Sample records for research threaten freedom

  1. [On freedom of scientific research]. (United States)

    Folkers, G


    Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods.

  2. New Strategies of Control: Academic Freedom and Research Ethics Boards (United States)

    Lewis, Magda


    This article, detailing the implications of "ethics drift" for critical work in the academy, reports on an ethics challenge to a non-research-based scholarly text. It analyzes how General Research Ethics Boards (GREBs) can threaten academic freedom when they lack a clear definition of "human subject" research, fail to…

  3. Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.


    Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

  4. Freedom of research and public interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, H.


    The author is a philosopher concerned with responsibility. He argues that the pretext of 'purely theoretical interest of science' is no longer valid for some modern key sciences and, on the contrary, science has entered the field of social action where each prepetrator vouch for his deeds. His critical opinion on nuclear energy is expressed not in the main text but in figures showing nuclear power plants and lengthly legends attached to them. He does not make the common distinction between science and technology. Thus nuclear energy is for him a piece of science done in the world-as-a-laboratory and is moreover a technology 'which presumably will never get rid of its experimental nature'. Therefore the Freedom of Research must be cancelled by the state in the public interest. Even more horrifying than nuclear energy is to the author however gene technology. (qui)

  5. Limits of the freedom of research. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailbronner, K.


    Article Five of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany states: 'Art and science, research and teaching shall be free.' It is the intent of the Constitution that this guarantee of freedom be unconditional. But in practice, a number of problems arise. Freedom of research has to be reconciled with other constitutional rights and liberties, such as human dignity. This essay deals with three sets of problems: 1. Are restrictions in the form of government directives permissible, if carrying out certain research, or the objective of the research, will conflict with other legal rights. 2. Responsability of the researcher for possible consequences which may arise from irresponsible applications of research results. 3. Government influence on research by means of the granting of funds. (orig.) [de

  6. Science Funding cuts threaten scientific research

    CERN Multimedia


    Page 1 of 3 Researchers are in uproar after a recently established quango unveiled a series of cuts and abandoned some projects altogether because of an estimated 80m funding shortfall. Martin Rees, the Astronomer Royal, argues that Britain will pay a far higher price if it scraps vital projects now

  7. Microgravity fluid physics research in the Space Station Freedom era (United States)

    Carpenter, Bradley M.


    Microgravity fluid physics covers an exciting range of established and potential fields of scientific research. Areas in which the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications is currently supporting research include: multiphase flow and phase change heat transfer, behavior of granular media and colloids; and interface dynamics, morphological stability, and contact line phenomena. As they contribute to our knowledge of fluid behavior, advances in these areas will enhance our understanding of materials processing on Earth and in space, and will contribute to technologies as diverse as chemical extraction, the prediction of soil behavior in earthquakes, and the production of oil reservoirs. NASA' s primary platform for research in microgravity fluid physics will soon be the Fluid Physics/Dynamics Facility on Space Station Freedom. This facility shares a rack for control and utilities with the Modular Combustion Facility, and has one rack for experiment-unique instruments. It is planned to change out the content of the experiment-unique rack at intervals on the order of one year. In order to obtain a maximum return on the operation of the facility during these intervals, the research community must carefully plan and coordinate an effort that brings the efforts of many investigators to bear on problems of particular importance. NASA is currently working with the community to identify research areas in which microgravity can make a unique and valuable contribution, and to build a balanced program of research around these areas or thrusts. Selections will soon be made from our first solicitation for research in fluid dynamics and transport phenomena. These solicitations will build the research community that will make Space Station Freedom a catalyst for scientific and technological discovery, and offer U.S. scientists in many disciplines a unique opportunity to participate in space science.

  8. Artistic Research on Freedom in Space and Science (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Schelfhout, Ronald; Gelfand, Dmitry; Van der Heide, Edwin; Preusterink, Jolanda; Domnitch, Evelina

    ArtScience ESTEC: Space science in the arts. Since the earliest scientific preparations for extra-terrestrial travel at the beginning of the 20th century, the exploration of outer space has become a quintessential framework of the human condition and its creative manifestations. Although the artistic pursuit of space science is still in its infancy, an accelerated evolution is currently underway. Perspective: With the current state of the planet and the development of technology, humankind has the ability to look from a greater distance to the damage that has been done. This offers potential in the form of early detection and prevention of disasters. Meanwhile our aim seems to be directed away from the earth into the universe. In the Space science in the arts project I tried to encapsulate these two viewpoints that tend to avoid each other. We are still earthbound and that is our basis. A tree cannot grow tall without strong roots. Space, a promise of freedom. Line of thought: Space sounds like freedom but to actually send people out there they have to be strapped tightly on top of a giant missile to reach a habitat of interconnecting tubes with very little space. It is impossible to escape protocol with- out risking your life and the lives of astronauts have been fixed years in advance. This is the human predicament which does not apply to the telescopes and other devices used to reach far into the universe. Providing information instantly the various forms of light allow us to travel without moving. Description of the installation: The research on freedom in space and science led to the development of an installation that reflects the dualistic aspect which clings to the exploration of the universe. The installation is a model on multiple scales. You can look at the material or the feeling it evokes as well as at the constantly changing projections. The image is light. Inside this glass circle there is a broken dome placed over a dark and reflective surface on

  9. Software developed by research vs. Freedom of information in EU (open access and open data)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolman, Jiří


    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 183-198 ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : cooperation of public research institutions and private partners * freedom of information in the EU * open access * open data * research and development * software Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  10. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe


    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  11. Compatibility of the Space Station Freedom life sciences research centrifuge with microgravity requirements (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.


    NASA is developing a Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility for Space Station Freedom. In includes a 2.5-meter artificial gravity Bioresearch Centrifuge (BC), which is perhaps the most critical single element in the life sciences space research program. It rotates continuously at precise selectable rates, and utilizes advanced reliable technologies to reduce vibrations. Three disturbance types are analyzed using a current Space Station Freedom dynamic model in the 0.0 to 5.0 Hz range: sinusoidal, random, and transient. Results show that with proper selection of proven design techniques, BC vibrations are compatible with requirements.

  12. The Freedoms and Limits of Tenure: An Ideal Typology of Educational Researchers. (United States)

    McClafferty, Karen Ann

    A study was conducted to explore the factors that have impact on the individual freedom and autonomy of academics in the changing university climate. Through the development of an ideal typology of educational researchers, based on the work of Max Weber, the study reveals the ways in which individuals within these changing institutions make…

  13. Principle research on a single mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer. (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng


    A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model) of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work.

  14. Principle Research on a Single Mass Piezoelectric Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Liu


    Full Text Available A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work.

  15. Technology development activities for housing research animals on Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Jenner, Jeffrey W.; Garin, Vladimir M.; Nguyen, Frank D.


    The development and design of animal facilities are described in terms of the technological needs for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory. Animal habitats are presented with illustrations which encompass waste-collection techniques for microgravity conditions that reduce the need for crew participation. The technology is intended to be highly compatible with animal morphology, and airflow is employed as the primary mechanism of waste control. The airflow can be utilized in the form of localized high-speed directed flow that simultaneously provides a clean animal habitat and low airflow rates. The design of an animal-habitat testbed is presented which capitalizes on contamination-control mechanisms and suitable materials for microgravity conditions. The developments in materials and technologies represent significant contributions for the design of the centrifuge facilities for the Space Station Freedom.

  16. A scientific role for Space Station Freedom: Research at the cellular level (United States)

    Johnson, Terry C.; Brady, John N.


    The scientific importance of Space Station Freedom is discussed in light of the valuable information that can be gained in cellular and developmental biology with regard to the microgravity environment on the cellular cytoskeleton, cellular responses to extracellular signal molecules, morphology, events associated with cell division, and cellular physiology. Examples of studies in basic cell biology, as well as their potential importance to concerns for future enabling strategies, are presented.

  17. Citation Classics in "Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior": A Research Note (United States)

    Stack, Steven


    The number of citations a scholarly work receives is a common measure of its impact on the scientific literature; "citation classics" are the most highly cited works. The content of "Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior" ("SLTB") citation classics is described here. The impact of "SLTB" citation classics is compared to their counterparts in…

  18. Freedom in mundane mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marie V.; Cohen, Scott A.


    of the world. Through in-situ interviews with families caravanning in Denmark, the primary aim of this study is to challenge existing dominant discourses surrounding the subject of freedom within leisure and tourism studies. Second, we shed further light on an under-researched medium of mobility......, that of domestic caravanning. This serves to not only disrupt representations of freedom as occurring through exoticised, masculinised and individualised practices, but to give attention to the domestic, banal contexts where the everyday and tourism intersect, which are often overlooked. This novel repositioning...... opens up new avenues in tourism studies for critical research into the geographies of freedom in mundane, everyday contexts....

  19. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez


    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  20. Semiotic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio


    ), but stress also their necessity in the study of any given biological and cognitive system. I draw a distinction between horizontal and vertical emergence in order to arrive at a notion of ‘second order emergence' that affords us a more viable definition of semiotic freedom. I will then attempt to show......-down approach i.e., by starting from the highest levels of semiotic freedom and cognitive processes, and exploring how those processes disaggregate into lesser degrees of freedom. I thus hope to bridge the gap between those levels from above....

  1. Declaration of Academic Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÇETİNSAYA


    Full Text Available 1. Universities are the institutions where all the opinions, various truth claims as well as social and political problems are discussed in a liberal and civilized way and the complicated problems are expressed clearly without any oppression and prevention. 2. Academic freedom includes first and foremost the right of freedom of research and thus freedom of using the essential knowledge methods, the right of possessing the necessary tools and conditions required for the research and the rights of scientific production, informing, learning and dissemination. 3. Academics possess the rights to benefit from the academic freedom without any limitation, to research and investigate according to their own preferences and interests, and to teach these without being exposed to any oppression and prevention. 4. This freedom of teaching that the academics have should not be used in a manner restricting students' freedom of learning; academics should avoid from being dogmatic in the research and education processes and respect students' rights of thinking differently and expressing themselves. 5. Academics accordingly should lead the students to evaluate and understand the new thoughts as a whole and to be tolerant to the thoughts they do not agree and to think in various ways. Also, academics should encourage the students to create their own opinions based on evidences and enable them to express these opinions freely and respect their freedom of expression. 6. Campuses should be safe environments where the students can express their own opinions freely. Suppressing the intellectual diversity and the plurality of viewpoints will decrease the productivity of teaching and learning process, restrict students' freedom of learning, and constrain the chance of formation of critical and in-depth thinking. 7. Critical thinking develops only in the campuses where various thoughts are expressed in a liberal way. Students should feel that they would not be prevented

  2. Embodied freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Geertsema


    Full Text Available In this article I explore the relationship between freedom and embodiment. Firstly I argue that freedom is an essential part of our being human, whatever science might say, and should be understood as the possibility to be ourselves. I propose an understanding that starts from the perspective of the second person. In the second part I analyse the writing of a scientific article as a case study of the experience of freedom in a concrete practice. I show how normative elements are a necessary part of such a practice. In the third part I argue that the “free agent” is in fact the concrete person who acts and thinks. I also discuss the place of causation. In the final part I elaborate on the view of the person, as understood from a second person perspective, and on the meaning of freedom, taking my starting point in the biblical understanding.

  3. Trust, responsibility, and freedom: Focus-group research on contemporary patterns of union formation in Russia

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    Olga Isupova


    Full Text Available Background: While some studies directly address the issue of changes in union formation in Russia and Eastern Europe, few have focused on attitudes and norms regarding marriage and cohabitation. In Russia cohabitation has risen sharply in the last decades, but recently its level has stabilized and even decreased slightly. Objective: We intend to highlight gender and educational differences in perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of cohabitation vs. marriage. Methods: We conducted 8 focus groups in Moscow in January 2012 (4 with men, 4 with women, half with higher educated participants and half with lower educated participants. Results: Participants claimed that trust between men and women underlies preferences for marriage or cohabitation. Participants‟ religious beliefs form a 'three stages of union' theory: cohabitation in the beginning, civil marriage later when trust has developed, and finally a church wedding when trust is established. In union formation the participants‟ ideals are the values of responsibility, freedom, fidelity, and trust. The level of trust is highest for proponents of marriage and ideational cohabitors. People without a strong preference for a certain type of union have the lowest level of interpersonal trust. Conclusions: In a society that currently can be considered anomic, interpersonal trust was found to be the most important factor underlying expressed ideals in choice of union type. It takes different forms for adherents of marriage ("trust with closed eyes" and adherents of cohabitation ("trust with open eyes".

  4. Citation classics in suicide and life threatening behavior: a research note. (United States)

    Stack, Steven


    The number of citations a scholarly work receives is a common measure of its impact on the scientific literature; "citation classics" are the most highly cited works. The content of Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior (SLTB) citation classics is described here. The impact of SLTB citation classics is compared to their counterparts in journals having published the most suicide papers. All data are from the ISI electronic venue on the Web of Science and refer to the number of citations the top 1% of works received in each of ten journals from 1975 through August 10, 2011. Among all ten journals, SLTB ranked first in the number of works on suicide. The principle theme of half of SLTB suicide classics was literature review. The median number of citations for SLTB citation classics (top 1%) was 121.5, with a range between 96 and 279 citations, but classics from generalized psychiatric journals received more citations as anticipated. Journal impact factors explained 73% of the variance in classic's citation counts across journals. On average, suicide classics received 30% more citations than all classics. Among a second group of five specialized suicide journals, however, SLTB ranked first in average 5-year impact. Although SLTB produced the highest number of suicide articles of any journal, SLTB's citation classics received fewer citations than suicide classics in high-impact/prestige, general journals. Future work is needed to assess what predicts which SLTB articles ultimately become citation classics. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  5. Creative Research Ethics in the Enterprise University: What Price Academic Freedom? (United States)

    O'Neill, John


    Between 1990 and 2010, the New Zealand university adopted an enterprise form. The nature of academic work changed commensurate with changes in the external regulatory and funding environment, the internal performative research culture, the proliferation of trans-national researcher networks, and the growing managerial codification of acceptable…

  6. Towards the "Fifth Freedom": Increasing the Mobility of Researchers in the European Union (United States)

    Marimon, Ramon; Lietaert, Matthieu; Grigolo, Michele


    Many researchers trained in Europe leave to work abroad, namely in the USA. This brain-drain phenomenon is the result of a lack of openness and competition in European academic systems. Some aspects relating to the mobility of academic careers could make a difference in attracting--and maintaining--researchers, aside to serious structural reform.…

  7. Government Research Evaluations and Academic Freedom: A UK and Australian Comparison (United States)

    Martin-Sardesai, Ann; Irvine, Helen; Tooley, Stuart; Guthrie, James


    Performance management systems have been an inevitable consequence of the development of government research evaluations (GREs) of university research, and have also inevitably affected the working life of academics. The aim of this paper is to track the development of GREs over the past 25 years, by critically evaluating their adoption in the UK…

  8. Academic Freedom. (United States)

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  9. Intellectual Freedom (United States)

    Knox, Emily


    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  10. Two Millian Arguments: Using Helen Longino’s Approach to Solve the Problems Philip Kitcher Targeted with His Argument on Freedom of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Eigi


    Full Text Available Philip Kitcher argued that the freedom to pursue one's version of the good life is the main aim of Mill's argument for freedom of expression. According to Kitcher, in certain scientific fields, political and epistemological asymmetries bias research toward conclusions that threaten this most important freedom of underprivileged groups. Accordingly, Kitcher claimed that there are Millian grounds for limiting freedom of inquiry in these fields to protect the freedom of the underprivileged.I explore Kitcher's argument in light of the interpretation Helen Longino gave to Mill's argument. She argued that free critical dialogue in the community allows bias to be overcome, through intersubjective criticism of hypotheses and the background assumptions that frame them.I suggest that Longino's approach allows for the identification of the fundamental problems of the research programs Kitcher targeted, and for the rejection of their claims to knowledge. Thus it is possible to address Kitcher's problem without limiting freedom of speech.

  11. Research Related to Multi Degree of Freedom Magnetic Suspensions. Degree awarded by Old Dominion Univ. Aug. 1997 (United States)

    Britcher, Colin; Yang, Yan


    This thesis covers the activities associated with (1) recommissioning of the 6-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) and (2) enhancing the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS). These activities continue the program of research in the multi degree of freedom magnetic suspension program at Old Dominion University. The 6-inch MSBS is a large gap magnetic suspension system used as a model support and balance system in wind tunnels. The first stage of recommissioning of the 6-inch MSBS for the 6-inch subsonic wind tunnel is performed. Experimental data and computational results for the magnetic field distribution of the MSBS are given and compared with the estimated magnetic field strength. The comparison indicates that the magnet system is still operating as designed. The Electromagnetic Position Sensor used in the 6-inch MSBS is analyzed before its find reinstatement. The ASPS is a small gap magnetic suspension system providing orientation, mechanical isolation and fine pointing of space payloads. The control system of the ASPS is improved by designing a new code to realize red time control over the system. The original Proportional-Derivative controller is upgraded to a Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller. This progress leads to a system which is more stable and robust with less noise. This new controller is generic and can be adapted to the 6-inch MSBS. Finally, future work on these two systems is proposed.

  12. Chinese High School Students' Perceptions of Freedom of Expression: Implications for Researching Emerging Civil Liberties in Global Educational Contexts (United States)

    Torres, Mario S.; Qin, Lixia


    This study explored attitudes and perceptions of Chinese high school students regarding freedom of expression in their country. A survey capturing perceptions over various forms of free speech (e.g., student publication, dress code) was administered to a sample of 838, which included students from both urban and rural areas within Shaanxi Province…

  13. Freedom and Association


    Hill, Christopher Leslie Gowens


    The project Freedom and Association is a flexible, fluid, and personal investment in practice that loosens forms of language and opens up structures of value that cohere onto words and objects. The non-fixed, process-based nature of the practical component of the research is extended in an understanding of post anarchism - as an ongoing, lived experience of the everyday and of friendship. I define anarchism as the rejection of dominant power structures and as pertaini...

  14. Endangered Species Act listing: three case studies of data deficiencies and consequences of ESA 'threatened' listing on research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.W.; Birkeland, C.; Piniak, G.A.; Miller, M.W.; Eakin, C.M.; McElhany, P.; Dunlap, M.J.; Patterson, M.; Brainard, R.E.


    Determining whether a species warrants listing as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act depends on the government's assessment of the species' extinction risk, usually in response to a petition. Deciding whether data are sufficient to make a listing determination is a

  15. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility. (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt


    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos


    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  17. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom. (United States)

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali


    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."

  18. Fundamental right to freedom of genetic research and the protection of personal data: the principles of prevention and precaution to guarantee the right to privacy

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    Regina Linden Ruaro


    Full Text Available This article reviews fundamental rights of freedom of research and protection of personal data in the field of human genetics, it proposes the application of the precautionary principle of prevention. Evaluates the Brazilian legislation on the subject matter of research as to guarantee privacy measure of personal data and information collected in scientific research, a situation that worsens in the middle in digital and virtual world because it is a space virtually rapid development. Focuses on the limitation of fundamental rights, based on the conception that are not absolute. It proposes the principles of precaution and prevention among virtual environment. The deductive and dialectical methods are adopted, having premised most fundamental rights related and under Brazilian law; the dialectical method was used because the issue is the subject of constant debate is necessary confrontation of doctrinal currents and the Brazilian legislation.

  19. Academic freedom: why do we need a Magna Charta?


    Karran, Terence



  20. The Effects of Social Ideology on Academic Freedom. (United States)

    Ayers, Brian S.

    This paper discusses the effects of social ideology on academic freedom, beginning with the role of academic freedom, on teaching and research, as well as the professional responsibilities that go along with this freedom. The paper goes on to examine the conflicts faced by academic institutions in balancing academic freedom with the influence of…

  1. Functional Freedom: A Psychological Model of Freedom in Decision-Making. (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette


    The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one's own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection. We outline possible research questions, argue for psychological benefits of functional decision freedom, and explicate the model's implications on current knowledge and research. In conclusion, we show that functional freedom is a scientific variable, permitting an additional psychological foothold in research on freedom, and that is compatible with a deterministic worldview.

  2. Academic Freedom in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, the concept ‘academic freedom’ is discussed, its implications and value for the academics, institutions of higher education, and the society are focused, and a few suggestions for the Turkish higher education are made. Academic freedom is defined as the freedom of the academic staff to look for and to find the truth in their scientific field, to publish the findings, and to teach these findings to their students without any external intervention. The concept has gained a further definition with inclusion of research activities into academic freedom as part of the reform attempts started in the German higher education in the 19th century. Therefore, academic freedom is at the very core of the missions of the institutions of higher education; that is, teaching-learning and research. On the point of academic staff and their academic activities of the academic freedom, the subjects such as the aim of the course, choosing the teaching materials and textbooks, the lecturer, and the criteria for the measurement and evaluation of the course take place. And he point of research covers the aim of the study, academicians can’t be imposed the involve in an academic and artistic studies that conflict their values and beliefs; researchers should comply with codes of ethical principles and practices during the process of researching; and research outputs should be reported accurately and honestly without any misleading manipulation. Academic freedom does not provide any exemption from accountability in academic activities of the faculty, nor does it provide any right to act against the well-being of the society, current laws and regulations, and codes of ethical principles and practices.

  3. Freedom and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)


    textabstractFreedom in nations can affect the happiness of citizens both positively and negatively. This study takes stock of the balance of effects. It considers 1) whether there is a positive net-effect at all, 2) which freedom variants contribute most to happiness 3) in what conditions. Freedom

  4. Freedom, structure, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Kaufman, James


    Creativity is commonly thought to depend on freedom and a lack of constraints. While this is true to a large extent, it neglects the creative potential of structure and constraints. In this chapter, I will address the relation between freedom, structure, and creativity. I will explain that freedom,

  5. New threats to academic freedom. (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca


    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing UNESCO's "Recommendation" (United States)

    Karran, Terence


    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…

  7. Filtering Access to Internet Content at Higher Education Institutions: Stakeholder Perceptions and Their Impact on Research and Academic Freedom (United States)

    Orenstein, David I.


    Hardware and software filters, which sift through keywords placed in Internet search engines and online databases, work to limit the return of information from these sources. By their very purpose, filters exist to decrease the amount of information researchers can access. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the perceptions key…

  8. Freedom versus fear: The symbiotic relationship between human security and freedom of thought and conscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alfaro–Pareja


    Full Text Available This essay is within the Peace, Conflicts and Development Studies field. It is a descriptive and explicative study that intends to show: a the influence of mass media communications in the violation of freedom of thought and of conscience today; b the influence of National Security in the increase of the violence and c the relation between the freedom of thought and of conscience as a Human Right and the Human Security as a new way to protect the individual from challenges that threaten him directly. The main objective is to analyze how this interaction could help to power and to increase both conceptions for human development.

  9. Freedom & Self-Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ometto, D.L.A.


    Freedom of the will is a never-ending source of puzzlement for academic philosophers. At the same time, it is something deeply familiar to everyone. For the relevant concept of freedom underlies much, if not all, of our ordinary discourse and thinking about ourselves and others. However, our attempt

  10. The Courage to Critique Policies and Practices from within: Youth Participatory Action Research as Critical Policy Analysis. A Response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" (United States)

    Welton, Anjale


    This response to ""Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School" by Jason G. Irizarry demonstrates how youth participatory action research (YPAR) as an instrument of subverting oppressive school policies and structures is a form of critical policy analysis (CPA). As an evolving method, CPA acknowledges the absent voices in…

  11. Frustrated Freedom: The Effects of Agency and Wealth on Wellbeing in Rural Mozambique (United States)

    Victor, Bart; Fischer, Edward; Cooil, Bruce; Vergara, Alfredo; Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith


    In Sen's capability view of poverty, wellbeing is threatened by both deficits of wealth and deficits of individual agency. Sen further predicts that “unfreedom,” or low levels of agency will suppress the wellbeing effects of higher levels of wealth. The current paper extends Sen's view to include a condition, labeled “frustrated freedom,” in which relatively higher levels of agency can heighten the poverty effects of relatively low levels of material wealth. Applying data from a large scale population study of female heads of household in rural Mozambique, the paper empirically tests Sen's view and the proposed extension. As predicted, agency is found to moderate the relationship between agency, wealth, and wellbeing, uncovering evidence of both unfreedom and frustrated freedom in the population. Further research into the complex dynamics of wellbeing and poverty are called for by the authors. PMID:25125791

  12. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian


    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  13. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés


    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  14. Human freedom and enhancement. (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja


    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  15. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget


    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  16. [Drug addiction and freedom]. (United States)

    Albuquerque, M A


    The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created

  17. Freedom of Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Canela


    Full Text Available The freedoms of expression and of the press are basic pillars of the western democracies. The contemporary theoretical framework which gives support to these rights was generated in the wake of the liberal revolutions which took place in Western Europe and in North America starting from the second half of the 1600s. Our purpose in this text is to present the current scene regarding this topic, focusing whenever pertinent on the Brazilian case, and seeking to question the unconditional defense of the freedoms of expression and of the press made by the thinkers who founded these principles vis-á-vis contemporary issues of the communicational universe. Going beyond theoretical-conceptual refl ections, we present and analyze the results of a content analysis showing how 53 Brazilian newspapers and 4 magazines with nationwide circulation report (or not topics relating to freedom of expression and of the press.

  18. Thoughts on freedom. (United States)

    Hallingby, L


    The tradition of personal freedom as Americans know it is not known in China. In America, people are free to choose their own lifestyle but they cannot walk the streets in safety for fear of crime and violence. In a sense, they are not free. In China, one is not free to choose an occupation and a place to live and work, but people are free to walk the streets in safety. Perhaps the true difference between the U.S. and China is not the presence or absence of freedom, but rather the nature of the freedom involved. There are certain underlying assumptions which explain why personal freedom is not very important in China: 1) everyone belongs to a series of larger units, the family, the neighborhood commune, and society; and 2) the effect of an individual's actions on the larger unit is more important than the immediate effect on the individual. Thus, the Chinese do not have the freedom to engage in self-defeating and self-destructive behavior that Americans tend to engage in. In the U.S., people have the right to become alcoholics, to become drug addicts and to have as many babies at as young an age as their bodies will allow. The negative effects of these types of behavior are less important to Americans as the individual's right to free choice. Sexual pleasures and sexual freedom are not paramount concerns in China, but there is 1 basic lifestyle which everyone is expected to follow: marriage, parenting of 1 child, living with the parents of 1 spouse or the other, and caring for one's parents in their old age. The Chinese are not free to choose to cohabitate without being married, to remain single, to remain childless, or to be single parents. These lifestyles and sexual practices find their roots in the fact that China is a monolithic society where everyone thinks and behaves in the same way, and also in the fact that sexual taboos are motivated by practical or economic, rather than religious and moral concerns. Although women are encouraged to have an abortion if

  19. Academic Freedom and Society: Some Critical Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Choksey


    Full Text Available A review of a recent one-day conference, Academic Freedom and Society, held on June 2 2017 at the University of Warwick, which sought to pose questions about ideals and practices of academic freedom, historically and in the current moment, across disciplinary and national borders. Speakers discussed the university and human rights practices, Islamophobia and teaching law, ‘Decolonise the University’, links between funding and research, digital piracy, new sites of knowledge commons, and university managerialism, and the challenges and possibilities these topics pose to the practice of academic freedom. Has the university ever been autonomous from state interests, and what modes of freedom are currently available to academics – already unevenly contingent on social and national identifications – in practice?

  20. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... facilities for returning Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10...

  1. Freedom to Compete?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert


    . To this end, the article focuses on companies associated with the European Roundtable of Industrialists (ERT), a highly influential network consisting of top executives from a range of Europe’s largest TNCs that has consistently urged political decision-makers to give companies the ‘freedom to compete’. We...

  2. Thinking Academic Freedom (United States)

    Lange, Lis


    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  3. Nursing and human freedom. (United States)

    Risjord, Mark


    Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self-care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative freedom to explore the differing conceptions of autonomy which are implicit in this debate. The notion of positive freedom has often been criticized as paternalistic, and the criticisms of self-care in the nursing literature echo criticisms from political philosophy. Recent work on relational autonomy and on the relationship between autonomy and identity are used to address these objections. This essay argues for a more nuanced conception of the obligation to support autonomy that includes both positive (freedom to) and negative (freedom from) dimensions. This conception of autonomy provides a moral foundation for conceptualizing nursing in something like Henderson's terms: as involving the duty to expand the patient's capacities. The essay concludes by generalizing the lesson. Respect for autonomy on the part of any health care provider requires both respect for the patient's choices and a commitment to expand the patient's ability to actualize their choices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Your True Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Rausch


    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  5. Freedom of Speech: A Clear and Present Need to Teach. ERIC Report. (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.


    Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)

  6. Competing degrees of freedom in nuclear structure theory. Final Report for 1999-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.


    The central focus of this research was the interplay between three generic classes of degrees of freedom relevant to nuclear structure theory: single-particle degrees of freedom, collective degrees of freedom, and statistical degrees of freedom, which can be thought of as an incoherent mean field or a thermal bath

  7. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović


    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  8. Bioethics and academic freedom. (United States)

    Singer, Peter


    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  9. "Development as Freedom"


    Haider Ali Khan


    This chapter offers a historical and analytical introduction to the school of thought that views 'development as freedom'. Since it is impossible to do justice to the depth and complexity of this 'new' approach to development in just one short chapter, I explore a few significant dimensions of the concept beginning with Amartya Sen's pioneering contributions. I also look at clarifications by Nussbaum and others who offer a list of important functionings that can be included in the capabilitie...

  10. Disaggregating Corporate Freedom of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    to religion as a separate and independent jurisdiction with its own system of law over which religious groups are sovereign. I discuss the relationship between, on the one hand, ordinary rights of freedom of association and freedom of religion and, on the other hand, this idea of corporate freedom of religion...

  11. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick


    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  12. Intellectual Workers and Essential Freedoms. (United States)

    Edley, Christopher Jr.


    Journalists and college professors deserve certain privileges, including freedom of speech and academic freedom, but they must adapt their work to increasingly diverse populations. They must confront public mistrust, convince people that these freedoms are worthwhile, and protect essential public rights through what they study and teach and to…

  13. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Vasile


    Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.

  14. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans regarding benefits. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation...

  15. Economic Freedom and Economic Growth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive E. Coetzee


    Full Text Available The economic growth and economic freedom nexus is studied in this article and applied to South Africa in an empirical study. Economic freedom is founded on the free or private market economy, based on competition, where voluntary exchange occurs and a legislative framework ensures the safety of market agents and private property. As part of the literature study, the Index of Economic Freedom, the Economic Freedom of the World Index and the Freedom in the World Index were studied and applied to South Africa. An empirical analysis was conducted, cross-correlation functions were estimated, and Granger causality functions, regression analysis and finally a vector auto-regression model (VAR were constructed and estimated. The research findings from South Africa support the literature, suggesting that there are indeed some indications that greater levels of economic freedom support higher rates of economic growth in a country.

  16. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta


    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  17. Education for sustainability through academic freedom | Ekwueme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past researches are of the opinion that education for sustainable development and academic freedom could assist in solving these ethical menaces. Education for sustainable development allows every human being to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a sustainable future to make ...

  18. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.


    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  19. Slavery, antislavery, freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Brereton


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Empire and Antislavery: Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1833-1874. CHRISTOPHER SCHMIDT-NOWARA. Pittsburgh PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999. xv + 239 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Beyond Slavery: Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies. FREDERICK COOPER, THOMAS C. HOLT & REBECCA J. SCOTT. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. xiii + 198 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95, Paper US$ 15.95 From Slavery to Freedom: Comparative Studies in the Rise andFall of Atlantic Slavery. SEYMOUR DRESCHER. New York: New York University Press, 1999. xxv + 454 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor. STANLEY L. ENGERMAN (ed.. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1999. vi + 350 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00 These four books explore antislavery movements in the Atlantic world, and consider some of the consequences of abolition in postemancipation societies. They are immensely rich studies which engage one of the liveliest areas of enquiry in modern historiography - the transition from slavery to freedom in New World societies - and which represent U.S. historical scholarship at its finest. Each falls into a different category of academic publication.

  20. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun


    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  1. Academic Freedom as Fundamental Right


    Cippitani, Roberto


    [EN] The paper aims at defining in particular the concept of academic freedom within the context of the European legal sources. Even though the idea of a special corporative status for professors was born during the Middle Ages, it was only during the second half of the twentieth century that the Constitutions recognised academic freedom as an individual’s legal right.. Such an individual right is regulated within the category of the freedom of expression, even if it is characteri...

  2. Which Freedom of the Press?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo


    The article surveys the historical and current meaning of "Freedom of the Press" in constitutional and human rights law. Two different conceptions exist, the narrow one defining freedom of the press as the freedom of every one to publish without prior restraint, the broader one defining it as a...... privileged freedom of the organised press to gather and report on information of public interest. These two conceptions have very different answers to the question of whether the press should enjoy some privilege to be exempt from ordinary legislation when such legislation restricts the access of the press to inform...

  3. Measuring Economic Freedom: Better Without Size of Government. (United States)

    Ott, Jan


    The Heritage Foundation and the Fraser Institute measure economic freedom in nations using indices with ten and five indicators respectively. Eight of the Heritage indicators and four of the Fraser-indicators are about specific types of institutional quality, like rule of law, the protection of property, and the provision of sound money. More of these is considered to denote more economic freedom. Both indices also involve indicators of 'big government', or levels of government activities. More of that is seen to denote less economic freedom. Yet, levels of government spending, consumption, and transfers and subsidies appear to correlate positively with the other indicators related to institutional quality, while this correlation is close to zero for the level of taxation as a percentage of GDP. Using government spending, consumption transfers and subsidies as positive indicators is no alternative, because these levels stand for very different government activities, liberal or less liberal. This means that levels of government activities can better be left out as negative or positive indicators. Thus shortened variants of the indices create a better convergent validity in the measurement of economic freedom, and create higher correlations between economic freedom and alternative types of freedom, and between economic freedom and happiness. The higher correlations indicate a better predictive validity, since they are predictable in view of the findings of previous research and theoretical considerations about the relations between types of freedom, and between freedom and happiness.

  4. Climato-economic habitats support patterns of human needs, stresses, and freedoms. (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert


    This paper examines why fundamental freedoms are so unevenly distributed across the earth. Climato-economic theorizing proposes that humans adapt needs, stresses, and choices of goals, means, and outcomes to the livability of their habitat. The evolutionary process at work is one of collectively meeting climatic demands of cold winters or hot summers by using monetary resources. Freedom is expected to be lowest in poor populations threatened by demanding thermal climates, intermediate in populations comforted by undemanding temperate climates irrespective of income per head, and highest in rich populations challenged by demanding thermal climates. This core hypothesis is supported with new survey data across 85 countries and 15 Chinese provinces and with a reinterpretative review of results of prior studies comprising 174 countries and the 50 states in the United States. Empirical support covers freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of expression and participation, freedom from discrimination, and freedom to develop and realize one's human potential. Applying the theory to projections of temperature and income for 104 countries by 2112 forecasts that (a) poor populations in Asia, perhaps except Afghans and Pakistanis, will move up the international ladder of freedom, (b) poor populations in Africa will lose, rather than gain, relative levels of freedom unless climate protection and poverty reduction prevent this from happening, and (c) several rich populations will be challenged to defend current levels of freedom against worsening climato-economic livability.

  5. Freedom and european military conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Archimandryta Andrzej (Borkowski


    Full Text Available In the period of globalization, numerous armed conflicts and wars we often appeal to freedom and human rights. When we talk of freedom in the time we live in we usually mean it to be a possibility of free choice among various things. In contemporary common understanding freedom means choice. Such a definition is far insufficient to an Orthodox Christian. Freedom is something more than a simple difference between obviousness and indecision. Our spiritual attention needs to be directed towards something much more deeper. It should be directed to a struggle in order to overcome results of our fallen nature. According to contemporary understanding freedom is identified also with a possibility to do what is pleasing to ourselves. But such understanding is equally faulty. From theological point of view the term of true freedom denotes God’s grace and therefore human freedom is connected with and dependent on the absolute freedom of God. We do believe that God is the only giver of freedom and justice and He even exceeds them. God does not determine Himself. God simply exists. In such a way God has introduced Himself to Mores in the burning bush: „Εγώ ειμί ο Ών” (I am that I am. Ultimately all the contemporary crisises have their source in an absolute external freedom, freedom of flesh – having lost the notion of sin it transforms into a merciless, tyrannical lawlessness. Distinct manifestation of it are incessant armed conflicts in Europe.

  6. Performance Measurement of Research Activitities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Peyton, Margit Malmmose

    Performance measurements have made their entry into the world of universities. Every research activity is registered in a database and the output measures form the foundation for managerial decisions. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the registration practices among researchers...... the registrations as a way to be promoted and to legitimise and account for their work; on the other hand, the economic incentives behind ranking lists and bibliographic research indicators threaten the individual researcher's freedom. The findings also show how managers have difficulties in translating back...

  7. Threatening faces and social anxiety: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv


    A threatening facial expression is a potent social sign of hostility or dominance. During the past 20 years, photographs of threatening faces have been increasingly included as stimuli in studies with socially anxious participants, based on the hypothesis that a threatening face is especially...... salient to people with fears of social interaction or negative evaluation. The purpose of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the accumulated research and suggest possible avenues for further research. The main conclusion is that photographs of threatening faces engage a broad range...... of perceptual processes in socially anxious participants, particularly when exposure times are very short...

  8. The Erosion of Academic Freedom (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Marshall, Thomas; McHenry, Nadine


    This article originated from a single question: do the restrictions that various accrediting agencies place on teacher educators limit, or entirely eliminate, academic freedom? Considering that question makes it apparent the problem is much broader than academic freedom. The issue has two foci: personal identity and the impact of market…

  9. Freedom as Satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh


    with harmony in one's entire volitional system, Frankfurt may solve the infi nite regress objection but he does so at the cost of ending up with a description of freedom, which comes very close to being identical to his own description of the wanton. Frankfurt's account leaves open the question of whether......This article is a critical assessment of Harry Frankfurt's hierarchical theory of freedom. It spells out and distinguishes several different and irreconcilable conceptions of freedom present in Frankfurt's work. I argue that Frankfurt is ambiguous in his early formulation as to what conception...... of freedom of the will the hierarchical theory builds on, an avoidability or a satisfaction conception. This ambiguity causes problems in his later attempts to respond to the objections of wantonness of second-order desires and of infi nite regress. With his more recent idea of freedom as being satisfi ed...

  10. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign! (United States)

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino


    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  11. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value (United States)

    Barrow, Robin


    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  12. Pharmacy and freedom. (United States)

    Cowen, D L


    The development of pharmacy in Western civilization has been influenced by ideas of individual liberty; the impact of these ideas is traced. For a short time during the French Revolution, individuals without qualifications could practice pharmacy, but abuses prompted return of regulation; from 1803, pharmacy was closely regulated by the state. Liberal thinking in 19th-century Britain left control of pharmacy mainly within the profession; regulation was definitive rather than restrictive. With the influence of Jacksonian Democracy and freedom of trade in the United States, there were no effective pharmacy regulations until the late 19th century and few educational requirements for licensure until the 1920s. In Germany, the old system of concessions and privileges was upset after World War II when any qualified pharmacist was allowed to open a shop wherever desired in the American-occupied zone; the courts upheld this policy as the basis for establishment of pharmacies in West Germany. Liberty in dispensing drugs has been limited out of concern for the well-being of individuals and of society as a whole. In Great Britain and the U.S., restrictions on dispensing antedated laws establishing qualifications for pharmacists. The history of pharmacy demonstrates that there are moral and social barriers to realization of the ideals of liberty. History also suggests that if pharmacists assume responsibilities that use their specialized training, they can defend against inroads by nonpharmacists.

  13. Satellite tracking of threatened species (United States)

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.


    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  14. Fostering Regimes of Truth: Understanding and Reflecting on the Freedom School Way (United States)

    Smith, Kersha


    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the inner workings of a North American summer enrichment programme named Freedom School. More specifically this research explores how participants of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) Freedom School programme experience "the Freedom School way", an amalgam of ideologies, discourses, and behaviours…

  15. Academic Freedom in Canadian Higher Education: Universities, Colleges, and Institutes Were Not Created Equal (United States)

    Hogan, Barry E.; Trotter, Lane D.


    There has been substantial discussion, research, and debate about the role of academic freedom within higher education, primarily centered on the university model. Not as well documented or understood is the issue of academic freedom within colleges and institutes in Canada. In this paper, we examine the current state of academic freedom in…

  16. Review: Oliver Geden (2004. Männlichkeitskonstruktionen in der Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs. Eine qualitativ-empirische Untersuchung [Constructions of Masculinity in the Freedom Party of Austria: A Qualitative Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klärner


    Full Text Available Until now there has been a dearth of qualitative research on right-wing extremist organizations. We know little about the daily routines of "doing politics" in these specific life-worlds. There is also little research concerning the gendered substructure of right-wing extremist parties. Many of the studies that have been done focus on women's roles in such organizations, but the vast majority of its members and supporters, namely men, are seldom analyzed. In his excellent study, Oliver GEDEN explores a rather difficult field of research, examining in which way one of the most successful right-wing extremist parties in Europe, the Freedom Party of Austria, is constructing masculinity. GEDEN not only analyzes the masculinity discourse in two party periodicals, he also conducts group discussions with party officials in order to reconstruct what masculinity means to them in their everyday lives. Furthermore, he reflects about the specific conditions of doing qualitative research on right-wing extremist organizations, particularly on the handling of access restrictions and the requirements of research ethics. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402132

  17. The College Student's Freedom of Expression (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette


    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  18. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet, VA Form 21... Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom service members who have at least six months remaining...

  19. "Card sorting": a tool for research in ethics on treatment decision-making at the end of life in Alzheimer patients with a life threatening complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cretin Elodie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background End stage dementia is a particularly difficult aspect of care for patients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. In care institutions, caregivers and family are concerned by treatment decision-making for an acute life threatening complication occurring in Alzheimer patients at the end of life. How should the best treatment pathway be decided: to treat or not to treat? Which arguments are used for decision-making? These are mainly ethical questions which are currently difficult to express and investigate. Methods/Design Cross sectional multicentre study of clinical cases involving 67 health centres (university hospitals, general hospitals, local hospitals and homes for the elderly in the east of France. The method was based on the "card sorting" technique, with a set of 36 cards, each labelled with a different item relating to arguments for treatment decision-making. For each clinical case, medical staff and carers expressed in a meeting the pieces of information which they believed had been taken into account in the decision. Each participant received a card game, selected fewer than ten and ranked them according to the importance they attached to each one. All selected cards were then put on the table anonymously for participants, respecting the order of importance of the cards in each pile. Lastly, all games were photographed together in order to analyse occurrence and order frequencies. The cards were then classified on the table by frequency to open the discussion. Discussion time, which was conducted by the head carer of the department, concerned the clinical situation of the patient based on the shared responses. Discussion During team meetings, the "card sorting" method was quickly adopted by professionals as a tool to assist with discussion beyond the context of the study. The participants were not compelled to mention their feelings in relation to a case, and it is significant that the anonymity which we

  20. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights (United States)

    Munoz, Elisa


    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  1. 78 FR 12776 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications (United States)


    ... comment before issuing these permits. DATES: To ensure consideration, written comments must be received on... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...) Permit TE-64710A Applicant: Jacob Jackson, Austin, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for research...

  2. Cultural Attitudes and Body Dissatisfaction: Morgan State Researchers Find that Perceptions of Body Image among Young African Americans May Be Life Threatening (United States)

    Hawkins, B. Denise


    Young African Americans don't appear to perceive obesity in the way the medical community does, putting them at greater risk for developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer, says a first-ever study led by researchers at the Morgan State University Prevention Sciences Research Center. The pilot study, which provides a rare…

  3. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis


    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  4. Freedom of Religion and Conscience in the Military: Clarifying Policy (United States)


    federal law prohibiting the practice of polygamy by a Mormon who claimed his religion required him to engage in that practice. The Court made a...FREEDOM OF RELIGION AND CONSCIENCE IN THE MILITARY: CLARIFYING POLICY by CH (COL) J. Craig Combs Army National Guard...2013 2. REPORT TYPE CIVILIAN RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FREEDOM OF RELIGION AND

  5. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    democracy. This freedom argument goes beyond freedom as moral autonomy and a libertarian idea of freedom as non-interference to a notion of freedom as a form of standing constituted by the public legal order. The trouble with other attempts to connect freedom and democracy is that they have operated......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verginia Vedinaș


    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the role that local government plays in ensuring the economic freedom. It briefly examines the status of local authorities, deliberative and executive, and also the powers that they have to create the conditions for the exercise of economic freedom. The study also examines the constitutional regime of this fundamental freedom which is part of the rights and freedoms of the first generation. The purpose of the research aimed both identifying the role of local government in ensuring this basic freedom but also to determine possible means of action to be considered by the government within the territory.

  7. Space Station Freedom cupola definition (United States)

    Weaver, Laurie A.; Lauger, John


    Following the realization that adequate Space Station Freedom viewing could not be achieved without breaking the plane of the modules, a conceptual design phase for the development of a cupola progressed from the idea of a small, bubble-type canopy to a much larger, two crewmember cupola. The evolving cupola conceptual designs were each evaluated against the requirements for providing a large field-of-view, a complete proximity control workstation with flexible and relocatable restraints, and sufficient volume for two, 95th percentile crewmembers to operate while still maintaining reasonable weight and size restrictions. As the SS Freedom program Preliminary Design Review draws closer, the cupola development phase shifts toward evaluation of viewing and operational capability. The appropriate balance of viewing, structures and operations must be achieved before the program can place confidence in a cupola design providing SS Freedom with a direct viewing workstation capable of supporting the great variety of tasks projected for the life of the station.

  8. New masculinities and pedagogy of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Rios


    Full Text Available Purpose: The research on masculinity in education has mainly been focused on analyze the organization of schools and the attention given to the students. This analysis has confirmed the existence of gender inequalities in schools, within them gender violence. This article will start from this background but has as objective to provide new knowledge about the pedagogy of freedom in the promotion of new alternative masculinities. Design/methodology: From a communicative-oriented qualitative methodology the voices of young boys and adult men that have been involved in educational actions, based on a pedagogy of freedom which have contributed to foster new alternative masculinities, have been collected. Findings: The results explain why the pedagogy of freedom can contribute to foster new alternative masculinities. Special attention is paid in the evolution of oppressed traditional masculinities (OTM to new alternative masculinities (NAM. In this regard, it is highlighted how OTM, that not contributes to gender violence but overcome neither, are walking to become NAM thanks to the organizational approach of the pedagogy of freedom. Practical implications: To provide scientific knowledge which could be used as a basis of the educational practices addressed to prevent gender violence. Social implications: The social impact refers to the effect of scientific knowledge in the educational quality and in the socialization of alternative masculinities which overcome harassment and gender violence. Originality/value: The article provides of new knowledge on the coeducational field which allows overcoming the double standards and the attraction against the violence reproduced in the traditional masculinity models.

  9. Investing in threatened species conservation: does corruption outweigh purchasing power? (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T; Joseph, Liana N; Watson, James E M; Zander, Kerstin K


    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in "honest" countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living.

  10. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power? (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.


    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in “honest” countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living. PMID:21818383

  11. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?


    Reel, Jordan; Block, Walter E.


    Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figu...

  12. Human activities threaten coral reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveitdal, Svein; Bjoerke, Aake


    Research indicates that 58 per cent of the coral reefs of the world are threatened by human activities. Pollution and global heating represent some of the threats. Coral reefs just beneath the surface of the sea are very sensitive to temperature changes. Since 1979, mass death of coral reefs has been reported increasingly often. More than 1000 marine species live in the coral reefs, among these are one fourth of all marine species of fish. It is imperative that the coral reefs be preserved, as coastal communities all over the world depend on them as sources of food and as they are the raw materials for important medicines. The article discusses the threats to the coral reefs in general and does not single out any particular energy-related activity as the principal threat. For instance, the El-Nino phenomenon of the Pacific Ocean is probably involved in mass death of coral reefs and in the North Sea large parts of deep-water reefs have been crushed by heavy beam trawlers fishing for bottom fish

  13. Threatened bird valuation in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    Full Text Available Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding. A contingent valuation survey of a broadly representative sample of the Australian public found that almost two thirds (63% supported funding of threatened bird conservation. These included 45% of a sample of 645 respondents willing to pay into a fund for threatened bird conservation, 3% who already supported bird conservation in another form, and 15% who could not afford to pay into a conservation fund but who nevertheless thought that humans have a moral obligation to protect threatened birds. Only 6% explicitly opposed such payments. Respondents were willing to pay about AUD 11 annually into a conservation fund (median value, including those who would pay nothing. Highest values were offered by young or middle aged men, and those with knowledge of birds and those with an emotional response to encountering an endangered bird. However, the prospect of a bird going extinct alarmed almost everybody, even most of those inclined to put the interests of people ahead of birds and those who resent the way threatened species sometimes hold up development. The results suggest that funding for threatened birds has widespread popular support among the Australian population. Conservatively they would be willing to pay about AUD 14 million per year, and realistically about AUD 70 million, which is substantially more than the AUD 10 million currently thought to be required to prevent Australian bird extinctions.

  14. Renormalization group and asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.R.


    Several field theoretic models are presented which allow exact expressions of the renormalization constants and renormalized coupling constants. These models are analyzed as to their content of asymptotic free field behavior through the use of the Callan-Symanzik renormalization group equation. It is found that none of these models possesses asymptotic freedom in four dimensions

  15. On Procedural Freedom of Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlegi, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.


    Numerous works in the last decade have analyzed the question of how to compare opportunity sets as a way to measure and evaluate individual freedom of choice.This paper defends that, in many contexts, external procedural aspects that are associated to an opportunity set should be taken into account

  16. Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective (United States)

    Davies, Mark


    Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…

  17. No School like Freedom School (United States)

    Williamson, Lisa Ann


    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…

  18. The Specific Value of Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, Martin


    Freedom is among the most important values in political life, yet there has always been a great deal of disagreement about what this value demands from us. Libertarians argue that it requires that we protect each person's right to own and exchange private property. Liberals argue that it requires

  19. Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Governance. (United States)

    Perley, James E.


    Tenure itself is not the central issue in the debate over faculty tenure; honest faculty evaluation, adequate faculty development, and termination when appropriate are the real issues as are fears that abandonment of the tenure principle would amount to abandonment of the principles of academic freedom and shared governance. (MSE)

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic, 3-Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) Wind Tunnel Model (United States)


    ARL-CR-0807● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic, 3-Degree-of-Freedom ( DOF ) Wind...ARL-CR-0807 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic, 3-Degree-of-Freedom ( DOF ) Wind...Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic, 3-Degree-of-Freedom ( DOF ) Wind Tunnel Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911-QX-14-C-0016 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  1. Threatened by Gender? (United States)

    Humpherys, Candice; Pyper, Brian


    A good deal of research has been done on the issue of stereotype threat.^1, 2 This research proposes that if a person identifies with a group of people that is negatively stereotyped for performance, then they will not perform as well as someone from the same group of people who is not made aware of the negative stereotype. The research we conducted investigates the legitimacy of stereotype threat based on gender in the area of science in the BYU-Idaho student population. Our results have significance in the current national debate about the lack of women pursuing careers in scientific disciplines. ^1 Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.. (2001). The Interference of Stereotype Threat With Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies. Journal of Social Issues. 57(1):55-71. ^2 Schmader, Tony, & Johns, Michael. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85(3):440-452.

  2. Threatened Because of Gender? (United States)

    Humpherys, Candice; Pyper, Brian


    A good deal of research has been done on the issue of stereotype threat. [1, 2] This research proposes that if a person identifies with a group of people that is negatively stereotyped for performance, then they will not perform as well as someone from the same group of people who is not made aware of the negative stereotype. The research we conducted investigates the legitimacy of stereotype threat based on gender in the area of science in the BYU-Idaho student population. Our results have significance in the current national debate about the lack of women pursuing careers in scientific disciplines. [1] Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.. (2001). The Interference of Stereotype Threat With Women's Generation of Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies. Journal of Social Issues. 57(1):55-71. [2] Schmader, Tony, & Johns, Michael. (2003). Converging Evidence That Stereotype Threat Reduces Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85(3):440-452.

  3. Old Dilemmas Renewed: Fear of Freedom vs. Freedom from Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gruszczyk


    Full Text Available Contemporary societies are currently subjected to very rapid and radical social changes and, as a consequence, struggle with their outcomes. The results range from the unforeseen repercussions of globally shifting political powers, through rising nationalisms, to prolonged economic, environmental, political and humanitarian crises. Critical analysis of the theories focused on the phenomena of authoritarianism, escapism, political myth, and conformity allows for outlining a comprehensive picture of the universally recognized opposition between freedom and security. From the distinction between the positive and negative freedom to the ambiguity surrounding the concept of “freedom from fear”, the fundamental dilemma is viewed from a historical perspective and illustrated with modern examples, emphasizing its current validity, insightfulness and potential in analyzing contemporary global problems. This approach allows for in-depth analyses of diversified social and political issues, such as the North African-European refugee crisis, rising nationalisms in the Western world, or a marked shift in political and social perspectives worldwide, from modern escapism to the birth of new myths of state.

  4. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011 (United States)


    ... weighty task of ensuring freedom of religious expression and practice, we have remained a Nation in which... Part V The President Proclamation 8623--Religious Freedom Day, 2011 Proclamation 8624--Martin... President [[Page 3817

  5. 78 FR 68325 - World Freedom Day, 2013 (United States)


    ... Freedom Day, we remember that for all the raw power of authoritarian regimes, it is ultimately citizens... continues to march with those who are reaching for freedom around the world. Today, let us remember that our...

  6. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global......While much attention has been devoted to analyzing how the institutional framework and entrepreneurship impact growth, how economic policy and institutional design affect entrepreneurship appears to be much less analyzed. We try to explain cross-country differences in the level of entrepreneurship...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...

  7. Freedom, License and A.S. Neill. (United States)

    Barrett, Richard


    Attempts to unravel some of the confusion which has arisen over theoretical and actual freedom at A.S. Neill's alternative school in England, Summerhill. An overview of the topic of freedom is offered, based on contrasting theories of freedom in "On Being Free," by Firthjof Bergmann (University of Notre Dame Press, 1977). (DB)

  8. Development as Freedom - And As What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)


    markdownabstractAbstract To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to

  9. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van


    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  10. Development as Freedom : And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.


    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  11. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development (United States)

    Allen, Nicholas


    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  12. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van


    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  13. 3 CFR - Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freedom of Information Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Freedom of Information Act Memorandum for... disinfectants.” In our democracy, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which encourages accountability through...

  14. Ideals of Freedom and the Ethics of Thought--Meaning and Mystique (United States)

    Yun, Suninn


    This paper considers prominent forms of discourse in educational research, the nature of their appeal and the force of the idea of freedom within that appeal. For this, two different aspects of research are juxtaposed, aspects in which the value of freedom is articulated in contrasting ways. First, evidence-based education (EBE) is considered as a…

  15. 77 FR 7243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0728.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB Control Number: 2900-0728. Type of...

  16. Threatened plants of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV


    Full Text Available Lists are provided of 1 915 vascular plant taxa regarded to be either extinct or variously threatened in southern Africa, the region south of (but excluding) Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. These include 39 recently extinct taxa} 105 endangered...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Chukwu: Tribe, Tongue, Enculturation Threatened. 234 language. Alluding to sign language, Basden (60) describes medical cult recruitment of baby male boys via supposedly supernatural engraven signs on the baby's body. During the dedication, the dibia (medicine man) detects some sign which convinces him that this ...

  18. Mass surveillance, privacy, and freedom : A case for public access to information about mass government surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Moore, Adam D.


    This chapter examines judicial decisions about the legality of mass surveillance in the United States and Europe (at the European Court of Human Rights), and explores how the existence of these programs threatens individual freedom. In doing so, the chapter presents a theory of information access

  19. Machiavelli: Ambition, Freedom and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Villar Ezcurra


    Full Text Available This article tackles the anthropological conception of Machiavelli, mainly taken from the Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius in which stands out the identity of human passions and the importance of its understanding to reach political knowledge. Machiavelli considers that the human being is malleable in such a way that a passion can be fought and compensated by another one. From this perspective, is analysed the role of ambition and freedom both as a source of confrontation and degeneration and as an incentive to achieve the most important goals.

  20. On heterogeneity of treatment effects and clinical freedom. (United States)

    Sacristán, J A; Avendaño-Solá, C


    Three decades ago, John R Hampton announced the death of clinical freedom. Since then, evidence-based medicine has been the predominant paradigm in clinical research. By applying a population-based approach, the randomised controlled trial has become the cornerstone for demonstrating the overall effect of a treatment and for developing guidelines. The new patient-centred medicine movement is rediscovering the important implications of heterogeneity of treatment effects for clinical practice and that a better understanding of such variability can contribute to improve health outcomes for individual patients through practicing a science-based clinical freedom. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Freedom: Toward an Integration of the Counseling Profession (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.


    Freedom is presented as an overarching paradigm that may align and bring together the counseling profession's diverse counseling theories and open a doorway to a new generation of counseling techniques. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of its 4 modalities: freedom from, freedom to, freedom with, and freedom for. The long-standing problem…

  2. Reactance versus rationalization: divergent responses to policies that constrain freedom. (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin; Kay, Aaron C; Fitzsimons, Gavan J


    How do people respond to government policies and work environments that place restrictions on their personal freedoms? The psychological literature offers two contradictory answers to this question. Here, we attempt to resolve this apparent discrepancy. Specifically, we identify the absoluteness of a restriction as one factor that determines how people respond to it. Across two studies, participants responded to absolute restrictions (i.e., restrictions that were sure to come into effect) with rationalization: They viewed the restrictions more favorably, and valued the restricted freedoms less, compared with control participants. Participants responded in the opposite way to identical restrictions that were described as nonabsolute (i.e., as having a small chance of not coming into effect): In this case, participants displayed reactance, viewing the restrictions less favorably, and valuing the restricted freedoms more, compared with control participants. We end by discussing future research directions.

  3. Academic Freedom and Student Grading in Greek Higher Education (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni


    The issue of who has the final say on academic standards (grading), academics or managers, has hitherto not arisen in Greece. Professors entitled to research, to teach and to inquire is a freedom expressed by the Greek Constitution. This article presents a contemporary view and raises concerns about the future and the longevity of academic freedom…

  4. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students (United States)

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  5. [Threatened late miscarriage. French guidelines]. (United States)

    Carcopino, X; Barde, K; Petrovic, M; Beucher, G; Capmas, P; Huchon, C; Deffieux, X; d'Ercole, C; Bretelle, F


    To define guidelines for the management of women diagnosed with threatened late miscarriage (TLM). A systematic review of the literature was performed using Pubmed and the Cochrane library databases and the guidelines from main international societies. Management of women diagnosed with threatened LM requires a complete history-taking searching for a previous history of LM and/or of premature delivery (Grade B). Speculum examination is required to diagnose membrane prolapse (Grade B) and vaginal ultrasound scan is recommended to measure the cervical length (Grade B). Finally, initial management should allow to rule out chorioamniotitis (Grade B). Vaginal progesterone therapy (90-200mg daily) is recommended for women diagnosed with a sole shortened cervix (Mc Donald technique) associated with systematic tocolytic therapy (indometacine) and antibiotics are to be recommended in women diagnosed with TLM with dilated cervical os eventually associated with membrane prolapse (GradeC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic freedom and life satisfaction : Mediation by income per capita and generalized trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.


    Several researches have shown that economic freedom is positively related to life satisfaction. Only a few studies, however, have examined which aspects of economic freedom (small government size, quality of the legal system, sound money, trade openness or no regulation) drive this relationship.

  7. Academic Freedom for Whom? Experiences and Perceptions of Faculty of Color (United States)

    Locher, Holley M.


    Academic freedom is a cornerstone principle to the U. S. system of higher education and is intended to exist for all faculty. Thus, the dominant discourse is that academic freedom is neutral. Utilizing the framework of critical race theory, this research demonstrates that faculty of color can differentially experience and perceive their academic…

  8. Selective memory bias for self-threatening memories in trait anxiety. (United States)

    Saunders, Jo


    Previous research has suggested that we tend to forget information that is self-threatening--an effect known as mnemic neglect. Three experiments are reported, which examined mnemic neglect in anxiety and whether high-anxious individuals show facilitated memory for self-threatening material. In Experiment 1, high-anxious participants were found to have facilitated memory for self-threatening information in comparison to low-anxious participants. In Experiments 2 and 3 boundary conditions to this memory bias for self-threatening memories were examined, which revealed facilitated recall of self-threatening memories when this information was unmodifiable (Experiment 2) and when this information was highly diagnostic of underlying traits (Experiment 3). The findings indicate that high-anxious participants show reversed mnemic neglect effects indicating increased access to self-threatening information. The findings suggest that high-anxious individuals do show memory bias for threatening information but only under certain circumstances.

  9. BBG 2009 Freedom of Information Act Repot (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  10. BBG 2008 Freedom of Information Act Report (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  11. A Legitimate Freedom Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew


    an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably...... reject. Thus, Sen's vision of development as freedom is amended to suggest limits to freedoms. Forms of development which are not sustainable can be reasonably rejected due, at least, to the harm and blighting entailed. Based on this, it is argued that at country level of comparison the Human Development...

  12. Six degree of freedom sensor (United States)

    Vann, C.S.


    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  13. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge


    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  14. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel


    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  15. Moral distress and professional freedom of speech among doctors. (United States)

    Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw


    Previous studies indicate that Norwegian doctors experience distress in their encounter with differing and partly contradictory ideals, such as the obligation to criticise unethical and inappropriate practices. The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of moral distress and professional freedom of speech among Norwegian doctors as of today, as well as identify changes that have occurred since the previous study undertaken in 2004. A total of 1,522 economically active doctors received a questionnaire listing various statements describing the perception of moral distress and professional freedom of speech. The responses were compared to responses to the 2004 study. Altogether 67% of the doctors responded to the questionnaire. The proportion who reported «fairly strong» or «strong» moral distress varied from 24% to 70% among the different statements. On the whole, the «rank and file» hospital doctors reported the highest degree of moral distress. Nevertheless, a decrease in the scores for moral distress could be observed from 2004 to 2010. During the same period, the perception of professional freedom of speech increased slightly. A reduced level of distress associated with ethical conflicts in working life may be due to improved methods for handling distressing situations, or because the consequences of the health services reorganisations are perceived as less threatening now than in 2004, immediately after the introduction of the hospital reform. However, the perceived lower distress level may also be due to professional and ethical resignation. These findings should be followed up by a qualitative study.

  16. Cross-country Association of Press Freedom and LGBT freedom with prevalence of persons living with HIV: implication for global strategy against HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Elliott, Amy L; Wang, Shuang


    Human behaviors are affected by attitudes and beliefs, which in turn are shaped by higher-level values to which we have ascribed. In this study, we explore the relationship between two higher-level values, press freedom and LGBT freedom, and HIV infection with national data at the population level. Data were the number of persons living with HIV (PLWH, n  = 35,468,911) for 148 countries during 2011-15, press freedom index (PFI) determined by the Reporters Without Borders, and LGBT freedom index (LGBT-FI) based on laws regulating same-sex relationships and expression. PLWH prevalence (1/1000), PFI and LGBT-FI were mapped first. Multiple regression was thus used to associate the logarithm of PLWH prevalence with PFI, LGBT-FI and PFI × LGBT-FI interaction, controlling for per capita GDP and weighted by population size. Global prevalence of PLWH during 2011-15 was 0.51 per 1000 population. The prevalence showed a geographic pattern moving from high at the south and west ends of the world map to low at the north and east. Both PFI and LGBT-FI were positively associated with PLWH prevalence with a negative interaction between the two. More people are infected with HIV in countries with higher press freedom and higher LGBT freedom. Furthermore, press freedom can attenuate the positive association between levels of LGBT freedom and risk of HIV infection. This study demonstrated the urgency for and provided data supporting further research to investigate potential cultural and socioecological mechanisms underpinning the complex relationship among press freedom, LGBT freedom and HIV infection, with data collected at the individual level.

  17. Protecting the human right to freedom of expression in international law. (United States)

    Howie, Emily


    Since its inclusion in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the right to freedom of opinion and expression has been protected in all of the relevant international human rights treaties. In international law, freedom to express opinions and ideas is considered essential at both an individual level, insofar as it contributes to the full development of a person, and being a foundation stone of democratic society. Free speech is a necessary precondition to the enjoyment of other rights, such as the right to vote, free assembly and freedom of association, and is essential to ensure press freedom. However, there is a clear and worrying global trend, including in western democracies, of governments limiting vibrant discussion and debate within civil society and among civil society, political leaders and government. Two examples illustrate this trend. First, anti-protest laws in Australia and the United States threaten the ability of people to stand together and express views on issues they care deeply about. Secondly, metadata retention laws jeopardise press freedom by undermining the confidentiality of journalists' sources and dissuading people from speaking freely on matters of public importance.

  18. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education (United States)

    Harris, Roy


    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  19. Northrop Frye on Academic Freedom: A Critique. (United States)

    Woodhouse, Howard


    Argues that Frye's concept of academic freedom is based on an espistemological dualism that separates knowledge from experience. This distinction severely limits his account of academic freedom by excluding fundamental aspects of knowledge (experience, value judgments, teacher-student dialogue, rational argument, interdisciplinary inquiry,…

  20. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools (United States)

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.


    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  1. Reading Educational Philosophies in "Freedom Writers" (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Ah


    The 2007 film "Freedom Writers" portrays the real-life experiences of Erin Gruwell, a teacher at an inner-city high school in Long Beach, California. This article discusses the educational theories underpinning Gruwell's pedagogical practice, as seen in "Freedom Writers", and identifies four themes--rewriting curriculum,…

  2. EU economic freedoms and social dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Bernaciak, M.


    In the book, Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe, edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic freedoms has negatively

  3. Negative freedom and the liberal paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given

  4. Freedom, Indeterminism and Imagination | Pitman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suspicion about libertarian free will is that freedom is undermined, rather than supported, by the positing of indeterminism within processes of volition. In response, this paper presents a way in which moments of indeterminism can enhance freedom, by showing how such moments can genuinely belong to the agent.

  5. Academic Freedom: A Global Comparative Approach (United States)

    Marginson, Simon


    Academic freedom is best understood not as an abstract universal principle or an ideal state of being but as concrete university practices nested in specific relational environments. As such, practices of academic freedom vary across the world, according to variations in political cultures, educational cultures and state-university relations. The…

  6. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom (United States)

    Collinson, Vivienne


    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  7. Escape from Freedom: Towards the Political Realm (United States)

    Dillon, Katrina


    In this paper, the author contends that the ability to create a political realm is dependent upon one's state of freedom. She questions what it means to be free and whether assumptions of the definitions of this concept are always good or beneficial. After discussing some of the known theories about freedom, she states that schools are some…

  8. Adorno on Kant, Freedom and Determinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutten, Timo


    In this paper I argue that Adorno's metacritique of freedom in Negative Dialectics and related texts remains fruitful today. I begin with some background on Adorno's conception of metacritique and on Kant's conception of freedom, as I understand it. Next, I discuss Adorno's analysis of the

  9. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica L.


    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  10. 75 FR 3843 - Religious Freedom Day, 2010 (United States)


    ... toil, it was the genius of America's forefathers to protect our freedom of religion, including the... Statute was more than a law. It was a statement of principle, declaring freedom of religion as the natural..., stating, ``Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free...

  11. An unresolved problem : freedom across lifetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Andreas T

    Freedom is one of the central values in political and moral philosophy. A number of theorists hold that freedom (or, relatedly, opportunity) should either be the only or at least one of the central distribuenda in our theories of distributive justice. Moreover, many follow Mill and hold that a

  12. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  13. Space Station Freedom - What if...? (United States)

    Grey, Jerry


    The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.

  14. Threatened fishes of the world: Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartvich, P.; Lusk, Stanislav; Rutkayová, J.


    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0378-1909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : threatened fishes * Europe * Cobitidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2010

  15. US Army Physical Therapist Roles and Contributions in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott W; Moore, Josef H


    Musculoskeletal injuries are a leading cause of health care utilization, medical evacuation, and disability. US Army physical therapists (PTs) have served as physician extenders for the management of nonsurgical neuromusculoskeletal injuries since the Vietnam conflict. The roles and evidence supporting US Army physical therapy continue to evolve. This article discusses the different levels of care and roles of US Army PTs, the contributions and evidence regarding US Army physical therapy, and physical therapy lessons learned during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Since 2001, US Army PTs and enlisted physical therapy technicians have provided care from Levels 1 to 5 and assignments have expanded to special operations and brigade combat teams. Evidence suggests US Army PTs serving both in referral and direct access roles provided safe and definitive care that maximized readiness while reducing evacuation. Key physical therapy lessons learned include: (1) a continued focus on a Soldier sports medicine forward care model, (2) a need for injury risk assessment, physical performance screenings, and reconditioning programs that optimize readiness, and (3) continued support for physical therapy structure, training, and research that maximizes Soldier readiness and health.

  16. Freedom of the Press – two concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl


    Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.

  17. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Plan (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Executive Order (E.O.) 13,392 mandates that each federal agency shall have a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) working plan with established goals and time frames to...

  18. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Tracking System (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...

  19. Christianity and the Discovery of Religious Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Leppin


    Full Text Available With its broad spectrum of cults and coexisting religions Graeco-Roman antiquity seems, at first glance, to be the embodiment of religious freedom. Yet, a closer analysis shows that a concept of tolerance or the idea of religious freedom did not exist. Political institutions could easily suppress religious practices that were regarded as offensive. Fighting against the oppression of Christians appears to have increased under the influence of oecumenical paganism during the reign of the Severans. In this time, the Christian thinker Tertullian discovered and articulated the concept of religious freedom. However, he did not do so emphatically and the concept was not very successful in antiquity. With the Christianization of the Roman Empire it disappeared soon, although its rediscovery in later epochs contributed heavily to the formation of the European norm of religious freedom.

  20. A balanced view of development as freedom


    Tungodden, Bertil


    Amartya Sen, in his most recent book Development as Freedom, argues that expansion of human freedom should both be viewed as the primary end and the principle means of development. This paper provides an overview and a critical scrutiny of the Senian perspective from the point of view of an economist. First, I discuss to what extent Sen's normative theory of development justifies a particular focus on inequality and poverty. Second, I look at Sen's perspective on democratic reasoning as the c...

  1. The fragility of freedom of speech. (United States)

    Shackel, Nicholas


    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.

  2. Stigma by Prejudice Transfer: Racism Threatens White Women and Sexism Threatens Men of Color. (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Wilton, Leigh S; Remedios, Jessica D


    In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume that there is a direct correspondence between the attitude of prejudiced individuals and the targets (i.e., sexism affects women, racism affects racial minorities), the five studies reported here demonstrate that White women can be threatened by racism (Study 1, 3, 4, and 5) and men of color by sexism (Study 2). Robust to perceptions of liking and the order in which measures were administered, results showed that prejudice transfers between racism and sexism were driven by the presumed social dominance orientation of the prejudiced individual. In addition, important downstream consequences, such as the increased likelihood of anticipated stigma, expectations of unfair treatment, and the attribution of negative feedback to sexism, appeared for stigmatized individuals.

  3. Values on Paper, in the Head, and in Action: On Max Weber and Value Freedom Today. (United States)

    Betta, Michela; Swedberg, Richard


    This article starts out with a summary of Weber's views on value freedom, by emphasizing: (1) that value freedom constitutes a special constellation of values; and (2) that value freedom makes it possible for the social scientist to theorize on the basis of new and more extensive knowledge than if she had simply stated her own values and focused the analysis around these. The latter point emerges most clearly in Weber's instructions for how a social scientist should proceed when carrying out an analysis of her own preferred social policy. After the section on Weber's views on value freedom, an attempt is made to update his views. This is done by arguing that the impact of values (and value freedom) differs, depending on where these can be found: on paper, in the head of the social scientist, or in her actions. "Actions," in the context of value freedom, refer to the research process and especially to the element of theorizing. Value freedom helps to guide the research into new and fruitful directions and to steer it clear of propaganda. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  4. Anthropogenic Activities Threatening the Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abundant fauna and flora resources in Nigeria are being threatened due to the increasing rate of anthropogenic activities across the protected areas in the country. This study examined anthropogenic activities threatening the natural resources considered to be of ecotourism value in Old Oyo National Park. Primary data ...

  5. Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chien, P.D.


    Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam (Summary for the library) Effective conservation of threatened tree species requires information on natural dynamics and future prospects of populations of these species. Such information can be obtained from demographic studies. We investigated the

  6. Nabokov’s Freedom: An Uneven Battle against the Sinister Narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Asadi Amjad


    Full Text Available With the recent inclination toward reading for ideological aspects of his works, Nabokov, who had been pervasively regarded as a mere ingenious aesthete, both during his life and for a long time after his death, has proved more puzzling in interpretation than what scholars believed. In this research, in order to understand what concept of freedom Nabokov has developed in his Bend Sinister, we focus on the two of his salient concerns: reality and individuality. Consequently, our narratological reading of Bend Sinister is concentrated first on the interpretation of the whatness of reality and its contribution to realize freedom, and second on analyzing the significance of retaining individuality to procure freedom; ultimately, out of delving into these two issues, the concept of freedom that the narrative techniques of the novel render, in correspondence to the peculiarities of the mid-twentieth century, is found out. Regarding the notion of the reality, in this novel, the unremitting propaganda of the totalitarian system presented the materialistic world as the ultimate truth, confining citizens in the prison of a fake world and not permitting them to gain the slightest awareness of the endless freedom possible in eternity. As to the individuality, Krug’s attempts not to succumb to the desired system of padograph lead him to maintain his individuality and partly realize his freedom of mind. And finally, it is shown how totalitarianism has reached such absolute power that no thorough freedom of mind is now conceivable for humanity.

  7. 34 CFR 5.32 - Freedom of information officer. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of information officer. 5.32 Section 5.32... PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Freedom of Information Officer § 5.32 Freedom of information officer. The Freedom of Information Officer shall be responsible for determining whether records of the...

  8. Using military friendships to optimize postdeployment reintegration for male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans. (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna


    Social relationships are important to health out comes. The postdeployment family reintegration literature focuses on the role of the civilian family in facilitating the transition from Active Duty military deployment to civilian society. The focus on the civilian family relationship may miss other important personal connections in veterans' lives. One such connection is the relationship many veterans have with former military unit members who served with them when deployed. Drawing on interviews with male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans conducted from 2008 to 2009, we argue that the members of a military unit, especially during armed conflict, should be considered a resource to help the "family" reintegration process rather than impede it. This research has implications for current reintegration policy and how best to assist veterans transitioning into civilian society.

  9. The principle of freedom of contract in civil law of the Republic of Belarus




    Introduction: according to the author of the article, the principle of freedom of contract, secured among fundamental principles of civil legislation of the Republic of Belarus, is not fully implemented in the current legislation. Purpose: to identify legal rules incoherent with the requirements of the principle of freedom of contract and to work out proposals for their correction. Methods: the methodological framework of the research is based on a set of universal, general scientific and spe...

  10. Religious Freedom in the World: A Global Comparative Survey Sponsored by Freedom House. (United States)

    American Educator, 2001


    Summarizes findings from a report on religious freedom around the world created by a multidisciplinary, multi-religious group of international scholars, explaining that this basic human right is under assault in many areas. Presents descriptions of religious freedom in Russia, India, North Korea, and Sudan. A chart describes and rates religious…

  11. Freedom from religion: strengthening the human right to freedom of religion and belief by securing freedom from religion


    McAdam, Marika


    Freedom of religion and belief is one of the strongest rights contained in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), but simultaneously one of the most elusive. Article 18 of the ICCPR protects “theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief.” And yet jurisprudence is yet to fully explore the capacity of this right to stand up to the challenge of meaningfully protecting freedom of religion and belief across the ...

  12. Freedom and Confinement: Patients’ Experiences of Life with Home Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vestman


    Full Text Available Patients with chronic end stage renal disease need dialysis to survive; however, they also need a treatment that suits their life situation. It is important that healthcare providers provide reliable, up-to-date information about different dialysis treatment options. Since home haemodialysis is a relatively new treatment, it is necessary to gather more knowledge about what the treatment entails from the patient’s perspective. The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of having home haemodialysis. To gain access to the patients’ experiences, they were asked to write narratives, which describe both their good and bad experiences of life with the treatment. The narratives were analysed with a qualitative method. The results of this analysis are subdivided into five themes: freedom to be at home and control their own treatment, feeling of being alone with the responsibility, changes in the home environment, need for support, and security and well-being with home haemodialysis. The conclusion is that home haemodialysis provides a certain level of freedom, but the freedom is limited as the treatment itself is restrictive. In order to improve patients’ experiences with home haemodialysis, more research based on patients’ experiences is needed and it is necessary to involve the patients in the development of the care.

  13. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...... is good for oneself and what is equally good for all. While freedom of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that citizens have no obligations with regard to how they speak to each other. The moral insights that deliberation delivers depends on that the participants...

  14. Nursing diagnoses in women deprived of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle de Freitas Ferreira


    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the nursing diagnoses profile of women deprived of freedom, using the International Classification for Nursing® Practice version 1.0. Methods: a descriptive study, conducted with 186 women deprived of freedom. Nursing Diagnoses were extrapolated based on the clinical data of the participants, collected through a structured form and clinical reasoning. Results: there were 44 nursing diagnostic statements, among the most common, there were: infection risk (70.9%; fluid intake, decreased (61.2%; Sleep, impaired (60.7%; tobacco abuse, started (51.6%; health seeking behavior, committed (50.0%. Conclusion: the diagnoses are related to factors that compromise the biopsychosocial health. The nurse, health staff member in the prison setting, must recognize and assess the individual and collective needs of women deprived of freedom. The inference of nursing diagnoses, based on clinical reasoning, contributes to a humanized, empathic and special care.

  15. Battlefield extremity injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom. (United States)

    Dougherty, Amber L; Mohrle, Charlene R; Galarneau, Michael R; Woodruff, Susan I; Dye, Judy L; Quinn, Kimberly H


    Extremity injuries account for the majority of wounds incurred during US armed conflicts. Information regarding the severity and short-term outcomes of patients with extremity wounds, however, is limited. The aim of the present study was to describe patients with battlefield extremity injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and to compare characteristics of extremity injury patients with other combat wounded. Data were obtained from the United States Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry (CTR) for patients who received treatment for combat wounds at Navy-Marine Corps facilities in Iraq between September 2004 and February 2005. Battlefield extremity injuries were classified according to type, location, and severity; patient demographic, injury-specific, and short-term outcome data were analysed. Upper and lower extremity injuries were also compared. A total of 935 combat wounded patients were identified; 665 (71%) sustained extremity injury. Overall, multiple wounding was common (an average of 3 wounds per patient), though more prevalent amongst patients with extremity injury than those with other injury (75% vs. 56%, Pextremity injury patients, 261 (39%) sustained injury to the upper extremities, 223 (34%) to the lower extremities, and 181 (27%) to both the upper and lower extremities. Though the total number of patients with upper extremity injury was higher than lower extremity injury, the total number of extremity wounds (n=1654) was evenly distributed amongst the upper and lower extremities (827 and 827 wounds, respectively). Further, lower extremity injuries were more likely than the upper extremity injuries to be coded as serious to fatal (AIS>2, PExtremity injuries continue to account for the majority of combat wounds. Compared with other conflicts, OIF has seen increased prevalence of patients with upper extremity injuries. Wounds to the lower extremities, however, are more serious. Further research on the risks and outcomes associated with extremity

  16. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species (United States)

    California Department of Resources — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  17. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic...

  18. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  19. No freedom of action without emotional energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul

    . The paper further develops such a social and relational approach by arguing that freedom is also based on emotional energy and not merely on priveleges and power (cf. Bauman). Agency cannot be taken for granted as a generic feature of humans beings (cf. Layder, Bauman, Campbell) founded in consciousnes...... and intentionality (Fuchs). In a differential and generative sense freedom/agency is based on emotional energy. For example, to act personally, cooperately with others or on behalf on institutions individuals need feeling self-confidence, trust or loyalty (Barbalet). Such emotions are resources inmplicated...

  20. No freedom of action without emotional energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul

    and intentionality (Fuchs). In a differential and generative sense freedom/agency is based on emotional energy. For example, to act personally, cooperately with others or on behalf on institutions individuals need feeling self-confidence, trust or loyalty (Barbalet). Such emotions are resources inmplicated....... The paper further develops such a social and relational approach by arguing that freedom is also based on emotional energy and not merely on priveleges and power (cf. Bauman). Agency cannot be taken for granted as a generic feature of humans beings (cf. Layder, Bauman, Campbell) founded in consciousnes...

  1. Progress as Compositional Lock-Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Dardha, Ornela; Montesi, Fabrizio


    such definition to capture a more intuitive notion of context adequacy for checking progress. Interestingly, our new catalysers lead to a novel characterisation of progress in terms of the standard notion of lock-freedom. Guided by this discovery, we also develop a conservative extension of catalysers that does...... not depend on types, generalising the notion of progress to untyped session-based processes. We combine our results with existing techniques for lock-freedom, obtaining a new methodology for proving progress. Our methodology captures new processes wrt previous progress analysis based on session types....

  2. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.


    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  3. Acupuncture as a therapeutic treatment option for threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betts Debra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatened miscarriage involves vaginal bleeding in a pregnancy that remains viable. This is a common early pregnancy complication with increased risk factors for early pregnancy loss, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, preterm delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal antepartum haemorrhage. Currently there are no recommended medical treatment options, rather women receive advice that centres on a 'wait and see' approach. For women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage providing supportive care in a subsequent pregnancy improves live birthing outcomes, but the provision of supportive care to women experiencing threatened miscarriage has to date not been examined. Discussion While it is known that 50-70% of miscarriages occur due to chromosomal abnormalities, the potential for therapeutic intervention amongst the remaining percentage of women remains unknown. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have the potential to provide supportive care for women presenting with threatened miscarriage. Within fertility research, acupuncture demonstrates beneficial hormonal responses with decreased miscarriage rates, raising the possibility acupuncture may promote specific beneficial effects in early pregnancy. With the lack of current medical options for women presenting with threatened miscarriage it is timely to examine the possible treatment benefits of providing CAM therapies such as acupuncture. Summary Despite vaginal bleeding being a common complication of early pregnancy there is often reluctance from practitioners to discuss with women and medical personal how and why CAM may be beneficial. In this debate article, the physiological processes of early pregnancy together with the concept of providing supportive care and acupuncture are examined. The aim is to raise awareness and promote discussion as to the beneficial role CAM may have for women presenting with threatened miscarriage.

  4. Recognizing life-threatening causes of syncope. (United States)

    Khoo, Clarence; Chakrabarti, Santabhanu; Arbour, Laura; Krahn, Andrew D


    While the overall prognosis of syncope is favorable, the identification of individuals with a potentially life-threatening cause is of paramount importance. Cardiac syncope is associated with an elevated risk of mortality, and includes both primary arrhythmic and obstructive etiologies. Identification of these individuals is contingent on careful clinical assessment and judicious use of diagnostic investigations. This article focuses on life-threatening causes of syncope and a diagnostic approach to facilitate their identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace


    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  6. The Chains Around Academic Freedom in Teaching-Learning. (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer


    Freedom as a concept has been much debated. Is freedom an innate part of being, or does freedom even truly exists? These are questions that have gleaned countless hours of discourse over the years. Two components of freedom that can influence nurse higher education are freedom of speech, in the form of media, and academic freedom. The author of this column first introduces three views of freedom to demonstrate the differences surrounding it. A discussion of the media's use or misuse of freedom of speech and its influence on nursing education is then presented, followed by an examination of current threats to academic freedom in today's institutes of higher learning and specifically in the nursing education arena. The author concludes with suggestions on being a nurse educator through living as a humanbecoming professional while navigating issues surrounding nursing education.

  7. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel F.


    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech…

  8. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the religion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues...

  9. Superstrings with tensor degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, R. (Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Barcelos-Neto, J. (Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil))


    We add antisymmetric tensor degrees of freedom to the usual superstring coordinates. We show that super and kappa symmetries are only achieved for the spacetime dimension D = 4. We also address problems related to the quantization of the model and discuss the influences of this extended spacetime in the usual quantum field theory. (orig.)

  10. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School. (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.


    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  11. Happiness and economic freedom: Are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilkay


    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the linkage between economic freedom and happiness (subjective well-being. We attempt to understand which economic institutions (rule of law, limited government, regulatory efficiency, open markets have influence on subjective well-being. For this purpose we use a panel dataset and analyze the effect of economic freedom on subjective well-being while using various control variables such as government expenditures as percentage of GDP, human development, social support, freedom of choice and generosity. Our pooled FGLS estimations indicate that all pillars of economic freedom have a strong influence on the average subjective well-being in society. Three of these pillars, namely rule of law, regulatory efficiency and open markets, positively affect subjective well-being. To our surprise we have found a negative relationship between limited government and subjective wellbeing. This might be due to the situation that reducing the size of government possibly leads to lower government expenditures and higher unemployment, which in turn results in lower subjective well-being.

  12. 77 FR 68043 - World Freedom Day, 2012 (United States)


    ... destiny is what human beings make of it, they courageously realized the change they sought. Today, we... to express themselves, live their faith, assemble without fear, and choose their leaders freely and... possible. And together, let us keep the light of freedom burning bright for all who live in the shadow of...

  13. Multiple degree of freedom optical pattern recognition (United States)

    Casasent, D.


    Three general optical approaches to multiple degree of freedom object pattern recognition (where no stable object rest position exists) are advanced. These techniques include: feature extraction, correlation, and artificial intelligence. The details of the various processors are advanced together with initial results.

  14. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...

  15. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, I.


    Experimental facts which can not be interpreted in terms of nucleonic degrees of freedom are reviewed. Attempts to explain these observations by the help of the notions of quark physics are indicated. Some predicted exotic states are enumerated. The most promising models of the nucleon-nucleon interactions in terms of quarks are briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Freedom and security: a sometimes delicate balance

    CERN Document Server


    Like any academic institution, CERN celebrates freedom: freedom of expression, freedom of thought and freedom of movement. Occasionally, however, circumstances beyond our control oblige us to impose certain restrictions.   Friday, 26 June was just such an occasion. On that day, terrorists chose to commit unfathomable atrocities in France, near Lyon, as well as in Kuwait and Tunisia. The brutality exhibited in all three attacks is beyond comprehension, and I am sure that we all feel for the victims and all those touched by these hideous acts. At times such as this, and on the basis of information that I receive from external agencies, it is my responsibility as Director-General to decide whether measures are needed at CERN, and to apply them at an appropriate level if I deem it necessary. On Friday, based on the information I had at my disposal, I decided that the situation merited extra vigilance at the entrances to CERN for the sake of ensuring the safety and security of everyone on site. I...

  17. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette


    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  18. EU Economic Freedoms and Social Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Bernaciak, Magdalena


    In the book, 'Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe', edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS and Tilburg University) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic

  19. Censorship and Intellectual Freedom in the Schools. (United States)

    Boardman, Edna; And Others


    Includes seven articles that discuss censorship and intellectual freedom in junior and senior high schools. Highlights include access to appropriate information; library material selection; dealing with complaints; a list of potentially controversial titles and topics; a history of book burning; the censorship of fiction; weeding versus…

  20. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issu...

  1. Freedom of Information, Records Management and Good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governments around the world are often praised for good or rebuked for bad governance. This paper argues that good governance is predicated on the adoption of functional records management and the enactment of Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation by governments. Records that are accumulated and used by ...

  2. Histories and Freedom of the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vucina, Naja; Drejer, Claus Munch; Triantafillou, Peter


    This paper compares the ways in which Michel Foucault and Quentin Skinner’s historical analyses seek to unsettle the limits on present forms of freedom. We do so by comparing their ways of analyzing discourse, rationality and agency. The two authors differ significantly in the ways they deal...

  3. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think (United States)

    Morgan, Marie


    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  4. Ridge regression and its degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Theo K.


    For ridge regression the degrees of freedom are commonly calculated by the trace of the matrix that transforms the vector of observations on the dependent variable into the ridge regression estimate of its expected value. For a fixed ridge parameter this is unobjectionable. When the ridge parameter

  5. Artistic Freedom: An Art World Paradox. (United States)

    Lankford, E. Louis


    Analyzes two recent controversies about censorship of arts: Robert Mapplethorpe's photographs and U.S. congressional limits on funding for National Endowment for the Arts. Maintains artistic freedom can be encouraged if all segments of society learn about arts. Recommends that aesthetic education deal with these controversial issues, the social…

  6. Caricature freedom of expression in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor


    Full Text Available In this article we will present a sample of the way in France, the acclaimed birthplace and home of freedom of expression, censored, persecuted, and even imprisons those who dare to criticize the Israel lobby or their positions are not in tune with the thought “warm” right, the academic and cultural world

  7. Dual Feynman rules - topological asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.; Levinson, M.; California Univ., Berkeley


    Feynman-graph rules are formulated for the strong - interaction components of the topological expansion - defined as those graphs all of whose vertices are zero - entropy connected parts. These rules imply a ''topological asymptotic freedom'' and admit a corresponding perturbative evaluation where the zeroth order exhibits topological supersymmetry. (orig.)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    reasonably be read into these clauses in light of the experience of other jurisdictions and the Ethiopian reality. However, limiting only, speech that could cause ethnic and religious violence does not seem to be reasonable. After all, there are other possible effects of speech that would justify limiting freedom of expression ...

  9. religious freedom in South African constitutional jurisprudence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irma Kroeze

    does not combine easily, and if we ignore the effect of language on understanding we will no ... the ways in which the South African Constitutional Court has dealt with the question of religious freedom as an .... recognises both the dependence of politics on social and economic conditions and the dependence of these ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of the economic freedoms on the economic growth for EU and COMCEC countries at different development/income level are econometrically analyzed via panel data analysis for the period of 1996- 2014 by being considered the improvement of economic growth theories for the key determinants of economic growth. From this aspect, it is aimed at this research that to evaluate the effects of the economic freedoms on the long termed economic growth performances and income level differences of EU and COMCEC countries which have different statuses in terms of economic freedoms and income level indicators. It is determined at the end of the study that the economic freedoms have a positive and statistically significant effect on the economic growth of EU countries in investigation period, on the other hand, these freedoms have not any effect on the economic growth of COMCEC countries. Moreover, the existence of a one-way causality relation operates from economic freedoms to the economic growth in EU countries is specified while there is any causality link found between these freedoms and the economic growth for the countries in COMCEC group. All these results indicate that also the economic freedoms besides the physical human capital accumulation, in other words, whether the EU and COMCEC countries have a market economy adopts outward-oriented liberal fiscal policies plays a major role in differentiating the income levels or the economic growth performances.

  11. Freedom in responsibility: on the relevance of "sin" as a hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making. (United States)

    Gräb-Schmidt, Elisabeth


    This essay deals with questions of responsibility concerning technology, in particular, gene technology and the special problem of research on embryos. I raise issues concerning the extent of humans' authority to act and the limits of human freedom. In what way is that freedom given, and what kind of responsibility results from it? By discussing various concepts of human freedom in the tradition of European philosophy, as juxtaposed to the Protestant understanding of freedom, this essay discusses the restricting limits, and the obligation to take responsibility. It will turn out that the question concerning freedom cannot be answered without understanding what being human involves. From a Christian perspective, this implies that the foundational relationship between human freedom and sin will be central to an assessment of the human ability to take responsibility. By obliterating the limits of human freedom, sin jeopardizes the very essence of that freedom. The project of taking into account the sinful state of the human condition thus aims at developing a realistic picture of the authority of humans in action, even in view of the human tasks of promoting science and research.

  12. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana


    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  13. Negative freedom and death in the United States. (United States)

    Ackerson, Leland K; Subramanian, S V


    Personal freedoms have been characterized as "positive" (freedom to pursue opportunities) and "negative" (freedom from external constraints on decision making). An ecological analysis of US data revealed a strong positive association (r = 0.41; P = .003) between state-level negative personal freedom (defined in terms of regulation of personal behavior) and state-level age-adjusted rates of unintentional injury. A conceptual emphasis on positive freedom construed as freedom to pursue a life without risk of unintentional injury could help motivate a conversation to improve public health.

  14. [Marijuana, health, disease, and freedom: analysis of an Internet forum]. (United States)

    Lefèvre, F; Simioni, A M


    This paper takes a Health Education perspective to analyze a debate forum on the Brazilian Internet site entitled "Universo On-Line", in which the following questions were addressed: "Do you believe that marijuana is harmful to one's health?" "In your opinion, should marijuana use be decriminalized?" By applying qualitative discourse analysis techniques to responses from the forum, we were able to identify six main types of discourse, reflecting the opinions of six "collective subjects" concerning drugs, health, disease, and freedom and existing as social representations in the current Brazilian collective imagination. Research on these social representations allows one to establish criteria for intervention in the field of Health Education.

  15. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves. (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Liu, Chengzhu; Wan, Jizhong; Zhang, Zhixiang


    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves.

  16. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves (United States)

    Wan, Jizhong


    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves. PMID:27326373

  17. 77 FR 20774 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  18. 76 FR 14883 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of... (United States)


    ...-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of..., published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the... published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the...

  19. At a global scale, do climate change threatened species also face a greater number of non-climatic threats? (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Dye, Kaipo


    For many species the threats of climate change occur in a context of multiple existing threats. Given the current focus of global change ecology in identifying and understanding species vulnerable to climate change, we performed a global analysis to characterize the multi-threat context for species threatened by climate change. Utilizing 30,053 species from the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, we sought to evaluate if species threatened by climate change are more likely threatened by a greater number of non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Our results show that species threatened by climate change are generally impacted by 21% more non-climatic threats than species not threatened by climate change. Across all species, this pattern is related to IUCN risk status, where endangered species threatened by climate change face 33% more non-climatic threats than endangered species not threatened by climate change. With the clear challenges of assessing current and projected impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, research often requires reductionist approaches that result in downplaying this multi-threat context. This cautionary note bears relevance beyond climate change threatened species as we also

  20. Religious freedom and political correctness in United Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Artur Aleksiejuk


    Full Text Available We live in times that are particularly sensitive to issues such as freedom and are differentiated by strong aspirations for personal and societal freedom. One speaks of political-societal freedom, freedom of religion, artistic freedom and freedom to choose one’s own lifestyle. It would be possible to make a long list of the various kinds or manifestations of freedom, which modern individuals indentify in their lives. My essay considers the ways the law functions in regards to religious freedom in the context of the currently prevailing and implemented political visions in United Europe. Strictly speaking, this paper concerns the definition of place, which was assigned for religious convictions of citizens of the European Union and their role in shaping their personal and societal lives.

  1. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravers, Mikael


    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  2. The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anders-Christian


    Kort introduktion til et europæisk forskningsprojekt "The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilisation'......Kort introduktion til et europæisk forskningsprojekt "The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilisation'...

  3. Export Controls and the Tensions between Academic Freedom and National Security (United States)

    Evans, Samuel A. W.; Valdivia, Walter D.


    In the U.S.A., advocates of academic freedom--the ability to pursue research unencumbered by government controls--have long found sparring partners in government officials who regulate technology trade. From concern over classified research in the 1950s, to the expansion of export controls to cover trade in information in the 1970s, to current…

  4. DOE FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies program advanced power electronic and electrical machines annual review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Mitch [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report is a summary of the Review Panel at the FY06 DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Annual Review of Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machine (APEEM) research activities held on August 15-17, 2006.

  5. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  6. Trans fat bans and human freedom. (United States)

    Resnik, David


    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective.

  7. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.


    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.


    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.

  9. Educative Non-Privative Measures of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zau Raul-Teodor


    Full Text Available Infractionality or criminality in minor rank, even if it is a component of a general infractional phenomenon, it shows some particularities determined by biological, psychological and social characteristics of minor persons which Romanian legislature had in mind when it had foreseen their criminal liability. For this, The New riminal Code, stipulates some regulations on the educational measures regarding non privacy of freedom - three conditions from the file - Recommandations R nr. 16/1992 of the European Committee. Measures regarding the non privacy of freedom are sanctions applied by the court and the young defendant is still in the society with some obligations on his side or institution which was bound by the court in the name of the law. The issue of this measure is to educate and reeducate the minor person who commited a crime, to ensure a change in his conscience to respect social values.

  10. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom (United States)

    Resnik, David


    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  11. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity. (United States)

    Häyry, Matti


    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The physical gravitational degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E; Barbour, J; Foster, B Z; Kelleher, B; Murchadha, N O


    When constructing general relativity (GR), Einstein required 4D general covariance. In contrast, we derive GR (in the compact, without boundary case) as a theory of evolving three-dimensional conformal Riemannian geometries obtained by imposing two general principles: (1) time is derived from change; (2) motion and size are relative. We write down an explicit action based on them. We obtain not only GR in the CMC gauge, in its Hamiltonian 3 + 1 reformulation, but also all the equations used in York's conformal technique for solving the initial-value problem. This shows that the independent gravitational degrees of freedom obtained by York do not arise from a gauge fixing but from hitherto unrecognized fundamental symmetry principles. They can therefore be identified as the long-sought Hamiltonian physical gravitational degrees of freedom


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kate Chapman


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protection from large media corporations and their political alignments. This report will assess the bias of reporting and news media publication that exists in Malaysia and Singapore due to legislative and regulatory constraints as opposed to bias that exist in the western liberal democratic nations of the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA due to Media Organisation control.

  14. Freedom and Rationality : Rousseau on Citizenship


    Salvat, Christophe


    This paper deals with Rousseau's idea of freedom in terms of rationality and deliberation. It gives support to Berlin's interpretation of the general will as a rational and objective will but dismisses the idea that Rousseau's theory necessarily leads to authoritarianism. The general will, publicly expressed by the law, may be defined as the rational and self-regarding will agents would have if put in an independent and objective state, i.e. the state of nature. The general and the particular...

  15. Do Freedom of Information Laws Decrease Corruption?


    Tavares, Samia


    International organizations have encouraged countries to adopt Freedom of Information (FOI) laws as a means to increase transparency and thus combat corruption. This article uses the recent introduction of FOI laws in several countries as a natural experiment to determine their effect on corruption perceptions and the quality of governance. Using different corruption perception indices, both at the macro- and micro-level, I find that countries that adopted FOI laws saw an increase in perceive...

  16. The City Between Freedom and Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The publication "The City between Freedom and Security" addresses the contested territory between the state and corporate drive to 'securitise' contemporary urban space – and the principle of the city and its public spaces as fundamental yet fragile sites for enacting open civil society, particip...... such as the UK, USA, Israel, Palestine, and Spain. Contributors include: Stephen Graham, Michael Sorkin, David Harvey, Yuval Yasky, Leopold Lambert, CPNI, Ronald V. Clarke, Jon Coaffee, Oscar Newman, and Giorgio Agamben....

  17. The Freedom SOLO bovine pericardial stentless valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanger O


    Full Text Available Olaf Stanger, Hendrik Tevaearai, Thierry Carrel Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Berne, Switzerland Abstract: The third-generation bovine pericardium Freedom SOLO (FS stentless valve emerged in 2004 as a modified version of the Pericarbon Freedom stentless valve and as a very attractive alternative to stented bioprostheses. The design, choice of tissue, and anticalcification treatment fulfill most, if not all, requirements for an ideal valve substitute. The FS combines the single-suture, subcoronary implantation technique with the latest-generation bovine pericardial tissue and novel anticalcification treatment. The design allows imitation of the native healthy valve through unrestricted adaption to the patient's anatomy, reproducing a normal valve/root complex. However, despite hemodynamic performance superior to stented valves, we are approaching a critical observation period as superior durability, freedom from structural valve deterioration, and nonstructural failure has not been proven as expected. However, optimal performance and freedom from structural valve deterioration depend on correct sizing and perfect symmetric implantation, to ensure low leaflet stress. Any malpositioning can lead to tissue fatigue over time. Furthermore, the potential for better outcomes depends on optimal patient selection and observance of the limitations for the use of stentless valves, particularly for the FS. Clearly, stentless valve implantation techniques are less reproducible and standardized, and require surgeon-dependent experience and skill. Regardless of whether or not stentless valve durability surpasses third-generation stented bioprostheses, they will continue to play a role in the surgical repertoire. This review intends to help practitioners avoid pitfalls, observe limitations, and improve patient selection for optimal long-term outcome with the attractive FS stentless valve. Keywords: aortic valve, bioprosthesis, cardiac

  18. Freedom of Information Act-Employee responsibilities (United States)

    Newman, David J.


    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  19. Does medical mystery threaten biotech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphals, P.


    A puzzling medical syndrome caused by substances grown in a genetically engineered bacterium could have profound consequences for the entire biotechnology industry-if Jeremy Rifkin has his way. Rifkin, the controversial biotech critic, has filed a petition based on the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) with the Food and Drug Administration. In it, he asks that the FDA's review of all products made by genetic engineering techniques be suspended until strict new rules are in place to protect the public. The problem is that no one yet knows whether the specific contaminant that has caused up to 5000 EMS cases and 27 deaths was actually the result of genetic engineering. It might well have been the result of problems with chemical purification steps that have little to do with molecular genetics. Until now there has been no way to resolve that uncertainty. But help is on the way-in the form of a recently published animal model of the disease that should eventually enable researchers to pinpoint the precise cause of the syndrome.

  20. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform. (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.


    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  1. Intellectual Freedom in Academic Libraries: Surveying Deans about Its Significance (United States)

    Oltmann, Shannon M.


    In this study, deans and directors of academic libraries were surveyed about intellectual freedom. The survey found that most respondents said they rarely think about intellectual freedom yet said it was "somewhat" or "very" important in their libraries. Most did not have formal intellectual freedom policies; they often relied…

  2. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce


    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  3. Academic Freedom and the First Amendment: Legal Entanglements. (United States)

    Campbell, J. Louis III


    Examines how closely academic freedom and the First Amendment actually are related. Traces the development of academic freedom as a constitutional right from shortly before World War II to the present. Analyzes influences exerted by intramural speech, institutional or corporate academic freedom, and professional liability. (KEH)

  4. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.


    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  5. 30 CFR 252.6 - Freedom of Information Act requirements. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requirements. 252.6... CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.6 Freedom of Information Act requirements. (a... to the limitations of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), the regulations contained in 43...

  6. 77 FR 56592 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION... under the Freedom of Information Act (``FOIA''). The revisions clarify and update procedures for... approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of choice for the public where these...

  7. Academic Freedom in Athletic Training Education: Food for Thought (United States)

    Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Lowry, John E.


    Academic freedom is defined as the "freedom of the individual scholar to pursue truth wherever it leads, without fear of punishment or of termination of employment for having offended some political, methodological, religious, or social orthodoxy." Currently there is paucity of literature addressing the issue of academic freedom specific to…

  8. 77 FR 66539 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... CONCILIATION SERVICE 29 CFR Part 1401 RIN 3076-AA06 Freedom of Information Act Regulations AGENCY: Federal... Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) rules relating to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The final... Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of information. For the reasons stated in the preamble, FMCS...

  9. 28 CFR 802.5 - Freedom of Information Act requests. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requests. 802.5 Section 802.5 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 802.5 Freedom of Information Act...

  10. The True Gravitational Degrees Of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murchadha, N. o


    More than 50 years ago it was realized that General Relativity could be expressed in Hamiltonian form. Unfortunately, just like electromagnetism and Yang-Mills theory, the Einstein equations split into evolution equations and constraints which complicates matters. The 4 constraints are expressions of the gauge freedom of the theory, general covariance. One can cleanly pose initial data for the gravitational field, but this data has to satisfy the constraints. To find the independent degrees of freedom, one needs to factor the initial data by the constraints. There are many ways of doing this. I can do so in such a way as to implement the model suggested by Poincare for a well-posed dynamical system: Pick a configuration space and give the free initial data as a point of the configuration space and a tangent vector at the same point. Now, the evolution equations should give a unique curve in the same configuration space. This gives a natural definition of what I call the true gravitational degrees of freedom. (author)

  11. Freedom and the state: nanny or nightwatchman? (United States)

    Pettit, P


    There are two rival images often offered of the state. In one the state serves like a nanny to provide for the welfare of its members; in the other it requires people to look after themselves, providing only the service of a night-watchman. But this dichotomy, which is routinely invoked in debates about public health and welfare provision in general, is misleading. What the rival images turn on is not competing pictures of how the state should function in people's lives but competing pictures of what it is to guard the freedom of its people. On the neo-liberal theory, which has been dominant over the last century or so, providing for people's freedom means leaving them to their own devices and fortunes. On the neo-republican theory, which answers to a much longer tradition, it means democratically identifying a common set of basic liberties in the exercise of which everyone should be protected by law and, if necessary, resourced. This older way of thinking about freedom has important merits missing in the newer and argues strongly against the nightwatchman state. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cordts, Paul R; Brosch, Laura A; Holcomb, John B


    Between December 2004 and June 2007, 13 key Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualty care policies were published to inform medical practice in the combat theater of operations...

  13. Freedom of Expression in Distributed Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejvind Hansen


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the following question: Is it possible to transfer human rights like the freedom of expression – or at least to preserve the formal protections guarding speech acts from arbitrary suppression – in a post-national setting? The question arises as an urgent matter in the context of our global system of connected markets and distributed telecommunications networks – the Internet – since, as many academics and policy makers have noted, the two tend to undermine nationals boundaries, putting into question the power of individual states to continue function as the traditional legal and identity-generating entities of last resort.   If this analysis is reliable the dialectical union between the autonomous individual citizen and the legally regulated nation state is broken. In this paper I will draw the consequences of that supposed break, exploring the question of the extent to which it makes sense to accord “rights” – freedom of expression – to entities that are not classical autonomous humans, and to confer them by entities that no longer bear the marks of nation-state sovereignty. The question thus is: Is it possible to transfer the normative approach of the classic liberal nation states into a global system?   The paper explores this question through an elaboration of problems for the preservation of the human right to freedom of expression: On the one hand communication on the Internet is regulated by an immense legal body, but on the other hand, the machinery for enforcement controlled by this legal body is dependent on various agencies that don’t necessarily recognize its legitimacy. I will then explore whether a more technologically oriented approach could be a more fruitful approach in defining the actual limitations to freedom of expression in the new global system. My answer is that ultimately the control paradigm fails, because it is too clumsy at incorporating self-correcting measures. Thirdly, I

  14. Transgender Youth and Life-Threatening Behaviors (United States)

    Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.


    Sexual minority status is a key risk factor for suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth; however, it has not been studied among transgender youth. Fifty-five transgender youth reported on their life-threatening behaviors. Nearly half of the sample reported having seriously thought about taking their lives and one quarter reported suicide…

  15. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  16. Negative Freedom as Politics of Spirit in Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Magno Veras Oliveira


    Full Text Available This article aims to present negative freedom as a moment of vitality in the formation of absolute freedom, represented by moral conscience, as a necessary process of realization in political representation based on Hegel’s Phenomenology of the Spirit. In the first moment, we will present the understanding of absolute freedom and the unfolding of its concept as universal will. In the second moment, we will discuss the conception of negative freedom as an experience of the French Revolution and its result as terror. The experience of negative freedom is understood as the possible means for the solution of contradiction, destruction, and death. These means originate from the political representation of the French Revolution. The hermeneutics presented leads to the positive exaltation of negative freedom as the way towards a possible solution of the problems inherent to a representation of absolute freedom as rational.

  17. Directed transport in a ratchet with internal and chemical freedoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, T., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA-Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Naranjo, N.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA-Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)


    Graphical abstract: Directed currents in a ratchet including a chemical freedom that provides energy input and an internal freedom modeled as a functional mode of a motor molecule show a direct relation to the structure of the underlying attaractor, limit cycle or chaotic, as reflected in their dependence on the coupling between external and chemical degrees of freedom. - Abstract: We consider mechanisms of directed current in a ratchet model comprising, besides the external freedom where transport occurs, a chemical freedom that replaces the familiar external driving by an autonomous dynamics providing energy input, and an internal freedom representing a functional mode of a motor molecule. The dependence of the current on various parameters is studied in numerical simulations of our model. In particular, we point out the role of the internal freedom as a buffer between energy input and output of mechanical work that allows a temporary storage of injected energy and can contribute to the efficiency of current generation.

  18. Overview of Scientific Freedom and National Security (United States)

    Lerch, Irving


    The subject of our scrutiny is very much in the news, punctuated with nouns and modifiers both inflammatory and mundane such as espionage, justice, scientific accountability and scientific freedom. And while our discussion will focus on these issues, I want to raise some of the pragmatic questions that bear on the foundation of our support for international science. Beneath questions of guilt and the loss of secrets in the Wen Ho Lee case lay the inherent tension between the tradition of open exchange in the scientific enterprise and the need to protect the nation's security. How this balance is to be achieved in a democratic society has bedeviled us ever since the Manhattan project heralded the emergence of science and technology as instruments of great national power. If we do not find this balance, we run the risk of damaging some of the most important intellectual treasures that the US has produced the Department of Energy's national laboratories and the entire system that we call the international scientific enterprise. For while the superheated charges of lax security and criminal negligence have led some to call for ``firewalls" to isolate and protect the secrets in our weapons labs, such measures may have severe consequences for weapons and non-weapons labs alike and their many associated universities. It's estimated that from 70% to as much as 80% in the expansion of our economy is technology-driven, derived from the most productive system of scientific innovation in the world. This is also true of our national security. Science is indispensable to the development and maintenance of the nation's arsenals. The Department of Energy's Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship Program is central to the safety and reliability of American nuclear weapons and to our hope for a worldwide ban on nuclear tests. But this program will fail without a continuing intense development effort based on cutting-edge science. And a great deal of the science needed is being pursued in

  19. Is freedom rooted in the brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conill Sancho


    Full Text Available This article first of all attempts to provide a new concept of human nature, beyond that of traditional metaphysics and the naturalistic interpretation of today’s neurosciences; it thus surpasses the unilateral scientistic appropriation of the concept of human nature and defends a biohermeneutics containing a plurality of standpoints for understanding human reality, as in Habermasian epistemic dualism. It secondly examines whether freedom is rooted in the brain in the sense of «free will» and of «autonomy», taking into account the stance of accredited neurologists and the study of natural dispositions in the Kantian notion of moral autonomy.

  20. Molecular degrees of freedom: resonances and orbiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, D.; Erb, K.A.


    Studies of orbiting and other gross features of heavy ion induced reactions show that molecular degrees of freedom play a significant role. The formation of a rotating dinuclear molecule appears as a general feature, and the radii derived for these dinuclear systems are larger than the radii of the conventional nucleus-nucleus potential. These large radii for the molecular bonding potential are similar to those derived from systematic studies performed recently on resonances in the /sup 12/C + /sup 12/C + /sup 16/O systems.

  1. Existentialist Freedom, Distorted Normativity, and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Baiasu


    Full Text Available Usually associated with a view of freedom as absolute, Sartre’s philosophy seems particularly able to account for the indeterminacy that we experience today in most areas of human experience that have a normative dimension. Without denying that this is a plausible reading, it will be argued here that it is nevertheless a problematic interpretation. On this reading, existentialism seems unable to account for the fact that we are powerfully conditioned by a significant number of factors, which limit our freedom and, in certain situations, make emancipation a normative requirement. It is held here that this problem can be addressed and a less problematic interpretation of Sartre can be defended, once we start to acknowledge that in Sartre we have a variety of notions of freedom that can provide a robust account of our freedom, of authentic choice and of responsibility. Habitualmente asociada a una visión de la libertad como un concepto absoluto, la filosofía de Sartre parece especialmente capaz de representar la indeterminación que experimentamos hoy en día en la mayoría de las áreas de la experiencia humana que tienen una dimensión normativa. Sin negar que ésta es una lectura convincente, no obstante, se va a argumentar que es una interpretación problemática. Con esta lectura parece que el existencialismo es incapaz de representar el hecho de que estamos fuertemente condicionados por un número importante de factores que limitan nuestra libertad y, en algunas situaciones, hacen de la emancipación una necesidad normativa. En este artículo se defiende que se puede abordar este problema, y se puede defender una interpretación de Sartre menos problemática, una vez empecemos a reconocer que en Sartre se pueden encontrar una variedad de nociones de libertad que permiten ofrecer una explicación sólida de nuestra libertad, de elección auténtica y de responsabilidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  2. Defining the Constitucional Limits of the Freedom of Manifestation of Thought: The Controversy About the Prohibition of the Wearing of Masks in Public Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Eduardo Senra Nogueira Pedrosa Morais


    Full Text Available The aim is to talk about the prohibition of the wearing of masks in peaceful manifestations. The freedom of the manifestation of thoughts and the manifestation of meeting are fundamental rights foreseen in the 5th article from the text of the Constitution from 1988. The prohibitions are capable of contradicting these fundamental rights. On the other hand, there is in the constitutional device of the freedom of the manifestation of thought the prohibition of anonymity. The research will approach the constitutional limit of the freedom of manifestation of thought and its relation with the freedom of meeting.

  3. The Right to Freedom of Expression: The Mother of our Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Johannes van Vollenhoven


    Full Text Available This paper explores student-teachers' understanding of the right to freedom of expression in education. Analyses of case law and legal principles affirm that the right to freedom of expression is an essential prerequisite to protect and promote democracy. Based on qualitative research, the empirical evidence indicates that although student-teachers are aware of the fact that the right to freedom of expression is not absolute and may be limited, they have a superficial knowledge of the application of this right. Student-teachers have a sense of the importance of the right to freedom of expression in a democracy, but they have not yet internalised the mechanism or process of balancing the right in praxis. This does not bode well as the school system will fail to be a market place of ideas. In order to enable learners to reach their full potential as critical thinkers and autonomous citizens in a developing democracy, it is imperative that teachers should understand and master the application of the right to freedom of expression in schools.

  4. Globally threatened birds in Mongolia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold


    Full Text Available This paper reviews status of globally threatened birds (GTBs in Mongolia. Here, we review 26 GTBs from eight orders. In addition, we summarize 10 GTBs recorded during our 2016 field surveys. Swan Geese were most numerous and most frequently sighted of the GTBs with mean 33.8 ± 54.1 counted birds. The Mongolian avifauna survey assessed 476 species of 19 different orders. Twenty-six (5.1% out of 476 species are listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List as GTBs. In addition, there is still a huge lack of investigation for GTBs (indeed, all avifauna of Mongolia. Keywords: Globally threatened birds, International union for conservation of nature, Red list

  5. Processing threatening information in posttraumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Bryant, R A; Harvey, A G


    The authors used a modified Stroop task to study how people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) process threatening information. Participants were motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors with either PTSD (n = 15), simple phobia of driving (n = 15), or low anxiety (n = 15). Participants named colors of 4 types of words: strong threat words (MVA related), mild threat words (MVA related), positive words, and neutral words. Participants with PTSD demonstrated greater interference on strong threat words than those with simple phobia or low anxiety. Contrary to expectation, participants with simple phobia did not display an interference effect. Findings suggest that individuals with PTSD and simple phobia may process threatening information differently. The nature of attentional bias in different anxiety conditions following trauma is discussed.

  6. Academic freedom and the professional responsibilities of applied ethicists: a comment on Minerva. (United States)

    Dawson, Angus; Herington, Jonathan


    Academic freedom is an important good, but it comes with several responsibilities. In this commentary we seek to do two things. First, we argue against Francesca Minerva's view of academic freedom as presented in her article 'New threats to academic freedom' on a number of grounds. We reject the nature of the absolutist moral claim to free speech for academics implicit in the article; we reject the elitist role for academics as truth-seekers explicit in her view; and we reject a possible more moderate re-construction of her view based on the harm/offence distinction. Second, we identify some of the responsibilities of applied ethicists, and illustrate how they recommend against allowing for anonymous publication of research. Such a proposal points to the wider perils of a public discourse which eschews the calm and careful discussion of ideas. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. How Can We Create the Conditions for Students' Freedom of Speech within Studies in Art? (United States)

    Matthews, Miranda


    This study investigates how the dynamics of students' voice can be productively brought into teaching situations. I have researched the conditions required for constructive freedom of speech, within art education. I explored the potential for vocal peer assessment and for students' ownership of their educational experiences, for the…

  8. The European Union as an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Maria; Herlin-Karnell, Ester; Matera, Claudio


    Europe’s area of freedom, security and justice is of increasing importance in contemporary EU law and legislation. It is worthy of special research attention because of its high-stakes content (particularly from an individual and a state perspective) and because its development to date has

  9. "Buscando la Libertad": Latino Youths in Search of Freedom in School (United States)

    Irizarry, Jason


    Drawing from a two-year ethnographic study of Latino high school students engaged in youth participatory action research (YPAR), this article describes students' quest for freedom in schools, locating their struggle within a larger effort to realize the democratic ideals of public schooling. Using Latino/a Critical Race Theory as a theoretical…

  10. Note: Rotaphone, a new self-calibrated six-degree-of-freedom seismic senzor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokešová, J.; Málek, Jiří; Evans, J.R.


    Roč. 83, č. 8 (2012), 086108 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0925 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rotational seismology * sensor * six-degree-of-freedom Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2012

  11. A study of concept options for the evolution of Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Kowitz, Herbert R.; Brender, Karen D.; Cirillo, William M.; Collier, Lisa; Ganoe, George G.; Gould, Marston J.; Kaszubowski, Martin; Lawrence, George F.; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Reaux, Ray


    Two conceptual evolution configurations for Space Station Freedom, a research and development configuration, and a transportation node configuration are described and analyzed. Results of pertinent analyses of mass properties, attitude control, microgravity, orbit lifetime, and reboost requirements are provided along with a description of these analyses. Also provided are brief descriptions of the elements and systems that comprise these conceptual configurations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Hidayati


    Full Text Available This study attempts to find out conveyed messages in the movie from the realization of the appraisal and narrative structure as well as to describe the use of the Appraisal System to express LaGravenese's (a Attitudes, (bEngagement & (c Graduation towards the main characters in Freedom Writers movie screenplay. Using both quantitative and qualitative descriptive approach for discourse appraisal system analysis, the result of this study reveals several messages of tolerance, earning respect and trust, honor diversity, and striving for success and trust from the realization of Appraisal and Narrative Structure either in the dialogues or monologues of Freedom Writers’ characters. The result from the Appraisal Devices realizing (a Attitudes reveals that LaGravenese likes to express characters’ negative emotion explicitly than implicitly. He likes to express characters’ negative capability than other kinds of Judgments. He appreciates the characters using more Negative Value which denotes that in his opinion, they see each other negatively. (bEngagement used in the screenplay describes that he emphasizes more on characters’ denial towards each other’s opinion and existence with the use of more Disclaim Heterogloss in the screenplay. (cGraduation used in the screenplay describes that the use of more Sharpening Focus indicates he emphasizes on characters’ category boundary more than scaling of intensity. Keywords: Appraisal Devices, Attitude, Engagement, and Graduation.

  13. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.


    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  14. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclear matter (United States)

    Baldo, Marcello


    The microscopic theory of Nuclear Matter has been approached along the years by different many-body methods and different nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions. The realistic NN interactions can be classified mainly into two categories. One relies on the meson-nucleon coupling scheme, within relativistic or non-relativistic framework. The so-called chiral interactions are based on the assumption that, once the pion exchange contribution has been explicitly isolated, it is possible to expand the NN interaction in a series of point interaction terms which respect the underlying QCD chiral symmetry. In both schemes three-body (TBF) or higher forces can be constructed, which can have different degrees of phenomenological character. The TBF are essential to get the Nuclear Matter saturation point close to the phenomenological one. However the QCD quark degrees of freedom are not explicitly introduced. It will be shown that a realistic NN interaction that is constructed from the quark degrees of freedom can produce the correct saturation point without the need of TBF. The corresponding Equation of State is compatible with all the phenomenological constraints, including the Neutron Star maximum mass limit. Taking this result literally, one can say that quarks have been revealed in Nuclear Matter. Another conclusion is that the effect of TBF is model dependent.

  15. Entrepreneurship and Economic Freedom: Do Objective and Subjective Data Reflect the Same Tendencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Erkut


    Full Text Available Objective: The research question is whether the same tendencies on entrepreneurship, innovation and economic freedom can be captured by subjective (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and objective (Index of Economic Freedom data – and to which extent one can classify countries by different data sources in a theoretical framework based on the national competitiveness of each country. Research Design & Methods: Main method used is the direct discriminant analysis. Since this approach has shortcomings, selected variables from an exhaustive CHAID analysis were used to predict the degree of economic freedom of the country based on the answers of experts. Findings: To determine the degree of economic freedom in a country, the effective enforcement of intellectual property rights legislation and quick access to utilities are the two variables with the most informational content. 86,8% of the original grouped cases was classified correctly – this is above the widely accepted threshold of 75%. Implications & Recommendations: A new trend in entrepreneurial research is to build compound indices based on different data sources. It is important to understand whether parts of a compound index reflect the same tendencies. This paper gives formal empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis. Contribution & Value Added: Coduras and Autio (2013 define a research program on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, where they suggest that GEM shall be tested against objective data sources such as Index of Economic Freedom. This was the main aim of the analysis, which closes a research gap defined in this research program.

  16. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species. (United States)


    ....11). The Department of Commerce has authority over some threatened and endangered marine mammals, fish and reptiles. (b) Possible loss of values: The major potential impacts on threatened or endangered...

  17. Research Paper Xhosa male initiation: Freedom of choice versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Questions were raised regarding the role of children and women in general in a patriarchal society. As an example of culture and religion as influencing factors in a group's reality, Xhosa male initiation was discussed. These arguments call for the raising of questions and identifying themes and discourse in the ...

  18. Disgust sensitivity selectively predicts attitudes toward groups that threaten (or uphold) traditional sexual morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crawford, J.; Inbar, Y.; Malony, V.


    Previous research has linked disgust sensitivity to negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians. We extend this existing research by examining the extent to which disgust sensitivity predicts attitudes more generally toward groups that threaten or uphold traditional sexual morality. In a sample of

  19. Modelling interacting molecular motors with an internal degree of freedom (United States)

    Pinkoviezky, Itai; Gov, Nir S.


    The mechanisms underlying the collective motion of molecular motors in living cells are not yet fully understood. One such open puzzle is the observed pulses of backward-moving myosin-X in the filopodia structure. Motivated by this phenomenon we introduce two generalizations of the ‘total asymmetric exclusion process’ (TASEP) that might be relevant to the formation of such pulses. The first is adding a nearest-neighbours attractive interaction between motors, while the second is adding an internal degree of freedom corresponding to a processive and immobile form of the motors. Switching between the two states occurs stochastically, without a conservation law. Both models show strong deviations from the mean field behaviour and lack particle-hole symmetry. We use approximations borrowed from the research on vehicular traffic models to calculate the current and jam size distribution in a system with periodic boundary conditions and introduce a novel modification to one of these approximation schemes.

  20. Modelling interacting molecular motors with an internal degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkoviezky, Itai; Gov, Nir S


    The mechanisms underlying the collective motion of molecular motors in living cells are not yet fully understood. One such open puzzle is the observed pulses of backward-moving myosin-X in the filopodia structure. Motivated by this phenomenon we introduce two generalizations of the ‘total asymmetric exclusion process’ (TASEP) that might be relevant to the formation of such pulses. The first is adding a nearest-neighbours attractive interaction between motors, while the second is adding an internal degree of freedom corresponding to a processive and immobile form of the motors. Switching between the two states occurs stochastically, without a conservation law. Both models show strong deviations from the mean field behaviour and lack particle–hole symmetry. We use approximations borrowed from the research on vehicular traffic models to calculate the current and jam size distribution in a system with periodic boundary conditions and introduce a novel modification to one of these approximation schemes. (paper)

  1. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (a) The list in this section contains the names of all species of plants which have been...

  2. globally threatened biodiversity of the eastern arc mountains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    33 threatened species of grasshoppers were added to the Red List in 2013 and 2014: nine of them Vulnerable, ten Endangered, and 14 Critically Endangered. Freshwater crabs. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008 included 209 globally threatened species of freshwater crabs, with 28 of these listed for the ...

  3. Freedom, Development and Justice in Amartya Sen's Thought


    Marinho, Neumalyna Lacerda Alves Dantas; Sabino, Carla Danielle Barreto de Sousa


    This article analyzes the development, justice and freedom in the design of Amartya Sen. Understanding the new development as a process that goes beyond economic growth, Sen emphasizes the effect to substantive freedoms as essential to the new developmental dynamics. Moreover, envisions the withdrawal of these freedoms as major factors. As regards the foundations of justice, Amartya Sen points out the main informational basis of justice: utilitarianism, libertarianism and social justice Rawls...

  4. Freedom of Expression and the High School Press (United States)

    Reed, Linda


    Discusses practical resources available to high school administrators, teachers, and students through the ERIC system concerning freedom of speech for students involved with school-sponsored publications. (Author)

  5. Freedom, Development and Justice in Amartya Sen's Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumalyna Lacerda Alves Dantas Marinho


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the development, justice and freedom in the design of Amartya Sen. Understanding the new development as a process that goes beyond economic growth, Sen emphasizes the effect to substantive freedoms as essential to the new developmental dynamics. Moreover, envisions the withdrawal of these freedoms as major factors. As regards the foundations of justice, Amartya Sen points out the main informational basis of justice: utilitarianism, libertarianism and social justice Rawls, all with qualities but also limitations considering not taking into account the substantive freedoms. Using the deductive method, search out qualitative and literature.

  6. Free will as relative freedom with conscious component. (United States)

    Hájícek, P


    The general notion of relative freedom is introduced. It is a kind of freedom that is observed everywhere in nature. In biology, incomplete knowledge is defined for all organisms. They cope with the problem by Popper's trial-and-error processes. One source of their success is the relative freedom of choice from the basic option ranges: mutations, motions and neuron connections. After the conjecture is adopted that communicability can be used as a criterion of consciousness, free will is defined as a conscious version of relative freedom. The resulting notion is logically self-consistent and it describes an observable phenomenon that agrees with our experience.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The concept of freedom constitutes the relationship between ethics and politics in Hegel’s thought. Contrary to Kantian understanding of the concept of freedom in which the concept is autonomous from nature and society, Hegel attempts to reconcile the social and individual existence of human being. The first condition of freedom for individual is to have a self-consciousness, that is being aware of himself. But freedom that could not being comprimized with being social is not the real freedom. Hegel also examines freedom in its historal manner. Freedom, in its historical manner, has reached its completed meaning only in Western societies. Hegel thinks that freedom becomes concrete in practical and political manner in Prussian State, in other words, in modern state. According to Hegel the modern state is a state in which justice and power is united. That is, the state has a both political and ethical existence. Hegel suggests that social institutions are legitimized only by realization of freedom. State is also the supreme normative insitution which concretize ethical life. The aim of this study is to understand Hegel’s attempt of synthesizing individual and society by using ethical and political concepts.

  8. Playful teaching between freedom and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Whitton, Nicola


    and play culture – to explore an alternative more ‘playful approach’ to teaching and learning. Here, we highlight the potentials of playful teaching through adopting a ‘lusory attitude’ oscillating between free-form play and rule-bound systems. This development of a more playful approach to HE is promising...... as it invites for a different type of teaching and learning environment, providing a safe educational space, in which mistake-making is not only encouraged, but engrained into the system. Taking up a ‘lusory attitude’ in the magic circle can create freedom, support playfulness and intrinsic motivation, and make...... HE emerge as an open educational process rather than as high-score assessment product....

  9. Asymptotic freedom in the BV formalism (United States)

    Elliott, Chris; Williams, Brian; Yoo, Philsang


    We define the β-function of a perturbative quantum field theory in the mathematical framework introduced by Costello - combining perturbative renormalization and the BV formalism - as the cohomology class of a certain functional measuring scale dependence of the effective interaction. We show that the one-loop β-function is a well-defined element of the obstruction-deformation complex for translation-invariant and classically scale-invariant theories, and furthermore that it is locally constant as a function on the space of classical interactions and computable as a rescaling anomaly, or as the logarithmic one-loop counterterm. We compute the one-loop β-function in first-order Yang-Mills theory, recovering the famous asymptotic freedom for Yang-Mills in a mathematical context.

  10. Freedom and authority in the Clinical Diary. (United States)

    Erős, Ferenc


    The paper discusses some philosophical, ethical and political-philosophical implications of Ferenczi's Clinical Diary, with special regard to the concepts of freedom and authority. These topics are already present in Ferenczi's early writings that explicitly deal with social and political issues, the central concept of which is "individual socialism". The paper also discusses (and publishes in Appendix) two short manuscripts by Ferenczi, written probably in 1920, which attempts to parallel psychoanalysis with Marxism, and with liberal socialism, respectively. It is shown that in 1932, the last year of his life, Ferenczi avoids using political and ideological concepts directly in his Diary, but, in the spirit of his earlier writings, he proposes a balance between "ruthless capitalism and fanciful egalitarianism". Finally, the significance of Utopia in Ferenczi's thinking is discussed.

  11. The Positive Freedom of the Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind


    calls for new reflections on the possible relationship between media, public sphere and democracy. This paper argues that we should change the questions that are raised when we try to assess the public sphere. It is argued that the traditional (Enlightenment) focus upon negative liberties and the truth......-value of utterances is not adequate. Negative freedom and truth are certainly important in the public sphere, because they are necessary conditions for taking a qualified stance towards the challenges that we face. It is, however, important also to reflect on what negative liberties are used for—which kinds of truths...... are articulated in public discussions. To answer this question it is argued that it is important to distinguish between affirmative truths and liberating truths (based on courage), the latter being what is required in democratic dialogues....

  12. On (post modern economy and (non freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan


    Full Text Available The (postmodern economy finds itself undoubtedly in the center of a large scale, radical contradictory, and uncertain current transformation of the world. Together with the (postmodern technologies it composes the dominant core of the globalizing processes, often referred to as globalization. The key features and especially the accumulated consequences of these processes pose a challenge for scientific and theoretical thought in the form of essential questions and dilemmas which are in the last instance tied to the impact of globalization on the quality and meaning of human life. This problem relates as much to individuals as it does to different social groups and human communities, that is to the entire humanity as such. This paper attempts to problematise these contradictory relationships between global corporative, economy as an instrumental value and the human liberty as a substantive i.e. the highest, value in itself (summum bonum, which gives meaning and dignity to human life. Therefore if economy in one form or another covers most of human practical activity then it is certain that it can have decisive impact on the most fundamental value of human life, that is the value of freedom (individual, general, internal and external. Of course the impact of economy can act either way - as an encouragement or, as it often happens, as a deterrent to expansion of the human freedom. This paper aims to briefly indicate some causes, characteristics and consequences of global economic processes which, in a way paradoxically, contribute more to narrowing than to opening spaces of human liberty, or simply generate proliferation of "hedonism of unfreedom". Is this another case of "surplus of knowledge" and "deficit of wisdom" that so strongly characterize our age, or something else?.

  13. Problems with veteran-family communication during operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom military deployment. (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S


    Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.

  14. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. (United States)

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M


    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.

  15. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom: exploring wartime death and bereavement. (United States)

    Harrington Lamorie, Jill


    Military deaths are often sudden, unanticipated, traumatic, and/or violent in nature and involve the death of a young adult. More than 5,500 service members have died as a result of their service in the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) in combat- or non-combat- related incidences. As the death toll continues to rise, service members and their families struggle with the visible and invisible wounds of war. This article explores wartime death, trauma, and bereavement experienced by those survivors affected by service members who have died as a result of their military service in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). It recognizes the circumstantial and cultural factors of the death as well as the grief and trauma experiences of survivors. Resources and suggested interventions of support are highlighted.

  16. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Aslan

    Full Text Available As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create "widow" species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem - the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses - remains unknown.We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1-4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40-58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses.Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

  17. Repressors benefit from reappraising a threatening emotional event. (United States)

    Mendolia, Marilyn


    The malleability of emotion-focused coping was investigated by manipulating the situational context so that dispositional repressors, who typically utilize an avoidant strategy when confronted with a stressor, were led to use reappraisal and then were reexposed to the stressor. A mixed design with one measured between-subjects factor (dispositional repression), two randomized between-subjects factors (performance feedback and coping strategy), and multimodal assessments across phases of the experiment was used. During a face-perception task, participants (170 female and 120 male university students) received bogus performance feedback that was inconsistent with and thus threatening to self-concept. Participants then completed a writing activity encouraging them to perceive a face-perception task as either an invalid (reappraisal) or a valid (control) assessment tool. Afterward, participants continued with the task. A repressive disposition was associated with a defense response (decreased perceived emotion to actors' expressions, increased skin conductance levels, and increased heart rates) during the face-perception task that participants perceived as threatening, but not during reexposure to the event after they had reappraised it as nonthreatening. This research provides a more detailed understanding of the dynamic nature of emotion-focused coping by exploring how the disposition-situation interaction affects self-regulation of emotion.

  18. Authority Through Freedom. On Freire’s Radicalisation of the Authority-Freedom Problem in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Irwin


    Full Text Available Paulo Freire’s approach to the question of ‘authority and freedom’ in education and teaching (as well as in the political sphere, takes its cue from his early and radical approach to literacy education in Brazil in the 1960s. However, the radical democratic thrust of this educational vision meets very significant political resistance in Brazil and Freire spends 30 years in exile. This essay explores how this Freirean approach needs to be contextualised in the specifically Brazilian context. However, it also explores his original contribution to the wider problematic of authority and freedom in the Philosophy of Education. In Freire, there is a simultaneous critique of traditionalism and progressivism (not dissimilar to Dewey’s in Experience and Education and this allows Freire to reconceptualise the relation between authority and freedom in education. We explore how Freire’s 1968 text Pedagogy of the Oppressed articulates this understanding very clearly and from a very strong conceptual-philosophical perspective. In the latter part of the essay, we look at how Freire’s later work, in for example Pedagogy of Hope: Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed, represents a return to a more experiential analysis of the question of authority and freedom in education. Nonetheless, while recognising the need for a philosophy of education to develop «in a manner in keeping with the times», there is also a very strong continuity between the early and later work in this understanding. In brief, in both his earlier and later work, Freire develops an understanding of an «authority through freedom», a co-dependent relationship between these two variables in pedagogy, as also in political life.

  19. Evidence-based interventions of threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li


    Full Text Available Threatened miscarriage is the commonest complication of early pregnancy and affects about 20% of pregnancies. It presents with vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps. Increasing age of women, smoking, obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and a previous history of miscarriage are risk factors for threatened miscarriage. The pathophysiology has been associated with changes in levels of cytokines or maternal immune dysfunction. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings are important to determine the treatment options and provide valuable information for the prognosis. Bed rest is the commonest advice, but there is little evidence of its value. Other options include progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG and muscle relaxants. The complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies such as acupuncture and Chinese herbs have also been tried. There is some evidence from clinical studies indicating that CAM therapies may reduce the rate of miscarriage, but the quality of studies is poor. Thus, further double-blind, randomized-controlled trials are necessary to confirm its effectiveness, especially acupuncture and Chinese herbs.

  20. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V Vollmer

    Full Text Available Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD, and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49 are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  1. Freedom Reconsidered: Heteronomy, Open Subjectivity, and the "Gift of Teaching" (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping


    This paper analyzes the entanglement of the modern concepts of freedom, autonomy, and the modern notion of the subject and how a passion for and insistence on freedom has undermined the reconstruction of human subjectivity in Heidegger and Foucault, and how such passion has also limited the educational effort at addressing the problems brought to…

  2. Academic Freedom: In Justification of a Universal Ideal (United States)

    Karran, Terence


    This article examines the justification for, and benefits of, academic freedom to academics, students, universities and the world at large. It surveys the development of the concept of academic freedom within Europe, more especially the impact of the reforms at the University of Berlin instigated by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Following from this, the…

  3. Freedom of Speech and Adolescent Public School Students (United States)

    Hussain, Murad


    Some legal cases on the freedom of speech in adolescent public school students are discussed. It is suggested that schools, social scientists and psychologists should build a social consensus on the extent to which the freedom of speech for abusive students can be allowed so as not to affect development of other students.

  4. Freedom of Speech: A Selected, Annotated Basic Bibliography. (United States)

    Tedford, Thomas L.

    Restricted to books on freedom of speech, this annotated bibliography offers a list of 38 references pertinent to the subject. Also included is a list of 18 ERIC documents on freedom of speech, and information on how to order them. (JC)

  5. Freedom of Speech: Its Exercise and Its Interpretation (United States)

    Turner, David A.


    Professor Roy Harris (2009) criticises me for ignoring freedom of speech in order to focus on "soft" issues, such as game theory, decision theory and chaos theory. In this response, I accept most of his arguments relating to freedom of speech, but argue that, in order to develop better systems of education, we need to pay more attention to the…

  6. 45 CFR 1218.6 - Freedom to present views. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freedom to present views. 1218.6 Section 1218.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEERS-HEARING OPPORTUNITY § 1218.6 Freedom to present views. The expression by a...

  7. Access to information: the role of freedom of information legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitutional guarantees of access to information and their enabling legislation, Freedom of Information Acts are present challenges, prospects and opportunities for records managers. It is widely accepted that records management plays a pivotal role in Freedom of Information implementation. For instance, the preface to ...

  8. On the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Jakob de; Sturm, Jan-Egbert


    Often it is maintained that economic freedom may further high levels of economic growth. This paper compares various indicators for economic freedom. It is concluded that although these measures differ somewhat in their coverage, they show similar rankings for the countries covered. Some elements in

  9. A Utilitarian Case for Intellectual Freedom in Libraries. (United States)

    Doyle, Tony


    Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)

  10. 15 CFR 270.350 - Freedom of Information Act. (United States)


    ... CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Collection and Preservation of Evidence; Information Created Pursuant to an Investigation; and Protection of Information Protection of Information § 270.350 Freedom of Information Act. As... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freedom of Information Act. 270.350...

  11. Annotated Bibliography; Freedom of Information Center Reports and Summary Papers. (United States)

    Freedom of Information Center, Columbia, MO.

    This bibliography lists and annotates almost 400 information reports, opinion papers, and summary papers dealing with freedom of information. Topics covered include the nature of press freedom and increased press efforts toward more open access to information; the press situation in many foreign countries, including France, Sweden, Communist…

  12. The Challenge of Academic Freedom in the Nigerian University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes a cursory look at the extent to which the Nigerian university system has enjoyed academic freedom. It observes that within the framework of the National Policy on Education (2004), universities in Nigeria are expected to enjoy the traditional areas of freedom in the areas of selection of students; appointment ...

  13. Dialogue of Freedom. Asian Voices Challenge Cultural Assumptions about Democracy. (United States)

    Pon, Cynthia


    Discusses the concept of freedom in a global context, focusing on the Asian perspectives of three spokespersons: Zhuangzi or Chuang Tzu, a Daoist (Taoist) poet-philosopher in 4th-century-BCE China; Indian-born Nobel economist Amartya Sen, whose work on poverty links development with freedom; and Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese democratic leader and…

  14. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press. (United States)

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  15. Academic Freedom, Critique and the Humanities: some current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the current challenges facing academic freedom and the humanities in South Africa as well as across the world. It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in ...

  16. Freedom of Information Legislation In Esarbica Member States and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the question of freedom of information. It begins by arguing that although all Citizens have the right of access to information, each citizen is entitled to enjoy certain rights that must be protected and must be enshrined in a freedom of information legislation. The paper identifies the major elements that ...

  17. What is freedom--and does wealth cause it? (United States)

    Iyer, Ravi; Motyl, Matt; Graham, Jesse


    The target article's climato-economic theory will benefit by allowing for bidirectional effects and the heterogeneity of types of freedom, in order to more fully capture the coevolution of societal wealth and freedom. We also suggest alternative methods of testing climato-economic theory, such as longitudinal analyses of these countries' histories and micro-level experiments of each of the theory's hypotheses.

  18. 78 FR 16611 - Freedom of Information Act; Correction (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 4 Freedom of Information Act; Correction AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: An amendatory instruction in our final rule entitled ``Freedom of Information Act...

  19. Academic Freedom in International Higher Education: Right or Responsibility? (United States)

    Gibbs, Alexis


    This paper explores the conceptual history of academic freedom and its emergence as a substantive right that pertains to either the academic or the university. It is suggested that historical reconceptualisations necessitated by contingent circumstance may have led to academic freedom being seen as a form of protection for those working within…

  20. Freedom and Sharing in the Global Network Society (United States)

    Lankshear, Colin


    This article focuses on some ideas from social and political philosophy concerning the ideal of freedom that may be useful for thinking about issues associated with the rise of network societies. The tendency for "freedom" to mean very different things to different people has carried over to the context of thinking about issues associated with new…

  1. Freedom and the Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    the equality argument. A main aim of this paper is to show that freedom and democracy are not merely instrumentally linked but, rather, intrinsically related. I argue this mainly via a critical engagement with Philip Pettit’s conception of freedom as nondomination. My defense of the noninstrumental value...

  2. Freedom as Non-Domination, Standards and the Negotiated Curriculum (United States)

    Hopkins, Neil


    This article investigates the application of Philip Pettit's concept of freedom as non-domination to the issues of educational standards and the negotiated curriculum. The article will argue that freedom as non-domination (and the connected concept of debating contestations as part of a legitimate democratic state) shines a critical light on…

  3. 78 FR 48083 - Freedom of Information Act Administration (United States)


    ... PEACE CORPS 22 CFR Part 303 RIN 0420-AA29 Freedom of Information Act Administration AGENCY: Peace Corps. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The proposed rule updates Peace Corps regulations on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) to implement guidance given by the President and the Attorney General...

  4. 76 FR 77465 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of... (United States)


    ... Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... population segments (DPS) of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) as threatened species under the... posed to this population by the projected habitat changes. Extension of Final Listing Determination The...

  5. Life-threatening necrotizing myometritis, due to Group A streptococcus - still a life-threatening condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boie, Sidsel; Krog, Jan; Bor, Isil Pinar


    Puerperal infection with Group A streptococcus (GAS) can present with few symptoms and rapidly progress to a life-threatening condition. Often, the infection can be treated with antibiotics. Delay in diagnosis increases risk of sepsis, multiorgan failure, and death. GAS infection is a differential...

  6. Freedom and the Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    noninstrumental value. I see the noninstrumental value of democracy in terms of freedom rather than the now more common reference to equality or fairness. The freedom argument can better show the noninstrumenal value of democracy and can better respond to some core objections to democratic noninstrumentalism than......This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has...... the equality argument. A main aim of this paper is to show that freedom and democracy are not merely instrumentally linked but, rather, intrinsically related. I argue this mainly via a critical engagement with Philip Pettit’s conception of freedom as nondomination. My defense of the noninstrumental value...

  7. A review of 41 upper extremity war injuries and the protective gear worn during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. (United States)

    Greer, Michelle A; Miklos-Essenberg, M Elizabeth; Harrison-Weaver, Sandra


    Forty-one patients with upper extremity war injuries sustained during combat operations Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom were reviewed to report on protective gear availability and usage at the time of injury. Participants treated at the Madigan Army Medical Center occupational therapy clinic from August 2004 until February 2005 completed a questionnaire regarding injuries sustained during deployment. Overall, 6 injuries were to upper extremity regions that were covered with issued protective gear; 21 injuries were to areas not covered with issued protective gear (i.e., participant was not wearing issued gear), and 22 injuries were to regions that were not covered because no protective gear was issued for that body area. Although this study is limited, future research would provide valuable insights about the efficacy of current body armor and the need for additional or modified gear.

  8. Persistent pain and comorbidity among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/operation New Dawn veterans. (United States)

    Higgins, Diana M; Kerns, Robert D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Haskell, Sally G; Bathulapalli, Harini; Gilliam, Wesley; Goulet, Joseph L


    Chronic pain is a significant concern for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), with chronic pain conditions among those most frequently reported by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans. The current study examined VHA electronic medical record data to examine variation in demographics and high prevalence and high impact medical and mental health conditions in order to characterize the differences between patients with persistent pain and no pain. A conservative operational definition of chronic or "persistent pain" based on multiple indicators of pain (i.e., pain intensity ratings, prescription opioids, pain clinic visits, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes) was employed. Analyses included the entire roster of longitudinal clinical data on OEF/OIF/OND veterans who used VHA care to compare those with persistent pain with those with no clinical evidence of pain. Results of logistic regression models suggest that sex, race, education, military variables, body mass index (BMI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and mental health conditions, but not age, reliably discriminate the two groups. Those with persistent pain were more likely to be Black, female, on active duty, enlisted, Army service members, have a high school education or less, and have diagnoses of mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, TBI, and have a BMI consistent with overweight and obesity. The operational definition of chronic pain used in this study may have research implications for examining predictors of incident and chronic pain. These data have important clinical implications in that addressing comorbid conditions of persistent pain may improve adaptive coping and functioning in these patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Posters: balancing overkill and freedom of expression

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Internal Communication and HR Department


    The number of posters put up at CERN to inform, engage and invite is growing quickly, and they are taking over an ever-increasing number of walls, doors, pillars and glass panels. In the interests of freedom of information, no official restrictions are in place, but we are nonetheless obliged to maintain a fair balance. Here we discuss this issue.   Posters clamour for our attention, becoming more and more invasive and often eternal as they are never taken down... While the need to inform and to be informed is a legitimate one, we also have to respect our workplace. It’s no surprise that walls or pillars (sometimes freshly painted) at junctions in corridors that are busy at peak times are seen as ideal targets by people who want to publicise their events or activities, but this abundance, or overabundance, of posters is sometimes seen as vandalism of communal areas. What's more, the posters themselves are sometimes vandalised: comments, sometimes offensive, may be added and the...

  10. Collective Efficacy and the Contingent Consequences of Exposure to Life-Threatening Violence (United States)

    Browning, Christopher R.; Gardner, Margo; Maimon, David; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    Neighborhood research has increasingly emphasized the potential for contextual characteristics to moderate the effects of youths' experiences on their outcomes. Drawing on collective efficacy theory, we examine the variable consequences of youths' exposures to life-threatening violence across neighborhoods. We argue that strong community normative…

  11. Attentional prioritization of threatening information: examining the role of the size of the attentional window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notebaert, L; Crombez, G.; van Damme, S; Durnez, W.; Theeuwes, J.


    In line with most models of emotion, research has shown that threatening information receives attentional priority over neutral information. Recently, it has been suggested that the degree to which participants divide their attention across the visual field (the attentional window) may modulate the

  12. 77 FR 76001 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish (United States)


    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits(50 CFR parts 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on... described below, researchers do not expect to kill any listed fish but a small number may die as an...

  13. 77 FR 3743 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish (United States)


    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... with section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish... listed fish but a small number may die as an unintended result of the research activities. The objectives...

  14. Memory Bias for Threatening Information in Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Review (United States)

    Mitte, Kristin


    Although some theories suggest that anxious individuals selectively remember threatening stimuli, findings remain contradictory despite a considerable amount of research. A quantitative integration of 165 studies with 9,046 participants (clinical and nonclinical samples) examined whether a memory bias exists and which moderator variables influence…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaka Firma Aditya


    Full Text Available The government is perceived as the main perpetrator on violations of freedom of religion and belief in Indonesia. As the state organizer, the government frequently issues discriminatory regulations and policies and tend to cause intolerance to minority religions and beliefs, particularly to indigenous peoples. While freedom of religion or belief is a constitutional rights that cannot be reduced and is guaranteed universally in constitution and laws, the law provides limitation that causes ambiguity in the fulfillment of the rights of religion and belief. In addition, the government mindset still adheres to the term of "official religion" and "non-official religion" in any policy-making, causing adherents of minority religions and beliefs to be considered as cultural heritage to be preserved. This creates injustice, discrimination, intimidation and intolerance in rights fulfillment in state and society life. This paper discusses the existence of the guarantee of freedom of religion and belief for indigenous people and state liability for violations of freedom of religion and belief. This research used normative juridical method with statute approach and conceptual approach.

  16. Parental spirituality in life-threatening pediatric cancer. (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Barrera, Maru; Granek, Leeat; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Shaheed, Jenny; Beaune, Laura; Bouffet, Eric; Antle, Beverley


    This study addressed parental spirituality in the context of pediatric cancer with a poor prognosis. Drawing upon previous research implementing a longitudinal grounded theory design examining parental hope, 35 parents were interviewed regarding their experiences with an emergent description of the role of spirituality in parents' daily lives. Spirituality included religious beliefs and practices, notions of a higher force or cosmos, relationship with a divine being, as well as elements emerging from meaning-making and relationships. Parental expectations of spirituality remained relatively constant across data collection time points (3-9 months postdiagnosis), although limited variation occurred relative to shifting circumstance (e.g., deterioration of the child's condition). Spirituality appeared to offer: greater acceptance of parents' inability to protect their child from harm related to her/his life-threatening illness, guidance and emotion decompression, and support from one's faith community. Recommendations for integrating spiritual assessment in clinical care practice are offered.

  17. Potentialities of embolization of life threatening hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvichev, V.G.


    The author analysed experience in the embolization of the abdominal vessels in 79 patients with diseases and lesions of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by life threatening hemorrhage. In 51 cases embolization was used as an independent method of hemorrhage arrest and in 28 cases for patients' preoperative preparation. A hemostatic sponge combined with a superselective administration of 150-200 ml of aminocaproic acid was used as an emboilizing material. Complications attributed to embolization were noted in 5 patients: pancreatitis, subdiaphragmatic abscess, paranephritis, ischemia of the gluteal soft tissues, sciatic neuritis. An analysis has shown that urgent embolization of the abdominal vessels in diseases and lesions of the organs of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by massive hemorrhage, can be used as an independent method for hemorrhage arrest

  18. Social justice and the formal principle of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Olga


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show, contra the right-libertarian critique of social justice, that there are good reasons for defending policies of social justice within a free society. In the first part of the paper, we will present two influential right-libertarian critiques of social justice, found in Friedrich Hayek’s Law, Legislation and Liberty and Robert Nozick’s Anarchy, State and Utopia. Based on their approach, policies of social justice are seen as an unjustified infringement on freedoms of individual members of a society. In response to this critique, we will introduce the distincion between formal and factual freedom and argue that the formal principle of freedom defended by Hayek and Nozick does not suffice for the protection of factual freedom of members of a society, because it does not recognize (1 the moral obligation to help those who, without their fault, lack factual freedom to a significant degree, and (2 the legal obligation of the state to protect civic dignity of all members of a society. In the second part of the paper, we offer an interpretation of Kant’s argument on taxation, according to which civic dignity presupposes factual freedom, in order to argue that Kant’s justification of taxation offers good reasons for claiming that the state has the legal obligation to protect factual freedom via the policies of social justice.

  19. On conditioned and directed freedom of contrats between business entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Marko


    Full Text Available The term conditioned freedom of contracts appeared in our legal theory before the adoption of the Obligations Relations Act, whereas the term directed freedom of contracts occurred after the Act's entry into force. Both terms were used to signify transformation of freedom of con tracts within the legal system based on ideology of socialism, social ownership of the means of production and government ruled economy and, afterwards, 'coordinated economy'. Conditioned freedom of contracts originated from the right to use the means of production in social ownership. This right, which belonged to social (state-owned companies, consisted of two components. The first, public-law component conditioned the second, private law component, by means of norms in individual administrative acts and administrative regulations. As these norms were an expression of state power, they make the contract subordinate: individual administrative act is a condition for the conclusion of contract, and administrative regulations for its validity. Directed freedom of contracts is freedom of making contracts directed by economic order established by the Constitution, systemic laws, and partially by the norms of the basic principles of the Obligations Relations Act which are related to social companies. As regards freedom of contracts it can be said that even today it is directed by legal principles and norms of economic-legal public policy through which the state interferes in business enterprises.

  20. The irreducibility of value-freedom to theory assessment. (United States)

    Bueter, Anke


    The current ideal of value-freedom holds non-cognitive values to be illegitimate in theory appraisal but legitimate in earlier stages of the research process, for example, when affecting the selection of topics or the generation of hypotheses. Respective decisions are often considered as part of a context of discovery and as irrelevant for the justification and assessment of theories. I will argue that this premise of an epistemic independence of theory appraisal, though often taken for granted, is false. Due to the possibility of value-laden blind spots, decisions in discovery can have an indirect impact on theory assessment that the value-free ideal cannot deal with. This argument is illustrated by a case study from women's health research, namely the assessment of hormone replacement therapy as a prevention of coronary heart diseases. In consequence, the epistemic trustworthiness of science is promoted more by a pluralism of non-cognitive values than by their exclusion; and a normative philosophy of science needs to enlarge its focus to include the context of discovery as well as the social conditions of science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Freedom of Information Act Requests: Six Keys to Handling Them (United States)


    Defense AT&L: January–February 2016 50 Freedom of Information Act Requests Six Keys to Handling Them Michael A. Rodgers Rodgers is a professor of...Department of Defense Open Government websites. When I worked at an Air Force major com-mand, I noticed that receiving a Freedom of Information Act...Directive 5400.07 “Department of Defense Freedom of Information Act Program,” which estab- lishes overall DoD FOIA policy and dictates the FOIA roles and

  2. [Freedom of movement: a basic right, a regulated restriction]. (United States)

    Bourbon-Vincent, Marilyn

    Freedom of movement is recognised by national and supranational law. It falls within the scope of the definition of freedom set out in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, in 1789. It is also legally formulated and recognised as a basic right in two European texts: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 10th December 1948 and the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4th November 1950. How can it be respected in psychiatry, in view of the obligation to provide care and safety? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear forces and quark degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.; Demetriou, P.; Pantis, C.


    Attempts to derive the NN forces from the quark and gluon degrees of freedom have been made so far in the framework of the nonrelativistic quark-cluster model (QCM). The justification of such a model is based on the remarkable success in describing the static properties of single hadrons. In the earlier calculations, the NN s-wave phase shifts obtained with the QCM show that the model produces repulsive NN forces at short distances, which constitutes a success for the model, but fails to provide the intermediate range attraction indispensable for binding nucleons in nuclei. This drawback is amended within the context of these models, at the expense of introducing by hand intermediate-range attraction through meson-exchange potentials between quarks or/and between nucleons (quark clusters). This procedure improves the results for the phase shifts and it is often concluded that the QCM provides a good description of the short-range (SR) part of the NN potential. In our opinion, the above procedure does not provide a rigorous test of the validity of the quark-cluster model. In order to get a clear-cut conclusion one should consider the QCM in association with an accurate and well founded model for the long-medium-range (LR+MR) forces. For these reason we study a NN interaction model which satisfies this requirement. In this model, the LR+MR parts are given by the Paris NN potential and the SR part by the QCM. The quality of the model is then tested by confronting directly its predictions with data on observables rather then, as it is usually done, with phase shifts. We compute all the observables for pp and np scattering at energies below the pion production threshold for different QCM versions corresponding to different qq interactions. The results are then compared with the existing world set data. Preliminary results show that the agreement with experiment is not good. (authors)

  4. Freedom and the principles of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zagorka T.


    Full Text Available Freedom as an authentic and willed process, characteristic of man as a human rational being, enables the individual to act in accordance with the principles of morality, since the individual can choose between good and evil (between two possibilities, and in this way to get out of the sphere of the given to which the rest of the living world is limited. We should recall the forgotten Marx and his famous text on the essential difference between the animal world and humanity as a genus: "The animal is immediately united with its vital activity. It does not differ from it. It is vital activity. Man makes his own vital activity the subject of his will and consciousness. He has conscious vital activity. This is not a determination with which he merges immediately. Conscious vital activity distinguishes man directly from animal vital activity. It is exactly in this way alone that he is a generic being. Or a conscious being, i.e. his own life is a subject for him precisely because he is a generic being. It is only for this reason that his activity is free activity..." (K. Marx, "Alienation", Early Works. In other words, while animals live just the life of their species and cannot choose anything else, since the choice has been made by the fact of their belonging to a species, man can choose the world in which to live, overcoming in this way the natural givens. Here lies the core of the anthropological explanation of the principle of morality, inconceivable without man's ability to be an authentic free being.

  5. How architectural design affords experiences of freedom in residential care for older people. (United States)

    Van Steenwinkel, Iris; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Heylighen, Ann


    Human values and social issues shape visions on dwelling and care for older people, a growing number of whom live in residential care facilities. These facilities' architectural design is considered to play an important role in realizing care visions. This role, however, has received little attention in research. This article presents a case study of a residential care facility for which the architects made considerable effort to match the design with the care vision. The study offers insights into residents' and caregivers' experiences of, respectively, living and working in this facility, and the role of architectural features therein. A single qualitative case study design was used to provide in-depth, contextual insights. The methods include semi-structured interviews with residents and caregivers, and participant observation. Data concerning design intentions, assumptions and strategies were obtained from design documents, through a semi-structured interview with the architects, and observations on site. Our analysis underlines the importance of freedom (and especially freedom of movement), and the balance between experiencing freedom and being bound to a social and physical framework. It shows the architecture features that can have a role therein: small-scaleness in terms of number of residents per dwelling unit, size and compactness; spatial generosity in terms of surface area, room to maneuver and variety of places; and physical accessibility. Our study challenges the idea of family-like group living. Since we found limited sense of group belonging amongst residents, our findings suggest to rethink residential care facilities in terms of private or collective living in order to address residents' social freedom of movement. Caregivers associated 'hominess' with freedom of movement, action and choice, with favorable social dynamics and with the building's residential character. Being perceived as homey, the facility's architectural design matches caregivers

  6. Rethinking ‘Freedom of Information’ for a New Era of Transparency in Public Service Media in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkisu Saidu


    Full Text Available The emergence of global production and information networks, the rise of super sized national, supranational and multinational media organisations, their impact and influence on global trends, the expansion of technology and the presence of a sophisticated information superhighway that allow for the instantaneous transfer of information all converge to make the control of the flow of information next to impossible. However, in young democracies, such as Nigeria, the power to regulate the access to information conferred on state actors has been regularly exploited as a means of denying of information to the public, freedom of the press and freedom of speech. This paper inquires into the antecedents of censorship, examines these antecedents in the light of broader historical and contemporary dynamics within the country and projects the likely implications for the entrenchment of transparency in the Public Service Media (PSM in Nigeria via freedom of information. The research adopted the qualitative doctrinal and empirical methods of legal research.

  7. Coupling dynamic modeling and simulation of three-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator based on piezoelectric ceramic of fuzzy PID (United States)

    Li, Dongjie; Fu, Yu; Yang, Liu


    For further research on the microparticles trajectory in the process of micromanipulation, the paper modeled on the coupling dynamic of three-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator which is based on piezoelectric ceramic. In the micromanipulation, the transformation of certain movement direction can generate a corresponding change in the coupling in three-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator movement, the fuzzy PID method was adopted by the control system of this study, and the modeling analysis was performed on the control system. After completing the above modeling, the simulation model is built by the MATLAB Simulink software. The simulation output results are basically in accordance with the actual trajectory, which achieve the successful research purposes of coupling dynamics model for three-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator and application of fuzzy PID method.

  8. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re......-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory....

  9. Axel Honneth: The law of freedom – Institutionalization of freedom in modern societies - A reconstruction and some remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff


    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the argument of Axel Honneth's recent book Das Recht der Freiheit as a theory of the institutionalization of freedom in modern society. In particular, it looks at Honneth's argument for the realization of freedom in law and morality that is proposed as a contemporary re-interpretation of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Then I discuss Honneth's argument for the reality of freedom in the ethical spheres of civil society, in particular in the family, the market and in democracy. Finally, the paper proposes some critical remarks to Honneth's theory.

  10. Performance on the Green Word Memory Test following Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom-era military service: Test failure is related to evaluation context. (United States)

    McCormick, Cortney L; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; McDonald, Scott D; Campbell, Thomas C; Tupler, Larry A


    This study investigates prior reports of high neuropsychological symptom validity test (SVT) failure rates in post-deployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) active and veteran military personnel, using a large, multi-site sample (N = 214) drawn from three levels of the Department of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma System of Care. The sample failure rate and its relationship to research versus dual research/clinical context of evaluation were examined, in addition to secondary variables explored in prior studies. Results yielded an overall failure rate of 25%, lower than prior reports describing OEF/OIF active-duty and veteran military personnel. Findings also supported the hypothesis that SVT failure rates would differ by context (dual > research). Participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) failed more frequently than those without TBI in the dual context but not in the research context. Secondary analyses revealed that failure rates increased in the presence of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and male sex but were unrelated to active versus veteran military status, service connection (SC) or percentage of SC, age, education, or ethnicity. Further research is required to elucidate the underpinnings of these findings in light of the limited literature and variability between OEF/OIF-related SVT studies, as well as the substantial diagnostic and treatment implications for VA.

  11. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Relyea, Harold C


    Enacted in 1966 after 11 years of investigation, legislative development, and deliberation in the House and half as many years of such consideration in the Senate, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...

  12. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Relyea, Harold C


    Enacted in 1966 after 11 years of investigation, legislative development, and deliberation in the House and half as many years of such consideration ill the Senate, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...

  13. Toward a Freedom to Learn in Continuing Professional Education. (United States)

    Boyer, Cheryl


    A hybrid of professional continuing education and Carl Rogers's humanistic philosophy supporting freedom in learning is proposed, and the five principles of the philosophy are examined for their potential for transfer to professional education. (MSE)

  14. Space Station Freedom power management and distribution system design (United States)

    Teren, Fred


    The design is described of the Space Station Freedom Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. In addition, the significant trade studies which were conducted are described, which led to the current PMAD system configuration.

  15. Freedom of Expression: A Troublesome Imperative. ERIC Report. (United States)

    Del Polito, Carolyn M.


    Presents an annotated bibliography of 19 items from ERIC identifying troublesome paradoxes regarding the media and freedom of expression. Items are categorized by issues identified as relevant to radio and television, commercial advertising, and the press. (JMF)

  16. Health promotion and the freedom of the individual. (United States)

    Taylor, Gary; Hawley, Helen


    This article considers the extent to which health promotion strategies pose a threat to individual freedom. It begins by taking a look at health promotion strategies and at the historical development of health promotion in Britain. A theoretical context is then developed in which Berlin's distinction between negative and positive liberty is used alongside the ideas of John Stuart Mill, Charles Taylor and T.H. Green to discuss the politics of health promotion and to identify the implications of conflicting perspectives on freedom. The final section looks at current health promotion policy in Britain and beyond and argues that, if freedom is seen in terms of empowerment, health promotion can enhance individual freedom.

  17. Visions of Freedom. About the Central Question in Simmel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Jorge Vernik


    Full Text Available From his first sociological book, On social differentiation of 1890, to his posthumous book of 1918, The view of life. Four metaphysical essays, George Simmel speaks at length about the notion of freedom. This topic is recurring also in his main works. However, throughout his production, the author develops different meanings and dimensions of the concept of freedom, in relation to the trends toward differentiation and individualization characteristic of modern societies, in which the main symbol is money. This article reconstructs and analyzed such different meanings of freedom, with special emphasis in its sociological usages. Finally, a suggestion is made to consider the concept of freedom as the main topic and guiding thread of the totality of Simmel’s work.

  18. On Effective Degrees of Freedom in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Husdal


    Full Text Available We explore the effective degrees of freedom in the early Universe, from before the electroweak scale at a few femtoseconds after the Big Bang until the last positrons disappeared a few minutes later. We look at the established concepts of effective degrees of freedom for energy density, pressure, and entropy density, and introduce effective degrees of freedom for number density as well. We discuss what happens with particle species as their temperature cools down from relativistic to semi- and non-relativistic temperatures, and then annihilates completely. This will affect the pressure and the entropy per particle. We also look at the transition from a quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. Using a list a known hadrons, we use a “cross-over” temperature of 214 MeV, where the effective degrees of freedom for a quark-gluon plasma equals that of a hadron gas.

  19. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale, Catherine


    Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20, 2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...

  20. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Relyea, Harold C


    Enacted in 1966 after 11 years of investigation, legislative development, and deliberation in the House and half as many years of such consideration in the Senate, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...

  1. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale, Catherine


    Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20,2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...

  2. g-boson degree of freedom in vibrational regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yaomin


    The g-boson degree of freedom in the vibrational regions is discussed in term of the energies and the electromagnetic transitions. Several closed expressions for the rates of M1, E2 transitions and the E2, M1 mixing ratios are obtained. Some survey is made and it reveals it is meaningful to investigate the g-boson degree of freedom in those regions

  3. Hadronic and subhadronic degrees of freedom in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinh Mau, R.


    The Nuclear Physics lectures given at Workshops and Summer Schools from February 1987 to August 1989 are summarized. The main features and results of the conventional low energy hadron physics, in the framework of hadronic degrees of freedom, are reviewed. Recent tests on nucleon-nucleon potential models are described. The results obtained with the explicit use of quark degrees of freedom are presented. An introduction to Skyrme solitons and recent developments on effective Lagrangians for low energy hadron physics are discussed

  4. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  5. Juridical Freedom and Its Social Pathologies according to Honneth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Luiz da Silva


    Full Text Available This article deals with Axel Honneth's theory about the right to freedom and the spheres of social ethics, particularly in regard to legal freedom, in which he highlights its reasons, limits and pathologies. In this sense, he sought to analyze his concept of juridification of social relations in private and family environments, in order to identify the applicability of legal pathologies in contemporary Brazilian society.

  6. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations


    Lev S. Voronkov


    The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist) and far right-wing (national-socialistic) threats to be met by the supporters of liberal politic...

  7. Protection of the employee's constitutional rights and freedoms


    Vanagėlienė, Renata


    PROTECTION OF THE EMPLOYEE'S CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS SUMMARY The goal aimed at in the present thesis is on the basis of the Constitution, Labour Code and other legal acts regulating labour legislation, International agreements, Council Directives Resolutions of the Constitutional Code of the Republic of Lithuania to disclose the concept of constitutional rights and freedoms of an employee, to present a mechanism of their protection and to examine guarantees provided for in the Labo...

  8. Why are freshwater fish so threatened? (United States)

    Closs, Gerard P.; Angermeier, Paul; Darwall, William R.T.; Balcombe, Stephen R.


    The huge diversity of freshwater fishes is concentrated into an area of habitat that covers only about 1% of the Earth's surface, and much of this limited area has already been extensively impacted and intensively managed to meet human needs (Dudgeon et al., 2006). As outlined in Chapter 1, the number and proportions of threatened species tend to rise wherever fish diversity coincides with dense human populations, intensive resource use and development pressure. Of particular concern is the substantial proportion of the global diversity of freshwater fishes concentrated within the Mekong and Amazon Basins and west-central Africa (Berra, 2001; Abell et al., 2008; Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1) with extensive exploitation of water resources planned to accelerate in future years (Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1). If current trends continue, and the social, political and economic models that have been used to develop industrialised regions of the world over the past two centuries prevail, then the future of a significant proportion of global diversity of freshwater fish species is clearly uncertain.

  9. Sight threatening retinopathy in a child with sickle cell &beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sight threatening retinopathy in a child with sickle cell β° Thalassaemia: case report. ... Sight threatening changes in the retina are a well-recognized complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). ... Two years later despite minimal visual symptoms, he had developed abnormal conjunctival vessels and bilateral retinopathy.

  10. Face threatening acts in familiar communicational space in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such a constitution of face is referred to as a Face Threatening Act. This paper studies the face threatening acts in the interactional space among characters in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus and establishes how those acts aid or mar the illocutionary goals of participants. The study concludes that the 'face' is inseparable from ...

  11. Globally threatened dragonflies (Odonata) in Eastern Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the status of East African dragonfly species (Odonata) listed globally as threatened on "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". The area considered includes Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Malawi. From a total of 323 species known from these countries, 31 are listed in ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Staples


    Full Text Available This paper will firstly examine the international framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the international human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia’s constitutional law and criminal and civil law, including sedition and defamation laws, and finally media ownership, on the interpretation and scope of the right to freedom of speech in the press. Consideration of these laws will be integrated with a discussion of judicial processes. This discussion will be used to determine how and in what circumstances the constitutional right to freedom of speech in the press may be facilitated or enabled, or on the other hand, limited, overridden or curtailed in Indonesia. Conclusions will then be drawn regarding the strengths and weaknesses of Indonesian laws in safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press and the democratic implications from an international human rights perspective. This inquiry will be restricted to Indonesian laws in existence during the post-New Order period of 1998 to the present, and to the information and analysis provided by English-language sources.

  13. Animal Welfare: Freedoms, Dominions and "A Life Worth Living". (United States)

    Webster, John


    This opinion paper considers the relative validity and utility of three concepts: the Five Freedoms (FF), Five Domains (FD) and Quality of Life (QoL) as tools for the analysis of animal welfare. The aims of FF and FD are different but complementary. FD seeks to assess the impact of the physical and social environment on the mental (affective) state of a sentient animal, FF is an outcome-based approach to identify and evaluate the efficacy of specific actions necessary to promote well-being. Both have utility. The concept of QoL is presented mainly as a motivational framework. The FD approach provides an effective foundation for research and evidence-based conclusions as to the impact of the things we do on the mental state of the animals in our care. Moreover, it is one that can evolve with time. The FF are much simpler. They do not attempt to achieve an overall picture of mental state and welfare status, but the principles upon which they are based are timeless. Their aim is to be no more than a memorable set of signposts to right action. Since, so far as the animals are concerned, it is not what we think but what we do that counts, I suggest that they are likely to have a more general impact.

  14. 78 FR 75306 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened... (United States)


    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the conservation of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce... prairie-chicken as a threatened species under the Act. We also announce the availability of the final...

  15. 78 FR 73173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Straight-Horned Markhor as Threatened... (United States)


    ...; Listing the Straight-Horned Markhor as Threatened With Special Rule AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) from endangered to threatened. We propose to combine the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) and the Kabul markhor (Capra falconeri megaceros) into...

  16. Expressing Intellectual Freedom: A Content Analysis of Catholic Library World from 1980 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Welsh


    Full Text Available Objective – Professional librarians have varying values relating to the topic of intellectual freedom that may or may not align with the American Library Association’s (ALA policies defining professional expectations on the topic. The personally held values and beliefs of Roman Catholic librarians and those working in libraries affiliated with Roman Catholicism are worthy of study to determine how personal religious values may translate into professional practice. The objective of this paper is to ascertain how frequently and in what context the topics of intellectual freedom and censorship were expressed in articles published in Catholic Library World (CLW, the professional journal of the Catholic Library Association (CLA from 1980 to 2015. Published content on these topics can be used as evidence to determine how this population discusses the concept of intellectual freedom. Methods – Articles relevant to these topics were retrieved from the American Theological Library Association Catholic Periodical and Literature Index (ATLA CPLI and Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA databases by conducting keyword searches using the terms “intellectual freedom” and censorship. Each retrieved publication was analyzed by counting the number of times the phrase “intellectual freedom” and the root censor* occurred. Through a deep reading of each publication, statements containing these search terms were then coded as positive, negative, or neutral, establishing a context for each occurrence. Results – The majority of published content supported intellectual freedom and opposed censorship. Negative content typically occurred in publications about children or school libraries. Additionally, CLW contributors did express a certain level of conflict between personally held religious values and professional values. Conclusions – This study adds to the limited research available on the intersection of personally held

  17. Primatology. Human diseases threaten great apes. (United States)

    Ferber, D


    Researchers are uncovering disturbing evidence that scientists and tourists are infecting wild primates with human pathogens. In response, ape specialists, including the American Society of Primatologists, are now calling for stricter health standards for researchers and tourists. They are also urging researchers to learn how to diagnose disease in their study animals.

  18. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti


    Full Text Available Freedom of expression and press freedom is the embodiment of the recognition of human rights. Freedom of expression is also the existence of press to disclose the news with honesty and do not get a pressure to deliver the news to the public space, which in news production is known as a work of journalism. Now the  press has gained freedom of expression in the news production process which is guaranteed in the state constitution. Although Article 28 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945 does not point directly at the press, However, Article 28 F emphasis on processing and storage as well as ownership, excavations to information. It also contains provisions on the freedom of expression of others, which should be valued and respected. It shows equality for everyone in his position before the law in accordance with Article 27 1945 Constitution, which emphasizes the recognition of constitutional rights that belong to every person in the state of law in the Republic of Indonesia. Thus the press, which have freedom of expression in the writings of journalistic works are required to be responsible for the published news. So as not to face the legal issues and criminalization, then press should perform tasks and functions to enforce ethics as the precautionary principle when processing the news and broadcast it to the public space, as well as upholding human rights. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2014. Freedom of the Press In the Scope of Human Rights. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 101-118. doi:

  19. Human Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and Universal Values in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Voronkov


    Full Text Available The author analyzes the evolution of human rights and fundamental freedoms in domestic political life of individual states and in international relations as well over the latest two centuries. The article traces the role of struggle for liberal political human rights and civilian freedoms in the dismantling of the feudal-absolutist regimes as well as the challenges of radical left-wing (communist and far right-wing (national-socialistic threats to be met by the supporters of liberal political rights and civil freedoms in the interwar period. The list of human rights and fundamental freedoms had constantly been updating in the postwar period, including by the efforts of the UNO and other international organizations, and fixing in different international documents. The author emphasizes the import role of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE in transforming the issues of human rights and fundamental freedoms into the essential element of public diplomacy of contemporary states. He traces the process of the increasing utilization of liberal political rights and civilian freedoms, which are usually the effective tools for domestic democratic transformation, within the framework of diplomatic practice of European and North-American states, aimed at ensuring their political and economic interests on the world stage. In this regard the author addresses the attempts of Western countries to legalize "humanitarian"interventions in circumvention of the UN Security Council. The article emphasizes the necessity to replenish the understanding of universal human rights and freedoms by the values, developed both by the international community within the framework of implementing the Millennium Development Goals and by various countries and peoples, which in sum constitute the modern international civilizational baggage.

  20. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi


    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  1. Degrees of freedom in planning, running, analyzing, and reporting psychological studies : A checklist to avoid p-hacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Veldkamp, C.L.S.; Augusteijn, H.E.M.; Bakker, M.; van Aert, R.C.M.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.


    The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of

  2. Public Spaces of Protest Framed with Adult Learning and Political Efficacy: Reflections of a Freedom Summer in Madrid and Ferguson (United States)

    Hodges, Traci L.


    Traci L. Hodges is a doctoral student in the Educational Leadership and Policy Studies program at the University of Missouri St. Louis. Her research interests are comparative adult education, African American adult education, and critical education. Having witnessed freedom protests in Madrid, Spain, and Ferguson, Missouri, she shares her…

  3. Cigarette smoking as an expression of independence and freedom among inmates in a tobacco-free prison in the United States. (United States)

    van den Berg, Jacob J; Bock, Beth; Roberts, Mary B; Stein, Lynda A R; Friedmann, Peter D; Martin, Stephen A; Clarke, Jennifer G


    Most adults report initiation of cigarette smoking during adolescence, a time also marked by developmental striving for independence and freedom. Tobacco use may retain its association with independence and/or freedom into adulthood. This association may contribute to continued tobacco use and/or increased risk of relapse to smoking among some individuals. This study examines the relationship between cigarette smoking and perceptions of independence and freedom among inmates in a tobacco-free prison in the northeastern United States. Questionnaires administered to 247 male and female inmates 6 weeks prior to scheduled prison release assessed demographics, smoking history, nicotine dependence, attitudes toward smoking, and plans for tobacco use or abstinence after prison release. Perceptions of smoking as an expression of independence and freedom were measured using 2 items. Smoking was assessed 3 weeks postrelease. Constructs of freedom and independence were correlated but did not overlap completely. Both constructs were negatively associated with plans for smoking abstinence after prison release, and with perceived costs of continued smoking. Number of cigarettes smoked postrelease and perception of the pros of smoking were associated with freedom, but not independence. Associations of smoking as an expression of freedom and independence may negatively influence plans for renewed smoking after a forced abstinence. Additional research is needed to determine the degree to which these 2 constructs predict smoking behavior and whether they can be used to improve interventions for incarcerated smokers.

  4. 77 FR 64496 - Freedom Falls, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freedom Falls, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis.... Project No.: 14421-000. c. Date filed: June 1, 2012. d. Applicant: Freedom Falls, LLC. e. Name of Project: Freedom Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Sandy Stream, in the Town of Freedom, Waldo County...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Yu Kolmakov


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features, similarities and differences of the legal systems of Russia and China and reveals that Russia is a more democratic state compared to China in the field of protection of the freedom of speech. The author concludes that Russia can influence China by methods of international treaties which allow cooperation between states with different state and social orders and by promoting the ideas of the freedom of expression through research exchanges.

  6. The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fessel


    Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.

  7. The Impact of Academic Freedom Policies on Critical Thinking Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fessel, MA, MEd


    Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.

  8. Adapting concepts of media freedom to a changing media environment: Incorporating new media and citizen journalism into the Freedom of the Press Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney C. RADSCH


    Full Text Available The present article discusses how the new category of “citizen journalist” fits into the overall media environment and how the Freedom House Freedom of the Press methodology has been changed to incorporate this category.

  9. Updating Animal Welfare Thinking: Moving beyond the "Five Freedoms" towards "A Life Worth Living". (United States)

    Mellor, David J


    The Five Freedoms have had major impact on animal welfare thinking internationally. However, despite clear initial statements that the words 'freedom from' should indicate 'as free as possible from', the Freedoms have come to be represented as absolute or fundamental freedoms, even rights, by some animal advocate and other groups. Moreover, a marked increase in scientific understanding over the last two decades shows that the Freedoms do not capture the more nuanced knowledge of the biological processes that is germane to understanding animal welfare and which is now available to guide its management. For example, the named negative experiences of thirst, hunger, discomfort and pain, and others identified subsequently, including breathlessness, nausea, dizziness, debility, weakness and sickness, can never be eliminated, merely temporarily neutralised. Each one is a genetically embedded element that motivates animals to behave in particular ways to obtain specific life-sustaining resources, avoid or reduce physical harm or facilitate recovery from infection or injury. Their undoubted negativity creates a necessary sense of urgency to respond, without which animals would not survive. Also, the temporary neutralisation of these survival-critical affects does not in and of itself generate positive experience. This questions the commonly held assumption that good animal welfare will result when these internally generated negative affects are minimised. Animals may also experience other negative affects that include anxiety, fear, panic, frustration, anger, helplessness, loneliness, boredom and depression. These situation-related affects reflect animals' perceptions of their external circumstances. Although they are elicited by threatening, cramped, barren and/or isolated conditions, they can often be replaced by positive affects when animals are kept with congenial others in spacious, stimulus-rich and safe environments which provide opportunities for them to engage in

  10. Freedom, Self-Consciousness and Identity The Theory of Freedom and Identity in Kant's Moral Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ebadian


    Full Text Available A review of arguments about freedom and ethics from ancient times to contemporary era would reveal diverse conceptions of the concepts of freedom and ethics. However, Kant has forwarded his positive theory of freedom as the best possible way of modern man's being in his scientific philosophy. He has formulated the foundations of independent concept of freedom, putting forth some concepts in close connection with the concepts of self-consciousness, inner identity and integrity that make modern man a man in its real sense. Kant's concept of freedom is strongly under the influence of philosophy of Rousseau; freedom is the highest embodiment of man, which is the result of his specific activity aimed at his intellectual and spiritual development. Kant's basic concept of ethic is that of free will which is self-propelled. The action or behavior arises from one's duty which directs man to act or behave morally. The present article is an attempt to elaborate these concepts from the viewpoint of Kant and also to discuss his answer to the following question: How modern man is educated and raised? یک بازنگری به جستارهای آزادی و اخلاق از عصر باستان تا دوره معاصر، تصورهای متنوعی از مفاهیم آزادی و اخلاق را آشکار می‌کند؛ اما کانت نظریه ایجابی (تحصلی آزادی خود را به عنوان برترین طریقه ممکن هستی انسان مدرن در فلسفه علمی خود طرح کرده است. او ضمن تدوین مبانی مفهوم مستقل آزادی، مفاهیم مرتبط با آن یعنی خودآگاهیِ اخلاقی، هویت درونی و یکپارچگی‌ را (که انسان مدرن را به مفهوم واقعی کلام «انسان» می‌کند مطرح می‌کند. مفهوم آزادی کانت متأثر از فلسفه روسو است؛ آزادی، برترین تعیّن انسان

  11. Situational and Age-Dependent Decision Making during Life Threatening Distress in Myotis macrodactylus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Huang

    Full Text Available Echolocation and audiovocal communication have been studied extensively in bats. The manner in which these abilities are incorporated within escape behaviors during life-threatening distress is largely unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that behavioral response profiles expressed during distress are relatively stereotypic given their evolutionary adaptations to avoid predators. We subjected juvenile and adult big-footed myotis (Myotis macrodactylus to a sequence of three types of life threatening distress: 1 trapping them in a mist-net (environmental threat, 2 approaching them when trapped (predator threat, and 3 partially restraining their freedom to move (arrest, and recorded their escape behavior in each of the three conditions. Response profiles differed across individuals and with the context in which they were expressed. During environmental and predator threat, bats displayed significantly more biting and wing-flapping behaviors and emitted more echolocation pulses than during arrest. Response profiles also varied with age. During arrest, juveniles were more likely than adults to emit distress calls and vice-versa for biting and wing flapping during environmental and predator threat. Overall, individualized response profiles were classified into ten clusters that were aligned along two divergent response trajectories when viewed within two-dimensional, multifactorial decision space. Juvenile behaviors tended to follow a predominantly "social-dependence" trajectory, whereas adult behaviors were mostly aligned along a "self-reliance" trajectory. We conclude that bats modify their vocal behavior and make age-appropriate and contextually adaptive decisions when distressed. This decision-making ability is consistent with observations in other social species, including humans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Yuryevna Zagaynova


    Full Text Available The article considers approaches to the understanding of the concepts of «freedom of conscience» and «religious freedom» on the basis of the analysis of works of pre-revolutionary scientists. Allocated General and special traits defining these phenomena.The aim of this article is (based on the works of pre-revolutionary scientists to analyze ideas about the concept of freedom of conscience and religious liberty. Previously, scientists no attempt has been made to summarize the theoretical aspects of these categories, this is the novelty of the article.The research methodology consists dialectical view on the process of cognition of objective reality. They are implemented on the basis of a systematic approach. The article relies on the basic provisions of philosophy, theology and law.The research methods are universal, scientific and astronaute methods of cognition.In the study we can conclude that the pre-revolutionary scientists have not developed a unified approach with respect to such legal categories as «freedom of conscience and religious liberty».The results can be used in research work and in the educational process.

  13. In defence of academic freedom: bioethics journals under siege. (United States)

    Schüklenk, Udo


    This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles.

  14. Precision Magnetic Bearing Six Degree of Freedom Stage (United States)

    Williams, M. E.; Trumper, David L.


    Magnetic bearings are capable of applying force and torque to a suspended object without rigidly constraining any degrees of freedom. Additionally, the resolution of magnetic bearings is limited only by sensors and control, and not by the finish of a bearing surface. For these reasons, magnetic bearings appear to be ideal for precision wafer positioning in lithography systems. To demonstrate this capability a linear magnetic bearing has been constructed which uses variable reluctance actuators to control the motion of a 14.5 kg suspended platen in five degrees of freedom. A Lorentz type linear motor of our own design and construction is used to provide motion and position control in the sixth degree of freedom. The stage performance results verify that the positioning requirements of photolithography can be met with a system of this type. This paper describes the design, control, and performance of the linear magnetic bearing.

  15. The Role of Freedom in Kant's Philosophy of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayf


    Full Text Available Freedom is a fundamental concept in Kant's philosophy, including theoretical and practical philosophy, though its role in the latter is more significant. In his philosophy of ethics Kant considers freedom as the basis of his reasoning for ethics and in order to rule out the view that considers ethics as illusion he maintains that if we possess a free will, then ethics will turn out to be real and ethical laws will be valid for all.This article is an attempt to study the role of freedom in Kant's philosophy of ethics with special reference to his two main books on practical reason, namely, The Foundations of the Metaphysics of Ethics and Critique of Practical Reason.

  16. Religious Freedom Ethic’s Dimensions: Individual vs. Communitarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Oni Ardelean


    Full Text Available Vivid debates were encountered in recent years on the subject of religious freedom ethics. The politic correctness attitude became many times a coercion instrument for suppressing the communitarian interests by promoting individual interests, instituting the minority tyranny that reduced to silence the communitarian interests. This might also create a disproportional representation in society for communitarian religious interests. The question is: whose religious interests should prevail? Should there be more guarantees given by the governments for the long existing, larger, and traditional religious groups, compare with the guarantees provided for the newer and smaller religious groups? Those questions provide a glimpse of the existing tension in the society on the subject of religious freedom. The present paper should answer these types of questions, explaining the tension and giving possible answers from a religious freedom normative approach.

  17. External induced contamination environment assessment for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Leger, Lubert; Ehlers, Horst; Hakes, Charles; Theall, Jeff; Soares, Carlos


    An assessment of the Space Station Freedom performance as affected by the external induced contamination environment is in progress. The assessment procedure involves comparing the Space Station Freedom external contamination requirements, SSP 30426, Revision B (1991), with calculated molecular deposition, molecular column density, and other effects from potential sources of contamination. The current assessment comprises discussions of Space Shuttle proximity operations, Space Shuttle waste-water dumps (while docked to the Space Station), Space Station fluid and waste-gas venting, system gas leakage, external material outgassing, and a combined contamination assessment. This performance assessment indicates that Space Station Freedom contamination requirements are realistic and can be satisfied when all contamination sources are included.

  18. 'Freedom from all forms of violence'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    likely to be reported, especially if the crime was committed by the police themselves.13 Nevertheless, these figures provide some basis for assessing the prevalence of rape in Zimbabwe. The Research and Advocacy Unit has estimated, based on these statistics, that '[f]ifteen (15) women are raped in. Zimbabwe every day ...

  19. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08 (United States)


    defibrillators , orthopedic equipment, 12 lead EKGs, reference books, cast saws, (7) dedicated non-tactical vehicles, (8) better clinical training for medics...analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel Theory , Research, and Methods in Organizations (pp. 349-381). San Francisco, CA: Jossey

  20. Disciplined Freedom, or Free versus Slave?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg


    Rapport fra det første seminar med luthersk feministisk teologi den internationale Lutherkongres nogensinde, nemlig 12th International Congress for Luther Research, 5.-11. august 2012 i Helsinki. Der introduceres til forskellige feministiske læsninger ud fra Luthers skelsættende tekst Et kristenm...

  1. Genetic factors in Threatened Species Recovery Plans on three continents (United States)

    Threatened species' recovery planning is applied globally to stem the current species extinction crisis. Evidence supports a key role of genetic processes, such as inbreeding depression, in determining species viability. We examined whether genetic factors are considered in threa...

  2. Management of Maritime Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehlhausen, Sophia


    ...). Since the DoD mission has not required large-scale urbanization of the coast, these ecosystems also provide high quality habitat for several federally threatened and endangered plant and animal species (TES...

  3. A Summary of the Status of Threatened Pteridophytes of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra


    Full Text Available An assessment of rare and threatened Pteridophytes of political India, classifying species into different categories, has been made based on our own field-observations, data from herbarium-collections, and published literature. Their general range in political India has been given, though only limited details of extra-Indian range are provided. Modern taxonomic concepts and nomenclature have been adopted. Our survey has revealed that 414 species of Pteridophytes (219 At risk, of which 160 Critically endangered, 82 Near-threatened and 113 Rare, constituting c. 41-43 % of the total number of c. 950-1000 Pteridophytes of political India, are threatened or rare there. 84 species included in earlier works are excluded as they are not considered to be of threatened status. One new combination and two nomina nova have been validated (Leptochilus pothifolius (D.Don Fras.-Jenk., Asplenium rivulare Fras.-Jenk. and Thelypteris chandrae Fras.-Jenk..

  4. Cesarean Delivery for a Life‑threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exact etiology is still unclear, however, associated risk factors include maternal hypertension, advanced maternal age, polyhydramnios, multiparity, abdominal trauma, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine infection, premature rupture of membranes, threatened miscarriage, and cocaine abuse.[6]. According to Sher and ...

  5. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region....

  6. Velocity Space Degrees of Freedom of Plasma Fluctuations (United States)

    Mattingly, Sean


    Small scale wave modes are becoming more important in plasma physics. Examples include turbulent cascades in the solar wind, the energetics of fusion plasma electrostatic turbulence and transport, and low temperature basic plasma physics experiments. In order to improve our understanding of these modes, I present an advance in experimental plasma diagnostics and use it to show the first measurement of a plasma ion velocity-space cross-correlation matrix. From this matrix I determine the eigenmodes of fluctuations on the ion distribution function as a function of frequency. I also determine the relative strengths of these modes - these are the velocity space degrees of freedom of plasma fluctuations. This measurement can detect the aforementioned smaller scale modes in plasmas through a localized measurement. The locality of this measurement means that it may be applied to plasmas in which a single - point velocity sensitive diagnostic is available and multipoint measurements may be difficult. Examples include in situ measurements of space plasmas, fusion plasmas, trapped plasmas, and laser cooled plasmas. This fact, combined with the new perspective it can give on small scale plasma fluctuations, means it may be used to further research on the above cited subjects. Much work remains on fully understanding this measurement. This measurement opens a velocity space interpretation of small scale plasma wave modes, and understanding this perspective from theory requires the application or invention of new mathematical tools. I discuss open problems to follow up on, which include questions from experimental, theoretical, and instrumentation perspectives. NSF-DOE Program Grant DE-FG02-99ER54543.

  7. Pseudohypoaldosteronism in a neonate presenting as life-threatening arrhythmia


    Rajpoot, Sudeep K; Maggi, Carlos; Bhangoo, Amrit


    Summary Neonatal hyperkalemia and hyponatremia are medical conditions that require an emergent diagnosis and treatment to avoid morbidity and mortality. Here, we describe the case of a 10-day-old female baby presenting with life-threatening hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic acidosis diagnosed as autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1). This report aims to recognize that PHA1 may present with a life-threatening arrhythmia due to severe hyperkalemia and describes the ma...

  8. Holographic cosmology and its relevant degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawid, Richard


    We reconsider the options for cosmological holography. We suggest that a global and time-symmetric version of the Fischler-Susskind bound is the most natural generalization of the holographic bound encountered in AdS and De Sitter space. A consistent discussion of cosmological holography seems to imply an understanding of the notion of ''number of degrees of freedom'' that deviates from its simple definition as the entropy of the current state. The introduction of a more adequate notion of degree of freedom makes the suggested variation of the Fischler-Susskind bound look like a stringent and viable bound in all 4-dimensional cosmologies without a cosmological constant

  9. SOYUZ escape trajectory analysis from Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Heck, Michael L.


    It has been proposed to utilize the Russian built SOYUZ as an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for Space Station Freedom. Three departure directions (nadir, zenith, minus velocity) are evaluated to determine escape path clearances. In addition, the effects of the following parameters were also evaluated: delta-V magnitude, configuration dependent ballistic coefficients, atmospheric density, Freedom attitude control, and canted docking adaptors. The primary factor influencing the escape trajectory was station contingency attitude rate. The nadir and zenith departures were preferable to minus velocity. The impact of atmospheric density and relative ballistic coefficients was minimal.

  10. f(R) gravity cosmology in scalar degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Umananda Dev; Deka, Kabita


    The models of f(R) gravity belong to an important class of modified gravity models where the late time cosmic accelerated expansion is considered as the manifestation of the large scale modification of the force of gravity. f(R) gravity models can be expressed in terms of a scalar degree of freedom by explicit redefinition of model's variable. Here we report about the study of the features of cosmological parameters and hence the cosmological evolution using the scalar degree of freedom of the f(R) = ξR n gravity model in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background

  11. James Baldwin: Biographical Dispatches on a Freedom Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Luke Sinitiere


    Full Text Available This essay presents the idea of James Baldwin as a freedom writer, the organizing idea of my biography in progress. As a freedom writer, Baldwin was a revolutionary intellectual, an essayist and novelist committed unfailingly to the realization of racial justice, interracial political equality, and economic democracy. While the book is still in process, this short essay narrates autobiographically how I came to meet and know Baldwin’s work, explains in critical fashion my work in relation to existing biographies, and reflects interpretively my thoughts-in- progress on this fascinating and captivating figure of immense historical and social consequence.

  12. Gauge freedom in path integrals in Abelian gauge theory


    Saito, Teijiro; Endo, Ryusuke; Miura, Hikaru


    We extend the gauge symmetry of an Abelian gauge field to incorporate quantum gauge degrees of freedom. We twice apply the Harada–Tsutsui gauge recovery procedure to gauge-fixed theories. First, starting from the Faddeev–Popov path integral in the Landau gauge, we recover the gauge symmetry by introducing an additional field as an extended gauge degree of freedom. Fixing the extended gauge symmetry by the usual Faddeev–Popov procedure, we obtain the theory of Type I gaugeon formalism. Next, a...

  13. Freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during 1804-1860


    Mirković Zoran


    This text is on freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during the first half of 19th century, i.e. since the beginning of the First Serbian uprising in 1804 and till passing the Criminal law in 1860. Author first emphasises that the freedom deprivation punishment doesn't have long tradition, although in medieval Serbia and under Turkish rule existed imprisonment in dungeon, but it was foremost some form of custody before a trial, and subsequently as keeping a prisoner after the verdict unti...

  14. On creative machines and the physical origins of freedom. (United States)

    Briegel, Hans J


    We discuss the possibility of free behavior in embodied systems that are, with no exception and at all scales of their body, subject to physical law. We relate the discussion to a model of an artificial agent that exhibits a primitive notion of creativity and freedom in dealing with its environment, which is part of a recently introduced scheme of information processing called projective simulation. This provides an explicit proposal on how we can reconcile our understanding of universal physical law with the idea that higher biological entities can acquire a notion of freedom that allows them to increasingly detach themselves from a strict dependence on the surrounding world.

  15. Dostoevsky’s and Frank’s ideas of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ _


    in his salvation. The article is devoted to the comparison of the basic anthropological and personality concepts, as well as the idea of freedom and its characteristics in the works and works of both thinkers, in order to trace the continuity of Dostoevsky’s tradition with Frank in the framework of his anthropology and personalism in order to prove that for him human freedom and self-Man is an absolute value, his anthropology can be viewed in the context of his philosophy of unity and not contradict it.

  16. Free as in Freedom Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Sam


    Free as in Freedom interweaves biographical snapshots of GNU project founder Richard Stallman with the political, social and economic history of the free software movement. It examines Stallman's unique personality and how that personality has been at turns a driving force and a drawback in terms of the movement's overall success. Free as in Freedom examines one man's 20-year attempt to codify and communicate the ethics of 1970s era "hacking" culture in such a way that later generations might easily share and build upon the knowledge of their computing forebears. The book documents Stallman'

  17. IBM, Elsevier Science, and academic freedom. (United States)

    Bailar, John C; Cicolella, Andre; Harrison, Robert; LaDou, Joseph; Levy, Barry S; Rohm, Timothy; Teitelbaum, Daniel T; Wang, Yung-Der; Watterson, Andrew; Yoshida, Fumikazu


    Elsevier Science refused to publish a study of IBM workers that IBM sought to keep from public view. Occupational and environmental health (OEH) suffers from the absence of a level playing field on which science can thrive. Industry pays for a substantial portion of OEH research. Studies done by private consulting firms or academic institutions may be published if the results suit the sponsoring companies, or they may be censored. OEH journals often reflect the dominance of industry influence on research in the papers they publish, sometimes withdrawing or modifying papers in line with industry and advertising agendas. Although such practices are widely recognized, no fundamental change is supported by government and industry or by professional organizations.

  18. Fast Food Paradox: Freedom and Cultural Imperialism


    Lelia Voinea


    Fast food is often regarded as a form of cultural imperialism. Fast-food products, originating in the U.S.A., are considered by the critics of this phenomenon as responsible for eroding the interest in local food traditions and affecting their continuity. Based on the results of some researches realized at international and national level, the paper highlights the main issues underlying young people preference for fast-food. The consumption of fast food is associated with the idea of independ...

  19. Freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during 1804-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Zoran


    Full Text Available This text is on freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during the first half of 19th century, i.e. since the beginning of the First Serbian uprising in 1804 and till passing the Criminal law in 1860. Author first emphasises that the freedom deprivation punishment doesn't have long tradition, although in medieval Serbia and under Turkish rule existed imprisonment in dungeon, but it was foremost some form of custody before a trial, and subsequently as keeping a prisoner after the verdict until its effectuation. It wasn't a freedom deprivation punishment in modern sense. During 1804 - 1813 there was so called 'haps' i.e. apprehension, though Uprising authorities built also 'real' prisons for punishment purpose. Imprisonment of culprits was a condition for compulsory labour, which could be very useful utilized under given circumstances. Since the beginning 1820-ties when first Serbian courts were established, beside 'haps' appears also imprisonment in heavy shackles. However there was no substantial difference between apprehension and imprisonment. In this time the sentence to imprisonment was combined with the punishment with beating (or sometimes with the flogging at the end of imprisonment. The Regulation of County courts from January 26th 1840 mentions several forms of freedom deprivation punishment, but in praxis freedom deprivation was reduced on either 'eternal' imprisonment or time-sentenced imprisonment. Since the beginning of 1840-ties freedom deprivation was more frequently used as punishment and its implementation was continually spreading. For heaviest crimes was instead death penalty and running gauntlet sentenced freedom deprivation, either from courts or from supreme authority in the amnesty process. Imprisonment was effectuated either at police reformatories (for shorter penalties or at the penitentiary institutions (for longer imprisonment. By the end of 1830-ties an issue of imprisonment of female perpetrators emerged, together

  20. Degrees of Freedom in Planning, Running, Analyzing, and Reporting Psychological Studies: A Checklist to Avoid p-Hacking. (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M; Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Augusteijn, Hilde E M; Bakker, Marjan; van Aert, Robbie C M; van Assen, Marcel A L M


    The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research. The list can be used in research methods education, and as a checklist to assess the quality of preregistrations and to determine the potential for bias due to (arbitrary) choices in unregistered studies.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 9, 2015 ... Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman, Turkey,3Department of Orthopedics and. Traumatology, Umraniye Research and Education Hospital, 34899 Istanbul, Turkey, 4Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Umraniye. Research and Education ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research methodology module was reviewed as part of the overall revision of the undergraduate physiotherapy curriculum of ... Structuring the research methodology module using an EBP teaching framework prepares students to formulate a research question, effectively ... manage, and organise bibliographic citations.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 13, 2015 ... Systems (SEEDS)-INDEPTH Network Accra, Ghana, 3KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, The Centre of Geographical Medicine Research-. Coast, Kilifi, Kenya, 4Population Health Sciences/Research Support Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aga Khan University- East Africa, Nairobi,. Kenya ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 2, 2015 ... this program provided short-term and long-term research training to. US infectious disease fellows who would work on collaborative research projects with Kenyan trainees. Since the program began in. 1988, there have been 56 US trainees, and 13 of these continue to collaborate with Kenyan researchers.

  6. A Comparative Study on Temperature Control of CSTR using PI Controller, PID Controller and PID (Two Degree of Freedom) Controller


    Bikash Dey; Lusika Roy


    This paper present three different control strategies based on PI Control, PID control and Two degree of freedom PID control for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR).CSTR which offers a diverse range of application in the field of chemical engineering as well as in the control engineering and is an attractive research area for process control researchers. Our objective is to control the temperature of CSTR in presence of the set point. MATLAB SIMULINK software is used for mo...

  7. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.


    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor

  8. Place of the Freedom of Information Act in Promoting Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes a critical look at government's efforts to make information available to all Nigerians through ICT the Freedom of Information Act of 2011 with a view of leveraging them for effective and efficient electronic extension service delivery as a component of the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA). Keywords: ...

  9. 'Freedom from all forms of violence':Using Zimbabwe's new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to 'freedom from all forms of violence from public or private sources', enshrined in Zimbabwe's new Constitution, could have a significant impact on efforts to end violence against women (VAW) in the country. The right is particularly relevant in the Zimbabwean context where VAW occurs in a range of settings, from ...

  10. Artistic freedom. The challenge of thesis supervision in an art ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rigorous science – Artistic freedom. The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university. K Rinne, P Sivenius. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol. 21 (8) 2007: pp. 1091-1102. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Freedom Schools Then and Now: A Transformative Approach to Learning (United States)

    Watson, Marcia


    The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical and conceptual link between Ella Baker's Freedom School model and Paulo Freire's demand for critical education and emancipatory learning. Ella Baker, situated in the daunting environment of the Civil Rights Movement, saw education as a tool for social mobility for Mississippi residents in 1964.…

  12. The theory of freedom in Jean Jacques Rousseau: A critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... any other problem of political philosophy and aims to explain how man in the state of nature is blessed with an enviable total freedom. He believed that modern man's enslavement to his own needs was responsible for all sorts of societal ills, from exploitation and domination of others to poor self-esteem and depression.

  13. Freedom and fashion in materials science and engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper briefly analyses the rate at which a new scientific discovery is taken up around the world and further pursued, and the factors that govern such take-up, with special focus on freedom and fashion.

  14. Learners' right to freedom of written expression | Van Vollenhoven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schools have a further duty to teach respect for the rights of all members of society, as spelled out in the preamble to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. An important aspect of education about the rights and duties that underpin citizenship is to learn both the use of, and the appropriate limits upon, freedom of ...

  15. Ensuring Academic Freedom in Politically Controversial Academic Personnel Decisions. Report (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2011


    This report seeks to confront the contemporary political challenge to the academic community by exploring how free universities contribute to the common good even as they create political tensions between themselves and society that require the protection of academic freedom. At the same time, the report suggests ways that protection may be…

  16. Clements Kadalie, the ICU, and the Language of Freedom | Johnson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How did the language of the ICU challenge the religious, literary and political discourses of white South Africa? And, did the ICU leaders generate a distinctive language of freedom? The theoretical insights of inter alia Walter Rodney, James C. Scott and Howard Caygill into the languages of resistance and liberation inform ...

  17. A Reading of Kwame Nkrumah's Towards Colonial Freedom Atta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nkrumah's Towards colonial freedom is a statement on the nature of colonialism and imperialism; and a strategy for combating them. The work, cast through a nationalist framework, carries a fixation on the superstructure of colonial society to the exclusion of its economic base. Thus conceived, the anti- colonial ...

  18. The Freedom to Choose Is Not Always So Choice. (United States)

    Monty, Richard A.; And Others


    It was hypothesized that freedom to choose words to be learned, but not the actual choice of words per se, improves performance in paired-associate tasks. Subjects offered an attractive or meaningful choice performed significantly better than subjects offered an unattractive choice, which was equivalent to no choice at all. (Author/CP)

  19. Obstacles to the implementation of the Freedom of Information Act ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... implementation of the FOI Act, particularly non-compliance by government or public officials. The article recommends strategies to overcome these challenges and concludes that with political will, the objectives of the FOI Act will be realized. Keywords: Freedom of information, access, records, secrecy, Law, expression ...

  20. Anticommuting variables, internal degrees of freedom, and the Wilson loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barducci, A.; Casalbuoni, R.; Lusanna, L.


    In this paper we show that is possible to give a real physical meaning to theories in which internal degrees of freedom are described by Grassmann variables. The physical theory is defined by means of an averaging procedure in terms of a distribution function in the Grassmann restricted space satisfying all the physical requirements. If we use this result for a scalar particle with inner degrees of freedom (electric charge, colour, ...) interacting with Yang-Mills gauge fields, it turns out that we can define two different classical theories. Taking the average of the coupled particle-field equations of motion, we recover the usual classical theory. Taking instead the average of the solution of such equations we get a theory which is free from all the classical infinities (and so of the causal defects, like runaway solution or pre-acceleration) but also of all the effects of the same order in the charges (like radiation). The main point is that the processes of averaging and integrating the equations of motion do not commute. Then for the case of colour degrees of freedom we study the quantization of the theory by the path-integral method and we show that the functional integration can be done for an arbitrary gluon field simply by using the classical solution. As a result we obtain an expression for the Wilson loop as a functional integral for the internal fermionic degrees of freedom. (orig.)

  1. Procurement Adjudication and the Rights of Children: Freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are heavily reliant on the services provided by the government and irregularities in public procurement processes are bound to affect the realisation of children's rights. In the Freedom Stationery (Pty) Ltd v The Member of the Executive Council for Education, Eastern Cape the Court was urged by the Centre for ...

  2. Interlocking concepts in Sartre's ontology of human freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a way, Jean Paul Sartre can be regarded as a transcendentalist of the phenomenological persuasion. Central to his existential ontology and theory of phenomenology is the question of human consciousness. Sartre's analysis of the concepts of Being, Nothingness, Negation, Freedom and the phenomenon is closely ...

  3. Proselytism and the Right to Freedom from Improper Irreligious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jurisprudentially speaking, "proselytism" is a concept within the larger genus of the protection of religious rights and freedoms. The word lends itself to differing opinions. However, there is a popular school of thought that "proselytism" has to do only with influencing people to adopt a particular religion. Such an ...

  4. Freedom of information and records management in Ghana | Adams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some basic elements of FOI are provided, a summary of the Ghanaian draft bill given and the basic information infrastructure in the country examined. The paper argues that an effective records management system is required to ensure a successful implementation of a freedom of information law and cites from the United ...

  5. A constitutionalised perspective on freedom of artistic expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of section 16(1)(c) of the South African Constitution, Act 108 of 1996, artistic creativity is regarded as a manifestation of freedom of expression. However, unbridled artistic expression can sometimes go to the extremes of repulsiveness. For example, art, which takes on the form of pornography, can for instance be an ...

  6. Internet Freedom in Asia: Case of Internet Censorship in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Internet can develop the communication and information freedom on society but unfortunately in some nations, especially in Asia, it cannot be fully accessed because of government censorship. This report explains the relationship between the practice of Internet censorship imposed by the Chinese government and the freedom of its citizens (in the internet surfing experience as the realization of human rights in the freedom of expression and opinion (seek, receive-use, and communicate information which is traced through the relevant literature study. China is a unique case since the internet censorship regulation contributes to its status as the country with the least internet freedom yet at the same time it is credited as having the most internet users globally. In addition, China known as the communist country that began opening up to globalization and information of technology, but the government’s control over it is still so tight and binding, not only in the press, or the traditional media, but also in new media with the internet censorship. The control over this information may have a clear objective to maintain a climate of information in the community, but on the other hand, such control is tantamount to restricting the right of citizens to make, use, and distribute information, and more fatal as a violation of human rights.

  7. Alexander Meiklejohn in Search of Freedom and Dignity. (United States)

    Johnson, Tony W.


    Assesses the contributions of the philosopher/educator Alexander Meiklejohn. Discusses the influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and the U.S. Constitution on Meiklejohn's educational theories, which stressed that human freedom and dignity can be enhanced by rigorous examination of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the meaning of…

  8. Academic freedom, institutional autonomy, and responsible action: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martin Hall's essay does offer us a way to make better sense of some of the conceptual and pragmatic links between academic freedom and institutional autonomy in relation to higher education. His analysis of the classic and contextual views of the two concepts also gives us some pathways according to which we could ...

  9. Sexual freedom rights for adolescents? A rejoinder to Agnes Tellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steutel, J.


    Agnes Tellings rightly observes that adolescents, if compared with pre-pubescent children, are much more capable of making their own choices and therefore should be granted much more freedom to arrange their own lives. However, the capacity of adolescents to make prudent choices still seems to be

  10. International Organizations and the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matera, Claudio; Trauner, Florian; Ripoll Servent, Ariadna


    The Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) is possibly one of the most challenging fields of EU competences. Indeed, the integration into an AFSJ directly affects three fundamental aspects of constitutional relevance: the residual extent of national sovereignty, the monopoly of the state to

  11. More than Mere Law: Freedom of Religion or Belief (United States)

    Holsinger, Ellen S.


    Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes that all people, simply because they are human, enjoy the right to freedom of religion and that governments have the obligation to ensure the protection of that right. Yet we witness a world increasingly divided by religious tradition. The failures of many governments to ensure…

  12. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements. (United States)

    Morse, Jane Fowler


    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  13. Academic Freedom and Holocaust Denial Literature: Dealing with Infamy. (United States)

    Gleberzon, William


    Some Jewish students at the University of Toronto protested its library's inclusion of certain books (which the students felt were anti-Semitic and not historically based) in its collection of Holocaust literature. The questions of academic freedom, and various ways to deal with the problem, are discussed. (CJB)

  14. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...

  15. Nigeria's freedom of information bill and national development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper revealed the genesis of Freedom of Information (FOI) Bill in Nigeria and the organizations instrumental to its enactment. The Bill is to ensure free flow of information and to protect Public Officers for giving out information in their possession. It also mandates organizations to preserve its information in such manner ...

  16. Exemption 4: Trade Secrets under the Freedom of Information Act. (United States)

    Selby, Holly E.

    Exemption 4 of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) protects from disclosure by government agencies privileged and confidential trade secrets and commercial or financial information. Based on early Exemption 4 litigation, courts have devised a "substantial competitive harm test" to decide whether requested information should be covered…

  17. Secularism, secular state and religious freedom | Nweke | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historic separation of the Church and the State, as an immediate product of secularism, informs the reality of secular state, a state without official religion. This paper attempts to understudy the extent to which secularism enhances religious freedom within the frame of secular state. With the tools of phenomenological ...

  18. Religious freedom and its limitations under the 1999 constitution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically reviewed the provisions of the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria on freedom of religion and its limitations as a result of the long history of religious tensions Nigeria has witnessed particularly between the two major religious groups, Christians and Muslims and as a result of the violence created constantly by ...

  19. Single particle degrees of freedom in the interacting boson model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.


    An overview is given of different aspects of the Interacting Boson Fermion Model, the extension of the interacting Boson Model to odd mass nuclei. The microscopic model for the coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to the system of bosons is outlined and the interaction between the bosons

  20. Repression of Press Freedom in Nigerian Democratic Dispensations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 2, 2011 ... professionalism and the ethics of journalism rather than succumb to ... journalists have been reported in Nigeria, a country with probably the most animated ..... Akinwale: Repression of Press Freedom in Nigerian. Table 1: Respondents' Socio-Demographic Profile. Profile. Values. Frequency Percentage (%).

  1. 36 CFR 1275.70 - Freedom of information requests. (United States)


    ... requests. (a) The Archivist will process Freedom of Information Act requests for access to only those materials within the Presidential historical materials which are identifiable by an archivist as records of an agency as defined in § 1275.16(f). The Archivist will process these requests in accordance with...

  2. Words-in-Freedom and the Oral Tradition. (United States)

    Webster, Michael


    Explores how oral and print characteristics mesh or clash in "words-in-freedom," a form of visual poetry invented by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Analyzes Marinetti's poster-poem "Apres la Marne, Joffre visita le front en auto," highlighting the different natures of the two media and the coding difficulties occasioned by…

  3. A qualitative application of Amartya Sen's 'development as freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative application of Amartya Sen's 'development as freedom' theory to an understanding of social grants in South Africa. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the ...

  4. Coordinating degrees of freedom during interceptive actions in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricken, A.X.C.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Bennett, S.J.


    The aim of the experiment was to examine how children coordinate the degrees of freedom of the arm and trunk when performing interceptive actions that correspond to daily life activities. For that purpose, children were required to reach and grasp a stationary ball while standing (condition C1), a

  5. Balancing Curriculum Freedom and Regulation in the Netherlands (United States)

    Nieveen, Nienke; Kuiper, Wilmad


    The extent to which the goals and contents of (compulsory) education should to be regulated has been a complicated balancing act in the Netherlands. Against a background of a long-standing statutory tradition of freedom of education, governmental decisions about "what knowledge is of most worth" have been delicate. The purpose of the…

  6. Balancing curriculum freedom and regulation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, N.; Kuiper, W.


    The extent to which the goals and contents of (compulsory) education should to be regulated has been a complicated balancing act in the Netherlands. Against a background of a longstanding statutory tradition of freedom of education, governmental decisions about ‘what knowledge is of most worth’ have

  7. 76 FR 26923 - 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides (United States)


    ...), and other devoted advocates, built upon the boycotts and sit-ins that were defying Jim Crow... discrimination, and to challenge the enforcement of local segregation laws and practices. The Freedom Rides... America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do...

  8. The Russell Case: Academic Freedom vs. Public Hysteria. (United States)

    McCarthy, Joseph M.

    This paper examines issues of academic freedom and the community's role in a review of public and legal events leading to the court's striking down of the 1940 appointment of Bertrand Russell to teach at the City College of New York. Russell was to teach three philosophy courses relating logic, mathematics, and science to philosophy. Episcopal…

  9. Freedom Lessons: Black Mothers Asserting "Smartness" of Their Children (United States)

    Sankofa Waters, Billye


    It is imperative to explore multiple approaches to intelligence and public education that fundamentally integrate the ideas and lived experiences of students--with particular interest to those who are most disenfranchised. Within various black communities, the oral traditions transmitted at home are life-affirming "freedom lessons,"…

  10. In defence of institutional autonomy and academic freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argue, firstly, that state 'regulation' is inextricably connected with the practice of exercising 'power-over' institutions, a trend which could undermine institutional autonomy and academic freedom. Secondly, we maintain that higher education institutions lack autonomy since they are controlled by the state through ...

  11. Freedom of conscience in health care: distinctions and limits. (United States)

    Murphy, Sean; Genuis, Stephen J


    The widespread emergence of innumerable technologies within health care has complicated the choices facing caregivers and their patients. The escalation of knowledge and technical innovation has been accompanied by an erosion of moral and ethical consensus among health providers that is reflected in the abandonment of the Hippocratic Oath as the immutable bedrock of medical ethics. Ethical conflicts arise when the values of health professionals collide with the expressed wishes of patients or the dictates of regulatory bodies and administrators. Increasing attempts by groups outside of the medical profession to limit freedom of conscience for health providers has raised concern and consternation among some health professionals. The personal and professional impact of health professionals surrendering freedom of conscience and participating in actions they deem malevolent or unethical has not been adequately studied and may not be inconsequential when considering the recognized impact of other circumstances of coerced complicity. We argue that the distinction between the two ways that freedom of conscience is exercised (avoiding a perceived evil and seeking a perceived good) provides a rational basis for a principled limitation of this fundamental freedom.

  12. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom (United States)

    Yun, SunInn


    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  13. Academic freedom and the university: Fifty years of debate | Hall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary debates about academic freedom and institutional autonomy in South Africa's `liberal' universities began in the 1950s, stimulated by the policies and legislation for racial segregation.1 While the form that these debates had taken has differed from university to university, the University of Cape Town stands as ...

  14. Religious freedom and equality as celebration of difference: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There can be no doubt that the right to freedom of religion, belief and opinion in an open and democratic society contemplated by the Constitution is important. The right to believe or not to believe, and to act or not to act according to his or her beliefs or non-beliefs, is one of the key ingredients of any person's dignity.

  15. Understanding Social Freedom and Humanism in Odera Oruka's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding Social Freedom and Humanism in Odera Oruka's Philosophy. O Nyarwath. Abstract. H. Odera Oruka's philosophy, as can be discerned from his various works, revolves around the issue of social justice. In this paper I seek to show how Oruka's idea of social justice is inextricably bound up with his ...

  16. The Tension between Justice and Freedom in Paulo Freire's Epistemology. (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.


    Explores how the concept of freedom in Paulo Freire's constructivist epistemology-constituted as agentive, spontaneity-based action-is in tension with his ethical project of a pedagogy for justice, one based on responsibility and non-indifference. Resolution of this tension means reconceptualizing the grounding notion of the subject beyond a…

  17. From Beijing to Belgrade: Academic Freedom around the World. (United States)

    Academe, 1999


    A group of articles addresses concerns about academic freedom in Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. Additional articles contain a human-rights lawyer's appeal to academics for an international organization and a UNESCO statement on faculty rights and responsibilities. (MSE)

  18. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  19. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...

  20. President Ilves kohtus Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi delegatsiooniga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 20. septembril 2010 hiljuti loodud sihtasutuse Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi (BAFF) direktorite nõukoguga, kes tutvustasid Balti riikide elanikele mõeldud haridusalaseid vahetusprogramme. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 29. sept. 2010, lk. 2 (allk. Piret Pert); Vaba Eesti Sõna 23. sept. 2010, lk. 3