in the treatment arm of a trial of a new intervention must receive best current standard care (according to international evidence-based treatment guidelines). Given that we have discovered a number of 'best practice' regimens of care that do not optimise outcomes in ICU settings, it is of great benefit to all patients (including those participating in research) that we are constantly updating and evaluating what we do. Therefore, the practice of ICU-based clinical research on patients, many of whom cannot give prospective informed consent, ticks all the ethical boxes and ought to be encouraged in our health system. It is very important that the evaluation of protocols for ICU research should not overlook obvious (albeit probabilistic) benefits to patients and the acceptability of responsible clinicians entering patients into well-designed trials, even though the ICU setting does not and cannot conform to typical informed consent procedures and requirements.
Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Nagashima, Shigeo
This paper describes the research regarding to the project management education effort in Hitachi, comprehensive electrical machinery enterprise. The project management education system has been offered to the following 4 ranks; project staffs, project leaders, project managers, and program managers. The contents of these courses include knowledge, capability, and application. This paper is proposing the spiral model education system to educate all 4 courses. This spiral model has the revolving function for the rank-up and the repeated enhancing function. This spiral model has following 4 steps, the member analysis, education, evaluation and applications. The business and the education have been coordinated to achieve a success of project. This paper also describes the contents and its importance of the project member evaluation.
María Ángeles Martín del Pozo
Full Text Available CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and EMI (English Medium Instruction practices have outpaced theory and teacher training. There is a need to provide answers to some of the key issues such as the language requirements. This paper aims to show that knowledge from English for Specific Purposes and English for Academic Purposes, fields which have provided effective teaching practices and materials, could now be used in CLIL/EMI. The paper focuses on two of these. First, the issues related to second language academic listening comprehension and, secondly, the findings from research on it and their implications for student / lecturer training and materials design. These implications and suggestions are summarized. The paper concludes providing some language learning resources originally targeted to students but which could become tools for (self training of those teachers who need to update their language skills for CLIL.
Jonnalagadda Laxmi Swetha
Full Text Available Background: Biostatistics is an integral part of research protocols. In any field of inquiry or investigation, data obtained is subsequently classified, analyzed and tested for accuracy by statistical methods. Statistical analysis of collected data, thus, forms the basis for all evidence-based conclusions. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the cognition, comprehension and application of biostatistics in research among post graduate students in Periodontics, in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 391 post graduate students registered for a master′s course in periodontics at various dental colleges across India were included in the survey. Data regarding the level of knowledge, understanding and its application in design and conduct of the research protocol was collected using a dichotomous questionnaire. A descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Results: Nearly 79.2% students were aware of the importance of biostatistics in research, 55-65% were familiar with MS-EXCEL spreadsheet for graphical representation of data and with the statistical softwares available on the internet, 26.0% had biostatistics as mandatory subject in their curriculum, 9.5% tried to perform statistical analysis on their own while 3.0% were successful in performing statistical analysis of their studies on their own. Conclusion: Biostatistics should play a central role in planning, conduct, interim analysis, final analysis and reporting of periodontal research especially by the postgraduate students. Indian postgraduate students in periodontics are aware of the importance of biostatistics in research but the level of understanding and application is still basic and needs to be addressed.
Full Text Available The current work addresses one of the key building blocks towards an improved understanding of flood processes and associated changes in flood characteristics and regimes in Europe: the development of a comprehensive, extensive European flood database. The presented work results from ongoing cross-border research collaborations initiated with data collection and joint interpretation in mind. A detailed account of the current state, characteristics and spatial and temporal coverage of the European Flood Database, is presented. At this stage, the hydrological data collection is still growing and consists at this time of annual maximum and daily mean discharge series, from over 7000 hydrometric stations of various data series lengths. Moreover, the database currently comprises data from over 50 different data sources. The time series have been obtained from different national and regional data sources in a collaborative effort of a joint European flood research agreement based on the exchange of data, models and expertise, and from existing international data collections and open source websites. These ongoing efforts are contributing to advancing the understanding of regional flood processes beyond individual country boundaries and to a more coherent flood research in Europe.
Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program is a unique model of cooperative partnership among the USGS, other U.S. Department of the Interior and Federal agencies, universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, and the Wildlife Management Institute. These partnerships are maintained as one of the USGS’s strongest links to Federal and State land and natural resource management agencies.Established in 1935 to meet the need for trained professionals in the growing field of wildlife management, the program currently consists of 40 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units located on university campuses in 38 States and supports 119 research scientist positions when fully funded. The threefold mission of the CRU program is to (1) conduct scientific research for the management of fish, wildlife, and other natural resources; (2) provide technical assistance to natural resource managers in the application of scientific information to natural resource policy and management; and (3) train future natural resource professionals.
Joubert, Darren; Thomsen, Jens; Harrison, Oliver
The Safety in the Heat program was developed in response to the extreme heat stress conditions experienced by workers in the United Arab Emirates and other Middle Eastern countries each summer, where ambient air temperatures often reach 45°C (135°F) and higher with 90% humidity. A comprehensive, multimedia, economical education and awareness program targeting companies in the region was developed; 465 companies employing 814 996 heat-exposed workers across 6254 work and labor residence sites were reached. Feedback from program participants indicated a high level of support and satisfaction. Results indicated a marked reduction in heat related illness over a period of 2 years (2008-2009) at 2 companies, one of which reported a combined 79.5% decrease in cases (15.3 vs 1.16 cases per 1000 workers) while the other experienced a 50% reduction in serious cases (0.08-0.04 cases per 100,000 work hours).
Hather, Gregory J; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene
To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"
Gregory J Hather
Full Text Available To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US, we compared federal research funding (FRF with the US gross domestic product (GDP and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU and the People's Republic of China (China over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"
The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is a successful global partnership of libraries, funding agencies and research centers. This presentation will inform the audience about SCOAP3 and also delve into descriptive statistics of the United States' intellectual contribution to particle physics via these open access journals. Exploration of the SCOAP3 particle physics literature using a variety of metrics tools such as Web of Science™, InCites™, Scopus® and SciVal will be shared. ORA or Sci2 will be used to visualize author collaboration networks.
Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; DeNeale, Scott T [ORNL; Yeasmin, Dilruba [California State University, Fresno; Pasha, M. Fayzul K. [California State University, Fresno; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL
The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest
Ekerstad, Niklas; Karlson, Björn W; Dahlin Ivanoff, Synneve; Landahl, Sten; Andersson, David; Heintz, Emelie; Husberg, Magnus; Alwin, Jenny
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute care of frail elderly patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) unit is superior to the care in a conventional acute medical care unit. This is a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled, one-center intervention study. This study was conducted in a large county hospital in western Sweden. The study included 408 frail elderly patients, aged ≥75 years, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n=206) or control group (n=202). Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female. This organizational form of care is characterized by a structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care at an acute elderly care unit. The primary outcome was the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 3 months after discharge from hospital, measured by the Health Utilities Index-3 (HUI-3). Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, rehospitalizations, and hospital care costs. After adjustment by regression analysis, patients in the intervention group were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months for the following dimensions: vision (odds ratio [OR] =0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.14-0.79), ambulation (OR =0.19, 95% CI =0.1-0.37), dexterity (OR =0.38, 95% CI =0.19-0.75), emotion (OR =0.43, 95% CI =0.22-0.84), cognition (OR = 0.076, 95% CI =0.033-0.18) and pain (OR =0.28, 95% CI =0.15-0.50). Treatment in a CGA unit was independently associated with lower 3-month mortality adjusted by Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio [HR] =0.55, 95% CI =0.32-0.96), and the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of hospital care costs ( P >0.05). Patients in an acute CGA unit were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months, and the care in a CGA unit was also independently associated with lower mortality, at no higher cost.
Luckner, John L; Handley, C Michele
The American Federation of Teachers (1999) has stated that "the most fundamental responsibility of schools is teaching students to read" (p. 7). The central purpose of reading is comprehension--constructing meaning from text. The purpose of the present study was to identify, review, and summarize the research published in professional peer-reviewed journals related to reading comprehension and school-age students who are deaf or hard of hearing between 1963 and 2005. Fifty-two studies were identified and reviewed. The results were summarized in a table and reported descriptively. The most frequently researched reading comprehension teaching strategies were identified and discussed. The need for more research in this critical area was noted.
This report summarizes computational investigations of language comprehension based on Marvin Minsky's theory of frames, a recent advance in artifical intelligence theories about the representation of knowledge. The investigations discussed explored frame theory as a basis for text comprehension by implementing models of the theory and developing…
McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul
Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…
Morrell, Douglas [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)
The purpose of the United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program is to provide fresh nuclear reactor fuel to United States universities at no, or low, cost to the university. The title of the fuel remains with the United States government and when universities are finished with the fuel, the fuel is returned to the United States government. The program is funded by the United States Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy division, managed by Department of Energy - Idaho Field Office, and contracted to the Idaho National Laboratory's Management and Operations Contractor - Battelle Energy Alliance. Program has been at Idaho since 1977 and INL subcontracts with 26 United States domestic reactor facilities (13 TRIGA facilities, 9 plate fuel facilities, 2 AGN facilities, 1 Pulstar fuel facility, 1 Critical facility). University has not shipped fuel since 1968 and as such, we have no present procedures for shipping spent fuel. In addition: floor loading rate is unknown, many interferences must be removed to allow direct access to the reactor tank, floor space in the reactor cell is very limited, pavement ends inside our fence; some of the surface is not finished. The whole approach is narrow, curving and downhill. A truck large enough to transport the cask cannot pull into the lot and then back out (nearly impossible / refused by drivers); a large capacity (100 ton), long boom crane would have to be used due to loading dock obstructions. Access to the entrance door is on a sidewalk. The campus uses it as a road for construction equipment, deliveries and security response. Large trees are on both sides of sidewalk. Spent fuel shipments have never been done, no procedures approved or in place, no approved casks, no accident or safety analysis for spent fuel loading. Any cask assembly used in this facility will have to be removed from one crane, moved on the floor and then attached to another crane to get from the staging area to the reactor room
Michael Goff, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal
The Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) developed a road map of its research, development, and demonstration activities to ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. One of the four objectives defined in the road map is developing sustainable nuclear fuel cycles. DOE's Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program is focused on meeting this objective. The current reference fuel cycle in the United States is once through or direct disposal of used fuel in a geological repository. The FCRD Program is developing fuel cycle options that increase sustainability compared to this reference. Measures for increased sustainability include improving uranium resource availability and utilization, minimizing waste generation, and providing adequate capability and capacity to manage all wastes produced. Future decision makers will use the suite of options developed under the program to make informed choices about how best to manage used nuclear fuel. The overall goal is to demonstrate the technologies necessary to allow deployment of a sustainable system for management of used nuclear fuel by 2050
Hogan, W.J.; Campbell, M.A.
Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research in the United States is in a dramatic upswing. Technical progress continues at a rapid pace and with the start of construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) this year the total U.S. budget for ICF for fiscal year 1997 stands at $380 million. The NIF is being built as an essential component of the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, which has been formulated to assure the continued safety, reliability and performance of the downsized nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear tests. Thus the increase in funding originates in the Congressional armed services committees and is managed by Defense Programs of the Department of Energy. The NIF, however, is a fundamental research tool that will be of great benefit beyond its mission within the nuclear weapons program. Its experiments will promote fusion energy development and will open new areas of basic scientific research. This paper will discuss some of the directions that ICF research is now taking, the progress on the NIF Project, and the potential impact that these developments are likely to have on fusion energy development and on certain areas of the basic sciences.
Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341
Rapport, Frances; Storey, Mel; Porter, Alison; Snooks, Helen; Jones, Kerina; Peconi, Julie; Sánchez, Antonio; Siebert, Stefan; Thorne, Kym; Clement, Clare; Russell, Ian
Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials.
Enquist, Carolyn A F; Kellermann, Jherime L; Gerst, Katharine L; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J
Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.
Accardo, Amy L; Finnegan, Elizabeth G
Students with autism spectrum disorder have been found to experience difficulty with reading comprehension despite intact decoding and word recognition. This identified need for targeted reading comprehension remediation results in a need for teachers to utilize research-based practices and to individualize instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder; however, teachers report a lack of access to such practices. This study utilized survey methodology to gather perceptions and experiences of teachers and to compare teacher preparedness to use effective instructional practices emerging from the extant research to teacher-reported effective practices in the classroom. Study findings, based on 112 participants, reveal a discrepancy between teacher-reported effective practices, and the practices identified as effective through research, indicating a research to practice gap. Implications for practice include professional development recommendations, and the need for increased communication between researchers and teachers.
Xiang Yuanyuan; Chen Xukun; Xu Rongbin
Considering the traits of safety culture in nuclear plant, 38 safety culture assessment indexes are established from 4 aspects such as safety values, safety institution, safety behavior and safety sub- stances. Based on it, a comprehensive assessment method for nuclear power plant safety culture is constructed by using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) approach and fuzzy mathematics. The comprehensive assessment method has the quality of high precision and high operability, which can support the decision making of safety culture development. (authors)
Petrie, W.L.; Cannon, H.L.
Increasing concern regarding the effects of the geochemical environment on health in the United States has fostered research studies in a number of universities and government agencies. The necessity to evaluate the effects of natural and man-made elemental excesses in the environment on health requires the establishment of requirements and tolerance limits for the various elements in water and crops. Maps of the geographic distribution of these elements in rocks, surficial materials and ground and surface waters are also essential for comparison with the occurrence of disease. Funding support for research projects that relate to various parameters of these problems emanates largely from a few federal agencies, and much of the work is conducted at government, university and private facilities. An example of the latter is the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, which has several components that are addressing a variety of comparative studies of the geochemical environment related to health; studies involve specific trace elements (like selenium and magnesium), diseases (like cancer, urolithiasis and cardiovascular disease), other health factors (like aging and nutrition) and links with timely major problems (like the health effects of greatly increasing the use of coal). ?? 1979.
Farrell, Michael; Marsden, John; Strang, John
This paper reviews the early work of Griffith Edwards and his colleagues on alcohol in the criminal justice system and outlines the direction of research in this area in the Addiction Research Unit in the 1960s and 1970s. The paper outlines the link between that work and work undertaken in the more recent past in this area. The key papers of the authors are reviewed and the impact of this work on policy and practice is discussed. There is a rich seam of work on deprived and incarcerated populations that has been under way at the Addiction Research Unit and subsequently the National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London. Griffith Edwards initiated this work that explores the risks and problems experienced by people moving between the health and criminal justice system, and demonstrated the need for better care and continuity across this system. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Christina M Lill
Full Text Available More than 800 published genetic association studies have implicated dozens of potential risk loci in Parkinson's disease (PD. To facilitate the interpretation of these findings, we have created a dedicated online resource, PDGene, that comprehensively collects and meta-analyzes all published studies in the field. A systematic literature screen of -27,000 articles yielded 828 eligible articles from which relevant data were extracted. In addition, individual-level data from three publicly available genome-wide association studies (GWAS were obtained and subjected to genotype imputation and analysis. Overall, we performed meta-analyses on more than seven million polymorphisms originating either from GWAS datasets and/or from smaller scale PD association studies. Meta-analyses on 147 SNPs were supplemented by unpublished GWAS data from up to 16,452 PD cases and 48,810 controls. Eleven loci showed genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8 association with disease risk: BST1, CCDC62/HIP1R, DGKQ/GAK, GBA, LRRK2, MAPT, MCCC1/LAMP3, PARK16, SNCA, STK39, and SYT11/RAB25. In addition, we identified novel evidence for genome-wide significant association with a polymorphism in ITGA8 (rs7077361, OR 0.88, P = 1.3 × 10(-8. All meta-analysis results are freely available on a dedicated online database (www.pdgene.org, which is cross-linked with a customized track on the UCSC Genome Browser. Our study provides an exhaustive and up-to-date summary of the status of PD genetics research that can be readily scaled to include the results of future large-scale genetics projects, including next-generation sequencing studies.
This manuscript reviews 28 studies of reading research on deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students published since 2000 that used correlational analyses. The examination focused on assessment issues affecting measurement and analysis of relationships between early phonological or orthographic skills and reading comprehension. Mixed outcomes…
We previously described our collective judgment methods to engage expert stakeholders in the Comprehensive Environmental Assessment (CEA) workshop process applied to nano-TiO2 and nano-Ag research planning. We identified several lessons learned in engaging stakeholders to identif...
Dorn, Randy; Came, Deb
The Comprehensive Education Data and Research System (CEDARS) is a longitudinal data system that will allow Washington's Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to collect, store and report data related to students, courses, and teachers in order to meet state and federal reporting requirements and to help educators and policy makers…
Kim, A-H.; Vaughn, S.; Wanzek, J.; Wei, S.
Previous research studies examining the effects of graphic organizers on reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1963 and June 2001 yielded a total of 21 group design intervention studies that met the criteria for inclusion in the synthesis. Using…
The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) is designed to study fundamental phenomena in space plasma physics such as a magnetic reconnection. The mission consists of four spacecraft, equipped with identical scientific payloads, allowing for the first measurements of fast dynamics in the critical electron diffusion region where magnetic reconnection occurs and charged particles are demagnetized. The MMS orbit is optimized to ensure the spacecraft spend extended periods of time in locations where reconnection is known to occur: at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail. In order to resolve fine structures of the three dimensional electron distributions in the diffusion region (reconnection site), the Fast Plasma Investigation's (FPI) Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) is designed to measure three dimensional electron velocity distributions with an extremely high time resolution of 30 ms. In order to achieve this unprecedented sampling rate, four dual spectrometers, each sampling 180 x 45 degree sections of the sky, are installed on each spacecraft. We present results of the comprehensive tests performed on the DES Engineering & Test Unit (ETU). This includes main parameters of the spectrometer such as energy resolution, angular acceptance, and geometric factor along with their variations over the 16 pixels spanning the 180-degree tophat Electro Static Analyzer (ESA) field of view and over the energy of the test beam. A newly developed method for precisely defining the operational space of the instrument is presented as well. This allows optimization of the trade-off between pixel to pixel crosstalk and uniformity of the main spectrometer parameters.
Full Text Available The insistence of the return of violence in countries where the UN has intervened to promote peace has fuelled a debate about the effectiveness of international instruments for conflict resolution. This article reflects on the progress that these instruments were having in response to the recurrence of violence in light of what has been an approach to the concept of positive peace of Johan Galtung. From two case studies (Guatemala and Haiti marked by changes in the discourse and practice of the United Nations that this approach inspired, it is argued that the UN instruments for peace would be so much more effective when they respect the author's proposal, not only with regard to results they intend to achieve, but also in the way positive peace is operationalised on the ground. Analyses − as difficulties in implementing more comprehensive, local and inclusive processes that would affect the promotion of more sustainable peace − also contaminate the mechanisms used to assess their effectiveness.
Rich, R. H.; Myers, B.; Wiggins, H. V.; Zolkos, J.
The complexities inherent in Arctic research demand a unique focus on making connections across the boundaries of discipline, institution, sector, geography, knowledge system, and culture. Since 1988, ARCUS has been working to bridge these gaps through communication, coordination, and collaboration. Recently, we have worked with partners to create a synthesis of the Arctic system, to explore the connectivity across the Arctic research community and how to strengthen it, to enable the community to have an effective voice in research funding policy, to implement a system for Arctic research community knowledge management, to bridge between global Sea Ice Prediction Network researchers and the science needs of coastal Alaska communities through the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook, to strengthen ties between Polar researchers and educators, and to provide essential intangible infrastructure that enables cost-effective and productive research across boundaries. Employing expertise in managing for collaboration and interdisciplinarity, ARCUS complements and enables the work of its members, who constitute the Arctic research community and its key stakeholders. As a member-driven organization, everything that ARCUS does is achieved through partnership, with strong volunteer leadership of each activity. Key organizational partners in the United States include the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, National Academy of Sciences Polar Research Board, and the North Slope Science Initiative. Internationally, ARCUS maintains strong bilateral connections with similarly focused groups in each Arctic country (and those interested in the Arctic), as well as with multinational organizations including the International Arctic Science Committee, the Association of Polar Early Career Educators, the University of the Arctic, and the Arctic Institute of North America. Currently, ARCUS is applying the best practices of the science of team science
The Comprehension Hypothesis (CH) is the most powerful hypothesis in the field of Second Language Acquisition despite the presence of the rivals the skill-building hypothesis, the output hypothesis, and the interaction hypothesis. The competing hypotheses state that consciously learned linguistic knowledge is a necessary step for the development…
Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cazzell, Samantha; Ciancio, Dennis; Ruddy, Jonah; Thompson, Kelly
Middle-school students completed a comprehension assessment. The following day, they read four, 120-word passages, two standard and two non-standard ransom-note passages with altered font sizes. Altering font sizes increased students' reading time (i.e., reduced reading speed) by an average of 3 s and decreased students' words correct per minute…
Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Misquitta, Radhika
This review examined the effectiveness of critical factors in instruction for improving the reading comprehension of middle school students with learning disabilities. Five critical factors were identified: (i) type of instructional methods, (ii) self-monitoring, (iii) components of reading incorporated, (iv) fidelity of instruction (scripted vs.…
Gautam-Adhikary, Sulava D.
Comprehensive sexuality education programs are based on the idea that young people have the right to be informed about their sexuality and to make responsible decisions about their sexual and reproductive health. Despite demonstrating the ability to help youth delay the onset of sexual activity, reduce frequency and number of sexual partners, and…
This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.
Hauser, Peter C.; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Riddle, Wanda; Kurz, Kim B.; Emmorey, Karen; Contreras, Jessica
The American Sign Language Comprehension Test (ASL-CT) is a 30-item multiple-choice test that measures ASL receptive skills and is administered through a website. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the test based on a sample of 80 college students including deaf native signers, hearing native signers, deaf…
Full Text Available We introduce Drs. Antoine Snijders and Jian-Hua Mao, whose article is published in this issue of AMOR and discuss their views on cancer genetics, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine.Having worked together in numerous joint investigations that have yielded significant results, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao would most definitely agree that two heads are better than one. “Researchers these days need to have the ability to collaborate across many different disciplines,” said the duo in an exclusive interview with AMOR. Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao, both with PhDs in cancer genetics and genomics, are currently based at the Biological Systems and Engineering Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, which is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S Department of Energy through its Office of Science. The Berkeley Lab is well known for producing excellent scholars, as thirteen Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Lab and seventy of its scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Dr. Snijders, a Dutch who has conducted his research at Berkeley Lab for the past eight years, did his Masters in Science (Medical Biology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands – an institute with a strong focus on scientific research and is home to five Spinoza Prize (a.k.a. the “Dutch Nobel” winners. Dr. Snijders’s PhD (cum laude in cancer and molecular biology was awarded by University Utrecht in Netherlands, but his research work was carried out at the University of California San Francisco. Subsequently, he continued his postdoctoral research in molecular cytogenetics at the same institution. A prolific author of 114 publications (with 3,851 citations according to ResearchGate, Dr. Snijders – who also volunteers with California’s Contra Costa County Search and Rescue team for missing persons – has interests in
Pitts, Samantha I; Maruthur, Nisa M; Luu, Ngoc-Phuong; Curreri, Kimberly; Grimes, Renee; Nigrin, Candace; Sateia, Heather F; Sawyer, Melinda D; Pronovost, Peter J; Clark, Jeanne M; Peairs, Kimberly S
While there is growing awareness of the risk of harm in ambulatory health care, most patient safety efforts have focused on the inpatient setting. The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) has been an integral part of highly successful safety efforts in inpatient settings. In 2014 CUSP was implemented in an academic primary care practice. As part of CUSP implementation, staff and clinicians underwent training on the science of safety and completed a two-question safety assessment survey to identify safety concerns in the practice. The concerns identified by team members were used to select two initial safety priorities. The impact of CUSP on safety climate and teamwork was assessed through a pre-post comparison of results on the validated Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Ninety-six percent of staff completed science of safety training as part of CUSP implementation, and 100% of staff completed the two-question safety assessment. The most frequently identified safety concerns were related to medications (n = 11, 28.2), diagnostic testing (n = 9, 25), and communication (n = 5, 14). The CUSP team initially prioritized communication and infection control, which led to standardization of work flows within the practice. Six months following CUSP implementation, large but nonstatistically significant increases were found for the percentage of survey respondents who reported knowledge of the proper channels for questions about patient safety, felt encouraged to report safety concerns, and believed that the work setting made it easy to learn from the errors of others. CUSP is a promising tool to improve safety climate and to identify and address safety concerns within ambulatory health care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
...% non-DoD federal, and 3% private research foundations. The Chief ofNaval Research, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Naval Research Laboratory, and Naval Space Command are the primary Navy sponsors of faculty and midshipman research...
In 1999, the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) of the United States Department of Education charged the RAND Reading Study Group (RRSG) with developing a research agenda to address pressing literacy issues. Published in 2002 after much investigation, the RRSG concluded that evidence-based practices in the teaching of reading…
Yoon, Bogum; Malu, Kathleen F.; Schaefer, Mary Beth; Reyes, Cynthia; Brinegar, Kathleen
This article synthesizes reports of middle grades research and practice from 2000-2013 that appeared in "Middle Grades Research Journal," "Middle School Journal," and "Research in Middle Level Education Online," 3 publications that specifically and exclusively report on middle level research and practice. This…
Kilimnik, Chelsea D; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been a topic of interest in sexual health research for decades, yet literature on the sexual health correlates of CSA has been hindered by methodologic inconsistencies that have resulted in discrepant samples and mixed results. To review the major methodologic inconsistencies in the field, explore the scientific and clinical impact of these inconsistencies, and propose methodologic approaches to increase consistency and generalizability to the general population of women with CSA histories. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to assess the methodologic practices used in examining CSA and sexual health outcomes. Methodologic decisions of researchers examining sexual health outcomes of CSA. There are a number of inconsistencies in the methods used to examine CSA in sexual health research across the domains of CSA operationalization, recruitment language, and measurement approaches to CSA experiences. The examination of CSA and sexual health correlates is an important research endeavor that needs rigorous methodologic approaches. We propose recommendations to increase the utility of CSA research in sexual health. We recommend the use of a developmentally informed operationalization of childhood and adolescence, rather than age cutoffs. Researchers are encouraged to use a broad operationalization of sexual abuse such that different abuse characteristics can be measured, reported, and examined in the role of sexual health outcomes. We recommend inclusive recruitment approaches to capture the full range of CSA experiences and transparency in reporting these methods. The field also could benefit from the validation of existing self-report instruments for assessing CSA and detailed reporting of the instruments used in research studies. The use of more consistent research practices could improve the state of knowledge on the relation between CSA and sexual health. Kilimnik CD, Pulverman CS, Meston CM. Methodologic Considerations
Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor
These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.
Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Lichtman, Amos B.; Soyode, Damilola T.; Harris, Jennifer N.; Atun, Rifat
Background. Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. Methods. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997–2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. Results. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Conclusions. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. PMID:26744430
Bhupathi, P Arun; Ravi, G R
Informed consent in research, clinical trial, and practice is a process in which a patient/participant consents to participate or undergo the proposed procedures after being informed of its procedures, risks, and benefits. Ideally, the patient/participant is expected to give his consent only after fully comprehending the information about the procedures, benefits, and risks involved in research/clinical trial/practice. Thus, many ethical issues are entwined in the process of obtaining a proper informed consent. Certain untoward events in the past led to propose guidelines to prevent exploitations and unhealthy practices in the field of life science. Eventually, the practice of obtaining informed consent was emphasized to make sure that a participant's rights were not in jeopardy. Yet, there are flaws in the practical application of obtaining consent due to lack of understanding, barriers in communication, culture, custom, and various other factors. The present article highlights the need for a complete and comprehensive format of recording informed consent without compromising the rights of an individual and the standards of research or practice on ethical and moral grounds. Bhupathi PA, Ravi GR. Comprehensive Format of Informed Consent in Research and Practice: A Tool to uphold the Ethical and Moral Standards. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):73-81.
ML(Zhang Minli), Zhang; Wp(Yang Wenpo), Yang
Real estate investment is a high-risk and high returned of economic activity, the key of real estate analysis is the identification of their types of investment risk and the risk of different types of effective prevention. But, as the financial crisis sweeping the world, the real estate industry also faces enormous risks, how effective and correct evaluation of real estate investment risks becomes the multitudinous scholar concern. In this paper, real estate investment risks were summarized and analyzed, and comparative analysis method is discussed and finally presented fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, not only in theory has the advantages of science, in the application also has the reliability, for real estate investment risk assessment provides an effective means for investors in real estate investing guidance on risk factors and forecasts.
.... Education administers over a thousand grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts that fund educational research, development of materials, new methods of instruction and practices in teaching...
Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.
Part of preparing the next generation of STEM researchers requires arming these students with the requisite literacy and research skills they will need. In a unique collaboration, the departments of Physics (ECE) and Psychology at the University of Houston have teamed up with NASA in a grant to develop a supplemental curriculum for elementary (G3-5) and middle school (G6-8) science teachers called Mars Rover. During this six week project, students work in teams to research the solar system, the planet Mars, design a research mission to Mars, and create a model Mars Rover to carry out this mission. Targeted Language Arts skills are embedded in each lesson so that students acquire the requisite academic vocabulary and research skills to enable them to successfully design their Mars Rover. Students learn academic and scientific vocabulary using scientifically based reading research. They receive direct instruction in research techniques, note-taking, summarizing, writing and other important language skills. The interdisciplinary collaboration empowers students as readers, writers and scientists. After the curriculum is completed, a culminating Mars Rover event is held at a local university, bringing students teams in contact with real-life scientists who critique their work, ask questions, and generate excite about STEM careers. Students have the opportunity to showcase their Mars Rover and to orally demonstrate their knowledge of Mars. Students discover the excitement of scientific research, STEM careers, important research and writing tools in a practical, real-life setting.
The reactor ageing research activities in USA described, are focused on the research of reactor vessel integrity, including regulatory issues and technical aspects. Current emphasis are described for fracture analysis, embrittlement research, inspection capabilities, validation od annealing rule, revision of regulatory guide
Donald G. Hodges; Pamela J. Jakes; Frederick W. Cubbage
In 1985, the USDA Forest Service invested nearly $30 million in forest management research, forest industry invested $19 million, and universities invested at least $17 million. Investments in this research have been declining since then. Forest Service data indicate that the public sector is the largest beneficiary of forest management research.
The Special Programme of Research, Development and. Research Training in Human Reproduction was established in 1972 by the World Health Organisation to promote, co-ordinate, support, conduct and evaluate research on human reproduction with particular reference to the needs of developing countries. Today, the.
Atkinson, Robert D.; Stewart, Luke A.
Research and development drives innovation and innovation drives long-run economic growth, creating jobs and improving living standards in the process. University-based research is of particular importance to innovation, as the early-stage research that is typically performed at universities serves to expand the knowledge pool from which the…
The floristic data (species presence at each site) were grouped into Land Types, topographical units and broad soil types. Each group was analysed independently using multivariate detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and the mean similarity test. The floristic data in each Land Type showed a 42% range of ...
Based on the analysis of 16 interviews with women first-year master's students at two national engineering schools in Japan, this article examines the socialisation role of compulsory undergraduate research experience in Japanese women's decisions to pursue graduate education and choices of the programme. The findings suggest that research experiences in a small independent research unit within the major department convinced Japanese women engineering students of their academic and social success as graduate students in the current environment. Although participants generally adapted themselves to the research unit through their research, there is a variation in the degree to which they were smoothly integrated into the research unit, reflecting organisational and individual differences.
Landgrebe, Anton J.
An overview of research activities at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. The requirement and use of various levels of computers, including supercomputers, for the CFD activities is described. Examples of CFD directed toward applications to helicopters, turbomachinery, heat exchangers, and the National Aerospace Plane are included. Helicopter rotor codes for the prediction of rotor and fuselage flow fields and airloads were developed with emphasis on rotor wake modeling. Airflow and airload predictions and comparisons with experimental data are presented. Examples are presented of recent parabolized Navier-Stokes and full Navier-Stokes solutions for hypersonic shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and hydrogen/air supersonic combustion. In addition, other examples of CFD efforts in turbomachinery Navier-Stokes methodology and separated flow modeling are presented. A brief discussion of the 3-tier scientific computing environment is also presented, in which the researcher has access to workstations, mid-size computers, and supercomputers.
Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Schlichter, Bjarne
framework. The framework was used to gain an understanding of the evolution and present state of the e-Government research field. Our research found that the body of academic papers about e-Government has evolved steadily from 2000 till 2009, but with a slight tendency of slowing down in the last two years...
Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W., Jr.
Graduate-level education, at its core, has a focus on specific, in-depth disciplinary subject matter, with a strong emphasis on methods, conceptual framework, and research. For the developing student, exposure to both past and current research developments is mainly achieved by reading and studying articles published in leading journals in their…
Thakurta, Rahul; Mueller, Benjamin; Ahlemann, Frederik; Hoffman, David
Design science is an increasingly popular research paradigm in the information systems discipline. De- spite a recognition of the design science research par- adigm, questions are being raised about the nature of its existence and its contributions. Central to this ar- gument is the understanding of
Meike Imelda Wachyu
Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the impacts of the use of Know-Want-Learn technique in improving the reading comprehension to teach analytical exposition among eleventh grade students of SMA N 2 Indramayu in the academic year of 2017/2018. The study was action research in two research cycles. In the study, the researcher collaborated with the English teachers and the students. The data of this study were qualitative in nature supported by quantitative data. Qualitative data were obtained from the results of classroom observation and collaborators‘ discussion. Quantitative data were obtained from pre-test and post test results. The instruments for collecting the data were observation guides, interview guides, and the pre-test and posttest. The data were in the form of field notes, interview transcripts, and the scores of the students‘ pre-test and posttest. The results of the two cycles show that the use of Know-WantLearn technique is effective to improve the students‘ reading comprehension. It is supported by the qualitative data which show that (1 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the teacher to scaffold the students‘ comprehension of the text by focusing on the steps before, during, and after reading; (2 Know-Want-Learn technique can help the students to preview the text, assess what they have learned after reading, and motivate their interest in reading; (3 The kind of activities given such as preeteaching vocabulary, using skimming and scanning, using fix-up strategies, and guessing meaning can help the students to read the text efficiently.
The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits nuclear weapons testing at any yield. The detection and positive identification of any evasive test presents a challenge to the technical community, however. Low yield testing can be masked by normal background seismic noise or permissible chemical explosions for mining or other purposes. Cavity decoupling can reduce the seismic signal from the nuclear explosion by a factor of 50 or more. The combination of decoupling and high explosive masking represents a particular technical challenge for positive identification. To address this problem, a technical program in cooperation with the Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center has been initiated to conduct a series of tests in the Balapan area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site to provide fundamental data on the depth of burial effects on seismic signals emanating from an explosion. If the depth of burial can be positively determined from the characteristics of the seismic waveform, near-surface mining blasts can be distinguished from deep underground evasive nuclear explosions, thus eliminating the capability to easily mask the nuclear event. This paper will briefly describe the basic concepts of some evasive nuclear testing options and discuss the cooperative test program that is being carried out to improve the capability to positively identify such tests. The paper will also discuss possible additional cooperative tests that might be done in 1998 to further improve the identification capability
This article, placed the comprehensive quality improvement of undergraduates under the background of elite culture and mass culture, analyzed the influences and challenges brought by elite culture and mass culture on the undergraduate education from multiple perspectives of philosophy, ethics, economics, education, sociology and etc. and combing some foreign developed countries' experiences proposed the principles should be insisted by high schools in the context of elite culture and mass culture. With the development of times, undergraduate education should also constantly develop into new historical starting points and thoroughly reform the undergraduate education from content to essence, perception to format with a globalized horizon, so as to be able to reflect the time characteristics and better promote the overall development of undergraduates. Exactly based on such a view, this article, on the premise of full recognition that the flourishing and development of elite culture and mass culture has promoted China into a multicultural situation, proposed the principles for university moral education, such as education should promote the integration of undergraduate multi-values, sticking to the integration of unary guidance with diverse development, insisting on seeking common points while reserving differences and harmony but with differences, and etc.
The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) commissioned the public opinion research firm of Fairbank, Maslin, Maulin and Associates to conduct focus groups and a public opinion survey on issues related to and addressed by the 1994 Draf...
2469 NJ 2018 NJ Efficiency 49.4% 36.5% Total (Combined Arrays): Available 9126 NJ 10105 NJ Collected 3606 NJ 3178 NJ Efficiency 39.5% 31.4% Change in...modular-- - collector units. o5 E A25 i 0 25 So 76 15 150 175 0 50 00 ISO 200 20E m leWATER TEMPERATURE MINUS AL481ENT J*FI PANEL CAPACITY ISTU/HR/SO FT
Theory 28 LEARNING STRATEGIES 29 Definition and Classification 29 Strategies as Cognitive Processes 31 A MODEL FOR RESEARCH 36 Research Issues...traditionally deal with a hero who sets out to accomplish a definite goal. By accomplishing the goal, he or she attains a reward, which is often material...that it can be used procedurally. This stage appears to correspond with what second language theorists term interlanguage . the not-yet-accurate use
Kruse, Clemens S
Informed consent documents used in human subject research within the United States Air Force appear increasingly complex and lengthy based on the level of risk, or potential harm to a human research...
Jamison, Sandra; Campbell, Bruce
The ninth grade unit of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271) studies the economic and political realities of the inner city. This document, the first unit of the 9th grade section, deals with the ecological crises involving pollution and its causes. Specific problems include air pollution, pesticides, herbicides,…
Garea, V.B.; Bonetto, F.J.; Clausse, A.; Converti, J.
For the nuclear power plants' two-phase flow calculation, two fluid models are typically used. These models have the disadvantage that the number of equations is less than the number of unknown equations, thus the so-called 'closure laws' are required, that is, empirical relations among the variables of the model. In particular, one of the most important relations is the one that gives the specific interface area -the area between the phases by volume unit-. This work describes a method to calculate the boiling interface area from the measurement of the indicating function (that is 0 when fluid exists in the sensitive region of the detector and 1 when gas exists) in a point. (Author) [es
Ji, Tong; Xie, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jinbo
In order to understand the status of the high voltage switch in the whole life circle, you must monitor the mechanical and electrical parameters that affect device health. So this paper gives a new high voltage switchgear detecting unit based on ARM technology. It can measure closing-opening mechanical wave, storage motor current wave and contactor temperature to judge the device’s health status. When something goes wrong, it can be on alert and give some advice. The practice showed that it can meet the requirements of circuit breaker mechanical properties temperature online detection.
O’Connor, Thomas J.
The following aspects are addressed: • Nuclear energy mission; • Reactor research development and deployment (RD&D) programs: - Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program; - Small Modular Reactor Licensing Technical Support; - Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART)
Caramelli, M.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.
A procedure for developing and testing measurement scales for use in cross-cul -tural comparative management research is described. The procedure emphasizes the combination of adequate instrument design if a new instrument is used or adequate adaptation procedures if working with an existing
Benneworth, Paul Stephen
Research evaluation is a tool that can be used for many different purposes, with every different kind trading off comparing and understanding activities and seeking to treat evaluation subjects fairly. Evaluation problems can emerge when an approach that seeks to give one kind of fairness is used
Ferguson, Leila E.
Nowadays, students are required to use multiple information sources to complete tasks, both in and out of school. The beliefs that students hold about knowledge and knowing--their epistemic beliefs-- have been linked to successful integration of information across multiple texts. Framed by literature on epistemic belief research from an…
Cooperative study was conducted on research subjects concerning water pollution preventive technologies in China and Thailand. In China, straw pulp mills were studied which were in the Institute of Light Industry Environmental Protection and the Environmental Engineering Course of Jinghua University. The following studies were jointly conducted: survey of the water quality pollution caused by waste water, investigational study on production technology and waste water treatment technology, extraction of technologies effective to preserve water quality, study/evaluation of economical efficiency of the said technologies, etc. In Thailand, cooperative research was conducted on automatic measuring technology for factory waste water in a model industrial estate of the Thai National Industrial Estate Corporation. Items for the study were a study on measuring technology for water quality environment, an investigation on the status of water quality environment in the model industrial estate, a study on automatic measuring technology for plant waste water, a study on how to use measuring data in the model industrial estate, etc. Every study enabled technical data accumulation at every research institute through field research exchanges. 24 refs., 91 figs., 45 tabs.
Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.
We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…
In an influential publication in 2009, a group of cognitive psychologists revealed that there was a lack of empirical evidence supporting the concept of learning styles-based instruction and provided guidelines for the type of research design necessary to verify the learning styles hypothesis. This article examined the literature since 2009 to…
capture its value for decision makers. USARPAC and other Army officials have stated that Pacific Pathways provides certain benefits, including the...initiative’s benefits relative to its costs to fully capture the value of the initiative for external stakeholders. Several Pacific Pathways individual...achieving its intended objectives, including increasing readiness, and to improve subsequent Pathways—not to capture the comprehensive value of
Palacios, D. M.; Follett, T.; Winsor, M.; Mate, B. R.
The Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute (MMI) comprises five research laboratories, each with specific research objectives, technological approaches, and data requirements. Among the types of data under management are individual photo-ID and field observations, telemetry (e.g., locations, dive characteristics, temperature, acoustics), genetics (and relatedness), stable isotope and toxicology assays, and remotely sensed environmental data. Coordinating data management that facilitates collaboration and comparative exploration among different researchers has been a longstanding challenge for our groups as well as for the greater wildlife research community. Research data are commonly stored locally in flat files or spreadsheets, with copies made and analyses performed with various packages without any common standards for interoperability, becoming a potential source of error. Database design, where it exists, is frequently arrived at ad-hoc. New types of data are generally tacked on when technological advances present them. A data management solution that can address these issues should meet the following requirements: be scalable, modular (i.e., able to incorporate new types of data as they arise), incorporate spatiotemporal dimensions, and be compliant with existing data standards such as DarwinCore. The MMI has developed a data architecture that allows the incorporation of any type of animal-associated data into a modular and portable format that can be integrated with any other dataset sharing the core format. It allows browsing, querying and visualization across any of the attributes that can be associated with individual animals, groups, sensors, or environmental datasets. We have implemented this architecture in an open-source geo-enabled relational database system (PostgreSQL, PostGIS), and have designed a suite of software tools (Python, R) to load, preprocess, visualize, analyze, and export data. This architecture could benefit organizations
Cooper, Beth A.
NASA Lewis Research Center is home to more than 100 experimental research testing facilities and laboratories, including large wind tunnels and engine test cells, which in combination create a varied and complex noise environment. Much of the equipment was manufactured prior to the enactment of legislation limiting product noise emissions or occupational noise exposure. Routine facility maintenance and associated construction also contributes to a noise exposure management responsibility which is equal in magnitude and scope to that of several small industrial companies. The Noise Program, centrally managed within the Office of Environmental Programs at LRC, maintains overall responsibility for hearing conservation, community noise control, and acoustical and noise control engineering. Centralized management of the LRC Noise Program facilitates the timely development and implementation of engineered noise control solutions for problems identified via either the Hearing Conservation of Community Noise Program. The key element of the Lewis Research Center Noise Program, Acoustical and Noise Control Engineering Services, is focused on developing solutions that permanently reduce employee and community noise exposure and maximize research productivity by reducing or eliminating administrative and operational controls and by improving the safety and comfort of the work environment. The Hearing Conservation Program provides noise exposure assessment, medical monitoring, and training for civil servant and contractor employees. The Community Noise Program aims to maintain the support of LRC's neighboring communities while enabling necessary research operations to accomplish their programmatic goals. Noise control engineering capability resides within the Noise Program. The noise control engineering, based on specific exposure limits, is a fundamental consideration throughout the design phase of new test facilities, labs, and office buildings. In summary, the Noise Program
Ferrara, Santo Davide; Bajanowski, Thomas; Cecchi, Rossana; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Viel, Guido
In times of globalisation, the future of bio-medicolegal sciences in Europe depends on the scientific community's ability to develop new strategies for research, to introduce new and generally accepted standards, to develop new analytical methods, all in order to draw up inter-site, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary long-term research projects, eligible for European Union (EU) funding. To analyse the scientific output and to identify the topics of greatest interest and appeal in these sciences, an innovative method has been developed to select and analyse publications. This method has been applied to analyse a total of 21,176 records from PubMed out of which 5,826 papers were suitable for further analysis because they were published in national and international journals in the time between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2010 by European authors in the field of interest. In 69% of all manuscripts, authors presented results of systematic research (original articles); 84% of the papers were written in English language. The cumulative impact factor increased from 1,670 points in 2005 to 1,878 in 2009, and extrapolated 2,812 points in 2010. The most frequent topics were the description of new analytical methods in forensic toxicology (5.7% of all papers), the analysis of short tandem repeat systems (STR, 5.6%) as well as the analysis of injury mechanisms in forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine (4.9%). If the impact factor related potential of different topics is calculated (ratio of frequency of papers and frequency of impact points achieved), SIDS research reaches 1.64 points, followed by studies on mtDNA (1.59) and the development of new analytical methods in forensic toxicology (1.49). The findings made in the present bibliometric analysis reveal a clear and interesting overall picture of the European scientific production and productivity and could be used to identify the most innovative research lines.
Carter, James G; Sherbon, Beverley J; Viney, Ian S
To allow research organisations to co-ordinate activity to the benefit of national and international funding strategies requires assessment of the funding landscape; this, in turn, relies on a consistent approach for comparing expenditure on research. Here, we discuss the impact and benefits of the United Kingdom's Health Research Classification System (HRCS) in national landscaping analysis of health research and the pros and cons of performing large-scale funding analyses. The first United Kingdom health research analysis (2004/2005) brought together the 11 largest public and charity funders of health research to develop the HRCS and use this categorisation to examine United Kingdom health research. The analysis was revisited in 2009/2010 and again in 2014. The most recent quinquennial analysis in 2014 compiled data from 64 United Kingdom research organisations, accounting for 91% of all public/charitable health research funding in the United Kingdom. The three analyses summarise the United Kingdom's health research expenditure in 2004/2005, 2009/2010 and 2014, and can be used to identify changes in research activity and disease focus over this 10 year period. The 2004/2005 analysis provided a baseline for future reporting and evidence for a United Kingdom Government review that recommended the co-ordination of United Kingdom health research should be strengthened to accelerate the translation of basic research into clinical and economic benefits. Through the second and third analyses, we observed strategic prioritisation of certain health research activities and disease areas, with a strong trend toward increased funding for more translational research, and increases in specific areas such as research on prevention. The use of HRCS in the United Kingdom to analyse the research landscape has provided benefit both to individual participatory funders and in coordinating initiatives at a national level. A modest amount of data for each project is sufficient for a
This is the Performance Verification Report. the process specification establishes the requirements for the comprehensive performance test (CPT) and limited performance test (LPT) of the earth observing system advanced microwave sounding unit-A2 (EOS/AMSU-A2), referred to as the unit. The unit is defined on drawing 1356006.
Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report)
In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments...
Simons, D.; Stump, B.; Breding, D.; Casey, L.; Walker, L.; Zucca, J.; Harris, D.; Hannon, J.; Denny, M.; Patton, H.
The U.S. DOE sponsored research investigating atmospheric infrasound as a means of detecting both atmospheric and underground nuclear tests. Various detection schemes were examined and were found to be effective for different situations. It has been discovered that an enhanced sensitivity is realizable for the very lowest frequency disturbances by detecting the infrasound at the top of the atmosphere using radio sound techniques. These techniques are compared to more traditional measurement schemes
Matsangidou, Maria; Ang, Chee Siang; Sakel, Mohamed
Virtual Reality is a technology that allows users to experience a computer-simulated reality with visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory interactions. In the past decades, there have been considerable interests in using Virtual Reality for clinical purposes, including pain management. This article provides a systematic review of research on Virtual Reality and pain management, with an aim to understand the feasibilities of current Virtual Reality technologies and content design approaches in...
Kohler, J.L. [NIOSH (United States)
Overall, the safety and health of US mineworkers has never been better. This is largely due to the concerted efforts of labor unions, trade associations, manufacturers, universities, and government agencies. Despite the progress, however, mining is occurring under more adverse conditions in some sectors, and mining methods and equipment are evolving. These are resulting in different or increased risks, and this requires a proactive approach to ensure that safety or health conditions do not worsen. Increasing societal expectations for 'zero accidents' necessitates renewed efforts to understand the underlying causes of occupational injuries and illnesses and to develop effective interventions to prevent them. Concurrently, financial resources for research are diminishing, while customer expectations for new health and safety solutions are increasing. This paper describes an approach to improve mineworker safety and health through a targeted research program that is focussed on the development and implementation of successful interventions. The research needs of the US mining community, as defined by the surveillance data and stakeholder groups, are presented. A process to match heretofore unobtainable customer needs with research barriers is summarized, and the resulting research portfolio is highlighted. Then, specific examples are given in the areas of disaster prevention, cumulative trauma, and respiratory hazards, among others. 17 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Jerzy Marian Brzeziński
Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.
Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat
Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Bissonette, J.A.; Loftin, C.S.; Leslie, David M.; Nordstrom, L.A.; Fleming, W.J.
In 1932, J. N. 'Ding' Darling proposed a 3-year tripartite arrangement between the Iowa Fish and Game Commission, Iowa State University, and himself to establish the first Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. Three years later, the Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit Program was broadened to include 9 land-grant colleges representing recognized ecoregions in the United States. In 1960, the Units were given statutory recognition by Public Law 86-686 that also included provision for establishing Cooperative Fishery Units. The Cooperative Research Unit idea has evolved to 39 Units in 2000. Today, the main cooperators of the Unit program are the land-grant university, the state fish and game or conservation agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Wildlife Management Institute. The Cooperative Units mission, as stated in Public Law 86-686, remains: 'To facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government, colleges and universities, and private organizations for cooperative unit programs of research and education relating to fish and wildlife and for other purposes.' Graduate research and education continue to be the program's primary missions. In any given year >600 graduate and post-graduate students are involved. Post-graduate employment of Unit-afffiliated students is >90%. Perhaps the primary benefit to the education process is the Units' formal connection to the state cooperator and to their federal agency that might not otherwise be available to university faculty and students. Units are conduits to state and federal funding for research projects conducted by university faculty and students. The CRU program is well positioned to educate a multitalented, ethnically diverse cadre of graduate students who will be prepared not only for their first professional job but also for their career by having been instilled with a desire for life-long professional accomplishment.
Powers, Christina; Hendren, Christine; Wang, Amy; Davis, J Michael
As efforts to develop new applications of engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) continue to grow, so too has interest in the environmental, health, and safety (EHS) implications of these materials. However, thorough evaluation and interpretation of such implications could require substantial resources (e.g., estimated as >$120 million per year in federal funding 2013-2017). A structured, strategic approach for transparently planning research would support improved linkages between ENM research and risk assessments, and thereby enhance the utility of financial and other resources for EHS studies of ENMs. For this reason, we applied Comprehensive Environmental Assessment (CEA) as an approach to provide transparent input into research planning for 2 types of ENMs: nanoscale titanium dioxide and nanoscale silver. For each of these CEA applications, we employed a collective judgment method known as Nominal Group Technique (NGT) in 2 workshops sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The objective of this paper is to present the outcomes of these CEA applications in the context of how our methodology can inform future efforts to identify collective goals in science (e.g., research priorities) through structured decision support approaches. Outcomes include clear lists of research priorities for each ENM developed through transparently engaging stakeholders having diverse technical and sector perspectives. In addition, we identified several procedural aspects that could be refined, including emphasizing breakout group interactions, identifying broad information priorities before more detailed research questions, and using rating rather than ranking prioritization methods. Beyond the research directions identified for specific ENMs, lessons learned about engaging stakeholders in research planning are expected to inform future research planning efforts for ENMs and other emerging materials across the scientific community. © 2014 SETAC.
This study adopts a dwelling unit level of analysis and considers a probabilistic choice set generation approach for residential choice modeling. In doing so, we accommodate the fact that housing choices involve both characteristics of the dwelling u...
Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen
This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on international activities, including the environment, research ships, and the Bering Sea region's history and resources.
ARI was concerned with filtering exercise data to facilitate data processing (Meliza, Tan, and Bessemer , in prepa- ration). A tremendous number of...Unit Training Feedback in the Distributed Interactive Simulation Environment ................ 257 Larry L. Meliza, David W. Bessemer , and Jack H...Army systems and conceptualizing required improvements is a sea change that is yet in the process of forming. Neale Cosby has provided the positive
Gilman, T Lee; Shaheen, Razan; Nylocks, K Maria; Halachoff, Danielle; Chapman, Jessica; Flynn, Jessica J; Matt, Lindsey M; Coifman, Karin G
Emotions are highly influential to many psychological processes. Indeed, research employing emotional stimuli is rapidly escalating across the field of psychology. However, challenges remain regarding discrete evocation of frequently co-elicited emotions such as amusement and happiness, or anger and disgust. Further, as much contemporary work in emotion employs college students, we sought to additionally evaluate the efficacy of film clips to discretely elicit these more challenging emotions in a young adult population using an online medium. The internet is an important tool for investigating responses to emotional stimuli, but validations of emotionally evocative film clips across laboratory and web-based settings are limited in the literature. An additional obstacle is identifying stimuli amidst the numerous film clip validation studies. During our investigation, we recognized the lack of a categorical database to facilitate rapid identification of useful film clips for individual researchers' unique investigations. Consequently, here we also sought to produce the first compilation of such stimuli into an accessible and comprehensive catalog. We based our catalog upon prior work as well as our own, and identified 24 articles and 295 film clips from four decades of research. We present information on the validation of these clips in addition to our own research validating six clips using online administration settings. The results of our search in the literature and our own study are presented in tables designed to facilitate and improve a selection of highly valid film stimuli for future research.
Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Don E.; Childs, Dawn E.
Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 Year in Review postcardThis postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program—2016 Year in Review, Circular 1424. This Circular provides information relating to fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, background on the CRU program, accolades, and professional services. Snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators are included. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with our research projects at www.coopunits.org.
Harrell, Heather L; Rothstein, Mark A
Privacy is protected in biobank-based research in the US primarily by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule and the Federal Policy for Protection of Human Subjects (Common Rule). Neither rule, however, was created to function in the unique context of biobank research, and therefore neither applies to all biobank-based research. Not only is it challenging to determine when the HIPAA Privacy Rule or the Common Rule apply, but these laws apply different standards to protect privacy. In addition, many other federal and state laws may be applicable to a particular biobank, researcher, or project. US law also does not directly address international sharing of data or specimens outside of the EU-US Safe Harbor Agreement, which only applies to receipt of data by certain US entities from EU countries, and is in the process of revision. Although new rules would help clarify privacy protections in biobanking, any implemented changes should be studied to determine the sufficiency of the protections as well as its ability to facilitate or hinder international collaborations. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.
Deemer, Sandra A.
The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…
The mission of the 50 scientists and 165 support staff at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) is to develop new technologies to increase the efficiency of livestock production and improve meat safety, quality, and animal health to benefit consumers worldwide. The facilities include 35,000 ...
Larry L. Baxter
This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.
Choi, Young Myung; Kim, H. J.; Ham, C. H.; Yang, M. H.; Chung, W. S.; Park, K. B.; Jin, J. H.; Song, H. S.; Nho, Y. C.; Byun, M. W.; Kim, J. R.; Han, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Yun, P. M.; Lee, H. Y.; Seo, K. W.; Chang, S. Y.; Kee, S. R.; Lhu, S. R.; Choi, Y. S.
This study surveys state-of-art radiation/RI industries and research organizations and their activities. The major objective of the survey is to collect useful information on the status of these industries, discuss issues concerning radiation /RI utilization. We, therefore, send questionnaires to field workers engaged in RI industries and research organizations to feedback on real field issues and problems. Considering the specificity and diversity of the radiation / RI area, six sectors are set up for its promotion. Each sector includes status analysis, active promotion measures and implementation plans. Six areas are as follows; 1) systematic developments of radiation /RI utilization technologies covers technology development for industrial applications, technology development for agricultural applications, technology development for medical applications, development of RI and radiation generators, and expansion of infra-structure for enhancement of radiation / RI utilization, and fostering radiation science. 2) activation of radiation / RI indusries 3) rationalization of radiation / RI regulation 4) international cooperation, 5) manpower development 6) finance. (author). 14 refs., 34 tabs., 5 figs
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.
Sikes, Elizabeth Morghen; Richardson, Emma V; Cederberg, Katie J; Sasaki, Jeffer E; Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W
The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire has been a commonly applied measure of physical activity in research among persons with multiple sclerosis over the past decade. This paper provides a comprehensive description of its application and inclusion in research on physical activity in multiple sclerosis. This comprehensive, narrative review included papers that were published between 1985 and 2017, written in English, involved participants with multiple sclerosis as a primary population, measured physical activity, and cited one of the two original Godin papers. There is a broad scope of research that has included the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire in persons with multiple sclerosis. Overall, 8 papers evaluated its psychometric properties, 21 evaluated patterns of physical activity, 24 evaluated correlates or determinants of physical activity, 28 evaluated outcomes or consequences of physical activity, and 15 evaluated physical activity interventions. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire is a valid self-report measure of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis, and further is an appropriate, simple, and effective tool for describing patterns of physical activity, examining correlates and outcomes of physical activity, and provides a sensitive outcome for measuring change in physical activity after an intervention. Implications for rehabilitation There is increasing interest in physical activity and its benefits in multiple sclerosis. The study of physical activity requires appropriate and standardized measures. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire is a common self-report measure of physical activity for persons with multiple sclerosis. Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire scores are reliable measures of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire further is an appropriate, simple, and effective tool for describing patterns of physical activity, examining
Sutter Nathan B
Full Text Available Abstract Research laboratories studying the genetics of companion animals have no database tools specifically designed to aid in the management of the many kinds of data that are generated, stored and analyzed. We have developed a relational database, "DOG-SPOT," to provide such a tool. Implemented in MS-Access, the database is easy to extend or customize to suit a lab's particular needs. With DOG-SPOT a lab can manage data relating to dogs, breeds, samples, biomaterials, phenotypes, owners, communications, amplicons, sequences, markers, genotypes and personnel. Such an integrated data structure helps ensure high quality data entry and makes it easy to track physical stocks of biomaterials and oligonucleotides.
Ren, Yuanyuan; Yu, Miao; Wu, Chuanfu; Wang, Qunhui; Gao, Ming; Huang, Qiqi; Liu, Yu
Anaerobic digestion has been practically applied in agricultural and industrial waste treatment and recognized as an economical-effective way for food waste disposal. This paper presented an overview on the researches about anaerobic digestion of food waste. Technologies (e.g., pretreatment, co-digestion, inhibition and mitigation, anaerobic digestion systems, etc.) were introduced and evaluated on the basis of bibliometric analysis. Results indicated that ethanol and aerobic prefermentation were novel approaches to enhance substrates hydrolysis and methane yield. With the promotion of resource recovery, more attention should be paid to biorefinery technologies which can produce more useful products toward zero emissions. Furthermore, a technological route for food waste conversion based on anaerobic digestion was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qu Jiadi; Sheng Xianke; Dou Yikang
The general conception of a special research on sealing behaviour of PWR vessel is described and the major results centering on the establishment of sealing analysis program system and its experimental verification, along with the description on the development and measurement of sealing ring, the thermal sealing test and the relevant analysis are given. On the basis of the above approach, the vessel sealing behaviours of 300 MWe Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant are evaluated. A concept on the classification of pressure vessels and their sealing criteria are proposed. Two viewpoints on the analysis are suggested, which are that the vessel sealing deformation analysis should be regarded as a basis of the general stress analysis and that bolt loading increment caused by the bolt temperature lag should be taken as a key point when considering the thermo-contact coupling in transient sealing analysis. The understanding about the sealing mechanism are expounded and the thermal equivalent of hydrostatic test is discussed
Goldman, P.R.; Thresher, R.W.; Hock, S.M.
U.S. market activity has increased over the last two years. In 1998, new capacity totaled about 150 MW and projected 1999 capacity additions are over 600 MW. As the electricity market continues to evolve under restructuring, the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Wind Energy Program has positioned itself to work with industry to meet current challenges and opportunities, and prepare for the market of tomorrow. Some opportunities include green power markets and distributed applications, although a primary challenge involves the fact that avoided cost payments to renewable generators are not high enough to economically support projects. A recently incorporated power exchange in California, APX, Inc., has demonstrated that green power does attract a premium over prices on the conventional power exchange. The key elements of the U.S. DOE Wind Program are (1) Applied Research, which is critical for achieving advanced turbine designs capable of competing in a restructured market that emphasizes low cost generation; (2) Turbine Research, which supports the U.S. industry in developing competitive, high performance, reliable wind turbine technology for global energy markets; and (3) Cooperative Research and Testing, under which standards development and certification testing are the key activities for the current year
Wang, Ximing; Documet, Jorge; Garrison, Kathleen A.; Winstein, Carolee J.; Liu, Brent
Stroke is a major cause of adult disability. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (I-CARE) clinical trial aims to evaluate a therapy for arm rehabilitation after stroke. A primary outcome measure is correlative analysis between stroke lesion characteristics and standard measures of rehabilitation progress, from data collected at seven research facilities across the country. Sharing and communication of brain imaging and behavioral data is thus a challenge for collaboration. A solution is proposed as a web-based system with tools supporting imaging and informatics related data. In this system, users may upload anonymized brain images through a secure internet connection and the system will sort the imaging data for storage in a centralized database. Users may utilize an annotation tool to mark up images. In addition to imaging informatics, electronic data forms, for example, clinical data forms, are also integrated. Clinical information is processed and stored in the database to enable future data mining related development. Tele-consultation is facilitated through the development of a thin-client image viewing application. For convenience, the system supports access through desktop PC, laptops, and iPAD. Thus, clinicians may enter data directly into the system via iPAD while working with participants in the study. Overall, this comprehensive imaging informatics system enables users to collect, organize and analyze stroke cases efficiently.
Elledge, Deborah Harding
Research over the last several decades has revealed that adolescents in the United States are leaving school with insufficient literacy skills to compete in the global marketplace. A primary contributor to poor literacy rates is poor reading comprehension. The purpose of this research was to develop and test the efficacy of a protocol for teaching…
Full Text Available This overview of research infrastructure in the United States brieflymentions some institutes, universities, associations, conferences,sources of funding, types of courses, research databases, academicjournals and book publishers. It intends to make American medievalistresources better accessible to colleagues from other countries, and toencourage those who wish to study in the United States and those whoare using the Internet to seek printed or digital materials for theirteaching or research.
Dwight, John E.; Schanfein, Mark J.; Bjornard, Trond A.
Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead laboratory in nuclear energy research and development within the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory complex. INL is tasked with the advancement of nuclear energy research and development, and leadership in the renaissance of nuclear power globally. INL scientists have been central to the assessment of needs and the integration of technical programs aimed at the world-wide growth of nuclear power. One of the grand challenges of the nuclear energy resurgence is nuclear nonproliferation. Nonproliferation technology development is key to meeting this challenge. The needed advances in nonproliferation technologies are being made more difficult by the growing gap between increasing demands for nuclear materials to support technology development, and reduced availability of these materials. The gap is caused by the reduction, consolidation and more stringent lockdown of nuclear materials, made necessary by heightened and evolving security concerns, in the face of increased demand for materials to support technology development. Ironically, the increased demand for materials for technology development is made necessary by these same security concerns. The situation will continue to worsen if safeguards and security budgets remain limited for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and many member states, while growth in global nuclear energy becomes a reality. Effective U.S. leadership in the closing of this gap is vital to homeland security and global stability. INL has taken positive steps, described in this paper, to close this gap by reestablishing a viable base for the development, testing and demonstration of safeguards and security technologies. Key attributes of this technology development base are (1) the availability of a wide variety of special nuclear materials in forms that allow for enhanced accessibility; (2) ease of access by U.S. government, national laboratory, industry and academic institution
Brown, Jerry; Bowen, Stephen
This is a journal for national and international audiences of government officials, scientists, engineers, educators, Arctic residents, and other people interested in Arctic-related topics. Reports cover a broad spectrum of life in the Arctic including such topics as fish, game, health, social services, science, engineering, environment, oceanography, international activities, international cooperation, global change, conferences, polar libraries, data, policies, research, and history. The emphasis in this issue is on the importance of the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas to U.S. national interests, including fisheries, the oil and gas industries, and global climate change processes.
Li, Liangsong; Feng, Zhongke; Liu, Deqing
Chinese yew is a medicinal plant which has the largest planted area, better economic effects and ecological benefits in our country. People have insufficient appreciation of centuries-old historical document and abundant cultural connotation of Chinese yew, because Chinese yew had no name in ancient times and some expressions of western countries are still cited at present. Therefore, this paper did a great deal of analysis and reference works focusing on synonym and byname of ancient Chinese yew. Excavation and classification of historical documents of Chinese yew from ancient classics and bibliography had been done by studying 3 503 books, about billions of words been recorded in the Si Ku Quan Shu. These researches made up for simple and inadequate contents of many large tool books, like Chinese materia medica and traditional Chinese medicine, and so on. At the same time, in order to change the situation of no name, uncertain channel tropism, irregular functions of Chinese yew, its property and flavor, channel tropism, effects and functions had been summarized. History of the tumor treatment of Chinese yew had been traced back to the time of Tang Dynasty and this was almost 1 200 years earlier than western countries.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available Published quality of life (QOL studies in Hong Kong indexed in the major databases were reviewed. Several observations are highlighted from this review. First, most of the published studies were empirical studies involving data collection. Second, there are more micro studies utilizing individual QOL indices than macro studies using societal indicators. Third, most studies addressed personal well-being, followed by studies on family well-being and societal well-being. Fourth, the studies were predominantly quantitative in nature. Fifth, most of the studies were based on adults and comparatively fewer studies were based on children and adolescents. Sixth, most studies were based on populations with special needs, followed by studies based on the general population, helping professionals, and caregivers. Seventh, most studies used measures of QOL rather than developed QOL measures. Finally, QOL data in Hong Kong were seldom compared with those in other places. The gaps on QOL studies in Hong Kong and future research directions are discussed.
Liang, Wei; Yu, Xuchao; Zhang, Laibin; Lu, Wenqing
In oil transmission station, the operating condition (OC) of an oil pump unit sometimes switches accordingly, which will lead to changes in operating parameters. If not taking the switching of OCs into consideration while performing a state evaluation on the pump unit, the accuracy of evaluation would be largely influenced. Hence, in this paper, a self-organization Comprehensive Real-Time State Evaluation Model (self-organization CRTSEM) is proposed based on OC classification and recognition. However, the underlying model CRTSEM is built through incorporating the advantages of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model (FCEM) first. That is to say, independent state models are established for every state characteristic parameter according to their distribution types (i.e. the Gaussian distribution and logistic regression distribution). Meanwhile, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is utilized to calculate the weights of state characteristic parameters. Then, the OC classification is determined by the types of oil delivery tasks, and CRTSEMs of different standard OCs are built to constitute the CRTSEM matrix. On the other side, the OC recognition is realized by a self-organization model that is established on the basis of Back Propagation (BP) model. After the self-organization CRTSEM is derived through integration, real-time monitoring data can be inputted for OC recognition. At the end, the current state of the pump unit can be evaluated by using the right CRTSEM. The case study manifests that the proposed self-organization CRTSEM can provide reasonable and accurate state evaluation results for the pump unit. Besides, the assumption that the switching of OCs will influence the results of state evaluation is also verified.
This is the Performance Verification Report, Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The specification establishes the requirements for the Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the Advanced Microwave Sounding, Unit-A2 (AMSU-A2), referred to herein as the unit. The unit is defined on Drawing 1331200. 1.2 Test procedure sequence. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown in Figure 1, but the sequence can be in any order.
Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.
NOAO and its Education and Public Outreach group play an important role locally, nationally, and internationally in raising dark skies awareness. For the past 3 years NOAO has co-hosted the international “Earth and Sky” photo contest. In 2012 there were over 600 entries contributed within 3 weeks. NOAO also created a series of audio podcasts based on serial-type skits featuring a caped dark-skies hero who typically “saves the night” by mitigating upward directed lights with shields, thereby saving sea turtles, minimizing health effects, conserving energy, or keeping the public safe. To help understand the effects of light pollution, a citizen-science campaign called GLOBE at Night was started seven years ago. The worldwide campaign involves the public in recording night sky brightness data by matching the view of a constellation like Orion with maps of progressively fainter stars. Every year, NOAO adds more opportunities for participation: more campaigns during the year, Web applications for smart phones, objective measurements with sky brightness meters, and a GLOBE at Night Facebook page. Campaigns will run roughly the first 10 days of January through May in 2013. The EPO group created “Dark Skies Rangers”, a suite of well-tested and evaluated hands-on, minds-on activities that have children building star-brightness “readers,” creating glow-in-the-dark tracings to visualize constellations, and role-playing confused sea turtles. They also created a model city with shielded lights to stop upward light, examine different kinds of bulbs for energy efficiency, and perform an outdoor lighting audit of their school or neighborhood to determine ways to save energy. In the REU program at NOAO North, the undergraduate students have been doing research over the last 3 summers on effect of light pollution on endangered bats and characterizing the behavior of sky brightness over time across Tucson and on nearby astronomical mountaintops. For more information
the ability to maintain a nuclear deterrent without testing, and potential negative impacts on the United States nuclear laboratory infrastructure...systems to detect a nuclear explosion; seismic, hydroacoustic , infrasound, and radionuclide. These stations are able to detect a nuclear explosion as...detection and verification capabilities, and relevance. Another component of the CTBT monitoring system is the eleven hydroacoustic monitoring stations
Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory with evaluating the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential of more than 3 million U.S. streams in order to help individuals and organizations evaluate the feasibility of developing new hydropower sources in the United States.
Bhattacharyya, S. K.
Under the likely scenario in which public support for nuclear energy remains low and fossil fuels continue to be abundant and cheap, government supported nuclear research centers must adapt their missions to ensure that they tackle problems of current significance. It will be critical to be multidisciplinary, to generate economic value, and to apply nuclear competencies to current problems. Addressing problems in nuclear safety, D and D, nuclear waste management, nonproliferation, isotope production are a few examples of current needs in the nuclear arena. Argonne's original mission, to develop nuclear reactor technology, was a critical need for the U.S. in 1946. It would be wise to recognize that this mission was a special instance of a more general one--to apply unique human and physical capital to long term, high risk technology development in response to society's needs. International collaboration will enhance the collective chances for success as the world moves into the 21st century
Tenkanen, Henrikki; Saarsalmi, Perttu; Järv, Olle; Salonen, Maria; Toivonen, Tuuli
In this paper, we demonstrate why and how both temporality and multimodality should be integrated in health related studies that include accessibility perspective, in this case healthy food accessibility. We provide evidence regarding the importance of using multimodal spatio-temporal accessibility measures when conducting research in urban contexts and propose a methodological approach for integrating different travel modes and temporality to spatial accessibility analyses. We use the Helsinki metropolitan area (Finland) as our case study region to demonstrate the effects of temporality and modality on the results. Spatial analyses were carried out on 250 m statistical grid squares. We measured travel times between the home location of inhabitants and open grocery stores providing healthy food at 5 p.m., 10 p.m., and 1 a.m. using public transportation and private cars. We applied the so-called door-to-door approach for the travel time measurements to obtain more realistic and comparable results between travel modes. The analyses are based on open access data and publicly available open-source tools, thus similar analyses can be conducted in urban regions worldwide. Our results show that both time and mode of transport have a prominent impact on the outcome of the analyses; thus, understanding the realities of accessibility in a city may be very different according to the setting of the analysis used. In terms of travel time, there is clear variation in the results at different times of the day. In terms of travel mode, our results show that when analyzed in a comparable manner, public transport can be an even faster mode than a private car to access healthy food, especially in central areas of the city where the service network is dense and public transportation system is effective. This study demonstrates that time and transport modes are essential components when modeling health-related accessibility in urban environments. Neglecting them from spatial
The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser
Thakkar, Vidhi; Sullivan, Terrence
Health services and policy research (HSPR) represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publicly-funded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open
Full Text Available Health services and policy research (HSPR represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publiclyfunded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending.
Sydora, Beate C; Fast, Hilary; Campbell, Sandy; Yuksel, Nese; Lewis, Jacqueline E; Ross, Sue
The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was developed as a validated research tool to measure condition-specific QOL in early postmenopausal women. We conducted a comprehensive scoping review to explore the extent of MENQOL's use in research and clinical practice to assess its value in providing effective, adequate, and comparable participant assessment information. Thirteen biomedical and clinical databases were systematically searched with "menqol" as a search term to find articles using MENQOL or its validated derivative MENQOL-Intervention as investigative or clinical tools from 1996 to November 2014 inclusive. Review articles, conference abstracts, proceedings, dissertations, and incomplete trials were excluded. Additional articles were collected from references within key articles. Three independent reviewers extracted data reflecting study design, intervention, sample characteristics, MENQOL questionnaire version, modifications and language, recall period, and analysis detail. Data analyses included categorization and descriptive statistics. The review included 220 eligible papers of various study designs, covering 39 countries worldwide and using MENQOL translated into more than 25 languages. A variety of modifications to the original questionnaire were identified, including omission or addition of items and alterations to the validated methodological analysis. No papers were found that described MENQOL's use in clinical practice. Our study found an extensive and steadily increasing use of MENQOL in clinical and epidemiological research over 18 years postpublication. Our results stress the importance of proper reporting and validation of translations and variations to ensure outcome comparison and transparency of MENQOL's use. The value of MENQOL in clinical practice remains unknown.
Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M; Solnick, Rachel E; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R W
As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most
Plankis, Brian J.; Marrero, Meghan E.
Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students' ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of…
Elton S. Verry; James W. Hornbeck; H. Albert
We present a brief synopsis of the beginnings of watershed management research and practice in the Lake States and Northeastern United States, followed by a summary of significant research findings on many aspects of watershed management, and finally, a review of four examples of how watershed management research has been incorporated into national forest management...
task force for approximately 90 days to conduct a series of exercises in the Asia-Pacific for the purpose of enhancing readiness and strengthening ... exercise is at the core of planning for Pacific Pathways, but unit after- action reviews from multiple Pathway operations indicated that this structure...Pathways is an initiative that combines three to four exercises with partner nations— exercises that were previously conducted as stand-alone events
Croghan, Ivana T; Viker, Steven D; Limper, Andrew H; Evans, Tamara K; Cornell, Alissa R; Ebbert, Jon O; Gertz, Morie A
Research, clinical care, and education are the three cornerstones of academic health centers in the United States. The research climate has always been riddled with ebbs and flows, depending on funding availability. During a time of reduced funding, the number and scope of research studies have been reduced, and in some instances, a field of study has been eliminated. Recent reductions in the research funding landscape have led institutions to explore new ways to continue supporting research. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN has developed a clinical trial unit within the Department of Medicine, which provides shared resources for many researchers and serves as a solution for training and mentoring new investigators and study teams. By building on existing infrastructure and providing supplemental resources to existing research, the Department of Medicine clinical trial unit has evolved into an effective mechanism for conducting research. This article discusses the creation of a central unit to provide research support in clinical trials and presents the advantages, disadvantages, and required building blocks for such a unit. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Clinic. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ji, Hong; Ling, Jiying; McCarthy, Valerie Lander
Successful aging is gaining increasing attention given the growth in the older adult population. Criteria and definitions within multiple disciplines vary greatly in Western literature, with no consensus on its meaning. Sociocultural, economic, and political differences between the Western view of successful aging and its view in China add to the confusion. Similarities and differences in the meaning of successful aging in the United States and China are examined, and potential for a common definition useful to nursing in both countries is explored. Using concept analysis, shared criteria for successful aging were the following: decreased incidence of disease and disability, life satisfaction, meaning and purpose in life, and ability to cope effectively to achieve goals based on personal values and priorities. A comprehensive, multidimensional definition of successful aging for nursing and a midrange nursing theory of successful aging were identified that may be useful to guide nursing research, practice, and policy. © The Author(s) 2014.
This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and risks, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each research axis: study of the seismic hazard, study of risk management related to waste storage in deep geological layer, radionuclide transfer in the biosphere, study of the effects on ecosystems of a chronic exposure to radioactive materials
Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.
The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit is dedicated to the provision of databases for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (AM/PMI) data that are relevant for nuclear fusion research. IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) are the principal mechanism by which the Unit encourages data evaluation and the production of new data. Ongoing and planned CRPs on AM/PMI data are briefly described here.
Full Text Available Based on China’s constantly improving accounting standards on the regulations of other comprehensive income, this paper selects the annual report data of listed companies in the construction industry in 2015 as samples, and establishes a price model to carry out empirical research on the correlation between other comprehensive income and corporate value of listed companies in the construction industry through the research methods of descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The research results show that, there is not a significant correlation between other comprehensive income and corporate value of listed companies in the construction industry. For such a conclusion, this paper analyzes the reasons and puts forward suggestions to promote stable development of the construction industry.
Fraumeni-McBride, Julie P.
Poor literacy rates contribute to low school performance for children across America. In particular, low-income schools continue to struggle with declining literacy rates. Issues with literacy are often attributed to lack of reading comprehension. This study tested the effects of choice on reading comprehension in second- and third-grade students…
Full Text Available Background and context: Implementation of current research in practice is challenging for ward-based nursing staff. However, university-based nursing academics are seen as the research experts and are perhaps well placed to support clinical nursing research. The problem lies with the divide between practice and academia; universities often use the clinical environment as the place to conduct research but this is often not translated effectively into practice. The development of a nursing professorial unit for acute and critical care was undertaken to meet this challenge. The unit’s key aim is to develop, mentor and support a nursing research culture that is wholly situated within and driven by the requirements of the clinical environment. Aim: The aim of this article is to offer some insights as to how staff set about engaging with and developing the nursing professorial unit to support nursing research in our local hospital. Conclusions: The article highlights how an effective and coordinated approach to supporting clinical nursing research is possible. The nursing professorial unit has been successful in bridging the divide between academia and practice by using a non-university approach to supporting nursing research. Instead we have adopted the philosophy that practice is the sole driver for research and as academics our role is to support that position. Implications for practice: The adoption of the nursing professorial unit model for supporting clinical nursing research is beneficial in closing the divide between clinical practice and the university The continual presence of the academics in the clinical environment has had a positive impact on research development and implementation in practice The nursing professorial unit has become an integral part of the nursing culture in the hospital environment
Tryggestad, E; Armour, M; Iordachita, I; Verhaegen, F; Wong, J W
Our group has constructed the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) for delivering focal, kilo-voltage radiation to targets in small animals under robotic control using cone-beam CT guidance. The present work was undertaken to support the SARRP's treatment planning capabilities. We have devised a comprehensive system for characterizing the radiation dosimetry in water for the SARRP and have developed a Monte Carlo dose engine with the intent of reproducing these measured results. We find that the SARRP provides sufficient therapeutic dose rates ranging from 102 to 228 cGy min(-1) at 1 cm depth for the available set of high-precision beams ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm in size. In terms of depth-dose, the mean of the absolute percentage differences between the Monte Carlo calculations and measurement is 3.4% over the full range of sampled depths spanning 0.5-7.2 cm for the 3 and 5 mm beams. The measured and computed profiles for these beams agree well overall; of note, good agreement is observed in the profile tails. Especially for the smallest 0.5 and 1 mm beams, including a more realistic description of the effective x-ray source into the Monte Carlo model may be important.
The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.
with parents, pregnancy, and other problems associated with sexuality. When asked where a teenager would go with a problem, 58% of the teens mentioned...interest to military commanders, community leaders, and mental health professionals. Topics range from USAREUR active duty suicides , support of...accidents, mass casualty stress on a military hospital staff, military teens in Europe, role of alcohol abuse in trauma, cohesion in COHORT units, family
Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.
Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors
Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.
The Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has analyzed the impacts of transportation of research reactor spent fuel from US and foreign reactors for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Defense Programs. This effort represents the first comprehensive analytical evaluation of the risks of transporting high-, medium-, and low-enriched uranium spent research reactor fuel by both sea and land. Two separate shipment programs have been analyzed: the shipment of research reactor spent fuel from Taiwan to the US (Fuel Movement Program), and the return of research reactor spent fuels of US origin from foreign and domestic reactors (Research Reactor Fuel Return Program). In order to perform these analyses, a comprehensive methodology for analyzing the probabilities and consequences of transportation in coastal waters and port facilities, handling at the port, and shipment by truck to reprocessing facilities was developed. The Taiwanese fuel consists of low-burnup aluminum-clad metallic uranium research reactor spent fuel; the other fuels are primarily aluminum-clad oxide fuels. The Fuel Movement Program is ongoing, while the Fuel Return Program addresses future shipments over a ten-year period. The operational aspects of the Taiwanese shipments have been uniform, but several possible shipping configurations are possible for the Fuel Return Program shipments. Comprehensive assessments, which bound the impacts of spent fuel transport, demonstrate that when shipments are made in compliance with applicable regulations, the risks for all such transport are low. For comparison with previously licensed transport activities and to provide continuity with earlier analyses, the results for shipment of 150-day-old commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel are presented as part of this study
Rickard, Claire M; Roberts, Brigit L; Foote, Jonathon; McGrail, Matthew R
To measure Intensive Care Unit Research coordinator job satisfaction and importance and to identify priorities for role development. Research coordinator numbers are growing internationally in response to increasing clinical research activity. In Australia, 1% of registered nurses work principally in research, many as Research coordinators. Internationally, the Association of Clinical Research Professionals currently has 6536 certified Research coordinators in 13 countries, with likely additional large numbers practicing without the voluntary certification. Research coordinators are almost always nurses, but little is know about this emerging specialty. Design. Cross-sectional study using anonymous self-report questionnaire. After ethics approval, the McCloskey-Mueller Satisfaction Scale and McCloskey-Mueller Importance Scale were administered via the Internet. The sample was 49 (response rate 71%) Research coordinators from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Unit Research coordinators' Interest Group. Research coordinators were satisfied with structural aspects of the position working business hours; flexibility of working hours; high levels of responsibility and control over their work. Dissatisfaction was expressed regarding: remuneration and recognition; compensation for weekend work; salary package; career advancement opportunities; and childcare facilities. High priorities for role development are those rated highly important but with much lower satisfaction. These are: compensation for weekend call-out work; salary and remuneration package; recognition by management and clinicians; career advancement opportunities; departmental research processes; encouragement and feedback; and number of working hours. Increasing numbers of nurses have been attracted to this clinically based research position. These data contribute to the understanding and development of the role.
Full Text Available Purpose: The report presents an extraordinary synthesis of customer acceptance procedures (CAP, quality assurance tests (QA in the treatment of cervical cancer patients, using the first Co-60 Multisource Unit® in Bangladesh. The QA and commissioning required measurements and emergency tests verifying the functional limits of parameters acceptable for the new HDR afterloader. Acceptable limits were: 1 the deviation between specified and measured source strength: ± 3%; 2 the positional accuracy and uniformity: ± 1 mm; 3 the temporal accuracy (i.e. timer error and linearity and end error: ± 1% or 30 sec.; 4 treatment planning system (digitizer and localization software: ± 3% or 1 mm; 5 the distance from line to first dwell position and all the others: 5 mm and 10 mm (± 1 mm. Material and methods: Till February 2011, 47 patients were treated with HDR with more than 140 insertions applied. Amongst them, 12 patients were in stage IIB and IIIB, 22 were postoperative (IA and IB while the remaining 13 patients were with unknown stage. All the cases with stage IIB and IIIB received concurrent chemo-radiation and brachytherapy. Postoperative patients received EBRT (50 Gy and HDR according to the institutional protocol. CT scans were completed before HDR-plus planning with a good reproducibility (± 2% and were documented in repeating the plan for the same set up of a patient. Absorbed dose (Gy to a point P, at a distance of “r” in centimeters from a source of the Reference Air Kerma Rate (RAKR has been utilized for the QA of the source, where source strength measurement was accomplished. Results: All methods and analysis applicable to the QA and commissioning of Co-60 have been investigated and systematically analyzed, measured and documented before the treatment of a patient. Studies and safety requirements of this HDR remote afterloader were carried out. Acceptance and the QA were imperative to justify functionality and dependability in
Malik, Sadiq R; Banu, Parvin A; Rukhsana, Naheed
The report presents an extraordinary synthesis of customer acceptance procedures (CAP), quality assurance tests (QA) in the treatment of cervical cancer patients, using the first Co-60 Multisource Unit ® in Bangladesh. The QA and commissioning required measurements and emergency tests verifying the functional limits of parameters acceptable for the new HDR afterloader. Acceptable limits were: 1) the deviation between specified and measured source strength: ± 3%; 2) the positional accuracy and uniformity: ± 1 mm; 3) the temporal accuracy (i.e. timer error and linearity and end error): ± 1% or 30 sec.; 4) treatment planning system (digitizer and localization software): ± 3% or 1 mm; 5) the distance from line to first dwell position and all the others: 5 mm and 10 mm (± 1 mm). Till February 2011, 47 patients were treated with HDR with more than 140 insertions applied. Amongst them, 12 patients were in stage IIB and IIIB, 22 were postoperative (IA and IB) while the remaining 13 patients were with unknown stage. All the cases with stage IIB and IIIB received concurrent chemo-radiation and brachytherapy. Postoperative patients received EBRT (50 Gy and HDR) according to the institutional protocol. CT scans were completed before HDR-plus planning with a good reproducibility (± 2%) and were documented in repeating the plan for the same set up of a patient. Absorbed dose (Gy) to a point P, at a distance of "r" in centimeters from a source of the Reference Air Kerma Rate (RAKR) has been utilized for the QA of the source, where source strength measurement was accomplished. All methods and analysis applicable to the QA and commissioning of Co-60 have been investigated and systematically analyzed, measured and documented before the treatment of a patient. Studies and safety requirements of this HDR remote afterloader were carried out. Acceptance and the QA were imperative to justify functionality and dependability in delivering the treatment. Implications of these studies
Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.
The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program was involved in a number of notable events during 2017, many concerning our personnel. Dr. Barry Grand left his position as Leader of the Alabama Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit to become the Cooperative Units Program Supervisor for the South, replacing Dr. Kevin Whalen who took over as Supervisor for the West. We welcomed Dr. Sarah Converse who left the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to become Leader of the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. Dr. Amanda Rosenberger joined the Tennessee Cooperative Fishery Research Unit as Assistant Leader, transferring from the Missouri Cooperative Unit. Dr. Scott Carleton left his position as Assistant Unit Leader in New Mexico to become Chief of the Region 2 Migratory Bird Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.We said farewell to many colleagues who retired. Their departure is bittersweet as we wish them health, happiness, and wellness in retirement. We will miss their companionship and the extraordinary contributions they have made to the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program and conservation.The Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program has a record high number of vacant scientist positions due to a combination of retirements and base funding short-falls. These issues are affecting our ability to meet cooperator needs. Yet, we remain highly productive. For example, this year we released a report (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1427) containing abstracts of nearly 600 of our research projects, covering thematic areas ranging from advanced technologies to wildlife diseases. We provided highly competent, trained scientists and natural resource managers for our cooperators’ workforce. We delivered technical training and guidance to professional practitioners. We provided critical information to cooperators for decisions on species status assessments and management of species of greatest conservation need
Kyoto University students' grammatical and syntactic skills, as well as their short listening comprehension skills, were compared with the corresponding world averages as measured by TOEFL. Grammatical and syntactic skills were operationalized as the structure (gap filling) and written expression (grammatical error detection) section scores from the TOEFL PBT (Paper-Based-Test) and the scores from the GRE's gap filling questions. Short listening comprehension skills were operationalized as th...
Vandergrift, Larry; Cross, Jeremy
Most recent publications related to listening comprehension research deal with listening strategy instruction, metacognitive instruction or multimedia applications. This paper discusses one study from each of these three domains--Graham & Macaro (2008), Vandergrift & Tafaghodtari (2010) and Brett (1997)--and presents the need and…
Dorn, Randy; Came, Deb
The Comprehensive Education Data and Research System (CEDARS) is a longitudinal data system managed by the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) to collect, store and report data related to students, courses, and teachers in order to meet state and federal reporting requirements, and to help educators and policy…
Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L; McCluskey, Kevin
The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Boundy-Mills, K.; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. R.; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.; McCluskey, Kevin
The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.
Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn
The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development
Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt
The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health.
Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C
A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state
Brigantic, Robert T.; Papatyi, Anthony F.; Perkins, Casey J.
This report summarizes a study and corresponding model development conducted in support of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) as part of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This research was aimed at developing a mathematical programming framework and accompanying optimization methodology in order to simultaneously evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) opportunities. Once developed, this research then demonstrated this methodology at a USPACOM installation - Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. We believe this is the first time such an integrated, joint EE and RE optimization methodology has been constructed and demonstrated.
Bowman, Marjorie A; Lucan, Sean C; Rosenthal, Thomas C; Mainous, Arch G; James, Paul A
When the new field of family medicine research began a half century ago, multiple individuals and organizations emphasized that research was a key mission. Since the field's inception, there have been notable research successes for which family medicine organizations, researchers, and leaders-assisted by federal and state governments and private foundations-can take credit. Research is a requirement for family medicine residency programs but not individual residents, and multiple family medicine departments offer research training in various forms for learners at all levels, including research fellowships. Family physicians have developed practice-based research networks (PBRNs) to conduct investigations and generate new knowledge. The field of family medicine has seen the creation of new journals to support the publication of research relevant to practicing family physicians. Nonetheless, in spite of much growth and many successes, family physicians and their research have been underrepresented in research funding. Clinical presentations in family medicine are often complex, poorly-differentiated, and exist as one of several patient complaints and diagnoses, and are not well-covered by the narrow basic-science and specialty research that defines most of the biomedical research enterprise. Overall health in the United States would benefit from a more robust research participation and greater support for family medicine research.
The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.
and pyridostigmine bromide were examined for their impact on thermoregulation and physical performance in hot and cold environments. Wearing CB-PC... thermoregulation and the ability to perform in hot or cold environments. Military nutrition research focused on evaluating the nutri- tional adequacy of...Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism
Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.
This postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2017 Year in Review, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1438, now available at https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1438. In this report, you will find details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program relating to its background, fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, accolades, and professional services. You will see snapshots of CRU projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with CRU research projects at http://www.coopunits.org.
Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan
Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research
While it is known that Hispanics have a continuous growing participation in the construction workforce and that their fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries are higher than any other ethnic group, very little construction safety and health research has been conducted in the United States. Research that focuses on safety and health of Hispanic workers employed in the construction industry might prove beneficial in reducing injuries and promoting safe and decent workplaces for all.
Petit, M. Loretta
Comparative education research and courses are needed to identify real revolutionary movements in the current cultural revolution in the United States. The presence of cultural revolution is indicated by, among other things, the development of microcultures. Intranational instead of cross-national studies are of importance in the next few years to…
Oppenheim, Charles; Summers, Mark A. C.
Introduction: This study aimed to explore research assessment within the field of music and, specifically, to investigate whether citation counting could be used to replace or inform the peer review system currently in use in the UK. Method: A citation analysis of academics submitted for peer review in Unit of Assessment 67 in the 2001 Research…
Charniot, Christine; Berchouchi, Florence; Marchand, Claire; Gagnayre, Rémi; Sebbane, Georges; Pamoukdjian, Frédéric
A participative action research project was undertaken in a geriatric oncology hospital unit. It resulted in the training of paramedical staff regarding the specific care to be provided to elderly people with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lu, Bo; Wang, Huipo
By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compe...
Although literacy skills have been associated with critical academic, social, and economic outcomes, most adolescents in the United States lack basic proficiency in reading comprehension. Experts in the field of adolescent literacy have identified affective components of reading (e.g., reading attitudes) as a critical topic in need of further research. Prior research has found a significant correlation between affective components of reading and reading comprehension, even after controlling...
This is the Performance Verification Report, Final Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) Report, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). This specification establishes the requirements for the CPT and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the AMSU-1A, referred to here in as the unit. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown.
Alfia F. Zakirova
Full Text Available Aim. The contents and structure of the methodological unit ofscientific research on educational problems are defined. The present study is the continuation of methodological articles cycle appealed to support the work of newcomer researchers.Methods. The requirements to research justification are disclosed; logicstylistic and language features of the argument while designing the methodological unit are described from the standpoint of complete, panoramic and hermeneutic approaches.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristic of research hypotheses types and the functions realized by them is given. The scientific hypothesis is presented as the instrument of trans-level conceptualization of pedagogical knowledge. The author’s interpretation of a «through» stage-by-stage hypothesis-generating as process of a meaning-making and theoretical organization of research object is offered. Dual character of the hypothesis-generating is presented; it integrates logic-gnoseological and valuable-conceptual, rational and intuitively figurative principles. Typical mistakes in formation of the methodological research unit are analysed. The directions of a multiangle reflection implementation in the course of research activity are designated.Practical significance. The recommendations proposed in the study can by used by teachers-researchers, students, undergraduates, graduate students and doctoral candidates mastering practical methodology of scientific and pedagogical search; and also the materials are designed for research supervisors motivated to increase efficiency and tutorial activity content.
Evanini, Keelan; Heilman, Michael; Wang, Xinhao; Blanchard, Daniel
This report describes the initial automated scoring results that were obtained using the constructed responses from the Writing and Speaking sections of the pilot forms of the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive test administered in late 2011. For all of the items except one (the edit item in the Writing section), existing automated scoring…
Wright, A. S.; Wu, X.; Frye, C. A.; Mathur, A. B.; Patrick, C. W., Jr.
A Biomedical Engineering Internship Program conducted within a Comprehensive Cancer Center over a 10 year period was assessed and evaluated. Although this is a non-traditional location for an internship, it is an ideal site for a multidisciplinary training program for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students. We made a…
Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; Vaughn, Sharon; Pyle, Nicole; Hassaram, Bindiya; Leroux, Audrey
The authors conducted a synthesis of studies of reading comprehension interventions for middle school students (Grades 6-8) identified with a learning disability. They identified 12 studies between 1979 and 2009 with treatment and comparison designs and 2 single-participant studies. Findings from the studies indicate large effect sizes for…
Bera, Sagar Chandra; Sood, Mamta; Chadda, R K; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S
General hospital psychiatric units (GHPUs) are one of the major service and training providers in the field of mental health in India. However, there has not been any systematic attempt at their contributions toward research. The present paper reports on contributions of the GHPUs toward the psychiatric research based on analysis of publications in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP). All the issues of IJP of the last 25 years (1989-2013) were manually searched for original research papers, brief reports, and case reports. A semi-structured performa was used to collect information on various parameters. About two-thirds of the papers were contributed by the GHPUs, most being multi-authored and from tertiary care centers. The research covered a variety of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, and common mental disorders. Most of the research reported was self-funded. GHPUs have contributed significantly to psychiatric research in India in the last 25 years.
Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.
We analyzed the impacts of transportation of research reactor spent fuel from US and foreign reactors for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Defense Programs. Two separate shipment programs were analyzed. The shipment of research reactor spent fuel from Taiwan to the US (Fuel Movement Program), and the return of research reactor spent fuels of US origin from foreign and domestic reactors (Research Reactor Fuel Return Program). To perform these analyses, a comprehensive methodology for analyzing the probabilities and consequences of transportation in coastal waters and port facilities, handling at the port, and shipment by truck to reprocessing facilities was developed. The Taiwanese fuel consists of low-burnup aluminum-clad metallic uranium research reactor spent fuel; the other fuels are primarily aluminum-clad oxide fuels. The Fuel Movement Program is ongoing, while the Fuel Return Program addresses future shipments over a ten-year period. The operational aspects of the Taiwanese shipments have been uniform, but several possible shipping configurations are possible for the Fuel Return Program shipments. The risks of transporting spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials by all modes have been analyzed extensively. Comprehensive assessments, which bound the impacts of spent fuel transport, demonstrate that when shipments are made in compliance with applicable regulations, the risks for all such transport are low. For comparison with previously licensed transport activities and to provide continuity with earlier analyses, the results for shipment of 150-day-old commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel are presented as part of this study
Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing
Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.
than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text......The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated... Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.604 Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote... shall survey the patient or the human research subject and the remote afterloader unit with a portable...
McCreaddie, M; Kuzemski, D; Griffiths, J; Sojka, E M; Fielding, M; Al Yateem, N; Williams, J J
This article identified, critically analysed and synthesized the literature on international nursing and midwifery research capacity building and standards. The United Arab Emirates is heavily dependent up on expatriate nurses. Only 4% of nurses working within the country are Emirati. The nation is therefore committed to developing nurses and nursing as a profession. The United Arab Emirates' Nursing and Midwifery Council was formed in 2009 and initially focused on regulation, education and specialization. This review was undertaken to inform the work of the Council's newly established Scientific Research Sub-Committee. A rapid narrative review was conducted using the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature database, key words, Boolean operators, parameters and a journal-specific search. An inclusion/exclusion criterion was identified. The search provided 332 articles with 45 included in the final review. The literature on nursing research 'standards' and 'capacity building' is diverse and inconsistent across continents and in approaches. Nursing research has evolved to varying degrees across the globe. Nevertheless, irrespective of the locale, there are similar problems encountered in growing research, for example nursing faculty shortage, lack of collaborative research, funding. There are also specific challenges in the Middle East and North Africa region. The review was constrained by time and access. There are specific challenges for the United Arab Emirates. However, the country is well placed to learn from the experiences of colleagues elsewhere. Time and commitment is required to build the solid foundations necessary to ensure robust, sustained growth. Identifying research capacity as both a process and outcome at the outset may also assist. Further, it may be prudent to consider initiating a Gulf Coast Countries' collaborative approach to building research capacity to harness scare resources and create a larger critical mass. © 2017
Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has several strategic goals that focus its efforts on serving the American people. The USGS Ecosystems Mission Area has responsibility for the following objectives under the strategic goal of “Science to Manage and Sustain Resources for Thriving Economies and Healthy Ecosystems”:Understand, model, and predict change in natural systemsConserve and protect wildlife and fish species and their habitatsReduce or eliminate the threat of invasive species and wildlife diseaseThis report provides abstracts of the majority of ongoing research investigations of the USGS Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program and is intended to complement the 2016 Cooperative Research Units Program Year in Review Circular 1424 (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1424). The report is organized by the following major science themes that contribute to the objectives of the USGS:Advanced TechnologiesClimate ScienceDecision ScienceEcological FlowsEcosystem ServicesEndangered Species Conservation, Recovery, and Proactive StrategiesEnergyHuman DimensionsInvasive SpeciesLandscape EcologySpecies of Greatest Conservation NeedSpecies Population, Habitat, and Harvest ManagementWildlife Health and Disease
Mustin, Tracy P.; Clapper, Maureen; Reilly, Jill E.
The United States Department of Energy, in consultation with the Department of State, adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. To date, the Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program, established under this policy, has completed 16 spent fuel shipments. 2,651 material test reactor (MTR) assemblies, one Slowpoke core containing less than 1 kilogram of U.S.-origin enriched uranium, 824 Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomic (TRIGA) rods, and 267 TRIGA pins from research reactors around the world have been shipped to the United States so far under this program. As the FRR SNF Acceptance Program progresses into the fifth year of implementation, a second U.S. cross country shipment has been completed, as well as a second overland truck shipment from Canada. Both the cross country shipment and the Canadian shipment were safely and successfully completed, increasing our knowledge and experience in these types of shipments. In addition, two other shipments were completed since last year's RERTR meeting. Other program activities since the last meeting included: taking pre-emptive steps to avoid license amendment pitfalls/showstoppers for spent fuel casks, publication of a revision to the Record of Decision allowing up to 16 casks per ocean going vessel, and the issuance of a cable to 16 of the 41 eligible countries reminding their governments and the reactor operators that the U.S.-origin uranium in their research reactors may be eligible for return to the United States under the Acceptance Program and urging them to begin discussions on shipping schedules. The FRR SNF program has also supported the Department's implementation of the competitive pricing policy for uranium and resumption of shipments of fresh uranium for fabrication into assemblies for research reactors. The United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program continues
The deep-sea manganese nodule mining system in this report collects efficiently and continuously a large quantity of manganese nodules in existence in the 5,000m-deep sea floor. The aim of the project is to develop and build an experimental system for a real mining machine and to perform a comprehensive marine test to find out if such a real machine is technologically and economically feasible. The system under this project is divided into four systems, which are a nodule mining system, nodule lifting system, nodule handling system, and a measurement control system. The nodule mining system travels on the sea bottom efficiently collecting manganese nodules and forwarding them into the nodule lifting system. Only a few systems of this kind have so far been developed, however, and therefore much endeavor needs to be exerted for the development of technologies involved. The nodule lifting system is divided into a pump lift unit, air lift unit, and a nodule lifting pipe. The pump lift unit and air lift unit elevate manganese nodules supplied from the nodule collecting unit to the sea surface. The nodule lifting pipe provides a passage for nodules to run through upward. (NEDO)
Osman, Ossama T; Afifi, M
This article aims to describe the characteristics of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) mental health research published from 1989 to 2008 in PubMed indexed journals to identify gaps and to suggest recommendations. Our sensitive PubMed search for general and mental health publications in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and the UAE revealed a total of 192 mental health studies published in GCC countries over the past 20 years, which constituted less than 1% of the GCC total biomedical research. Most of the studies were from the UAE University and were either epidemiologic (48.98%) or psychometric (24.49%) with no studies addressing mental health systems research. Underrepresented were studies on health promotion and interdisciplinary, cross-cultural, ethnic, and gender research. There is a need for more international collaboration and for policies that link research conducted to services provided with longitudinal studies to test the long-term impact of early preventive interventions.
Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A
There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Jill A Fisher
Full Text Available There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities.We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers.Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Full Text Available By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compete with each other; second since they are located in Bohai Sea (North China, they have to compete with other cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas (South China. In this paper, our aim is to build models to provide best price strategies for these two cities. Based on the two-sided market theory and the geographical position, this paper builds two competitive theory models. Through the analyzing of the equilibrium, we get two main results: (1 according to different service area, the cities (Dalian and Tianjin should have different price; (2 the two-sided market characters have an impact on their strategies.
von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Fabbro, Thomas; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane
Six multidisciplinary competence centres (Clinical Trial Units, CTUs) in Basel, Berne, Geneva, Lausanne, St. Gallen and Zurich provide professional support to clinical researchers in the planning, implementation, conduct and evaluation of clinical studies. Through their coordinated network, these units promote high-quality, nationally harmonised and internationally standardised clinical research conduct in Switzerland. We will describe why this network has been established, how it has been successful in stilling the growing need for clinical research support, which training and education opportunities it offers, and how it created national awareness for the still-existing hurdles towards clinical research excellence in Switzerland. Taking the CTU Basel as an example, we show that a considerable number (25%) of the studies submitted for regulatory approval in 2013 were supported by the CTU, decreasing the number of findings in ethics reviews by about one-third. We conclude that these achievements, together with a Swiss national funding model for clinical research, and improved national coordination, will be critical factors to successfully position Swiss clinical research at the international forefront.
Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.
Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1996. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors
Huizenga, David G.; Mustin, Tracy P.; Saris, Elizabeth C.; Reilly, Jill E.
Since 1996, when the United States Department of Energy and the Department of State jointly adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel, twelve shipments totaling 2,985 MTR and TRIGA spent nuclear fuel assemblies from research reactors around the world have been accepted into the United States. These shipments have contained approximately 1.7 metric tons of HEU and 0.6 metric tons of LEU. Foreign research reactor operators played a significant role in this success. A new milestone in the acceptance program occurred during the summer of 1999 with the arrival of TRIGA spent nuclear fuel from Europe through the Charleston Naval Weapons Station via the Savannah River Site to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This shipment consisted of five casks of TRIGA spent nuclear fuel from research reactors in Germany, Italy, Slovenia, and Romania. These casks were transported by truck approximately 2,400 miles across the United States (one cask packaged in an ISO container per truck). Drawing upon lessons learned in previous shipments, significant technical, legal, and political challenges were addressed to complete this cross-country shipment. Other program activities since the last RERTR meeting have included: formulation of a methodology to determine the quantity of spent nuclear fuel in a damaged condition that may be transported in a particular cask (containment analysis for transportation casks); publication of clarification of the fee policy; and continued planning for the outyears of the acceptance policy including review of reactors and eligible material quantities. The United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program continues to demonstrate success due to the continuing commitment between the United States and the research reactor community to make this program work. We strongly encourage all eligible research reactors to decide as soon as possible to
Full Text Available Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to assembly connection strength to depict the assembling difficulty level. The transmissibility based on trust relationship was applied on the assembly connection strength. Assembly unit partition based on assembly connection strength was conducted, and interferential assembly units were identified and revised. The assembly sequence planning and optimization of parts in each assembly unit and between assembly units was conducted using genetic algorithm. With certain type of high speed CNC turning center, as an example, this paper explored into the assembly modeling, assembly unit partition, and assembly sequence planning and optimization and realized the optimized assembly sequence of headstock of CNC machine tool.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. The policy was slated to expire in May 2009. However, in October 2003, a petition requesting a program extension was delivered to the United States Secretary of Energy from a group of research reactor operators from foreign countries. In April 2004, the Secretary directed DOE undertake an analysis, as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to consider potential extension of the Program. On December 1, 2004, a Federal Register Notice was issued approving the program extension. This paper discusses the findings from the NEPA analysis and the potential changes in the program that may result from implementation of the proposed changes. (author)
Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.
The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.
Al-Yateem, N; Al-Tamimi, M; Brenner, M; Altawil, H; Ahmad, A; Brownie, S
Globally, nurses are undertaking expanded and more specialized roles in healthcare planning and service delivery in response to changing patterns and levels of health service demand. This means the nursing profession is increasingly considered as leaders in health service policy, research and practice. The United Arab Emirates has strengthened nursing governance and practice by establishing a Nursing and Midwifery Council and increasing the activity of nursing specialization, service leadership and research. This study aimed to identify clinically relevant research priorities to facilitate nursing contributions to evidence-based care and strengthening health services in the country. A two-stage Delphi study design was used. The first round involved 783 participants. The second round involved 1116 participants, as more clinical settings were accessed. In total, 58 research priorities across a variety of nursing specialties (paediatrics, emergency care, intensive care, labour and maternity care, operating theatre and long-term care) were identified as highly important. These identified priorities will guide a more informed programme of research in each nursing specialty, with the aim of strengthening the evidence base to improving outcomes for patients and their families in the United Arab Emirates. The findings provide guidance on key areas for nurses to focus research contributions to enhance evidence-based care and strengthen health systems. The identified priorities may also guide researchers in academic institutions to conduct research informed by current, clinically relevant issues. The findings may help inform funders and policymakers to support allocation of funding to research that has potential to contribute to enhancing nursing care in specialist areas. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Mulcahy, Daniel M
In the US, the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and its enabling regulations (AWAR) cover all warm-blooded animals used for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition. The only exceptions, made in the enabling regulations, are for two genera of rodents and for birds, bred specifically for research (meaning even those exceptions do not apply to wild birds and wild rodents of those genera) and for farm and agricultural animals. Research using animals covered by the AWA and AWAR must be reviewed and approved by an Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC) properly constituted according to AWA and AWAR. A review of Instructions to Authors and policy statements offered by 106 journals classified by their content as containing articles that were oriented largely toward disease, ecology, or general, showed that disease-oriented journals originating in the United States and those produced by professional societies and government agencies have a higher explicit requirement for ACUC review than do disease-oriented journals produced outside the United States or those produced commercially. Journals with a general orientation that are produced outside the United States or commercially had much higher rates of requiring explicit statements for ACUC review than generally-oriented journals produced in the United States or those produced by professional societies and government agencies. Ecology journals had low rates of explicit statements for ACUC review regardless of geographic origins or sources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dornback, M.; Hourigan, T.; Etnoyer, P.; McGuinn, R.; Cross, S. L.
Research on deep-sea corals has expanded rapidly over the last two decades, as scientists began to realize their value as long-lived structural components of high biodiversity habitats and archives of environmental information. The NOAA Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program's National Database for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges is a comprehensive resource for georeferenced data on these organisms in U.S. waters. The National Database currently includes more than 220,000 deep-sea coral records representing approximately 880 unique species. Database records from museum archives, commercial and scientific bycatch, and from journal publications provide baseline information with relatively coarse spatial resolution dating back as far as 1842. These data are complemented by modern, in-situ submersible observations with high spatial resolution, from surveys conducted by NOAA and NOAA partners. Management of high volumes of modern high-resolution observational data can be challenging. NOAA is working with our data partners to incorporate this occurrence data into the National Database, along with images and associated information related to geoposition, time, biology, taxonomy, environment, provenance, and accuracy. NOAA is also working to link associated datasets collected by our program's research, to properly archive them to the NOAA National Data Centers, to build a robust metadata record, and to establish a standard protocol to simplify the process. Access to the National Database is provided through an online mapping portal. The map displays point based records from the database. Records can be refined by taxon, region, time, and depth. The queries and extent used to view the map can also be used to download subsets of the database. The database, map, and website is already in use by NOAA, regional fishery management councils, and regional ocean planning bodies, but we envision it as a model that can expand to accommodate data on a global scale.
Burton, Christopher R; Duxbury, Joy; French, Beverley; Monks, Rob; Carter, Bernie
In the light of concerns about the wider social and economic value of the PhD training programme, this article discusses the challenges being directed primarily at the traditional doctoral programme of study. While the PhD is primarily concerned with the student making an original contribution to knowledge, the value-added component of the doctoral research degree needs to respond to the needs of a wider market of purchasers, and to meet practice and policy requirements for research leadership. The United Kingdom Research Councils (UK GRAD, 2001. Joint Skills Statement of Skills Training Requirements. Available at http://www.grad.ac.uk/downloads/documents/general/Joint%20Skills%20Statementpdf. (last accessed 1st April 2008.) suggest a range of seven skill domains over and above research design and management that should be offered to students. The seven domains are research skills and techniques, participation in the research environment, research management, personal effectiveness, communication, networking and team working, and career management. This article develops and extends these skill domains for the current healthcare context and considers how these should guide the development and evaluation of the value-added components of doctoral research degree programmes in nursing. The challenges that these issues present to academic departments are also discussed. Our conclusion is that PhD research training needs re-visioning and broadening so that the students' experience includes these value-added components.
Ordoñez, Carlos A; Manzano-Nunez, Ramiro; Naranjo, Maria Paula; Foianini, Esteban; Cevallos, Cecibel; Londoño, Maria Alejandra; Sanchez Ortiz, Alvaro I; García, Alberto F; Moore, Ernest E
After 52 years of war in 2012, the Colombian government began the negotiation of a process of peace, and by November 2012, a truce was agreed. We sought to analyze casualties who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) before and during the period of the negotiation of the comprehensive Colombian process of peace. Retrospective study of hostile casualties admitted to the ICU at a Level I trauma center from January 2011 to December 2016. Patients were subsequently divided into two groups: those seen before the declaration of the process of peace truce (November 2012) and those after (November 2012-December 2016). Patients were compared with respect to time periods. Four hundred forty-eight male patients were admitted to the emergency room. Of these, 94 required ICU care. Sixty-five casualties presented before the truce and 29 during the negotiation period. Median injury severity score was significantly higher before the truce. Furthermore, the odds of presenting with severe trauma (ISS > 15) were significantly higher before the truce (OR, 5.4; (95% CI, 2.0-14.2); p < 0.01). There was a gradual decrease in the admissions to the ICU, and the performance of medical and operative procedures during the period observed. We describe a series of war casualties that required ICU care in a period of peace negotiation. Despite our limitations, our study presents a decline in the occurrence, severity, and consequences of war injuries probably as a result in part of the negotiation of the process of peace. The hysteresis of these results should only be interpreted for their implications in the understanding of the peace-health relationship and must not be overinterpreted and used for any political end.
Gill, Marlyn; Bagshaw, Sean M; McKenzie, Emily; Oxland, Peter; Oswell, Donna; Boulton, Debbie; Niven, Daniel J; Potestio, Melissa L; Shklarov, Svetlana; Marlett, Nancy; Stelfox, Henry T
Engaging patients and family members as partners in research increases the relevance of study results and enhances patient-centered care; how to best engage patients and families in research is unknown. We tested a novel research approach that engages and trains patients and family members as researchers to see if we could understand and describe the experiences of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and their families. Former patients and family members conducted focus groups and interviews with patients (n = 11) and families of surviving (n = 14) and deceased (n = 7) patients from 13 ICUs in Alberta Canada, and analyzed data using conventional content analysis. Separate blinded qualitative researchers conducted an independent analysis. Participants described three phases in the patient/family "ICU journey"; admission to ICU, daily care in ICU, and post-ICU experience. Admission to ICU was characterized by family shock and disorientation with families needing the presence and support of a provider. Participants described five important elements of daily care: honoring the patient's voice, the need to know, decision-making, medical care, and culture in ICU. The post-ICU experience was characterized by the challenges of the transition from ICU to a hospital ward and long-term effects of critical illness. These "ICU journey" experiences were described as integral to appropriate interactions with the care team and comfort and trust in the ICU, which were perceived as essential for a community of caring. Participants provided suggestions for improvement: 1) provide a dedicated family navigator, 2) increase provider awareness of the fragility of family trust, 3) improve provider communication skills, 4) improve the transition from ICU to hospital ward, and 5) inform patients about the long-term effects of critical illness. Analyses by independent qualitative researchers identified similar themes. Patient and family member-led research is feasible and can
Carter, Ashley J R; Delarosa, Beverly; Hur, Hannah
Ideally, the allocation of research funding for each specific type of cancer should be proportional to its societal burden. This burden can be estimated with the metric 'years of life lost' (YLL), which combines overall mortality and age at death. Using United Kingdom data from 2010, we compared research funding from the National Cancer Research Institute to this YLL burden metric for 26 types of cancers in order to identify the discrepancies between cancer research funding allocation and societal burden. We also compared these values to United States data from 2010 and United Kingdom data published in 2005. Our study revealed a number of discrepancies between cancer research funding and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (testicular, leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast, cervical, ovarian, prostate) while other cancers appear under-funded (gallbladder, lung, nasopharyngeal, intestine, stomach, pancreatic, thyroid, oesophageal, liver, kidney, bladder, and brain/central nervous system). United Kingdom funding patterns over the past decade have generally moved to increase funding to previously under-funded cancers with one notable exception showing a converse trend (breast cancer). The broad relationship between United Kingdom and United States funding patterns is similar with a few exceptions (e.g. leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, prostate, testicular cancer). There are discrepancies between cancer research funding allocation and societal burden in the United Kingdom. These discrepancies are broadly similar in both the United Kingdom and the United States and, while they appear to be improving, this is not consistent across all types of cancer.
Ayala, Guadalupe X; Baquero, Barbara; Klinger, Sylvia
Dietary intake is an important determinant of obesity and numerous chronic health conditions. A healthful diet is an essential component of chronic disease self-management. Researchers have indicated that the healthfulness of the Latino diet deteriorates during the acculturation process. However, given the many operationalizations of acculturation, conclusive evidence regarding this relationship is still lacking. This comprehensive and systematic literature review examines the relationship between acculturation and diet by examining national, quantitative, and qualitative studies involving Latinos living in the United States. Studies of diet included those that examined dietary intake using one of several validated measures (eg, food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall, or dietary screener) and/or dietary behaviors (eg, away-from-home-eating and fat avoidance). Articles were identified through two independent searches yielding a final sample of 34 articles. Articles were abstracted by two independent reviewers and inter-rater reliability was assessed. Analyses examined the extent to which various measures of acculturation (ie, acculturation score, years in the United States, birthplace, generational status, and language use) were associated with macronutrient intake, micronutrient intake, and dietary behaviors. Several relationships were consistent irrespective of how acculturation was measured: no relationship with intake of dietary fat and percent energy from fat; the less vs more acculturated consumed more fruit, rice, beans, and less sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages. Additional observed relationships depended on the measure of acculturation used in the study. These findings suggest a differential influence of acculturation on diet, requiring greater specificity in our dietary interventions by acculturation status.
Full Text Available Melinda M Davis,1,2 Sara Keller,1 Jennifer E DeVoe,1,3 Deborah J Cohen11Department of Family Medicine, 2Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 3OCHIN Practice-based Research Network, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Practice-based research networks (PBRNs are organizations that involve practicing clinicians in asking and answering clinically relevant research questions. This review explores the origins, characteristics, funding, and lessons learned through practice-based research in the United States. Primary care PBRNs emerged in the USA in the 1970s. Early studies explored the etiology of common problems encountered in primary care practices (eg, headache, miscarriage, demonstrating the gap between research conducted in controlled specialty settings and real-world practices. Over time, national initiatives and an evolving funding climate have shaped PBRN development, contributing to larger networks, a push for shared electronic health records, and the use of a broad range of research methodologies (eg, observational studies, pragmatic randomized controlled trials, continuous quality improvement, participatory methods. Today, there are over 160 active networks registered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's PBRN Resource Center that engage primary care clinicians, pharmacists, dentists, and other health care professionals in research and quality-improvement initiatives. PBRNs provide an important laboratory for encouraging collaborative research partnerships between academicians and practices or communities to improve population health, conduct comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research, and study health policy reform. PBRNs continue to face critical challenges that include: (1 adapting to a changing landscape; (2 recruiting and retaining membership; (3 securing infrastructure support; (4 straddling two worlds (academia and community and managing
Jiang, Xiuchen; Sheng, Gehao; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Sanming; Sun, Congcong
Multiple indexes and multiple level comprehensive evaluations for wind power gear box focus more attention in recent days. Through the analysis of the state of wind turbine gearbox, fault hazard degree and other factors that is related with the internal temperature in gear box, environment temperature and the characteristics of wind speed, state evaluation index system of health indicators that is based on the current state of the age and the fault hazard health degree is established in this paper. Combined with the hazard matrix, current hazard degree is obtained. The effectiveness of adding health indicators is proved by examples.
Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony
The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871
Jean Pierre Wilken
Full Text Available The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development The Best Practice Unit (BPU model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002, the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is used as a way of working by a group of professionals, researchers and other relevant individuals, who over a period of one to two years, work together towards a desired improvement. The model is characterized by interaction between individual and collective learning processes, the development of new or improved working methods, and the implementation of these methods in daily practice. Multiple knowledge resources are used, including experiential knowledge, professional knowledge and scientific knowledge. The research serves diverse purposes: articulating tacit knowledge, documenting learning and innovation processes, systematically describing the working methods that have been revealed or developed, and evaluating the efficacy of the new methods. Each BPU is supported by a facilitator, whose main task is to optimize learning processes. An analysis of ten different BPUs in different professional fields shows that this is a successful model. The article describes the methodology and results of this study. De Best Practice Unit: een model voor leren, onderzoek en ontwikkeling Het model van de Best Practice Unit (BPU is een unieke vorm van praktijkgericht onderzoek. De Best Practice Unit is een variant van de Community of Practice zoals ontwikkeld door Wenger, McDermott en Snyder (2002 met als specifiek doel om de professionele praktijk te verbeteren door innovatie en onderzoek te combineren. Het model wordt gebruikt om in een periode van 1-2 jaar met een groep professionals, onderzoekers en andere betrokkenen te werken aan een gewenste verbetering. Kenmerkend is de wisselwerking tussen
Clunie, Lauren; Morris, Neil P; Joynes, Viktoria C T; Pickering, James D
Anatomy education is at the forefront of integrating innovative technologies into its curricula. However, despite this rise in technology numerous authors have commented on the shortfall in efficacy studies to assess the impact such technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources have on learning. To assess the range of evaluation approaches to TEL across anatomy education, a systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, the Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Scopus, and Google Scholar, with a total of 3,345 articles retrieved. Following the PRISMA method for reporting items, 153 articles were identified and reviewed against a published framework-the technology-enhanced learning evaluation model (TELEM). The model allowed published reports to be categorized according to evaluations at the level of (1) learner satisfaction, (2) learning gain, (3) learner impact, and (4) institutional impact. The results of this systematic review reveal that most evaluation studies into TEL within anatomy curricula were based on learner satisfaction, followed by module or course learning outcomes. Randomized controlled studies assessing learning gain with a specific TEL resource were in a minority, with no studies reporting a comprehensive assessment on the overall impact of introducing a specific TEL resource (e.g., return on investment). This systematic review has provided clear evidence that anatomy education is engaged in evaluating the impact of TEL resources on student education, although it remains at a level that fails to provide comprehensive causative evidence. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
...] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board... number of members on the United Soybean Board (Board) to reflect changes in production levels that have occurred since the Board was reapportioned in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and...
Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.
Abdulrahman, Mahera; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar
Growing demand for human health research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has prompted the need to develop a robust research ethics oversight. Examination of the structure, function, and practices of the human research ethics committees (HRECs), followed by evaluation of standards for measuring research output, was conducted. Results indicate that among the HRECs, 90% followed International Council for Harmonization-Good Clinical Practice guidelines, 66.6% have been in operation for more than 5 years, 95% reviewed proposals within 8 weeks, and 56% reviewed for scientific merit apart from ethics. However, systems to recognize accomplishments of researchers, funding transparency, and adverse event reporting were deployed in less than 30% of all HRECs. Research was incorporated into the vision and mission statements of many (65%) organizations. Research publications, collaborations, and recognitions were used to measure research output and report key performance indicators. In spite, resources to generate research output such as dedicated budget (20%), support staff (20%), and continuous training and mentoring program for medical residents (15%) and HREC members (25%) were somehow lacking. HREC structure and operations in the UAE are similar to other regions of the world. Systems to conduct research and report outcomes are defined in the UAE. Regulatory legislation and allocation of resources to support the clinical research enterprise will not only help to meet growing demand for clinical trials but also transform the quality of patient care in the UAE. It is anticipated that the results of this study will benefit investigators, regulators, pharmaceutical sponsors, and the policy makers in the region.
Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T.
Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). All fusion related research in Finland is included in the FFUSION programme and it made it possible to establish a dialogue with the European Fusion Programme already two years before Finland joined the European Union. The process led to the founding of the Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The contract of Association was signed in Helsinki on March 13 1995, to establish the 14th Association in the EU FFusion Programme. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1995. The emphasis is on research supported by the EU Commission. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies of the reactor materials. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), and Remote handling
Brunette, M J
While it is known that Hispanics have a continuous growing participation in the construction workforce and that their fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries are higher than any other ethnic group, very little construction safety and health research has been conducted in the United States. Research that focuses on safety and health of Hispanic workers employed in the construction industry might prove beneficial in reducing injuries and promoting safe and decent workplaces for all. The purpose of this article was twofold. First, to propose a research agenda where topics such as surveillance, intervention research on high risk occupations, intervention effectiveness evaluation, design and development of effective and appropriate safety training and educational materials, and the socioeconomic impact of injuries and illnesses, are investigated among the Hispanic construction workforce. Second, to present relevant aspects inherent to this particular population that need to be incorporated into the design and development stages of any safety and health research initiative. They include the occupational, social, economic, and cultural background of Hispanic workers; use of a participatory approach, proper selection and use of translation methods; and conducting collaborative research. Certain limitations and challenges related to the availability of resources for conducting safety and health research on Hispanic workers are further discussed.
The aim of this paper is to compare common features and variation in the work of research ethics committees (RECs) in Finland to three other countries - England, Canada, the United States of America (USA) - in the late 2000s. Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts, documents, previous reports, presentations in meetings and observations. A theoretical framework was created and data from various sources synthesized. In Finland, RECs were regulated by a medical research law, whereas in the other countries many related laws and rules guided RECs; drug trials had specific additional rules. In England and the USA, there was a REC control body. In all countries, members were voluntary and included lay-persons, and payment arrangements varied. Patient protection was the main ethics criteria, but other criteria (research advancement, availability of results, payments, detailed fulfilment of legislation) varied. In all countries, RECs had been given administrative duties. Variations by country included the mandate, practical arrangements, handling of multi-site research, explicitness of proportionate handlings, judging scientific quality, time-limits for decisions, following of projects, role in institute protection, handling conflicts of interests, handling of projects without informed consent, and quality assurance research. The division of work between REC members and secretariats varied in checking of formalities. In England, quality assurance of REC work was thorough, fairly thorough in the USA, and not performed in Finland. The work of RECs in the four countries varied notably. Various deficiencies in the system require action, for which international comparison can provide useful insights.
Full Text Available The Drug Controller General of India has recently come up with very stringent laws to tighten the regulatory framework around clinical trials. One-way of improving the credibility of India and its researchers in the eyes of the regulators, sponsors and the general public is through professional site management team or setting up clinical research unit (CRU. The CRU acts as a bridge between the sponsor and the investigator. The CRU model has been better explained with the help of a good example of a clinical research institute. Since, a successful clinical trial needs high quality data, timeliness and clear communication between all parties, a professional CRU with a team of dedicated and trained professionals and infrastructure with written procedures and policies may be a solution to the pain and agony of poor site performance and investigator insufficiency and pressure.
An underlying theme present in much of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) research and development occurring in the United States as well as worldwide is the application of physics and engineering principles toward understanding and optimizing NDE processes. Expanding this trend of using mathematical models for NDE processes is critical to the entire spectrum of NDE technology. In NDE research, modeling anchors the investigation in scientific, proven principles and establishes a firm technical basis to guide the design and development of inspection equipment and approaches. It also provides for understanding the capabilities and the limitations of whatever designs are selected and ultimately applied in the field. This paper reviews the status of these efforts, presents several examples where mathematical modeling is being profitably used for practical inspection work, and shows the path being taken in ongoing research.
Nanda, Upali; Pati, Sipra; Nejati, Adeleh
To study the workplace in a medical-surgical (med-surg) unit and to identify suboptimal environmental conditions that can be improved in the current unit and avoided in future design, through rapidly deployed field research and timely simulation. Literature emphasizes the importance of the healthcare workplace and the effect on patient outcomes. What is lacking are studies conducted on-site and used for immediate application in design to assess and improve workplace conditions. A rapidly deployed field research and simulation study was conducted in a 40-bed med-surg unit of a large healthcare system as part of the process of designing a new medical tower. Online surveys, systematic behavioral observations, semi-structured interviews, sound studies, and advanced spatial analysis through parametric modeling were conducted. The following created challenges for patient monitoring, care coordination, and management: (1) waste and variability in walking, (2) limited point-of-use access to supplies, (3) large distances traveled for minor tasks, and (4) low visibility and connectivity. The corridor is used as a workspace/communication hub. There is a distinct difference in beginning of day and night shift patterns and between walking "distance" and walking "sequence." There is a tendency for nurses to multitask, but a simulation exercise shows that for key tasks like medication delivery, multitasking may not always reduce walking distances. Co-location of medications, supplies, and nourishment; accommodation for work on wheels; and spatial and technological connectivity between care team and patients should be considered while designing a med-surg unit. Understanding the key activity sequences helps determine the proximity of spaces in relationship to patient rooms and each other. © The Author(s) 2015.
Brandi E. JOHNSON; Karen M. ZABRUCKY
Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have ...
Schneider, Julie A; Grodzinski, Piotr; Liang, Xing-Jie
The application of nanotechnology to cancer research is a promising area for US-China cooperation. Cancer is a major public health burden in both countries, and progress in cancer nanotechnology research is increasing in several fields, including imaging, biomarker detection, and targeted drug delivery. The United States and China are international leaders in nanotechnology research, and have both launched national programs to support nanotechnology efforts in the recent past. The accelerating trend of co-authorship among US and Chinese nanotechnology researchers demonstrates that individual scientists already recognize the potential for cooperation, providing a strong platform for creating additional partnerships in pre-competitive research areas. Mechanisms that could help to enhance US-China cancer nanotechnology partnerships include: developing new programs for bi-directional training and exchange; convening workshops focused on specific scientific topics of high priority to both countries; and joint support of collaborative research projects by US and Chinese funders. In addition to the accelerating scientific progress, expanded cooperation will stimulate important dialog on regulatory, policy, and technical issues needed to lay the groundwork for US and Chinese scientists to move greater numbers of cancer nanotechnology applications into the clinic. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
A tentative theoretical explanation of modern nutritional vulnerability is derived from an original study of agricultural science as part of the social process in societies distinguished by the extent to which their form of production (specifically reproduction of labor) falls within or outside the world of commodities. The selected case studies--the United States, Israel, Brazil, and Cuba--are characterized also by advanced agricultural research, remarkable agricultural productivity, and, with the exception of Brazil, a satisfactory state of public nutrition. This particular selection thus lays the basis for a holistic investigation of malnutrition which considers the mode of production as the appropriate unit of analysis. As a theoretical, not statistical, account of nutritional status variations in a variety of social environments, the study employs a two-dimensional comparison of agricultural research orientation and impact, on the one side, and of predominant modes of reproduction of labor, on the other. It is proposed that, independently of agricultural productivity effects of research, structural nutritional vulnerability prevails where the strictly capitalist commodity--labor power--is sold below its value, and because, in the framework of capitalist production, science is biased against subsistence food crops that are used restrictively in reproduction of labor. This bias is rooted not in the nature of such crops, but in their role in determining the value of labor power, which as expressed by wage, stands in inverse proportion to profit.
Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee
Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)
Huizenga, D.G.; Clapper, M.; Thrower, A.W.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. To date, the Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program has completed 23 shipments. Almost 5000 spent fuel assemblies from eligible research reactors throughout the world have been accepted into the United States under this program. Over the past year, another cross-country shipment of fuel was accomplished, as well as two additional shipments in the fourth quarter of calendar year 2001. These shipments attracted considerable safeguards oversight since they occurred post September 11. Recent guidance from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pertaining to security and safeguards issues deals directly with the transport of nuclear material. Since the Acceptance Program has consistently applied above regulatory safety enhancements in transport of spent nuclear fuel, this guidance did not adversely effect the Program. As the Program draws closer to its termination date, an increased number of requests for program extension are received. Currently, there are no plans to extend the policy beyond its current expiration date; therefore, eligible reactor operators interested in participating in this program are strongly encouraged to evaluate their inventory and plan for future shipments as soon as possible. (author)
Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Buckner, Mark [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report addresses the potential use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) within electricity distribution systems, and was written to assess whether or not PMUs could provide significant benefit, at the national level. We analyze examples of present and emerging distribution-system issues related to reliability, integration of distributed energy resources, and the changing electrical characteristics of load. We find that PMUs offer important and irreplaceable advantages over present approaches. However, we also find that additional research and development for standards, testing and calibration, demonstration projects, and information sharing is needed to help industry capture these benefits.
The year 1985 was significant in the cleanup of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). Major milestones in the project included lifting the plenum assembly from the reactor vessel and the start of operations to remove the damaged fuel from the reactor. This report summarizes these milestones and other TMI-2 related cleanup, research, and development activities. Other major topics include the following: waste immobilization and management; fuel shipping cask delivery and testing; sample acquisition and evaluation; and decontamination and dose reduction. 26 figs.
Houts, Peter S; Doak, Cecilia C; Doak, Leonard G; Loscalzo, Matthew J
To assess the effects of pictures on health communications. Peer reviewed studies in health education, psychology, education, and marketing journals were reviewed. There was no limit placed on the time periods searched. Pictures closely linked to written or spoken text can, when compared to text alone, markedly increase attention to and recall of health education information. Pictures can also improve comprehension when they show relationships among ideas or when they show spatial relationships. Pictures can change adherence to health instructions, but emotional response to pictures affects whether they increase or decrease target behaviors. All patients can benefit, but patients with low literacy skills are especially likely to benefit. Patients with very low literacy skills can be helped by spoken directions plus pictures to take home as reminders or by pictures plus very simply worded captions. Educators should: (1) ask "how can I use pictures to support key points?", (2) minimize distracting details in pictures, (3) use simple language in conjunction with pictures, (4) closely link pictures to text and/or captions, (5) include people from the intended audience in designing pictures, (6) have health professionals plan the pictures, not artists, and (7) evaluate pictures' effects by comparing response to materials with and without pictures.
Howard, Robert L., Jr.
As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.
This report provides estimates of foreign research reactor inventories of aluminum-based and TRIGA irradiated nuclear fuel elements containing highly enriched and low enriched uranium of United States origin that are anticipated in January 1996, January 2001, and January 2006. These fuels from 104 research reactors in 41 countries are the same aluminum-based and TRIGA fuels that were eligible for receipt under the Department of Energy's Offsite Fuels Policy that was in effect in 1988. All fuel inventory and reactor data that were available as of December 1, 1994, have been included in the estimates of approximately 14,300 irradiated fuel elements in January 1996, 18,800 in January 2001, and 22,700 in January 2006
Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H
Demographic and management data about organic dairies have been reported previously, but the current study is the first needs assessment of research and educational priorities of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States based directly upon their input. Our objectives were to (1) develop an initial understanding of the emerging research and educational needs of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States via focus group interviews, and (2) prioritize the needs identified by the focus groups with a broader population of organic dairy farmers via survey methods. Focus group interviews determined the questions used for the survey questionnaire distributed to 1,200 members of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance. The members were asked about demographic information, but more importantly, challenges concerning business management and marketing, organic certification, and animal nutrition, health, and reproduction. The results (183 respondents, 15% response rate) were parsed by region (New England farms compared with New York and Pennsylvania farms), herd size (i.e., 12 to 37, 38 to 59, and >60 cows), and years of organic certification (farm consisted of 309 acres and 57 milking cows, on which most of the forage was homegrown but grains were purchased (73% of farms). Among the greatest challenges identified by the farmers were obtaining a steady, fair price for milk (85% respondents); determining dry matter intake for animals on pasture (76%); and controlling nuisance flies (89%). Needs for additional research included organic treatments for mastitis (92% respondents), growing forages for organic production (84%), and developing value-added products (84%). Farms with educational programs included learning about direct marketing possibilities (76% respondents) and providing training to regional veterinarians interested in organic remedies (91%). In conclusion, the information obtained from the current needs assessment provides a
Ferrell, J. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Tardif, M.L. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Garca, L.R. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Florestas, Colombo (Brazil); Betters, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ashworth, J. [Meridian Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)
This is an overview of the current biomass feedstock efforts in Brazil, Canada, and the United States. The report from Brazil provides an historical perspective of incentive programs, the charcoal and fuelwood energy programs, the alcohol program, and other biomass energy efforts. The efforts in Brazil, particularly with the sugar cane to ethanol and the charcoal and fuelwood programs, dwarfs other commercial biomass systems in the Americas. One of the bright spots in the future is the Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine Electricity Project initially funded in 1992. The sugar cane-based ethanol industry continues to develop higher yielding cane varieties and more efficient microorganisms to convert the sugar cane carbohydrates into alcohol. In Canada a number of important institutions and enterprises taking part in the economical development of the country are involved in biomass research and development including various aspects of the biomass such as forestry, agricultural, industrial, urban, food processing, fisheries and peat bogs. Biomass feedstock research in the United States is evolving to reflect Department of Energy priorities. Greater emphasis is placed on leveraging research with the private sector contributing a greater share of funds, for both research and demonstration projects. The feedstock program, managed by ORNL, is focused on limited model species centered at a regional level using a multidisciplinary approach. Activities include a stronger emphasis on emerging environmental issues such as biodiversity, sustainability and habitat management. DOE also is a supporter of the National Biofuels Roundtable, which is developing principles for producing biomass energy in an economically viable and ecologically sound manner. Geographical Information Systems are also being developed as tools to quantify and characterize the potential supply of energy crops in various regions.
Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Harvested cables from operating or decommissioned nuclear power plants present an important opportunity to validate models, understanding material aging behavior, and validate characterization techniques. Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant is a pressurized water reactor that was licensed to operate from 1976 to 2013. Cable segments were harvested and made available to the Light Water Reactor Sustainability research program through the Electric Power Research Institute. Information on the locations and circuits within the reactor from whence the cable segments came, cable construction, sourcing and installation information, and photographs of the cable locations prior to harvesting were provided. The cable variations provided represent six of the ten most common cable insulations in the nuclear industry and experienced service usage for periods from 15 to 42 years. Subsequently, these cables constitute a valuable asset for research to understand aging behavior and measurement of nuclear cables. Received cables harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant consist of low voltage, insulated conductor surrounded by jackets in lengths from 24 to 100 feet each. Cable materials will primarily be used to investigate aging under simultaneous thermal and gamma radiation exposure. Each cable insulation and jacket material will be characterized in its as-received condition, including determination of the temperatures associated with endothermic transitions in the material using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Temperatures for additional thermal exposure aging will be selected following the thermal analysis to avoid transitions in accelerated laboratory aging that do not occur in field conditions. Aging temperatures above thermal transitions may also be targeted to investigate the potential for artifacts in lifetime prediction from rapid accelerated aging. Total gamma doses and dose rates targeted for each material
Giannopoulos, Antonios; Alani, Amir
Ground penetrating radar has been playing an important role for many years in assisting in the non-destructive evaluation of UK's built environment as well as being employed in more general shallow depth geophysical investigations. Ground penetrating radar, in the United Kingdom, has a long history of original work both in developing original research ideas on fundamental aspects of the technique, both in hardware and in software, and in exploring innovative ideas relating to the practical implementation of ground penetrating radar in a number of interesting projects. For example, the base of one of the biggest organisations that connects ground penetrating radar practitioners is in the United Kingdom. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground penetrating radar research - primarily carried out in UK Universities - and present some key areas and work that is carried out at a practical level - primarily by private enterprises. Although, the main effort is to concentrate on ground penetrating radar applications relating to civil engineering problems other related areas of ground penetrating radar application will also be reviewed. The aim is to create a current picture of ground penetrating radar use with a view to inform and potentially enhance the possibility of new developments and collaborations that could lead to the advancement of ground penetrating radar as a geophysical investigative method. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.
Constance E Shehu
Full Text Available Background: One of the most sensitive and intimate decisions made by any individual or couple is that of fertility control . The knowledge of the factors which influence contraceptive choices may increase its acceptance and uptake. This study determines the choice and reason for contraception among new clients attending the Fertility Research Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study a structured questionnaire was administered to 251 consecutive clients, who attended the Fertility Research Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto between 1 July 2008 and 31 December 2008. Results: Most (58.2% of the clients were between 21 and 30 years of age. Many (42.6% were grand multipara. Majority (76.9% of the clients were married. The main source of knowledge of contraception and referral (45.8% was the physicians. Child spacing (87.7% was the most common reason given for contraceptive use. Majority (55.8% of the clients chose Implanon and the least preferred method of contraception was the condom (2.0%. Conclusion: Our data shows that the most commonly chosen contraceptive method in the study population was the Implanon. Child spacing was the main reason for seeking family planning while the source of contraceptive knowledge was the physicians.
Catalina Georgiana PICU
Full Text Available In the context of globalization and due to the accelerated progress made in information and communication technology, more and more companies offer their employees the option of telecommuting. For the past twenty years, telecommuting has been on an asceding trend, an incresing number of people embracing the ability to work from home, using a computer and internet connection to communicate for their jobs. The goal of the paper is to explain the overall notion of telecommuting and to analyze the current trends in the United States and European Union markets. Another objective is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting and the important role played by this concept within the striving purpose of corporations to achieve their strategic targets. The study is based upon specialized literature reviews regarding the emergence of telecommuting and the role it plays in organizations. A comparative analysis was conducted by the authors on two regional markets, United States and the European Union, in order to assess the trend in telecommuting and the factors that influence it. The outcome of the research shows that although the benefits of telecommuting are numerous, it does not come without challenges, both being applicable for both the employer, as well as for the employee. The research results of this study can be used by organizations when considering to offer their employees flexible work opportunities which can positively influence the long term business performance.
Weightman, M.W.; Willby, C.R.
In the United Kingdom, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) licenses nuclear facilities, including research reactors, on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The legislation, the regulatory organizations and the methods of operation that have been developed over the last 30 years result in a largely non-prescriptive form of control that is well suited to research reactors. The most important part of the regulatory system is the license and the attachment of conditions which it permits. These conditions require the licensee to prepare arrangements to control the safety of the facility. In doing so the licensee is encouraged to develop a 'safety culture' within its organization. This is particularly important for research reactors which may have limited staff resources and where the ability, and at times the need, to have access to the core is much greater than for nuclear power plants. Present day issues such as the ageing of nuclear facilities, public access to the rationale behind regulatory decisions, and the emergence of more stringent safety requirements, which include a need for quantified safety criteria, have been addressed by the NII. This paper explores the relevance of such issues to the regulation of research reactors. In particular, it discusses some of the factors associated with research reactors that should be considered in developing criteria for the tolerability of risk from these nuclear facilities. From a consideration of these factors, it is the authors' view that the range of tolerable risk to the public from the operation of new research reactors may be expected to be more stringent than similar criteria for new nuclear power plants, whereas the criteria for tolerable risk for research reactor workers are expected to be about the same as those for power reactor workers
Morgan, Peter B.; Sopka, Dennis M.; Kathpal, Madeera; Haynes, Jeffrey C.; Lally, Brian E.; Li, Linna
Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published ≥1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented ≥1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.
Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Rowland, R. L., II; Draper, D. S.; McCubbin, F. M.
Large sample volume 5000 ton multi-anvil presses have contributed to the exploration of deep Earth and planetary interiors, synthesis of ultra-hard and other novel materials, and serve as a sample complement to pressure and temperature regimes already attainable by diamond anvil cell experiments. However, no such facility exists in the Western Hemisphere. We are establishing an open user facility for the entire research community, with the unique capability of a 5000 ton multi-anvil and deformation press, HERA (High pressure Experimental Research Apparatus), supported by a host of extant co-located experimental and analytical laboratories and research staff. We offer wide range of complementary and/or preparatory experimental options. Any required synthesis of materials or follow up experiments can be carried out controlled atmosphere furnaces, piston cylinders, multi-anvil, or experimental impact apparatus. Additionally, our division houses two machine shops that would facilitate any modification or custom work necessary for development of CETUS, one for general fabrication and one located specifically within our experimental facilities. We also have a general sample preparation laboratory, specifically for experimental samples, that allows users to quickly and easily prepare samples for ebeam analyses and more. Our focus as contract staff is on serving the scientific needs of our users and collaborators. We are seeking community expert input on multiple aspects of this facility, such as experimental assembly design, module modifications, immediate projects, and future innovation initiatives. We've built a cooperative network of 12 (and growing) collaborating institutions, including COMPRES. CETUS is a coordinated effort leveraging HERA with our extant experimental, analytical, and planetary process modelling instrumentation and expertise in order to create a comprehensive model of the origin and evolution of our solar system and beyond. We are looking to engage
Afolabi, Muhammed O; Bojang, Kalifa; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Ota, Martin O C; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Larson, Heidi J; McGrath, Nuala; Chandramohan, Daniel
To develop and psychometrically evaluate an audio digitised tool for assessment of comprehension of informed consent among low-literacy Gambian research participants. We conducted this study in the Gambia where a high illiteracy rate and absence of standardised writing formats of local languages pose major challenges for research participants to comprehend consent information. We developed a 34-item questionnaire to assess participants' comprehension of key elements of informed consent. The questionnaire was face validated and content validated by experienced researchers. To bypass the challenge of a lack of standardised writing formats, we audiorecorded the questionnaire in three major Gambian languages: Mandinka, Wolof and Fula. The questionnaire was further developed into an audio computer-assisted interview format. The digitised questionnaire was administered to 250 participants enrolled in two clinical trials in the urban and rural areas of the Gambia. One week after first administration, the questionnaire was readministered to half of the participants who were randomly selected. Participants were eligible if enrolled in the parent trials and could speak any of the three major Gambian languages. The primary outcome measure was reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Item reduction by factor analysis showed that 21 of the question items have strong factor loadings. These were retained along with five other items which were fundamental components of informed consent. The 26-item questionnaire has high internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.73-0.79 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% CI 0.923 to 0.954). Hypotheses testing also showed that the questionnaire has a positive correlation with a similar questionnaire and discriminates between participants with and without education. We have developed a reliable and valid measure of comprehension of informed consent information for the Gambian context, which might be easily adapted to
Sekiguchi, Akira; Naito, Keiji; Suzuki, Susumu; Furuya, Hirotaka; Sato, Masatomo.
In the Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, the special research project ''Comprehensive Research on the Management of Long-lived Radioactive WasΩtes'' is carried out in the three-year period from fiscal 1982 to 1984. In this connection, a symposium has been held on January 25, 1983. Seven lectures given by the respective speakers are summarized individually: (1) the research of transuranic elements in educational institutions, (2) an outline of the actinoid research facilities planned in Tohoku University, (3) the radiation damage and leachability of glass solids, (4) the situation and trend in Japan and abroad of the disposal of long-lived nuclide wastes, (5) practical site tests concerning the geologic-formation disposal of low-level wastes, (6) the trend in the research of geologic formations for the disposal of high-level wastes, (7) the safety in the management of long-lived radioactive wastes. (Mori, K.)
Brady, Samuel L; Mohaupt, Thomas H; Kaufman, Robert A
The objectives of this study are to establish a comprehensive method for radiation dose estimates for the most common imaging examinations performed for research, for internal use of institutional review board (IRB) and radiation safety committees; to provide investigators with relative examination doses so that they may better assess the potential radiation effects and risks for research subjects; and to provide simplified language that investigators can use in consent documents. Nineteen common radiation-based examinations used in clinical research at our institution were identified. For each modality (CT, digital radiography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, PET/CT, and nuclear medicine), a comprehensive patient-specific dosimetry method was established. Effective dose was calculated according to average population calculated doses for the following age groups: 0-1, 2-8, 9-13, 14-15, and older than 15 years. Estimated effective dose values were tabulated and posted on our institutional IRB intranet site for use by IRB and radiation safety committee members and institutional investigators. Relative examination dose levels were compared for all ages and for all examinations. A three-tiered approach to establish consent language for radiation exposure was established for research subjects receiving an effective dose less than 3 mSv, a dose between 3 and 50 mSv, and a dose greater than 50 mSv. The method to estimate effective dose was tabulated for 19 of the most common ionizing radiation examinations at our institute. These results will act as a resource to help investigators better understand the implications of radiation exposure in research and can assist investigators in protocol development and correct categorization of radiation exposure risk.
May 13, 2015 ... Systems (SEEDS)-INDEPTH Network Accra, Ghana, 3KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, The Centre of Geographical Medicine Research-. Coast, Kilifi, Kenya, 4Population Health Sciences/Research Support Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University- East Africa, Nairobi,. Kenya ...
Jouan, R.; Magaud, M.
After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)
Chase, Anthony Michael
The Center for Authentic Science Practices in Education (CASPiE) pioneered a course-based research experience approach to teaching chemistry laboratory courses. The method had previously been studied in a variety of institutional settings. Recently, the United States Military Academy at West Point decided to develop CASPiE-style modules for the introductory honors chemistry course. This research setting presents clean experimental-control comparisons and a group of faculty who were completely new to the method. Equipping students with authentic research experiences early in their education is important regardless of the institution. However, cadets at a military academy must make decisions relatively early (the outset of their second year) as to what their career trajectory will be as eventual officers. In the new CASPiE-based experience, cadets are given the opportunity to select from one of three different modules (analytical chemistry, toxicology, and chemical engineering) in which to participate during the course. These three modules represent subsections of an overall Army waste-to-energy research project. Cadets generate unique hypotheses, real data, and research posters towards the advancement of the project. Posters are then presented in a session. that includes an audience of project stakeholders, course instructors, and other academy faculty and staff. Here, I will present my research methods, evaluative procedures, and findings in the affective domain, critical thinking, and laboratory content comprehension.
Vancea, Mihaela; Solé-Casals, Jordi
Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people's daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy. The authours attempt to propose a research agenda, by exposing various strengts and weaknesses of eHealth innovations for elderly, mainly grounded in secondary sources analysis.
Llauradó-Serra, M; Güell-Baró, R; Castanera-Duro, A; Sandalinas, I; Argilaga, E; Fortes-Del Valle, M L; Jiménez-Herrera, M F; Bordonado-Pérez, L; Fuentes-Pumarola, C
The implementation of evidence based practice is essential in clinical practice. However, it is still a challenge in critical care patients. To identify the barriers for conducting research that nursing professionals perceive in intensive care and medical emergency departments, as well as to investigate the areas of interest and motivations to carry out research projects. Cross-sectional and multicentre study carried out in 4 intensive care units and in one Medical Emergency Department emergency pre-hospital carein Catalonia on 2014. The instrument used was The Barriers to Research Utilization Scale which had been previously validated into Spanish. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed. A statistical significance of P<.05 was assumed. One hundred seventy-two questionnaires were obtained (69.9% response). Of the total, 135 were from critical care, 27 to pre-hospital care, and 10 from both. Just over half (57.3%) had research experience, although 44.4% had related training. The questionnaire dimension considered most relevant was organisational characteristics. The most important barriers were: there is not enough time at work [3.11 (SD 1.21)], physicians do not collaborate in its implementation [2.99 (SD 1.22)], and nurses are isolated with respect to other professionals [2.86 (SD 1.32)]. Significant differences were observed in the barriers according to research experience and work place. The main motivation was to be updated in critical patient care. The main barriers perceived are related to the organisation. There are differences in the barriers according to research experience and work place. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret
Cyberbullying research is rapidly expanding with many studies being published from around the world in the past five or six years. In this article we review the current international literature published in English, with particular attention to the following themes: The relationship of cyberbullying to the more traditional face-to-face bullying,…
... Service 7 CFR Part 1220 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-12-0022] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would adjust the number of members on the United Soybean Board...
Cooper, M.D.; Beck, R.N.
This document describes several years research to improve PET imaging and diagnostic techniques in man. This program addresses the problems involving the basic science and technology underlying the physical and conceptual tools of radioactive tracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The overall objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice in order that individual patients and society as a whole will receive the maximum net benefit from the new knowledge gained. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. The reports in the study were processed separately for the data bases
Sanchez, Daniel L.; Amador, Giana; Funk, Jason; Mach, Katharine J.
Atmospheric carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies may be critical to achieving deep decarbonization. Yet a lack of technical and commercial maturity of CDR technologies hinders potential deployment. Needs for commercialization span research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities, including development of new materials, reactors, and processes, and rigorous monitoring of a portfolio of demonstration projects. As a world leader in supporting science and engineering, the United States (US) can play an important role in reducing costs and clarifying the sustainable scale of CDR. To date, federal agencies have focused on voluntary or piecemeal CDR programs. Here, we present a synthesis of research and developement needs, relevant agency authority, barriers to coordination, and interventions to enhance RD&D across the federal government of the US. On the basis of agency authority and expertise, the Department of Energy, Department of Agriculture, Department of the Interior, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and National Science Foundation are most central to conducting research, funding projects, monitoring effects, and promulgating regulations. Key enablers for successful programs include embracing technological diversity and administrative efficiency, fostering agency buy-in, and achieving commercial deployment. Based on these criteria, the executive branch could effectively coordinate RD&D strategy through two complementary pathways: (1) renewing intra-agency commitment to CDR in five primary agencies, including both research and demonstration, and (2) coordinating research prioritization and outcomes across agencies, led by the Office of Science and Technology Policy and loosely based on the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Both pathways can be stimulated by executive order or Congressional mandate. Executive branch implementation can begin at any time; future Farm and Energy Bills provide legislative vehicles for enhancing programs.
Garland, Allan; Gershengorn, Hayley B; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Wilcox, M Elizabeth
Various data sources can be used to conduct research on critical illness and intensive care unit (ICU) use. Most published studies derive from randomized controlled trials, large-scale clinical databases, or retrospective chart reviews. However, few investigators have access to such data sources or possess the resources to create them. Hospital administrative data, also called health claims data, constitute an important alternative data source that can be used to address a broad range of research questions, including many that would be difficult to study in interventional studies. Such data often contain information that allows identification of ICU care, specific types of critical illness, and ICU-related procedures. The strengths of using administrative databases are that many are population-based, cover broad geographic regions, and are large enough to provide high statistical power and precise effect estimates. Linking hospital data to other databases regarding chronic care facilities, home care services, or rehabilitation services, for example, can expand the scope of research questions that can be answered. However, the limitations of administrative data must be recognized. They are not collected for research purposes; thus, data elements may vary in accuracy, and key clinical variables such as ICU-specific physiologic and laboratory data are usually lacking. Specific efforts should be made to validate the data elements used, as has been done in several world regions. As with any other research question, it is imperative that the analysis plan be carefully defined in advance and that appropriate attention be paid to potential sources of bias and confounding.
Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A
Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Due to high boiling temperature, organic acids are present in the warmer areas of metal equipment from atmospheric and vacuum distillation units and determine, increased corrosion processes in furnace tubes, transfer lines, metal equipment within the distillation columns etc. In order to protect the corrosion of metal equipment from atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, against acids, de authors researched solution which integrates corrosion inhibitors and selecting materials for equipment construction. For this purpose, we tested the inhibitor PET 1441, which has dialchilfosfat in his composition and inhibitor based on phosphate ester. In this case, to the metal surface forms a complex phosphorous that forms of high temperature and high fluid speed. In order to form the passive layer and to achieve a 90% protection, we initially insert a shock dose, and in order to ensure further protection there is used a dose of 20 ppm. The check of anticorrosion protection namely the inhibition efficiency is achieved by testing samples made from steel different.
Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.
A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing powerful output signals. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole eight bit system with very limited memory runs independently of a personal computer. The two on board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units or to connect other equipment, as required in real time. This paper describes the software architecture for the third prototype that now provides stable measurements and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. As test case a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The software architecture proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.
Derwent, R.G.; Wilson, R.B.
The United Kingdom environmental research into the mechanisms of the atmospheric transport and deposition of acidity, to understand the impacts of that acidity on soils, surface waters, forests, crops and the built environment and the consequences for fishery status, freshwater and soil ecosystems. The Critical Loads Approach opens the possibility of more subtle and sensitive ways of tackling the problems of environmental acidification on the European scale. The United Kingdom is contributing vigorously to the Critical Loads Approach through the mapping exercises, the environmental studies that underpin them and the understanding of the driving deposition mechanisms which lead both to pollutant removal and ecosystem contamination. Future progress with the UN ECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution and the revision of the NO x , SO 2 and VOC protocols will rest in very large measure on the shared confidence within Europe in the knowledge of the underpinning environmental science. The Critical Loads Approach should provide an important policy focus within the international scientific community to set environmentally-based targets for future co-ordinated emission control programmes
The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) falls within the UK Department of Transport's Marine Directorate and is the lead agency in the UK for the control of marine pollution. The MPCU assumes central government's responsibility for controlling two aspects of marine pollution: at sea response to oil and chemical spills from ships, and coordinating beach cleaning activities. All research funded by the MPCU is therefore directed at these two responsibilities. The MPCU was established in 1978 after a series of major tanker incidents in European waters (notably the AMOCO CADIZ, France) in recognition of the fact that it was not reasonable to expect the owners of tankers which operate on a world-wide basis to make arrangements for dealing with oil spills wherever they may occur. The UK Government therefore decided to set up a response unit, the MPCU, with specific responsibilities for dealing with oil and chemical spills from ships at sea. The responsibility for dealing with pollution once it comes ashore lies with the local authorities. However, to avoid expenditure by individual authorities on specialized equipment which will be rarely required, the government decided to set up stockpiles of such equipment in strategic locations to be drawn on by authorities as and when necessary. The government also provides training in the use of this equipment, offers scientific and technical advice and, for major spills, will coordinate beach cleaning activities
Slade, David H.
Initial plans for research of the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and climate issue were prepared in 1978 and were reviewed extensively at that time by federal agencies and members of the scientific community. Since then the plans have been used to guide early phases of the Department of Energy's and the nation's efforts related to this issue. This document represents a revision of the 1978 plan to (a) reflect recent ideas and strategies for carbon cycle research, and (b) expand the scope of research on climatic responses to increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO/sub 2/. The revised plan takes into account a number of investigations already being supported by various agencies, and it attempts to build on or add to existing research where there is a crucial need for information directly related to the CO/sub 2/ issue. It should be recognized that this document is the first section of a comprehensive plan on the overall consequences of increasing concentrations of CO/sub 2/, and includes guidelines for research on the Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Effects of Increasing CO/sub 2/.
Illustrated by figures, graphs and tables of data, nine articles give overviews of the present evolutions and tendencies for research and development in the energy sector in the United States of America. After a first article commenting the possible evolution of the energy model in this country, the authors are commenting the priority given to innovation for clean energies, the evolution of patents claimed by US companies, the smart-grid-based energy strategy, the evolution of the wind energy sector, the technological evolutions and decreasing prices of the solar energy, the large investments required for a large scale development of geothermal energy, the voluntary policy and the ambitious objectives in the field of bio-energies and bio-fuels, and California as a leader in the field of renewable energies
Fenner, F; Sweeney, A W
In June 1943 arrangements were made to carry out experiments on malaria suppressive drugs on human volunteers in Cairns, in north Queensland, under the direction of Brigadier Neil Hamilton Fairley; early in 1944 the Land Headquarters Medical Research Unit was established to continue this work. Using 868 healthy volunteers and 317 infected soldiers and A. punctulatus mosquitoes flow in from New Guinea or bred locally, several suppressive drugs were tested. Doses of 10 grains of quinine daily failed to suppress New Guinea strains of P. falciparum and were only partially effective against P. vivax infections, whereas 100 mg of atebrin daily controlled symptoms of P. vivax infection and cured infections with most New Guinea strains of P. falciparum, however some strains of P. falciparum from Wewak were resistant to this dose, but were cured with double the daily dose.
The United States Congress first called for improved coordination of human nutrition research within and among federal departments and agencies in the 1977 Farm Bill. Today, the Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and commu...
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the intramural research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) which addresses basic scientific questions and develops applied solutions to a range of agricultural problems, and in doing so protects national food security and supports ...
Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.C.
This 3-y report cites progress in the following areas of radiopharmaceutical research: cyclotron operations; 51 Mn for myocardial localization; 82 Rb for heart imaging; 15 O-labelled H 2 O and molecular oxygen; studies on 11 C-2-deoxyglucose localization; 13 NH 3 measurements of myocardial perfusion; 130 Cs myocardial imaging; heart motion studies; labelled amino acids for pancreatic imaging; 11 C-hexamethonium for cartilage imaging; 11 C-cholic acid pharmacology; blood element labelling with /sup 115m/In; 75 Br studies; extrapolation of animal data to humans; in vivo quantification of radioactivity; fetal and neonatal radiation effects from radiopharmaceuticals administered to pregnant and lactating mice; and verification of MIRD absorbed dose calculations for some organ-incorporated radionuclides
Miklos, M.; Namburi, H. K.
It is well know from 1950's till date, that the users, demand and network of gamma irradiation facility centers are growing rapidly to support industries as well as research due to its versatility. At present, its applications are in the fields of biological, chemical, solid state physics, medical, food and sterilization etc. The Gamma Irradiation Facility of the CVREZ is a dry-storage irradiator, which reached source end of life. The facility is now under refurbishment as a multi-purpose research center, fulfilling the requirements of international standards to support primarily the research sector and industries. Apart from the classical usage of gamma irradiation facility there is great scientific interest to use them to characterize the materials that are used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP's). Electrical system unit in a nuclear power plants consists of several components. For instance some of them are light emitting diodes, pin-type photo-detectors and optical fibers, rubber seals, electrical insulation, thermal insulation, polymeric composites and metallic components etc. Under normal environmental conditions these materials possess good mechanical properties/chemical stability. The qualification of these materials for usage in NPPs under radiation environments and at high temperatures are desired for their better performance. Another feasibility of using gamma irradiation facility in the contest of NPP's is radiation hardening of robots that are used time-to-time in inspection of NPP's. Overall objective of our project is to support research activities aiming to understand the materials modification due to ionizing radiation. Upgraded facility will provide high-fidelity simulation of nuclear radiation environments for materials and component testing. We present our work by providing the information on (i) our objectives in utilizing the gamma facility, (ii) specific experimental test set-up under development to perform tests at elevated
Sokolov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Alexander; Borodkin, Vladimir; Laurila, Tuomas; Asmi, Ejia; Popovicheva, Olga
Research Station "Ice base "Cape Baranov" of Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) was opened in the fall 2013 on the Bolshevik Island, Archipelago Severnaya Zemlia. Presently in the observatory comprehensive studies in practically all areas of Earth Sciences are conducted. During 2014 - 2016 years about 30 scientists and technicians carried out standard and special meteorological, radiation and upper-air observations, including studies of ozone in troposphere and lower stratosphere; investigations of turbulent and radiation energy - mass exchange between surface and atmosphere; measurements of greenhouse gases concentrations, chemical composition of precipitation, aerosol research (including black carbon); investigations of the active soil layer, morphological characteristics and physical - mechanical processes in fast ice; oceanographic and hydrochemical studies in the Shokalski Strait; hydrological studies of small rivers and lakes; glaciological and paleogeographic studies; ecological studies of natural objects in the region of "Ice Base" Cape Baranov". In 2017 there are plans for organization of greenhouse gases fluxes measurements from tundra (together with Korean Polar Research Institute) and installation of high-resolution ground-based remote sensing systems SODAR, RASS, and ceilometer (together with Trier University, Germany). This study is supported by CNTP 220.127.116.11 of Roshydromet and Project 2017-14-588-0005-003 of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation
The purpose of this study is to develop a down-sized, easy operation phosphoric acid fuel cell power generation system as a commercial on-site power source for hotel and hospital and to operate the system. The five-year program was initiated in 1986. In FY 1986, the component research such as the moulding process of sheet matrix and electrode for thinner cell and the determination of performance of heat pipe cooler were made. The structure of down-sized reformer and heat-exchanger were investigated. The three-dimensional impeller, material of impeller, gaseous bearing and the structure of soundproof package of the high-performance turbo compressor were studied to determine the basic structure. Hotel A with the floor space of appromixately 50,000 m/sup 2/ was selected to install the system and the demands of power and heat were surveyed. The specifications of a 200 kW-outdoor system were developed based on those results. (2 tabs)
An investigational study was conducted on the research and development of an at-home welfare apparatus system. In this study, a stay experiment was carried out on whether aged or handicapped people can easily live in welfare houses into which at-home welfare apparatus was integrated, using high-tech at-home nursing apparatus systems (welfare techno house: WTH) which were installed at seven places in Japan based on `the development of a system supporting independent excretion.` In addition, the following were conducted: experiments on at-home welfare apparatus in terms of the evaluation of performance/operability/safety, physical physiology reactions, nursing burden/estimate of independence, two-way communication, examination of housing environments, etc. In WTH Chofu, a test on evaluating welfare apparatus was conducted by people with limbs paralysis and healthy case workers. In WTH Sapporo, by a working group studying biological information, examinations were made on the situation of standing up of healthy adults, old people and people with paralysis of one side of the body from various types of chairs, beds, wheel chairs, portable toilets and sitting down on them. An examination was also made on harmony with psychological function and physically adaptable function by a working group studying at-home nursing apparatus. 75 figs., 15 tabs.
Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.
This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.
Glover, Matthew; Montague, Erin; Pollitt, Alexandra; Guthrie, Susan; Hanney, Stephen; Buxton, Martin; Grant, Jonathan
Building on an approach applied to cardiovascular and cancer research, we estimated the economic returns from United Kingdom public- and charitable-funded musculoskeletal disease (MSD) research that arise from the net value of the improved health outcomes in the United Kingdom. To calculate the economic returns from MSD-related research in the United Kingdom, we estimated (1) the public and charitable expenditure on MSD-related research in the United Kingdom between 1970 and 2013; (2) the net monetary benefit (NMB), derived from the health benefit in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) valued in monetary terms (using a base-case value of a QALY of £25,000) minus the cost of delivering that benefit, for a prioritised list of interventions from 1994 to 2013; (3) the proportion of NMB attributable to United Kingdom research; and (4) the elapsed time between research funding and health gain. The data collected from these four key elements were used to estimate the internal rate of return (IRR) from MSD-related research investments on health benefits. We analysed the uncertainties in the IRR estimate using a one-way sensitivity analysis. Expressed in 2013 prices, total expenditure on MSD-related research from 1970 to 2013 was £3.5 billion, and for the period used to estimate the rate of return, 1978-1997, was £1.4 billion. Over the period 1994-2013 the key interventions analysed produced 871,000 QALYs with a NMB of £16 billion, allowing for the net NHS costs resulting from them and valuing a QALY at £25,000. The proportion of benefit attributable to United Kingdom research was 30% and the elapsed time between funding and impact of MSD treatments was 16 years. Our best estimate of the IRR from MSD-related research was 7%, which is similar to the 9% for CVD and 10% for cancer research. Our estimate of the IRR from the net health gain to public and charitable funding of MSD-related research in the United Kingdom is substantial, and justifies the research investments
Eggermont, A.M.M.; Keilholz, U.; Autier, P.; Ruiter, D.J.; Lehmann, F.; Lienard, D.
The EORTC Melanoma Group (MG) was founded in 1969 by both clinicians and scientists from various disciplines and fields of research with a common interest in malignant melanoma. This collaborative approach has always been the foundation of the groups strength. With an interest in tumour biology and
AYALA, GUADALUPE X.; BAQUERO, BARBARA; KLINGER, SYLVIA
Dietary intake is an important determinant of obesity and numerous chronic health conditions. A healthful diet is an essential component of chronic disease self-management. Researchers have indicated that the healthfulness of the Latino diet deteriorates during the acculturation process. However, given the many operationalizations of acculturation, conclusive evidence regarding this relationship is still lacking. This comprehensive and systematic literature review examines the relationship be...
Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Manceau, Benedicte; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Lingner, Heidrun; Czachowski, Slawomir; Munoz, Miguel; Argyriadou, Stella; Claveria, Ana; Le Floch, Bernard; Barais, Marie; Bower, Peter; Van Marwijk, Harm; Van Royen, Paul; Lietard, Claire
Multimorbidity is a new concept encompassing all the medical conditions of an individual patient. The concept links into the European definition of family medicine and its core competencies. However, the definition of multimorbidity and its subsequent operationalization are still unclear. The European General Practice Research Network wanted to produce a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity. Systematic review of literature involving eight European General Practice Research Network national teams. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane (1990-2010). Only articles containing descriptions of multimorbidity criteria were selected for inclusion. The multinational team undertook a methodic data extraction, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The team identified 416 documents, selected 68 abstracts, included 54 articles, and found 132 definitions with 1631 different criteria. These criteria were aggregated into 11 themes that led to the following definition: Multimorbidity is defined as any combination of chronic disease with at least one other disease (acute or chronic) or biopsychosocial factor (associated or not) or somatic risk factor. Any biopsychosocial factor, any risk factor, the social network, the burden of diseases, the health care consumption, and the patient's coping strategies may function as modifiers (of the effects of multimorbidity). Multimorbidity may modify the health outcomes and lead to an increased disability or a decreased quality of life or frailty. This study has produced a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity. The resulting improvements in the management of multimorbidity, and its usefulness in long term care and in family medicine, will have to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wheatley, Grayson H., Ed.
Discusses a variation on tiling that offers opportunities for the construction of the fundamental mathematical concept of constructing abstract units called "unitizing." Tiling integrates geometric and numerical settings to develop spatial sense and present mathematics as constructing patterns. (MDH)
Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.
Bostick, B. C.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, E.
Conventional instruction in science often proceeds from the general to the specific and from text to action. Fundamental terminologies, concepts, and ideas that are often abstract are taught first and only after such introductory processes can a student engage in research. Many students struggle to find relevance when presented information without context specific to their own experiences. This challenge is exacerbated for students whose social circles do not include adults who can validate scientific learning from their own experiences. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program inverts the standard paradigm and places small groups of students in research projects where they begin by performing manageable tasks on complex applied research projects. These tasks are supplemented with informal mentoring and relevant articles (~1 per week). Quantitative metrics suggest the approach is highly successful—most participants report a dramatic increase in their enthusiasm for science, 100% attend college, and approximately 50% declare majors in science or technology. We use one project, the construction of a microbial battery, to illustrate this novel model of science learning and argue that it should be considered a best practice for project-based science education. The goal of this project was to build a rechargeable battery for a mobile phone based on a geochemical cycle, to generate and store electricity. The students, mostly from ethnic groups under-represented in the STEM fields, combined concepts and laboratory methods from biology, chemistry and physics to isolate photosynthetic bacteria from a natural salt marsh, and made an in situ device capable of powering a light bulb. The younger participants had been exposed to neither high school chemistry nor physics at the start of the project, yet they were able to use the project as a platform to deepen their science knowledge and their desire for increased participation in formal science education.
Rapkin, Bruce D; Weiss, Elisa; Lounsbury, David; Michel, Tamara; Gordon, Alexis; Erb-Downward, Jennifer; Sabino-Laughlin, Eilleen; Carpenter, Alison; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Bulone, Linda; Kemeny, Margaret
Reduction of cancer-related disparities requires strategies that link medically underserved communities to preventive care. In this community-based participatory research project, a public library system brought together stakeholders to plan and undertake programs to address cancer screening and risk behavior. This study was implemented over 48 months in 20 large urban neighborhoods, selected to reach diverse communities disconnected from care. In each neighborhood, Cancer Action Councils were organized to conduct a comprehensive dynamic trial, an iterative process of program planning, implementation and evaluation. This process was phased into neighborhoods in random, stepped-wedge sequence. Population-level outcomes included self-reported screening adherence and smoking cessation, based on street intercept interviews. Event-history regressions (n = 9374) demonstrated that adherence outcomes were associated with program implementation, as were mediators such as awareness of screening programs and cancer information seeking. Findings varied by ethnicity, and were strongest among respondents born outside the U.S. or least engaged in care. This intervention impacted health behavior in diverse, underserved and vulnerable neighborhoods. It has been sustained as a routine library system program for several years after conclusion of grant support. In sum, participatory research with the public library system offers a flexible, scalable approach to reduce cancer health disparities. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Full Text Available We propose a comprehensive sensing platform called SenStick, which is composed of hardware (ultra tiny all-in-one sensor board, software (iOS, Android, and PC, and 3D case data. The platform aims to allow all the researchers to start IoT research, such as activity recognition and context estimation, easily and efficiently. The most important contribution is the hardware that we have designed. Various sensors often used for research are embedded in an ultra tiny board with the size of 50 mm (W × 10 mm (H × 5 mm (D and weight around 3 g including a battery. Concretely, the following sensors are embedded on this board: acceleration, gyro, magnetic, light, UV, temperature, humidity, and pressure. In addition, this board has BLE (Bluetooth low energy connectivity and capability of a rechargeable battery. By using 110 mAh battery, it can run more than 15 hours. The most different point from other similar boards is that our board has a large flash memory for logging all the data without a smartphone. By using SenStick, all the users can collect various data easily and focus on IoT data analytics. In this paper, we introduce SenStick platform and some case studies. Through the user study, we confirmed the usefulness of our proposed platform.
Subotnik, Rena F.; Stoeger, Heidrun; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula
The goal of this article is to convey a summary of research and conversation on talent development on the part of a small group of European and American researchers who participated in the Inaugural American European Research Summit in Washington. In the final hours of the summit, participants discussed the state of research on talent development…
Full Text Available The need for commercialization of scientific research leads to the necessity of changing the orientation of scientific-research units to marketing orientation, which is characterized by, among others, conducting research aimed at learning the clients’ needs and building better communication with the recipients. What is an important element of a unit’s marketing communication is its visual identity system, which the recipients use to build their opinion and their picture of the unit. The goal of this article is an attempt to define the key rules of designing visual identity of scientific and research institutions, as well as presenting the role of visualization in their cooperation with business. In the article the notions of image, identity, corporate identity and visual identity are subject to analysis. The article also presents the significance of visualization in the functioning of research and scientific units, elements of visual identity system and the rules of designing visual identity of scientific and research institutions. An analysis of chosen research-scientific units was carried out with regard to visualization.
Broom, Margaret; Gardner, Anne; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Kildea, Sue
To facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. In 2012, an Australian regional neonatal intensive care unit transitioned from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Research has reported single- and small-room neonatal intensive care unit design may negatively impact on the distances nurses walk, reducing the time they spend providing direct neonatal care. Studies have also reported nurses feel isolated and need additional support and education in such neonatal intensive care units. Staff highlighted their concerns regarding the impact of the new design on workflow and clinical practice. A participatory action research approach. A participatory action group titled the Change and Networking Group collaborated with staff over a four-year period (2009-2013) to facilitate the transition. The Change and Networking Group used a collaborative, cyclical process of planning, gathering data, taking action and reviewing the results to plan the next action. Data sources included meeting and workshop minutes, newsletters, feedback boards, subgroup reports and a staff satisfaction survey. The study findings include a description of (1) how the participatory action research cycles were used by the Change and Networking Group: providing examples of projects and strategies undertaken; and (2) evaluations of participatory action research methodology and Group by neonatal intensive care unit staff and Change and Networking members. This study has described the benefits of using participatory action research to facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Participatory action research methodology enabled the inclusion of staff to find solutions to design and clinical practice questions. Future research is required to assess the long-term effect of neonatal intensive care unit design on staff workload, maintaining and supporting a skilled workforce as well as
Vale Claire L
Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs, meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86% were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31% had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development
Vale, Claire L; Thompson, Lindsay C; Murphy, Claire; Forcat, Silvia; Hanley, Bec
We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009) were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86%) were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31%) had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG) [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development of a unit policy on consumer involvement, to guide future
Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.
The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards
Woods, J. E.
The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Polar Science Program (PSP), has been very active completing its own field campaign out of Barrow, AK, sent students to the South Pole, participated in STEM activities and educated over 100 future Naval Officers about the Polar Regions. Each activity is uniquely different, but has the similar undertone of sharing the recent rapid changes in the Cryosphere to a wide range of audiences. There is further room for development and growth through future field campaigns and new collaborations. The Naval Academy Ice Experiment (NAICEX) 2013 was based out of the old Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) in Barrow, AK. In joint collaboration with the University of Delaware, University of Washington, and Naval Research Laboratory we successfully took multiple measurements for over a week on the fast ice just offshore. Five undergraduate students from USNA, as well as 3 graduate students from University of Delaware participated, as well as multiple professors and instructors from each institution. Data collected during the experiment will be used in capstone courses and thesis research. There was also an outreach component to the experiment, where local students from Barrow H.S. have been assigned to the USNA ice observations project for their own high school course work. Local students will be analyzing data that will contribute into the larger research effort at USNA through coordinated remote efforts and participation in future field experiments. The USNA STEM office is one of the most robust in the entire country. The USNA PSP is active within this program by developing polar specific modules that are integrated varying length outreach opportunities from a few hours to week long camps. USNA PSP also engages in educator training that is held at the Naval Academy each summer. Through this program of educating the educators, the far reaching levels of awareness are multiplied exponentially. Also, the USNA Oceanography Department has
Chase, Anthony M.
This dissertation consists of two studies at the United States Military Academy. Both studies involve the use of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs). These experiences give students the ability to engage in undergraduate research at an early point in their academic career by replacing traditional laboratory activities with semester-long research projects. Both studies show an implementation of this type of instruction from the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE). Study 1 shows the specific method of implementation at the military academy and explores learning-based outcomes. Primarily the outcome of critical thinking is demonstrated. Critical thinking is a construct that many curriculum developers and instructors want to foster within their students but often lack clear definitions or evaluation plans. This study gives a definition of critical thinking and an outcome of a critical thinking test. Significant gains in critical thinking are observed by students participating in the CURE as well as significant gains in three affective factors (Interest in Science/Chemistry, Authenticity, Perceived Learning). The gains in critical thinking are then further statistically linked to students’ perceptions of how authentically they saw the research in the course. If they felt that the course was demonstrating more authentic science practices, they gained significantly more in their critical thinking scores. The second study in this dissertation adds an additional transfer focus to the instructional materials that the CURE was meant to support. The treatment group in this study received instruction that was framed expansively. The expansively framed instruction showed students ways that the material was applicable outside of the course. The assessments and instructional materials of this study were transfer assessments with contrasting cases. Instances of negative or “overzealous transfer” were also reported. Findings suggest
Charles David Crumpton
Full Text Available Abstract This study compares research on evaluation of public policies in Brazil and the United States. To examine the extent to which evaluation research has been established in these countries, this article uses the methods of bibliometric and social network analysis to compare recent use of evaluation research in these countries. The results show that Brazil and the United States have focused on the same areas of research, especially the areas of health, education and social welfare. It was also observed that researchers from both countries use research methods, although American researchers make more use of quanti-quali methods, and that research networks on policy evaluation in the two country have similar characteristics, although the average size and density of networks in Brazil is less than that in the United States. On the basis of the evidence, it is concluded that evaluation research in Brazil evolved during the period investigated and is becoming consolidated as a field of study and practice.
This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized according to the following themes: behaviour of nuclear fuel under accidental conditions, core fusion accidents, fire in confined environment, and civil engineering and structure behaviour. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. Each research theme is analyzed in the same way
The Urban Consortium (UC), created by PTI, is a network of jurisdictions with populations of over 250,000. The UC provides a platform for research and enterprise through its Energy, Environmental, Transportation, and Telecommunications and Information Task Forces. The UC provides a unique creative forum where elected and appointed officials and technical managers identify, test, and validate practical ways to improve the provision of public services and, where possible, generate new revenue opportunities. Public Technology, Inc., is the non-profit technology organization of the National League of Cities, the National Association of Counties, and the International City/County Management Association. PTI creates and advances technology-based products, services, and enterprises in cities and counties nationwide. Staffed by PTI, the UC addresses the critical needs of local governments through its Task Forces. The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF) program has, since its inception, acted as a laboratory to develop, test solutions and share the resulting products or management approaches with the wider audience of local governments. It has addressed the overlap between energy and environment and economic development policy issues, and, is the nation's most extensive cooperative local government program to improve energy management and decision-making through applied research and technology cooperation. Proposals to meet the specific objectives of the UCETF annual R and D program are solicited from major urban jurisdictions. Projects based on these proposals are then selected by the UCETF for direct conduct and management by staff of city and county governments. Projects selected for each year's program are organized in thematic units to assure effective management and ongoing peer-to-peer experience exchange, with results documented at the end of each program year.
Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.
Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
Silvestre, Jason; Wu, Liza C; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M
An increasing number of women are entering the medical profession, but plastic surgery remains a male-dominated profession, especially within academia. As academic aspirations and advancement depend largely on research productivity, the authors assessed the number of articles authored by women published in the journal Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Original articles in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery published during the years 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, and 2014 were analyzed. First and senior authors with an M.D. degree and U.S. institutional affiliation were categorized by gender. Authorship trends were compared with those from other specialties. Findings were placed in the context of gender trends among plastic surgery residents in the United States. The percentage of female authors in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery increased from 2.4 percent in 1970 to 13.3 percent in 2014. Over the same time period, the percentage of female plastic surgery residents increased from 2.6 percent to 32.5 percent. By 2014, there were more female first authors (19.1 percent) than senior authors (7.7 percent) (p plastic surgery had fewer female authors than other medical specialties including pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, general surgery, internal medicine, and radiation oncology (p plastic surgery is encouraging but lags behind advances in other specialties. Understanding reasons for these trends may help improve gender equity in academic plastic surgery.
Wilson, Scott D.; Geng, Steven M.; Penswick, Lawrence; Schmitz, Paul C.
Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A variety of mission concepts have been studied by NASA and the U. S. Department of Energy that would utilize RPS for landers, probes, and rovers and only require milliwatts to tens of watts of power. These missions would contain science measuring instruments that could be distributed across planetary surfaces or near objects of interest in space solar flux insufficient for using solar cells. A low power Stirling convertor is being developed to provide an RPS option for future low power applications. Initial concepts convert heat available from several Radioisotope Heater Units to electrical power for spacecraft instruments and communication. Initial development activity includes defining and evaluating a variety of Stirling configurations and selecting one for detailed design, research of advanced manufacturing methods that could simplify fabrication, evaluating thermal interfaces, characterizing components and subassemblies to validate design codes, and preparing for an upcoming demonstration of proof of concept in a laboratory environment.
Lopez, Joseph; Ameri, Afshin; Susarla, Srinivas M; Reddy, Sashank; Soni, Ashwin; Tong, J W; Amini, Neda; Ahmed, Rizwan; May, James W; Lee, W P Andrew; Dorafshar, Amir
It is currently unknown whether formal research training has an influence on academic advancement in plastic surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether formal research training was associated with higher research productivity, academic rank, and procurement of extramural National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding in plastic surgery, comparing academic surgeons who completed said research training with those without. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The main predictor variable was formal research training, defined as completion of a postdoctoral research fellowship or attainment of a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). The primary outcome was scientific productivity measured by the Hirsh-index (h-index, the number of publications, h that have at least h citations each). The secondary outcomes were academic rank and NIH funding. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed. A total of 607 academic surgeons were identified from 94 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited plastic surgery training programs. In all, 179 (29.5%) surgeons completed formal research training. The mean h-index was 11.7 ± 9.9. And, 58 (9.6%) surgeons successfully procured NIH funding. The distribution of academic rank was the following: endowed professor (5.4%), professor (23.9%), associate professor (23.4%), assistant professor (46.0%), and instructor (1.3%). In a multiple regression analysis, completion of formal research training was significantly predictive of a higher h-index and successful procurement of NIH funding. Current evidence demonstrates that formal research training is associated with higher scientific productivity and increased likelihood of future NIH funding. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of computer animation technique on academic achievement of students in the "Solar System and Beyond" unit lecture as part of the Science and Technology course of the seventh grade in primary education. The sample of the study consists of 60 students attending to the 7th grade of primary school…
Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.
This program of research addresses problems involving the basic science and technology of radioactive tracer methods as they relate to nuclear medicine and imaging. The broad goal is to develop new instruments and methods for image formation, processing, quantitation, and display, so as to maximize the diagnostic information per unit of absorbed radiation dose to the patient. Project I addresses problems with the quantitative imaging a single-photon emitters; Project II addresses similar problems associated with the quantitative imaging of positron emitters; Project III addresses methodological problems associated with the quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures
Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.
SummaryThe Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program had a productive year in 2016. Despite vacancies in our scientist ranks exceeding 20 percent, our research, training, and teaching portfolio was full and we graduated 93 students and published 398 manuscripts primarily focused on addressing the real conservation challenges of our cooperators. As I’ve stated before, our mission is our legacy: meeting the actionable science needs of our cooperators, providing them technical guidance and assistance in interpreting and applying new advances in science, and developing the future workforce through graduate education and mentoring. Our scientists and the manner in which they approach our mission continue to inspire me. The most rewarding part of my job is meeting and engaging with the students they recruit—the conservation professionals of the future. I cannot help but feel uplifted after discussions with and presentations by these young men and women. Personally, I owe my place in the profession today to the mentoring I received as a CRU student, and today’s CRU scientists have raised the bar. It gives me hope for the future of conservation, and added motivation to see our vacancies filled so that we can expand our portfolio.The National Cooperators’ Coalition has been active and is strategically working to build support on our behalf. Sincere thanks to the American Fisheries Society, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Boone and Crockett Club, the National Association of University Fish and Wildlife Programs, the Wildlife Management Institute, and The Wildlife Society for their efforts and those of their affiliated members.We co-sponsored a workshop at the 2016 North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference along with the American Fisheries Society, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Wildlife Management Institute, and The Wildlife Society, titled “Barriers and Bridges in Reconnecting Natural Resources
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the education, research, practice, and policy related to pharmacist interventions to improve medication adherence in community settings in the United States.Methods: Authors used MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (since 1990 to identify community and ambulatory pharmacy intervention studies which aimed to improve medication adherence. The authors also searched the primary literature using Ovid to identify studies related to the pharmacy teaching of medication adherence. The bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed in order to identify additional literature. We searched the tables of content of three US pharmacy education journals and reviewed the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy website for materials on teaching adherence principles. Policies related to medication adherence were identified based on what was commonly known to the authors from professional experience, attendance at professional meetings, and pharmacy journals.Results: Research and Practice: 29 studies were identified: 18 randomized controlled trials; 3 prospective cohort studies; 2 retrospective cohort studies; 5 case-controlled studies; and one other study. There was considerable variability in types of interventions and use of adherence measures. Many of the interventions were completed by pharmacists with advanced clinical backgrounds and not typical of pharmacists in community settings. The positive intervention effects had either decreased or not been sustained after interventions were removed. Although not formally assessed, in general, the average community pharmacy did not routinely assess and/or intervene on medication adherence. Education: National pharmacy education groups support the need for pharmacists to learn and use adherence-related skills. Educational efforts involving adherence have focused on students’ awareness of adherence barriers and communication skills needed to engage patients in behavioral
Weber, Alan S; Turjoman, Rebal; Shaheen, Yanal; Al Sayyed, Farah; Hwang, Mu Ji; Malick, Faryal
Introduction The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC or 'Arabian Gulf'), comprising Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, is a political organization sharing a common history and culture. All GCC nations have made substantial investments in telecommunications and electronic health infrastructure since 2000. Methods We conducted a literature search in English and Arabic on peer-reviewed e-health research up to December 2014 originating in the GCC. The objective was to retrieve all research on e-health in the GCC and to categorize and analyse it qualitatively to reveal the current state of e-health research and development in the region. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, conference papers and graduate theses written on e-health in the GCC. Blogs, health websites and non-peer-reviewed literature were excluded. Results Three hundred and six articles were retrieved, categorized and analysed qualitatively to reveal the state of e-health research in the GCC. Both country-specific and GCC-wide major themes were identified using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software and summarized. The most common type of study was an overview (35.0%), with common study designs of case studies (26.8%) and descriptive articles (46.4%). Significant themes were: prospective national benefits from e-health, implementation and satisfaction with electronic health records, online technologies in medical education, innovative systems (case studies), and information security and personal health information. Discussion This is the first comprehensive analytical literature review of e-health in the GCC. Important research gaps were identified: few cost-benefit analyses, controlled interventional studies, or research targeting gender and religious issues were retrieved.
Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)
An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.
USING OF READING, ENCODING, ANNOTATING, AND PONDERING (REAP TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION (A Classroom Action Research at Eighth Grade Students in MTSN 1 Kota Bengkulu in Academic years 2016
Full Text Available Abstract The researcher found the problem at MTSN 1 in the city of Bengkulu at grade VIII I that students got difficulty in comprehending reading texts, and in understanding meanings of words in paragraphs, and teachers techniques made the students bored. Therefore, the purpose of the research is to improve students’ reading comprehension through REAP techniques. The subject of the research is the students of grade VIII I consisting of 27 students, 14 female students and 13 male students. The instruments of the research are reading tets, observation sheetteacher and the students, interview guide and that for documentary study. The results of the research show that the REAP teachniques are effective in improving the students’ reading comprehension. The students got involved directly and were able to cooperate with their peers during the teaching-learning process. The research was conducted in two cycles an the test was administered at the end of each cycle. From the average mean scores, it could be seen that there was improvement of the the students’ reading ability. In cycle I, the mean score was 70.5 and in cycle 2, it was 78.7,and at the Post assessment, it was 82.2. It means that the students’ mean scores has reached the research target. Thus, it can be concluded that REAPtechniques can improve the students’ readng comprehension. Kata Kunci: REAP (Reading, Encoding, Annotating, and Pondering technique, Students’ reading comprehension
Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Emken, E A; Phinney, S D; Kyle, D; Ferretti, A
While there are many reports of studies that fed arachidonic acid (AA) to animals, there are very few reports of AA feeding to humans under controlled conditions. This 130-d study was conceived as a controlled, symmetrical crossover design with healthy, adult male volunteers. They lived in the metabolic research unit (MRU) of the Western Human Nutrition Research (WHNRC) for the entire study. All food was prepared by the WHNRC kitchen. The basal (low-AA) diet consisted of natural foods (30 en% fat, 15 en% protein, and 55 en% carbohydrate), containing 210 mg/d of AA, and met the recommended daily allowance for all nutrients. The high-AA (intervention) diet was similar except that 1.5 g/d of AA in the form of a triglyceride containing 50% AA replaced an equal amount of high-oleic safflower oil in the basal diet. The subjects (ages 20 to 39) were within -10 to +20% of ideal body weight, nonsmoking, and not allowed alcohol in the MRU. Their exercise level was constant, and their body weights were maintained within 2% of entry level. Subjects were initially fed the low-AA diet for 15 d. On day 16, half of the subjects (group A) wee placed on the high-AA diet, and the other group (B) remained on the low-AA diets. On day 65, the two groups switched diets. On day 115, group B returned to the low-AA diet. This design, assuming no carryover effect, allowed us to merge the data from the two groups, with the data comparison days being 65 (low-AA) and 115 (high-AA) for group B and 130 (low-AA) and 65 (high-AA) for group A. The main indices studied were the fatty acid composition of the plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and adipose tissue; in vitro platelet aggregation, bleeding times, clotting factors; immune response as measured by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, cellular proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to various mitogens and antigens, natural killer cell activity, and response to measles/mumps/rubella and influenza vaccines; the
Cantwell, Brendan; Mathies, Charles F.
Growing emphasis has been placed on universities to contribute to the innovation process and as a result academic research and development expenditures have increased in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific ways in which universities have expanded their research capacity. This paper examines how universities in the United…
Kue, Jennifer; Szalacha, Laura A; Happ, Mary Beth; Crisp, Abigail L; Menon, Usha
Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training. Non-academic research staff completed a day-long training in human subjects protection (six modules) and our research protocol (one module). We assessed comprehension of content with PowerPoint slides and module quizzes. All participants successfully passed each module quiz with ≥ 80% correct. Questions answered incorrectly were discussed before proceeding to the next module. To meet the increasing demand for collaborative community-engaged research with underserved minority populations, human subjects protection training protocols can be adapted successfully to reflect real-world situations and provide culturally relevant materials to help non-academic research staff better understand the importance and necessity of research ethics.
Michael R. Saunders; Justin E. Arseneault
In long-term, large-scale forest management studies, documentation of pre-treatment differences among and variability within experimental units is critical for drawing the proper inferences from imposed treatments. We compared pre-treatment overstory and large shrub communities (diameters at breast height >1.5 cm) for the 9 research cores with the Hardwood Ecosystem...
Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.
proposal to the NASA Emerging Worlds solicitation for the full cost of a press, with competitive bids submitted from Sumitomo, Rockland Research, and Voggenreiter. Additional funding is currently being sought from industry sources through the Strategic Partnerships Office at NASA JSC, External Pursuits Program Office on the JETS contract, and Jacobs corporate in the United States. Internal funding is available for JETS contract personnel to travel to large press locations worldwide to study set-up and operations. We also anticipate a fortuitous cost savings in installation of the large press because plans are already underway for major renovations to the entire experimental petrology suite within the next 2 years in order to accommodate our growing user base. Our focus as contract staff is on serving the scientific needs of our users and collaborators. We are seeking community expert input on multiple aspects of this proposed facility, such as the press type and design, access management, immediate projects, and future innovation initiatives.
Stinshoff, Helmut; Weber, Patrick
In nuclear power plants, station supply with electric energy must be guaranteed any time. This applies in particular also during the implementation of complex electrical systems modernization projects. Highest demands on the project management, extensive experience and system knowledge are required. In the frame of the Modernization Program for the nuclear power plant Kozloduy unit 5 and 6 in Bulgaria Framatome ANP has approved its ability to implement a large scope of modernization measures during the refueling outages of the years 2003 to 2005. The Contract of the Modernization Program for the European Consortium Kozloduy (Framatome ANP, Atomenergoexport) was signed in July 1999 and became effective in June 2001. The project will be finished by May 2006, with the approval of the Updated Final Safety Analysis Report. The scope of hardware work has been implemented within 6 plant outages during the years 2002 to 2005. The focus of the Modernization Program is mainly oriented to nuclear safety aspects, with the aim of upgrading of the Units to a high safety level in compliance with international practice. A further section of the project is dedicated to upgrading of operational equipment. Framatome ANP personnel have shown that besides the technical challenges which had to be faced, also the intercultural and language barriers were successfully overcome. The good teamwork between the partners of the Consortium ECK, its Bulgarian subcontractors and with Kozloduy plant personnel has been an important success factor. (authors)
Erickson, Sara E.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Kuzniewicz, Michael W.; Cason, Brian A.; Lane, Rondall K.; Dean, Mitzi L.; Rennie, Deborah J.; Dudley, R. Adams
Objective We sought to determine whether race or ethnicity is independently associated with mortality or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) among critically ill patients after accounting for patients' clinical and demographic characteristics including socioeconomic status and resuscitation preferences. Design Historical cohort study of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Setting Adult intensive care units in 35 California hospitals during the years 2001-2004. Patients A total of 9,518 ICU patients (6334 white, 655 black, 1917 Hispanic and 612 Asian/Pacific Islander patients). Measurements and Main Results The primary outcome was risk-adjusted mortality and a secondary outcome was risk-adjusted ICU LOS. Crude hospital mortality was 15.9% among the entire cohort. Asian patients had the highest crude hospital mortality at 18.6% and black patients had the lowest at 15.0%. After adjusting for age and gender, Hispanic and Asian patients had a higher risk of death compared to white patients, but these differences were not significant after additional adjustment for severity of illness. Black patients had more acute physiologic derangements at ICU admission and longer unadjusted ICU LOS. ICU LOS was not significantly different among racial/ethnic groups after adjustment for demographic, clinical, socioeconomic factors and do-not-resuscitate status. In an analysis restricted only to those who died, decedent black patients averaged 1.1 additional days in the ICU (95% CI – 0.26 to 2.6) compared to white patients who died, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusions Hospital mortality and ICU LOS did not differ by race or ethnicity among this diverse cohort of critically ill patients after adjustment for severity of illness, resuscitation status, SES, insurance status and admission type. Black patients had more acute physiologic derangements at ICU admission and were less likely to have a DNR order. These results suggest that among ICU
Lewis, Dwight; Yerby, Lea; Tucker, Melanie; Foster, Pamela Payne; Hamilton, Kara C.; Fifolt, Matthew M.; Hites, Lisle; Shreves, Mary Katherine; Page, Susan B.; Bissell, Kimberly L.; Lucky, Felecia L.; Higginbotham, John C.
Cultural competency, trust, and research literacy can affect the planning and implementation of sustainable community-based participatory research (CBPR). The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight: (1) the development of a CBPR pilot grant request for application; and (2) a comprehensive program supporting CBPR obesity-related grant proposals facilitated by activities designed to promote scholarly collaborations between academic researchers and the community. After a competitive application process, academic researchers and non-academic community leaders were selected to participate in activities where the final culminating project was the submission of a collaborative obesity-related CBPR grant application. Teams were comprised of a mix of academic researchers and non-academic community leaders, and each team submitted an application addressing obesity-disparities among rural predominantly African American communities in the US Deep South. Among four collaborative teams, three (75%) successfully submitted a grant application to fund an intervention addressing rural and minority obesity disparities. Among the three submitted grant applications, one was successfully funded by an internal CBPR grant, and another was funded by an institutional seed funding grant. Preliminary findings suggest that the collaborative activities were successful in developing productive scholarly relationships between researchers and community leaders. Future research will seek to understand the full-context of our findings. PMID:26703675
Lewis, Dwight; Yerby, Lea; Tucker, Melanie; Foster, Pamela Payne; Hamilton, Kara C; Fifolt, Matthew M; Hites, Lisle; Shreves, Mary Katherine; Page, Susan B; Bissell, Kimberly L; Lucky, Felecia L; Higginbotham, John C
Cultural competency, trust, and research literacy can affect the planning and implementation of sustainable community-based participatory research (CBPR). The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight: (1) the development of a CBPR pilot grant request for application; and (2) a comprehensive program supporting CBPR obesity-related grant proposals facilitated by activities designed to promote scholarly collaborations between academic researchers and the community. After a competitive application process, academic researchers and non-academic community leaders were selected to participate in activities where the final culminating project was the submission of a collaborative obesity-related CBPR grant application. Teams were comprised of a mix of academic researchers and non-academic community leaders, and each team submitted an application addressing obesity-disparities among rural predominantly African American communities in the US Deep South. Among four collaborative teams, three (75%) successfully submitted a grant application to fund an intervention addressing rural and minority obesity disparities. Among the three submitted grant applications, one was successfully funded by an internal CBPR grant, and another was funded by an institutional seed funding grant. Preliminary findings suggest that the collaborative activities were successful in developing productive scholarly relationships between researchers and community leaders. Future research will seek to understand the full-context of our findings.
Lerouge, Ch.; Herino, R.; Delville, R.; Allegre, R
For a big country as the United States, the solar energy can be a solution for the air quality improvement, the greenhouse gases fight and the reduction of the dependence to the imported petroleum and also for the economic growth by the increase of the employment in the solar industry sector. This document takes stock on the photovoltaic in the United States in the industrial and research domains. The american photovoltaic industry is the third behind the Japan and the Germany. (A.L.B.)
Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.
Musoba, Glenda D.; Gross, Jacob P. K.; Hossler, Don
The world of policymaking on the campuses of colleges and universities is messy, ambiguous, and contested. In this complex environment, which Kingdon (2003) has aptly called a "policy soup," the role of institutional research is often not only to provide answers to existing policy questions but to produce information to help transform…
Quality of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy in developing countries: a comparison of surgical and oncologic outcomes between a comprehensive cancer center in the United States and a cancer center in Colombia.
Pareja, Rene; Nick, Alpa M; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Frumovitz, Michael; Soliman, Pamela T; Buitrago, Carlos A; Borrero, Mauricio; Angel, Gonzalo; Reis, Ricardo Dos; Ramirez, Pedro T
To help determine whether global collaborations for prospective gynecologic surgery trials should include hospitals in developing countries, we compared surgical and oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic radical hysterectomy at a large comprehensive cancer center in the United States and a cancer center in Colombia. Records of the first 50 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston (between April 2004 and July 2007) and the first 50 consecutive patients who underwent the same procedure at the Instituto de Cancerología-Clínica las Américas in Medellín (between December 2008 and October 2010) were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical and oncologic outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference in median patient age (US 41.9 years [range 23-73] vs. Colombia 44.5 years [range 24-75], P=0.09). Patients in Colombia had a lower median body mass index than patients in the US (24.4 kg/m(2) vs. 28.7 kg/m(2), P=0.002). Compared to patients treated in Colombia, patients who underwent surgery in the US had a greater median estimated blood loss (200 mL vs. 79 mL, P<0.001), longer median operative time (328.5 min vs. 235 min, P<0.001), and longer postoperative hospital stay (2 days vs. 1 day, P<0.001). Surgical and oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy were not worse at a cancer center in a developing country than at a large comprehensive cancer center in the United States. These results support consideration of developing countries for inclusion in collaborations for prospective surgical studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sean P. Riley
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to compare selectivity characteristics among institution characteristics to determine differences by institutional funding source (public vs. private or research activity level (research vs. non-research. Methods: This study included information provided by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE and the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy. Data were extracted from all students who graduated in 2011 from accredited physical therapy programs in the United States. The public and private designations of the institutions were extracted directly from the classifications from the ‘CAPTE annual accreditation report,’ and high and low research activity was determined based on Carnegie classifications. The institutions were classified into four groups: public/research intensive, public/non-research intensive, private/research intensive, and private/non-research intensive. Descriptive and comparison analyses with post hoc testing were performed to determine whether there were statistically significant differences among the four groups. Results: Although there were statistically significant baseline grade point average differences among the four categorized groups, there were no significant differences in licensure pass rates or for any of the selectivity variables of interest. Conclusion: Selectivity characteristics did not differ by institutional funding source (public vs. private or research activity level (research vs. non-research. This suggests that the concerns about reduced selectivity among physiotherapy programs, specifically the types that are experiencing the largest proliferation, appear less warranted.
Medical Units in Kuala Lumpur Malaya and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) in Bangkok; 2013. Thailand. 5 February 1987...particularly in the military populations , rates of hepatitis A disease have dropped with the use of hepatitis A vaccine. Studies of the...patients. Because the hospital is he principal focus for medical care in the province, it is well suited o serve as the headquarters for population -based
Brandi E. JOHNSON
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Brandi E. Johnson
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui
With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.
Messick, C.E.; Taylor, J.L.; Niehus, M.T.; Landers, C.
The Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel, adopted by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS) in May 1996, scheduled to expire May 12, 2016, to return research reactor fuel until May 12, 2019 to the U.S. is in its fourteenth year. This paper provides a brief update on the program, part of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and discusses program initiatives and future activities. The goal of the program continues to be recovery of U.S.-origin nuclear materials, which could otherwise be used in weapons, while assisting other countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology. The NNSA is seeking feedback from research reactor operators to help us understand ways to include eligible research reactors who have not yet participated in the program. (author)
Jeanne C. Chambers; Michael J. Wisdom
Like many arid and semiarid regions, the Great Basin of the western United States is undergoing major ecological, social, and economic changes that are having widespread detrimental effects on the structure, composition, and function of native ecosystems. The causes of change are highly interactive and include urban, suburban, and exurban growth, past and present land...
Jose F. Negron; Barbara J. Bentz; Christopher J. Fettig; Nancy Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Jane L. Hayes; Rick G. Kelsey; John E. Lundquist; Ann M. Lynch; Robert A. Progar; Steven J. Seybold
Bark beetles cause extensive tree mortality in coniferous forests of western North America and play an important role in the disturbance ecology of these ecosystems. Recently, elevated populations of bark beetles have been observed in all conifer forest types across the western United States. This has heightened public awareness of the issue and triggered legislation...
Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others
The quality of doctoral-level biochemistry (N=139), botany (N=83), cellular/molecular biology (N=89), microbiology (N=134), physiology (N=101), and zoology (N=70) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3)…
Ream, Todd C.
The dialectical tension between the sacred and the secular has fostered fascinating historical discussions concerning the Catholic university in the United States. Scholars such as James Turner and Philip Gleason have offered a host of narratives that provide a context for other scholars seeking to philosophically define the aspirations that will…
To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies--1 on problem drinking and the…
Massey, Douglas S.; Schnabel, Kathleen M.
The population of undocumented Hispanic immigrants in the United States includes (1) a significant number of females; (2) a majority of labor force age (15-39); (3) Mexican migrants who are younger and comprise more males than other Latin American migrant groups; and (4) Central and South American migrants from higher social strata. (Author/MJL)
Bledsoe, Marianna J; Grizzle, William E
The use of human specimens in research has contributed to significant scientific and medical advancements. However, the development of sophisticated whole genome and informatics technologies and the increase in specimen and data sharing have raised new questions about the identifiability of specimens and the protection of participants in human specimen research. In the US, new regulations and policies are being considered to address these changes. This review discusses the current and proposed regulations as they apply to specimen research, as well as relevant policy discussions. It summarizes the ways that researchers and other stakeholders can provide their input to these discussions and policy development efforts. Input from all the stakeholders in specimen research will be essential for the development of policies that facilitate such research while at the same time protecting the rights and welfare of research participants.
Blank, I H
Private-sector funding of biomedical research within academia may come from industry, foundations, the dermatologists themselves, and the public at large. Industry-funding is of benefit to both academia and industry. Industry may fund clinical and basic research and product testing. Industry is more willing to fund product testing and clinical research than basic research. Funds for dermatologic research may be obtained from manufacturers of drugs, medical devices, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents. Questions of academic freedom arise when research is funded by industry. The results of academic research are in the public domain; the results of intramural industry research are often proprietary, i.e., "trade secrets." When there is industry funding within academia, any restraints on publication should be held to a minimum and be temporary. Publication should occur in a timely fashion, although recognizing the need for delayed publication if the results concern patentable material. When there is a consultantship, pre-arranged terms of agreement may restrict communication. Patents usually are held by the investigator's institution. The funding company may be granted world-wide, royalty-bearing licenses. Conflicts of interest may arise during any research endeavor; this warrants close attention when the research is industry funded. Stock ownership, speaker fees, blind contracts, etc., should be avoided. In any communication, funding agreements should be stated. Indirect costs are a "necessary evil." There are non-research expenditures associated with all research projects for which the institution is justified in requesting compensation. Indirect costs must have definite connections to a project. As industrial funding of research within academia increases, various facets of the academia-industry relationship are receiving increasing attention. Several aspects of conflicts of interest and indirect costs must yet be resolved. When faced openly and directly, all of these
Barbara J Drew
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing "alarm fatigue" which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO(2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. RESULTS: A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. DISCUSSION: The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter
Ehrhart, Susan M.; Filipy, Ronald E.
The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000
Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)
The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000.
Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A
The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level.
Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare
BackgroundQualitative research methods are increasingly used within trials to address broader research questions than quantitative methods can address alone. Qualitative methods enable health professionals, service users and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences when evaluating health care treatments, interventions or policies. They can influence trial design, allowing for a fuller engagement with research questions, aims and objectives and clarify the complexities of p...
Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie
Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.
.... Army, and have substantial economic consequences in both direct and indirect costs. The lack of consistent, specific definitions of injuries results in misclassification bias and hinders etiologic research...
To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies—1 on problem drinking and the other on drug abuse—among transnational Mexican workers in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our model demonstrates that major reasons...
James Glover; James Omernik; Robert Hughes; Glenn Griffith; Marc Weber
It has long been recognized that conditions at a point on a stream are highly dependent onÂ conditions upgradient within the topographic watershed. The hydrologic unit (HU) systemÂ has provided a useful set of nationally consistent, hydrologically based polygons that hasÂ allowed for the generalization and tabulation of various conditions within the stream and itsÂ valley...
Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina
Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.
Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between the qualifications of neonatal intensive care units of hospitals (physical conditions, standard applications, employee qualifications and use of personal protective equipment and work related causes and risks, employee related causes and risks when occupational accidents occur. Accordingly, a survey was prepared and was made among 105 nurses working in 3 public and 3 private hospital's neonatal intensive care units, in the January of 2010. The survey consists of questions about the qualifications of neonatal intensive care units, work related causes and risks, and employee related causes and risks. From the regression analysis conducted, it has been found that confirmed hypotheses in several studies in the literature were not significant in this study. The sub-dimensions in which relationships has been found show that the improvement of the physical environment in workplace, the improvement of the employee qualifications and standard applications can reduce the rate of occupational accidents. According to the results of this study management should take care of the organizational factors besides to improvement of the physical environment in workplace, the improvement of the employee qualifications and standard applications.
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D; Channon, Keith M; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki
Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research. Organisational case study, informed by the principles of action research. A cross-cutting theme, 'Partnerships for Health, Wealth and Innovation' has been established with multiple sub-themes (drug development, device development, business support and commercialisation, research methodology and statistics, health economics, bioethics, patient and public involvement and engagement, knowledge translation, and education and training) to support individual BRC research themes and generate cross-theme learning. The 'Partnerships' theme will support the BRC's goals by facilitating six types of partnership (with patients and citizens, clinical services, industry, across the NIHR infrastructure, across academic disciplines, and with policymakers and payers) through a range of engagement platforms and activities. We will develop a longitudinal progress narrative centred around exemplar case studies, and apply theoretical models from innovation studies (Triple Helix), sociology of science (Mode 2 knowledge production) and business studies (Value Co-creation). Data sources will be the empirical research studies within individual BRC research themes (who will apply separately for NHS ethics approval), plus documentary analysis and interviews and ethnography with research
This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized in three departments: neutron transport and criticality (themes: numerical methods, maths and statistics related to the simulation of neutral particle propagation, nuclear data, uncertainty propagation and bias estimation, code qualification and associated experimental programs, neutron transport in reactors and fuel cycle, criticality accidents), radionuclide transfer in radioactive waste disposals (site identification strategy, hydro-mechanical phenomena affecting storage performance, physical-chemical evolution factors, storage modelling), and metrology and confinement of radioactive gases and aerosols. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented for each department in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project
This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Niesz, Tricia; Korora, Aaron M.; Walkuski, Christy Burke; Foot, Rachel E.
Background/Context: Educational research addressing social movements appears to be growing rapidly but, with a few exceptions, this body of literature has remained largely isolated in pockets stretched across myriad fields of educational scholarship. Awareness and dialogue across researchers is limited because social movement-focused educational…
Using the data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) survey, the study examined foreign-born women faculty members' work roles and productivity in the areas of teaching, research, and service in comparison with their US-born counterparts at research universities in the US. The findings provided some evidence to suggest…
Saldern, Matthias V.
Believing that an individual's development is strongly influenced by the way the person perceives his or her environment, Kurt Lewin had a strong influence on the theoretical foundations of social-emotional climate research. Lewin's theories may be compared with the following basic theoretical foundations of social climate research: symbolic…
Research is being conducted by the USGS for the NURE program in six fields: geochemistry and mineralogy, sedimentary environments, igneous and metamorphic environments, geophysical exploration techniques, U resource assessment, and Th resource assessment. Some FY 1979 research results are reported and discussed
Manning, Joseph C; Hemingway, Pippa; Redsell, Sarah A
The involvement of patients and the public in the development, implementation and evaluation of health care services and research is recognized to have tangible benefits in relation to effectiveness and credibility. However, despite >96% of children and young people surviving critical illness or injury, there is a paucity of published reports demonstrating their contribution to informing the priorities for aftercare services and outcomes research. We aimed to identify the service and research priorities for Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors with children and young people, their families and other stakeholders. We conducted a face-to-face, multiple-stakeholder consultation event, held in the Midlands (UK), to provide opportunities for experiences, views and priorities to be elicited. Data were gathered using write/draw and tell and focus group approaches. An inductive content analytical approach was used to categorize and conceptualize feedback. A total of 26 individuals attended the consultation exercise, including children and young people who were critical care survivors; their siblings; parents and carers; health professionals; academics; commissioners; and service managers. Consultation findings indicated that future services, interventions and research must be holistic and family-centred. Children and young people advisors reported priorities that focused on longer-term outcomes, whereas adult advisors identified priorities that mapped against the pathways of care. Specific priorities included developing and testing interventions that address unmet communication and information needs. Furthermore, initiatives to optimize the lives and longer-term functional and psycho-social outcomes of Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors were identified. This consultation exercise provides further evidence of the value of meaningful patient and public involvement in identifying the priorities for research and services for Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors
Polanco, Marcela; Mancías, Saraí; LeFeber, Tirzah
Critical suicidology (White, Marsh, Kral, & Morris, 2016 ) offers a critique of positivism as the mainstream rhetoric of scientific research. In this article, the authors add a critique to the moral detachment of scientific inquiry (Wilkinson & Kleinman, 2016 ) in suicidology. They provide a discussion at the intersection of theory and research when considering moral care of all stakeholders in the implementation of suicide research toward the development of more humanitarian policies and program alternatives. The authors reflect upon their experience of conducting an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Finlay, 2011 ) on suicide in the U.S. military.
Full Text Available Background: S troke is the second commonest cause of death in India with crude overall prevalence rate of 220 per 100,000. With an increasing aging population at risk, the stroke burden in India can be expected to reach epidemic proportions. Materials and Methods: The first protocol-based prospective studies, funded by private agencies was conducted in Madras Institute of Neurology in 1984-86. The results led to establishment of the first stroke unit in Tamil Nadu state, in the institute. The first all-India hospital-based studies in acute stroke was completed as INDIAN COOPERATIVE ACUTE STROKE STUDIES (ICASS I and ICASS II with WHO STEP ONE by members of the Indian Stroke Association between 2000-2005. This has generated very useful data for our country. Results: Mortality in 1984-86 was 40%. Stroke unit in the institute dropped it to 12%. About 10 years later, ICASS studies showed a further fall of mortality to 8%, which is the current international figure in the west. Morbidity pattern showed about half return to their original activities. But about one third are left totally disabled needing prolonged care, for which fiscal, social and rehab provisions have to be done on a national basis. Conclusions: The progress and success of care of Stroke in the last three decades, from treatment in medical and neurology wards to specialized stroke units is presented. The main risk factors are hypertension, diabetes and ischemic heart disease across the country. Hypertension alone or with the other two diseases was present in 72% of cases. Prevention and treatment of these factors will reduce the stroke burden, mortality and morbidity of strokes. The Stroke-team concept can be extended to the smallest hospitals in our country.
Katzman, Debra K; Madden, Sloane; Nicholls, Dasha; Mawjee, Karizma; Norris, Mark L
Pediatric Surveillance Units (PSUs) provide a unique model for the study of pediatric eating disorders (EDs). Australia, Britain, and Canada have surveillance programs that have generated valuable epidemiological and clinical data on early-onset eating disorders (EOED). The PSUs represent an important collaborative tool that has helped shape our understanding of EOEDs and offers potential to contribute to decisions regarding health resource allocation and public health policy. This paper reviews the role of PSUs as a unique model to study pediatric EDs and its success in translating the knowledge generated by these programs into improving the health of children and adolescents with EDs worldwide. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available En los países con una economía de mercado, donde los servicios de salud son una mercancía, la medicina es fundamentalmente patocéntrica con un componente muy pobre en acciones preventivas. Se requiere un cambio revolucionario en los conceptos de la atención médica de forma que la medicina actual tenga un mayor componente preventivo-sanocéntrico. El sistema de salud cubano, en particular la medicina general integral, es de los más avanzados, con condiciones excepcionales para proyectarse hacia la excelencia. Estando prácticamente superadas acciones preventivas, como son las vacunaciones y la eliminación de factores de riesgo, es importante profundizar en el estudio de determinantes de salud relacionados con el medio social, biológico, psíquico y ambiental en que se desenvuelve el individuo. En tal sentido se esbozan posibles vías de iniciar un trabajo de investigación con la participación del Médico de Familia y otros profesionales, apoyados por las distintas organizaciones locales.In the countries with a market economy, where the health services are a merchandise, medicine is mainly pathology-centered with a very poor component in preventive actions. It is required a revolutionary change in the concepts of medical care so that the current medicine has a higher preventive - health centered component .The Cuban health system and, in particular, general comprehensive medicine, is one of the most advanced with exceptional conditions to project itself towards excellence. As preventive actions, such as vaccinations and the elimination of risk factors have already been implemented, it is important to go deep into the health determinants connected with the social, biological and psychical setting and with the environment where the individual develops himself. Possible ways to initiate a research work with the participation of the family physician and other professionals supported by the different local organizations are outlined.
.... Why, some ask, should U.S. taxpayers underwrite the study of problems abroad when America has so many domestfc issues to tackle? How can research on foreign countries have any relevance to U.S. concerns?
Present research programme (long-term): Interrelationship of environmental salt concentration and concentration of dissolved radionuclides to the rate of accumulation of these nuclides by euryhaline teleosts. Objectives of this research are designed toward the definition of a function that will adequately described the rate of accumulation of selected radionuclides by euryhaline teleosts from littoral or estuarine environments. Concurrent studies are being made to determine the maximum concentration accumulated by these fish under conditions of chronic exposure to selected concentrations in the medium
Watkins, Nicholas; Myers, Donald; Villasante, Ronald
To establish evidence-based design (EBD) guidelines for inpatient rooms at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Simulation allows clients, designers, and researchers to visualize how users might interact with a proposed design before actual construction of the design. This study used mock-ups as a simulation technique during a study of the VA inpatient room standards. The participants used the inpatient room mock-ups as "interactive laboratory" environments to maximize opportunities for participatory design, qualitative research, and quantitative research of project-specific EBD solutions. The research used questionnaires, scenarios, on-demand modifications, and observations to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions for inpatient room mock-ups. A total of 71 participants responded to a questionnaire administered across five mock-up work sessions. These 71 participants consisted of administrators, nurses, physicians, support staff, environment and maintenance staff, and patient and staff safety representatives from throughout the VA healthcare system. EBD solutions were tested, evaluated, and modified for each inpatient room type and were applicable to two or more of the inpatient room types. The latter included the location of patient beds and standard headwall position, technology and spaces for nurse charting activities, clearances (e.g., equipment, wheelchair, and bariatric patient), universal rooms, and patient and family amenities. Also, EBD solutions were tested, validated, and modified to the needs of each inpatient room. The mock-ups allowed researchers and designers to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions and strategies for the development of VA inpatient room standards. When used as a means for mixed-methods research, mock-ups can successfully integrate research and design during project-related work. EBD research using mock-ups not only addresses project- or organization-specific concerns, but it may contribute to the knowledge base of the
1889s xiii 1988 - USAF - UES SUMMER FACULTY RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Air Force Office of Sientific Research Conducted by the Universal Energy...Strain 5th Edition," McGraw-Hill, 1975. 5. Rinehart, J.S. and Pearson, J., "Behavior of Metals Under Impulsive Loads," American Society for Metals...Neuron Like Circuits", Scientific American , pp. 104-114. (10] Caudill, M., "Neural Networks, Part I, II, III", AI Expert, December 1987, February 1988
Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...
Li, Weidong; Chen, Yung-Ju; Xiang, Ping; Xie, Xiuge; Li, Yilin
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the impact of the Silverman and Solmon article (1998) on how researchers handle the unit of analysis issue in their field-based intervention research in physical education in the United States and summarize statistical approaches that have been used to analyze the data, and (b) provide…
Abstract. This study examined the effects of teacher scaff comprehension in Dona Berber Primary School, Ethiopi were selected using purposive sampling. A quasi research design was employed to examine chang strategies and reading comprehension as a pre-and post-reading comprehension tests checklists, and Focus ...
Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.
Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…
Reed, V.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Anand, E.; Day, K.A.; Treuer, T.; Upadhyaya, H.P.; Coghill, D.R.; Kryzhanovskaya, L.A.; Savill, N.C.
Atomoxetine is a noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that first gained approval in the USA in 2002 and has been authorized in 97 countries worldwide. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively review publications that addressed one or more
Conclusion The results are indicative of the effect of the Navayesh parent-based comprehensive rehabilitation program on the development of early language and communication skills of deaf children. Therefore, it is recommended that this program should be used at rehabilitation centers for deaf children, aiming at training parents as the primary therapists of deaf children.
Amendum, Steven J.; Conradi, Kristin; Hiebert, Elfrieda
Prompted by the advent of new standards for increased text complexity in elementary classrooms in the USA, the current integrative review investigates the relationships between the level of text difficulty and elementary students' reading fluency and reading comprehension. After application of content and methodological criteria, a total of 26…
Anderson, Ross; Arndell, Michael; Christensen, Sten
The "Architecture Studio Archive" pilot sought to form a comprehensive digital archive of the diverse student work conducted in the first year of the Bachelor of Design in Architecture Degree at the University of Sydney. The design studio is the primary vehicle for teaching architectural design. It is a locus for creative activity, with…
Senokossoff, Gwyn W.
The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to describe a structured literature review that was completed to determine how reading comprehension instruction has been studied with high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and (b) to provide insight into the reading strategies that teachers might use to support these children.…
Stone, Elizabeth; Cook, Linda; Laitusis, Cara
This study presents secondary analyses on a 2-stage test of reading comprehension for students with reading-based learning disabilities (RLD). The present paper describes student perceptions of the test and its features as well as analyses focused on the routing test and associated cut score. The routing test contained typical state assessment…
Sussex, Jon; Feng, Yan; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge; Pistollato, Michele; Hafner, Marco; Burridge, Peter; Grant, Jonathan
Government- and charity-funded medical research and private sector research and development (R&D) are widely held to be complements. The only attempts to measure this complementarity so far have used data from the United States of America and are inevitably increasingly out of date. This study estimates the magnitude of the effect of government and charity biomedical and health research expenditure in the United Kingdom (UK), separately and in total, on subsequent private pharmaceutical sector R&D expenditure in the UK. The results for this study are obtained by fitting an econometric vector error correction model (VECM) to time series for biomedical and health R&D expenditure in the UK for ten disease areas (including 'other') for the government, charity and private sectors. The VECM model describes the relationship between public (i.e. government and charities combined) sector expenditure, private sector expenditure and global pharmaceutical sales as a combination of a long-term equilibrium and short-term movements. There is a statistically significant complementary relationship between public biomedical and health research expenditure and private pharmaceutical R&D expenditure. A 1% increase in public sector expenditure is associated in the best-fit model with a 0.81% increase in private sector expenditure. Sensitivity analysis produces a similar and statistically significant result with a slightly smaller positive elasticity of 0.68. Overall, every additional £1 of public research expenditure is associated with an additional £0.83-£1.07 of private sector R&D spend in the UK; 44% of that additional private sector expenditure occurs within 1 year, with the remainder accumulating over decades. This spillover effect implies a real annual rate of return (in terms of economic impact) to public biomedical and health research in the UK of 15-18%. When combined with previous estimates of the health gain that results from public medical research in cancer and
Muths, Erin; Jung, Robin E.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Adams, Michael J.; Corn, P. Stephen; Dodd, C. Kenneth; Fellers, Gary M.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Walls, Susan C.; Fisher, Robert N.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, D. Earl
Most research to assess amphibian declines has focused on local-scale projects on one or a few species. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national program in the United States mandated by congressional directive and implemented by the U.S. Department of the Interior (specifically the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Program goals are to monitor changes in populations of amphibians across U.S. Department of the Interior lands and to address research questions related to amphibian declines using a hierarchical framework of base-, mid- and apex-level monitoring sites. ARMI is currently monitoring 83 amphibian species (29% of species in the U.S.) at mid- and apex-level areas. We chart the progress of this 5-year-old program and provide an example of mid-level monitoring from 1 of the 7 ARMI regions.
The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). This paper presents an overview of the land-disposal research associated with the LPCD hazardous waste program plan and will report the current status of work in the following categorical areas: Hazardous-waste facilities - landfills and surface impoundments; Non-Hazardous waste facilities; and Technology transfer.
The main legislation governing the safety of nuclear installations in the United Kingdom is the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWA) and the associated relevant statutory provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 (as amended). The HSWA sought to simplify and unify all industrial safety legislation and set in place the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) and its executive arm, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Health and Safety Executive's Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) regulates the nuclear activities on such sites through HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). Under the Nuclear Installations Act (NIA) no corporate body may use any site for the purpose of installing or operating any reactor, other than such a reactor comprised in a means of transport, or other prescribed installation unless the operator has been granted a nuclear site licence by the Health and Safety Executive. Nuclear fuel cycle facilities are examples of such prescribed installations. (J.P.N.)
Han, Ke-Tsung; Wang, Po-Ching
This study was conducted in a free-living setting to investigate the measurement validity of a research-based actigraph for strolling and jogging, and to provide a reference for actual practice and research. Because inadequate physical activity (PA) or sedentary lifestyle has become the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide, many countries have been vigorously promoting the concept of "active living", and the public has been investing greater effort into intensifying their PA. Although research-grade actigraphs have been widely applied to evaluate PA in routine environments, the measurement results may not accurately reflect the wearers' PA. Unlike most relevant research, which is conducted in well-controlled laboratory environments, the present study was implemented in the field to examine the sensitivity and convergent validity of the MicroMini Motionlogger ® Actigraph during strolling and jogging. The following results were revealed: (1) Although the exercise movement speed while jogging was significantly faster than that while strolling, the actigraph readings showed no significant difference between strolling and jogging; (2) The actigraph readings were (significantly or nonsignificantly) negatively correlated with metabolic heat and nonsignificantly correlated with movement speeds. Hence, the actigraph validity for measuring PA intensity while strolling and jogging remains debatable.
Frajndlich, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Operacao do Reator IEAR-R1m]. E-mail: email@example.com; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div.de Engenharia do Nucleo]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Reatores]. E-mail: email@example.com; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
IPEN/CNEN-SP is sending the IEA-R1 Research Reactor spent fuels from USA origin back to this country. This paper describes the experience in organizing the negotiations, documents and activities to perform the transport. Subjects as cask licensing, transport licensing and fuel failure criteria for transportation are presented. (author)
This report, the second in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in drilling and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.
Barriers to effective communication between researchers and managers can ultimately result in barriers to the application of scientific knowledge and technology for land management. Both individual and organizational barriers are important in terms of how they affect the first three stages of the innovation-decision process: 1) knowledge, where an individual is exposed...
This report, the first in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in exploration and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.
Division also undertook operational sim- ulations of various air defense missiles, such as the Nike , Talos, and Hawk systems.349 Th e Strategy and...of ORO Work Program,” pp. 10, 13, Figure 12. 64As early as 1953, the advertisements for ORO employment in Th e Journal of the Operations Research
Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth
In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…
Based on the analysis of 16 interviews with women first-year master's students at two national engineering schools in Japan, this article examines the socialisation role of compulsory undergraduate research experience in Japanese women's decisions to pursue graduate education and choices of the programme. The findings suggest that research…
Present research programmes: There are two current programmes, one in the Irish Sea (fission product distribution in coastal water environments) and one in the Blackwater Estuary - North Sea (effects of discharge of neutron activation radionuclides, e.g, 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 54 Mn, on an estuarine environment)
The US–LA CRN was established in 2009 to increase cancer research capacity in Latin America. NCI formalized bilateral agreements with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Uruguay, to facilitate interactions at the government, institution, and investigator levels.
Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of a number of factors such as high school major, high school score, gender, Stat105, Maths I, Maths II grades, and grade point average (GPA) on students' academic performance in an introductory operations research (OR) course at the department of Business Administration--College of…
John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson
The proceedings include 15 papers presented during four group sessions at the IUFRO XXI World Congress held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during August 2000. Six papers were presented during two sessions organized by IUFRO Research Group (RG) 6.01.00 'Forest recreation, landscape and nature conservation'. The first of session was titled 'Integration of...
Present research programme: Occurrence of radioactive materials in the environment with emphasis on potential exposure to people. A wide variety of substances that are most apt to transmit: radionuclides to man are (or have been) sampled and analysed. On the basis of these data, human intake of individual nuclides is estimated and the result transformed into estimates of dose
Hathorn, Conley; Dillon, Anna Marie
This paper is concerned with exploring the microsystem of teachers' experiences with education reform within the action research (AR) model for professional development (PD). Within the macrosystem of current major education reform in the UAE, it is timely to explore teachers' experiences of AR as PD to improve pedagogy. The process of engaging in…
Burisch, Johan; Gisbert, Javier P; Siegmund, Britta
Background: The "United Registries for Clinical Assessment and Research" (UR-CARE) database is an initiative of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) to facilitate daily patient care and research studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein, we sought to validate the database...... by using fictional case histories of patients with IBD that were to be entered by observers of varying experience in IBD. Methods: A total of 19 observers entered 5 patient case histories into the database. After six weeks, all observers entered the same case histories again. For each case history, 20 key...... to the expected level of validity. Re-test reliability was assessed using McNemar's test. Results: For all case histories, the overall proportion of correctly entered items and their confidence intervals included the target of 90% [Case 1: 92% (88-94%); Case 2: 87% (83-91%); Case 3: 93% (90-95%); Case 4: 97% (94...
In bachelor thesis „Text comprehension dependence on reading experience“ – is researching, how students text comprehension is dependent on reading experience. In theoretical part discussed the reading conception and reading methods are discussed as well as the text comprehension, models and reading capacity. The practical part contains of pupils of eighth and tenth classes text comprehension test analysis, questionnaire about reading experience analysis and how they both interdependent. In th...
The management-chemotherapy approach is currently the most applicable means of effectively and practically controlling parasites of ruminants. Knowledge of regional patterns for major ruminant parasites, especially seasonal transmission dynamics, promises to lead to major improvements in management-chemotherapy systems. This knowledge also provides the fundamental context for design of new integrated control strategies that include other approaches such as immunization, chemical and biological control, and the interaction of environmental, physiologic, and nutritional factors. Greatly needed is a change in the protracted government regulatory process that obviates the availability of new, more effective drugs until years after they are available in other developed nations and that creates a dearth of "minor species, minor use" antiparasitic compounds. It is necessary to recognize both the need for product safety and the realities of investment limitations in the pharmaceutical industry. Also needed are new formulations and better methods of mass treatment for inaccessible herds of ruminants that will allow flexibility in strategic treatment programs based on seasonal transmission and other factors. More reliable cost-benefit assessments, more sensitive diagnostic indicators, and better knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms of damage by parasites will assist greatly in identifying the economically important effects against which economical control programs can be targeted. The opportunities for development and evaluation of novel prophylactic, diagnostic, and management approaches for animal parasitism are close at hand if the spectacular advances in molecular biology, immunology, computer science, and ecologic methodologies are assimilated in present research efforts. Although the emphasis of this report is on applied research and identification of approaches for the immediate future, the importance of more basic research on animal parasites and discoveries in
The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical areas of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full-scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the RCRA Guidance Documents. These documents will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of the work.
There exist rare researches about economic risk in sectoral level, which is significantly important for risk prewarning. This paper employed status coefficient to measure the symmetry of economic subnetwork, which is negatively correlated with sectoral risk. Then, we do empirical research in both cross section and time series dimensions. In cross section dimension, we study the correlation between sectoral status coefficient and sectoral volatility, earning rate and Sharpe ratio respectively in the year 2015. Next, in the perspective of time series, we first investigate the correlation change between sectoral status coefficient and annual total output from 1997 to 2015. Then, we divide the 71 sectors in America into agriculture, manufacturing, services and government, compare the trend terms of average sectoral status coefficients of the four industries and illustrate the causes behind it. We also find obvious abnormality in the sector of housing. At last, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the federal government.
home institution or modify my plan. Governmental "red tape " Made it impossible to purchase the items within the 10 week research period. A small...of bone formation ( osteogenesis ). Z/.’ Histology and light microscopy were used to assay the cytological - effects. Labeling with the fluorochromes...tetracxcline, calcein, xylenol orange, and histomorphometry were used to assay the effects upon osteogenesi s. ve K The putative preosteoblast
Zhongqi Sheng; Lei Zhang; Hualong Xie; Changchun Liu
Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to as...
Four research programmes are suggested: Physical/chemical states of radionuclides in sea water related to their absorption rates by marine organisms; Studies of sea-water/ fresh-water interphases; To discover effects of raising the levels of background radiation by small amounts over long periods; Special studies of neutron-induced radioisotopes of elements such as chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt,, zinc, antimony, beryllium and iodine
Dept. of Ind. & Mgmt. Syst. Eng. University Park, PA 16802 (814) 863-2353 . Dr. John Erdei ee: Ph. D., Physics, 1983 Assistant Professor Specialty: Many...Louis Chow 8. Paavo Sepri 4. John Erdei 9. Richard Tankin 5. Dennis Flentge 10. Albert Tong AEI"SPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (Wright-Patterson Air...Associate 39 Characterization of Turbulence Dr. John E. Erdei Through Methods of Field Theory 40 Issues in High Throughput Dr. Adly T. Fa,. Signal
with a physiological study of the respiratory rates of these animals. Gammarus is well suited to studies using small chamber, Warburg-like... consumption and filtering rate of Daphnia pulex after exposure to water soluble fractions of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No.2 fuel oil, and coal tar creosote...Short Term Exposure and the Amphi pod, Gammarus Tigrinut Research Associate Dr. Donald L. Michelsen Dr. George K. Miner Dr. Don Mittleman Dr
Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V.; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D.; Channon, Keith M.; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki
Background Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country’s international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) a...
thank Drs. Von Gierke and Kaleps for suggesting this area of research, and acknowledge Capt Thomas Gardner for his many helpful 4iscussions. Finally, he...polyurethane foam as a desirable material. After the development of lumped parameter dynamic models independently by von Gierke , Kornhauser 8 and Payne,9...34Protein Metabo- lism", Animal Nutrition, 5th Edition, pp. 85-112 (1962). 28. Sclye, H., "The Diseases Of Adaptation," Recent Progress In Hormone
Faulkner, J.E.; Devenport, D.E.; Duvall, G.E.
This report describes work within the applied research section of the physics group at Hanford during June 1953, both experimental and theoretical. It includes work on carbon 12 thermal neutron cross sections, tritium conversion efficiency, critical mass studies, fission cross sections of Pu-239 and U-235, studies of exponential piles and slug buckling, theoretical studies of lattice experiments to study neutron fluxes, and studies of radiation damage effects on thermal conductivity of graphite.
Shaw, James A
The ways in which social scientists conceptualize the "reflexive" human subject have important consequences for how we go about our research. Whether and how we understand human subjects to be the authors of our own actions helps to structure what we say about health, health care, and the many other topics addressed in qualitative health research. In this article, I critically discuss assumptions of human reflexivity that are built into qualitative social science of health and medicine. I describe three alternative ways of understanding reflexive thought and human action derived from the theoretical works of Pierre Bourdieu, Bruno Latour, and George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, respectively. I then apply these three different ways of thinking about reflexivity and the acting subject to the analysis of an excerpt of participant observation data from a health services research study of transitions from hospital to home, illuminating the different kinds of analyses that arise from each perspective. I conclude with a call for social scientists to commit to the search for better ways of understanding the human subject, resisting the temptation to "settle" on theoretical statements that close down the path to more sophisticated conceptualizations of human thought and action. © The Author(s) 2016.
Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter
Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program.
... resources across Comprehensive Centers, other Department-funded technical assistance providers, SEAs... supports; c. Helping SEAs strengthen information sharing across organizational units within SEAs in order... technical assistance to help State educational agencies (SEAs) build their capacity to implement State...
Full Text Available Coalbed Methane (CBM is a high-quality unconventional energy resource. The successful development and utilization of a CBM resource needs to consider technical feasibility and economic viability. These factors are also necessary for the improvement of production safety in coal mines, reducing carbon emission, and optimizing energy structure. Because of its unique resource characteristics, surface drilling is the prevailing development approach all over the world. Directional and horizontal wells are generally the two major well-types for CBM development. Development well-type is an important factor affecting CBM efficient development, as it is a key factor in the process of the economic and effective development of CBM resource. In this paper, a method based on Unit Technical Cost (UTC will be constructed from the perspective of economic viability, and will be used for more simple and accurate optimization of CBM. This method is used for practical well-type optimization in two major CBM development basins in China, and the application results prove that this method is scientifically accurate and feasible.
Full Text Available As many said, industry 4.0 is an epoch-making revolution which brought the manufacturing market much faster changes and severer competitions. As an important part of the manufacturing system, facility layout has direct impact on business benefit; at the same time, despite the intelligent factory, intelligent production has its own characteristics. However, there is one point on which industry and academia have basically formed a consensus: it is not true that industry 4.0 does not need human beings; on the contrary, human initiative plays an unabated role in the development of industry 4.0. This paper will focus on the dynamic facility layout of the manufacturing unit. Based on the system above and the traditional optimization model, a mathematic model is built to find the best solution combining safety, sustainability, high efficiency, and low cost. And penalty function with adaptive penalty factor and advanced artificial bee colony algorithm is used to solve the constrained model. In the end, by studying few cases, the model is proved to be effective in both efficiency improvement and the implementation of safe and comfort human-machine interaction.
Delaat, J. C.; Soeder, J. F.
High speed minicomputers were used in the past to implement advanced digital control algorithms for turbine engines. These minicomputers are typically large and expensive. It is desirable for a number of reasons to use microprocessor-based systems for future controls research. They are relatively compact, inexpensive, and are representative of the hardware that would be used for actual engine-mounted controls. The Control, Interface, and Monitoring Unit (CIM) contains a microprocessor-based controls computer, necessary interface hardware and a system to monitor while it is running an engine. It is presently being used to evaluate an advanced turbofan engine control algorithm.
Hockensmith, Charles D
Since prehistoric times, the process of cutting rock to make millstones has been one of the most important industries in the world. The first part of this book compiles information on the millstone industry in the United States, which dates between the mid-1600s and the mid-1900s. Primarily based on archival research and brief accounts published in geological and historical volumes, it focuses on conglomerate, granite, flint, quartzite, gneiss, and sandstone quarries in different regions and states. The second part focuses on the millstone quarrying industry in Europe and other areas.
RINGOs are organizations engaged in independent research and analysis aimed at developing sound strategies to address both the causes and consequences of global climate change. They form a constituency in their own right to contribute to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in a parallel way to ENGOs (Environment), BINGOs (Business and Industry), LGMAs (Local governments and municipal authorities) and the IPOs (Indigenous peoples organizations). During the COP and SB meetings of the UNFCCC the RINGOs organize meetings to discuss the developments of the negotiations. RINGOs have also been represented at workshops organized by the UNFCCC Secretariat. RINGO activities are co-ordinated by a steering committee
Although productivity of major U.S. investor-owned utilities is an oft researched topic, the impact of research and development (R&D) on productivity has not been explored. Using a data set spanning from 1983 to 1994 and gathered from FERC Form 1 and publications from EPRI, the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and investment banks, I estimate total factor productivity, efficiency, and the impacts of regulation and other utility characteristics on R&D. Throughout the analysis, R&D is disaggregated into two categories, R&D at the industry's research consortium, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRT) and R&D carried out by the utility itself. No published research on this industry has made such a distinction. In the first chapter, I use parametric methods to estimate an average production function and a production frontier that include both types of R&D as an input. The contributions of R&D of both types are small, which is expected given the low level of expenditures in the industry (about one percent of revenues). Total factor productivity is steady between 1984 and 1994. In chapter 2, I use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate measures of efficiency for each utility. DEA is a nonparametric, linear programming method, and I compute estimates under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale (CRS and VRS, respectively). The VRS results are more plausible; under VRS, more utilities in a greater range of sizes are considered efficient than under CRS. The DEA efficiency measures are regressed on R&D, regulation (measured as investment bank Merrill Lynch's ratings of state commission's investor-friendliness), and other utility features, including the age of the generation plant and proportion of nuclear generation. Efficiency rises with both own R&D and spending at EPRI, and it decreases with the increasing age of the generation plant. Regulation has no effect. Finally, in chapter 3, I use a maximum likelihood Tobit to determine the
During the post-genomic era, significant advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of disease have been made. The power of functional and molecular imaging in translating this knowledge into effective therapy is now being more and more recognized. Thus, molecular imaging plays a vital role in the early identification of disease-related molecular markers, in the development of molecular-targeted therapies, and in monitoring phenotypic response to therapy both in experimental animals and in human patients. In this context, MIRCen (acronym for Molecular Imaging Research Center ) provides a comprehensive resource available to empower basic, translational, and clinical research through the application of imaging and drug, cell, and gene based technologies. The MIR center will be dedicated to the development of pre-clinical trials for the treatment of various seriously debilitating diseases such as neuro-degenerative diseases, cardiac and hepatic disorders, and infectious diseases (AIDS). Despite the fact that many of these pathologies are still incurable, recent advances in drug, cell and gene therapy point to the feasibility of new therapeutic approaches. The long term goals of MIRCen are therefore to develop and validate: - pertinent animal models for neuro-degenerative, hepatic, cardiac and infectious diseases in rodents as well as non-human primates, - novel technologies for in vivo sensing and imaging of disease-related molecular events,- drug, gene and cell based palliative and or curative therapeutic strategies aiming at protecting and /or restoring damaged or lost functions. (author)
Lindfors, Eila; Hilmola, Antti
The goal of this article is to clarify the concept of innovation and by presenting a research on the basic education outcome assessment data from an innovation learning perspective, answer to a question: Do students learn innovation in comprehensive education? The empirical information in this research is based on data collected in the national…
The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...
This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, whose activity is dedicated to man radiation protection, and is organized about four main themes: means to determine in any circumstances the dose received by a victim of an external irradiation or internal contamination, characterization of the biological effects ionizing radiations may create in a sane tissue, epidemiological approaches to the assessment of the exceeding risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation on different populations, and experimental toxicology for the identification of biological effects induced par long duration and low dose exposures to some radionuclides. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each theme: dosimetry, ionizing radiation pathology and experimental therapies, epidemiology of ionizing radiations, experimental and post-accidental radio-toxicology
Massoudi, B L; Chester, K G
Objectives: To survey advances in public and population health and epidemiology informatics over the past 18 months. Methods: We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public and population health informatics and published in MEDLINE or Web of Science between January 2015 and June 2016 where information technology or informatics was a primary subject or main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were presented using a thematic analysis based on the 2011 American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) Public Health Informatics Agenda tracks as a typology. Results: Results are given within the context developed by Dixon et al., (2015) and key themes from the 2011 AMIA Public Health Informatics Agenda. Advances are presented within a socio-technical infrastructure undergirded by a trained, competent public health workforce, systems development to meet the business needs of the practice field, and research that evaluates whether those needs are adequately met. The ability to support and grow the infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Conclusions: The fields of public health and population health informatics continue to grow, with the most notable developments focused on surveillance, workforce development, and linking to or providing clinical services, which encompassed population health informatics advances. Very few advances addressed the need to improve communication, coordination, and consistency with the field of informatics itself, as identified in the AMIA agenda. This will likely result in the persistence of the silos of public health information systems that currently exist. Future research activities need to aim toward a holistic approach of informatics across the enterprise. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.
this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Techni- cal Information Service. This research report has been reviewed and is approved...Taubenhaus and A.P. Johnson, Phytopathology , 7, 59 (1917). 2. H.N. Hansen, Science, 64, 525 (1926). 3. H.N. Hansen, Phytopathology , 19, 691 (1929). 4. H.N...Hansen, Phytopathology , 19, 1135 (1929). 5. A.M. Gorenz, A.C. Walker, and R.H. Larson, Phytopathology , 38, 381 (1948). 6. W.A. Kreutzer, Phytopathology
Present research programme: 1.1. The biology of the Solway Firth in relation to the movement and accumulation of radioactive materials. 1.2. To determine the maximum capacity of the Solway Firth for the receipt of radioactive effluent. 1.3. The work has included study of the estuarine currents, using drifters; study of the relationship between deposition of radioactivity and soil by means of transects; studies of the nature and variation, with season and position in the estuary, of fish feeding; and studies of the flora and fauna of the estuary (including some minor studies of how they are affected by climatic changes)
Biology Department's aquatic research activities are primarily in freshwater radioecology and not in marine radioecology. The major reason for this lack of marine work is geographical location of our laboratory on the banks of the Columbia River, roughly 300 miles from the ocean. Recently, however, we have completed some preliminary work with 65 Zn metabolism in Anonyx sp., a marine benthic amphipod. Lake some inland laboratories, we have found that limited marine work can be done by hauling in sea water. We have been able to maintain the amphipods in a reasonably healthy state in our laboratory for about four weeks
i * 64-12 I% I[ " REFERENCES 1. WITKIN , S. G., ൦MM Operable Prototype Diverter", AFATL-TR-84- 40, 19824. - ~ -2. Ranum, G. L., Evaluation of the...Researcher: Dr. Joel E. Michalek DATE : September 10, 1987 Contract No. • F49620-85-C-013 ..., "° I i- , • -- °-.P Statistical Methodology for...to do this work. I am especially grateful to Dr. Joel E. Michalek, chief of the Biometrics Branch of the Epidemiology Division for his energetic
Information covering 1220, FY 1978 and FY 1979 solar energy research projects is included. In addition to the title and text of project summaries, the directory contains the following indexes: subject index, investigator index, performing organization index, and supporting organization index. This information was registered with the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange by Federal, State, and other supporting organizations. The project summaries are categorized in the following areas: biomass, ocean energy, wind energy,photovoltaics, photochemical energy conversion, photobiological energy conversion, solar heating and cooling, solar process heat, solar collectors and concentrators, solar thermal electric generation, and other solar energy conversion. (WHK)
Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Clark Goings, Trenette T; Córdova, David; Schwartz, Seth J
There is a critical need for the most current information available on the prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD) among immigrants vis-à-vis that of individuals born in the United States (US). We report the prevalence of SUDs among immigrants from major world regions and top immigrant-sending countries, and assess key moderators (i.e., age, gender, family income, age of migration, time in US) of the relationship between immigrant status and SUD risk. The data source used for the present study is the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III, 2012-2013), a nationally representative survey of 36,309 civilian, non-institutionalized adults ages 18 and older in the US. Logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and SUD risk. Immigrants were found to be substantially less likely than US-born individuals to be diagnosed with a past-year or lifetime SUD, including alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opioid use disorders. These findings held across major world region and among immigrants from the top-ten immigrant sending nations, and across differences in age, gender, family income, age of migration, and time spent in the US. Results from the present study provide up-to-date and cogent evidence that immigrants use alcohol and drugs, and meet criteria for SUDs, at far lower rates than do US-born individuals. Moreover, we provide new evidence that the protective effect of nativity holds for immigrants from an array of global regions and sending countries, and across key demographic and migration-related differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Markewich, Helaine W.; Litwin, Ronald J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Pavich, Milan J.
Late-middle and late Pleistocene, and Holocene, inland aeolian sand and loess blanket >90,000 km2 of the unglaciated eastern United States of America (USA). Deposits are most extensive in the Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) and Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP), areas presently lacking significant aeolian activity. They provide evidence of paleoclimate intervals when wind erosion and deposition were dominant land-altering processes. This study synthesizes available data for aeolian sand deposits in the LMV, the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain (EGCP) and the ACP, and loess deposits in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP). Data indicate: (a) the most recent major aeolian activity occurred in response to and coincident with growth and decay of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS); (b) by ∼40 ka, aeolian processes greatly influenced landscape evolution in all three regions; (c) aeolian activity peaked in OIS2; (d) OIS3 and OIS2 aeolian records are in regional agreement with paleoecological records; and (e) limited aeolian activity occurred in the Holocene (EGCP and ACP). Paleoclimate and atmospheric-circulation models (PCMs/ACMs) for the last glacial maximum (LGM) show westerly winter winds for the unglaciated eastern USA, but do not resolve documented W and SW winds in the SEACP and WNW and N winds in the MACP. The minimum areal extent of aeolian deposits in the EGCP and ACP is ∼10,000 km2. For the LMV, it is >80,000 km2. Based on these estimates, published PCMs/ACMs likely underrepresent the areal extent of LGM aeolian activity, as well as the extent and complexity of climatic changes during this interval.
Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.
Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 30 August). The effects of generative testing methods on text retention and text comprehension. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Exeter, United Kingdom.
Herrman, Judith W.; Solano, Paul; Stotz, Lauren; McDuffie, Mary Joan
This research clarifies the public support of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in terms of acceptance, content, timing, and effectiveness as it may inform practice in the United States. The historical context of public opinion, as well as a summary of the efficacy of abstinence only education (AOE) versus CSE in the scientific literature,…
McElhone, Dot; Tenore, F. Blake; Davis, Dennis S.
This research examines the specialized knowledge of reading comprehension articulated by 12 middle school English language arts teachers sampled from three different regions of the United States and representing various levels of teaching experience. Using detailed interviews, concept mapping, and think aloud methods, we identified salient…
Kahila, K; Kilkku, N; Kaltiala-Heino, R
Finland does not have a history of providing forensic adolescent psychiatric units although the need for this kind of service has been established. According to legislation patients who are minors have to be treated separately from adults, however, this has not been possible in practice. Also, adolescent psychiatric wards have not always been able to admit the most severely ill patients, those with impulsive and aggressive behaviours, because of lack of staff resources, problems associated with protecting other vulnerable patients and a shortage of secure environments. A previous report demonstrated the significant increase in adolescent's involuntary treatment within adult psychiatric wards. Data from this report were acknowledged as an important starting point in the planning process for the psychiatric treatment and research unit for adolescent intensive care. This paper describes the background, development process, plan of action, tailor-made education programme and supporting evidence for the first Finnish adolescent forensic service opened in April 2003 in the Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital. The tool used for planning the unit's activities and staff education programme was the Balanced Score Card approach, the structure and development of which is also outlined within the paper.
Allum, Nick; Allansdottir, Agnes; Gaskell, George; Hampel, Jürgen; Jackson, Jonathan; Moldovan, Andreea; Priest, Susanna; Stares, Sally; Stoneman, Paul
We examine international public opinion towards stem-cell research during the period when the issue was at its most contentious. We draw upon representative sample surveys in Europe and North America, fielded in 2005 and find that the majority of people in Europe, Canada and the United States supported stem-cell research, providing it was tightly regulated, but that there were key differences between the geographical regions in the relative importance of different types of ethical position. In the U.S., moral acceptability was more influential as a driver of support for stem-cell research; in Europe the perceived benefit to society carried more weight; and in Canada the two were almost equally important. We also find that public opinion on stem-cell research was more strongly associated with religious convictions in the U.S. than in Canada and Europe, although many strongly religious citizens in all regions approved of stem-cell research. We conclude that if anything public opinion or 'public ethics' are likely to play an increasingly important role in framing policy and regulatory regimes for sensitive technologies in the future.