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Sample records for research synthesis seeks

  1. Meta-Synthesis of Research on Information Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Meta-synthesis methods may help to make more sense of information behaviour research evidence. Aims and objectives: The objectives are to: 1) identify and examine the theoretical research strategies commonly used in information behaviour research; 2) discuss meta-synthesis methods that might be appropriate to the type of research…

  2. In their own words: a synthesis of the qualitative research on the experiences of adults seeking asylum. A systematic review of qualitative findings in forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Thomas; Vidgen, Andrew; Roberts, Neil

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative research indicates that some forced migrants have mental health needs. Asylum seekers are a group of forced migrants applying for asylum status in a host country, and are often subject to rights restrictions and threat of deportation, though little is known about subjective experiences of the asylum journey and process of claiming asylum. The current paper therefore describes a systematic review of the qualitative literature, examining asylum seekers experiences of asylum journey, from country of origin, to arrival and adaptation to host countries. A search of four databases yielded 122 studies. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied and 15 studies were retained and critically appraised. The country where research was conducted, study aims, sample characteristics and methodological approaches were all critically reviewed for included studies. Study aims fell into four themes; 'an aspect of the asylum seeker journey'; 'psychological distress and wellbeing'; 'cultural identity and adaptation to new environment' and 'social welfare, employment and housing'. Studies were generally high quality and indicate issues around choice of asylum destination, distress created by uncertainty around asylum decision and hostile reactions of host communities. However, few studies have examined the experiences of asylum seekers specifically, which is important given the unique circumstances of this population.

  3. Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Järvelin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research into information seeking and its directions at a general level. We approach this topic by analysis and argumentation based on past research in the domain. We begin by presenting a general model of information seeking and retrieval (IS&R which is used to derive nine broad dimensions that are needed to analyze IS&R. Past research is then contrasted with the dimensions and shown not to cover the dimensions sufficiently. Based on an analysis of the goals of information seeking research, and a view on human task performance augmentation, it is then shown that information seeking is intimately associated with, and dependent on, other aspects of work; tasks and technology included. This leads to a discussion on design and evaluation frameworks for IS&R, based on which two action lines are proposed: information retrieval research needs extension towards more context and information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology.

  4. Seeking help for perinatal psychological distress: a meta-synthesis of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Susan; Thornton, Alexandra; Lee, Suzanne; Shakespeare, Judy; Ayers, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Women may not seek help for perinatal psychological distress, despite regular contact with primary care services. Barriers include ignorance of symptoms, inability to disclose distress, others' attitudes, and cultural expectations. Much of the evidence has been obtained from North American populations and may not, therefore, extrapolate to the UK. To understand the factors affecting women's decision to seek help for perinatal distress. Meta-synthesis of the available published qualitative evidence on UK women's experiences of seeking help for perinatal distress. Systematic searches were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, and Academic Search Complete. Searches of grey literature and references were also conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported qualitative data on UK women's experiences of perinatal distress and contact with healthcare professionals. The synthesis was conducted using meta-ethnography. In all, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Metasynthesis identified three main themes: identifying a problem, the influence of healthcare professionals, and stigma. These themes build on current understanding of help seeking by identifying the need for women to be able to frame their experience, for healthcare professionals to educate women about their roles, the need for continuity of care, and the way that being seen as a 'bad mother' causes women to self-silence. Perinatal care provision needs to allow for continuity of care and for staff training that facilitates awareness of factors that influence women's help seeking. Further research is required, particularly in relation to effective means of identifying perinatal psychological distress. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  5. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

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    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  6. Seeking, accepting and declining help for emotional distress in cancer: A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, C M; Smith, A; Davies, G R; Forbat, L

    2018-03-01

    Many individuals affected by cancer who experience emotional distress report not wanting help. This review aims to understand why individuals affected by cancer seek, accept or decline help for emotional distress and what influences these actions. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature was conducted. Using pre-defined search terms, four electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to May 2016. Pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria were then applied. Identified papers were quality appraised. In total, 32 papers were included in the synthesis. Four themes emerged from data synthesis: attaining normality-the normality paradox; being emotionally literate; perceptions of help; needs-support gap. Attaining normality is ideographic, context dependent and temporally situated; some individuals maintain normality by not seeking/declining help whereas others seek/accept help to achieve a new normality. Thus, attaining normality paradoxically functions to explain both why individuals sought/accepted help or did not seek/declined help. Data indicate that a context dependent, systems thinking approach is merited to enhance psychosocial care. In particular, clinicians must actively explore the personal context of an individual's distress to ensure that help desired and help offered are mutually understood. Further research must address the limitations of the current evidence base to advance theoretical understanding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Meta-synthesis exploring barriers to health seeking behaviour among Malaysian breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Foo Qing; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Khan, Amer Hayat; Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to health seeking constitute a challenging issue in the treatment of breast cancer. The current meta- synthesis aimed to explore common barriers to health seeking among Malaysian breast cancer patients. From the systematic search, nine studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extraction revealed that health behavior towards breast cancer among Malaysia women was influenced by knowledge, psychological, sociocultural and medical system factors. In terms of knowledge, most of the Malaysian patients were observed to have cursory information and the reliance on the information provided by media was limiting. Among psychological factors, stress and sense of denial were some of the common factors leading to delay in treatment seeking. Family member's advice, cultural beliefs towards traditional care were some of the common sociocultural factors hindering immediate access to advanced medical diagnosis and care. Lastly, the delay in referral was one of the most common health system-related problems highlighted in most of the studies. In conclusion, there is an immediate need to improve the knowledge and understanding of Malaysian women towards breast cancer. Mass media should liaise with the cancer specialists to disseminate accurate and up-to-date information for the readers and audience, helping in modification of cultural beliefs that hinder timing health seeking. However, such intervention will not improve or rectify the health system related barriers to treatment seeking. Therefore, there is an immediate need for resource adjustment and training programs among health professional to improve their competency and professionalism required to develop an efficient health system.

  8. Help seeking behavior of women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms: a meta-ethnographic synthesis of patient delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Khakbazan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. METHODS: The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic approach (1988, through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. FINDINGS: The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women's decision-making about utilizing health services. CONCLUSION: Help seeking

  9. Strategies, Obstacles, and Attitudes: Student Collaboration in Information Seeking and Synthesis Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Chris; Shah, Chirag

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: While group work that takes place in education contexts has been studied by researchers, student collaborative research behaviour has received less attention. This empirical case study examined the strategies that students use and the obstacles they encounter while working in collaborative information seeking contexts on an in-class…

  10. IODC 2015: Researchers seek to close the new data divide | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-06-26

    Jun 26, 2015 ... IODC 2015: Researchers seek to close the new data divide ... former research coordinator of the IDRC-supported Open Data in Developing Countries project. ... or unreliable, ground-level innovation can help fill the gap.

  11. Disposal of Information Seeking and Retrieval Research: Replacement with a Radical Proposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, John M.; Anstaett, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and theory on the topics of information seeking and retrieval have been plagued by some fundamental problems for several decades. Many of the difficulties spring from mechanistic and instrumental thinking and modelling. Method: Existing models of information retrieval and information seeking are examined for efficacy in a…

  12. Image-Seeking Preferences Among Undergraduate Novice Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie M. Bridges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study investigated the image-seeking preferences of university freshmen to gain a better understanding of how they search for pictures for assignments.Methods – A survey was emailed to a random sample of 1,000 freshmen enrolled at Oregon State University in the fall of 2009. A total of 63 surveys were returned.Results – The majority of students indicated they would use Google to find a picture. Nineteen respondents said they would use a library, librarians, and/or archives.Conclusions – The results indicate the majority of students in our study would use Google to find an image for coursework purposes; yet the students who suggested they would use Google did not mention evaluating the images they might find or have concerns about copyright issues. Undergraduate students would benefit from having visual literacy integrated into standard information literacy instruction to help them locate, evaluate, and legally use the images they find online. In addition, libraries, librarians, archivists, and library computer programmers should work to raise the rankings of library digital photo collections in online search engines like Google.

  13. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches......, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements...

  14. Seeking quality scientific information for research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Colepicolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to present the researcher in Psychology techniques for search and retrieval of information for academic and science research. Is based on my experiences as university librarian and as a doctoral student in Psychology, in a project on scientometry of the Social Skills field.  This goal is to obtain information reliable and with quality to develop research, from sources of online information. Are recommended and described steps to the process of searching for scientific information, with examples from the Social Skills field: defining research topic; applying appropriate search tactics; selecting reliable sources of information and experts on the topic; translating research into the language of the information source; developing an effective search strategy; evaluating the quality and reliability of the obtained items. It is expected that by following these steps, the researcher obtain a coherent corpus with the subject, time saving and quality bibliographic.

  15. Synthesis centers as critical research infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Specht, Alison; Garnier, Eric; Bishop, Pamela; Campbell, C. Andrew; Davis, Frank W.; Fady, Bruno; Field, Dawn; Gross, Louis J.; Guru, Siddeswara M.; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Leavitt, Peter R.; Meagher, Thomas R.; Ometto, Jean; Parker, John N.; Price, Richard; Rawson, Casey H.; Rodrigo, Allen; Sheble, Laura A.; Winter, Marten

    2017-01-01

    investment to maximize benefits to science and society is justified. In particular, we argue that synthesis centers represent community infrastructure more akin to research vessels than to term-funded centers of science and technology (e.g., NSF Science and Technology Centers). Through our experience running synthesis centers and, in some cases, developing postfederal funding models, we offer our perspective on the purpose and value of synthesis centers. We present case studies of different outcomes of transition plans and argue for a fundamental shift in the conception of synthesis science and the strategic funding of these centers by government funding agencies.

  16. Motivating factors for seeking cosmetic surgery: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Cynthia Figueroa; Champion, Angela; Secor, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    The fascination in physical beauty is becoming more and more prevalent in today's society. Beauty in American culture is defined by the media through magazines, television, and music. The perfect career, the perfect family, social status, and high self-esteem all revolve around having an impeccable figure. Research shows that 94% of the covers of women's magazines showcase a woman with a thin physique (A. R., Malkin, K., Wornian, & J. C. Chrisler, 1999). Therefore, it is not surprising that year after year, millions of people elect for cosmetic surgery. According to the , approximately 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed and Americans spent $13.2 billion on these procedures. This is a 457% increase since 1997. As the demand for elective cosmetic surgery continues to rise, it is important for healthcare employees to recognize the motive behind the decision to seek cosmetic surgery. The purpose of this literature review project was to ascertain those factors that influence or motivate patients to seek cosmetic surgery. This project investigated physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors associated with individuals who undergo elective cosmetic surgery. It has been shown that the motivation for cosmetic surgery is based on a combination of psychological and emotional factors. Researchers surmise that body image, teasing history, and self-esteem were associated with motivational factors for those patients who elected to seek cosmetic surgery (T. Soest, I. L. Kvalem, K. C. Skolleborg, & H. E. Roald, 2006). In addition, the researchers concluded that body dysmorphic disorder, education, and culture are also predicting factors in the decision to have cosmetic surgery.

  17. Gender researcher seeks answers on South African campuses ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Male students consequently perceive their female counterparts to have an unfair advantage ... She presented her research on the connections between gender violence and ... male, and choices of discipline seem to follow old stereotypes.

  18. New Brookhaven chief seeks cross-cutting research

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory will pursue opportunities for promoting commercial development of energy systems and other technologies while focusing on the lab's primary mission of basic science research, according to the incoming BNL director, Praveen Chaudhari (1 page).

  19. High-throughput synthesis equipment applied to polymer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2005-01-01

    To speed up synthetic polymer research, a workflow dedicated to automated polymer synthesis and characterization was developed. The workflow consists of several synthesis robots with online and offline analytical equipment. For screening of reaction parameters and for library synthesis, robots

  20. Stigma-related barriers and facilitators to help seeking for mental health issues in the armed forces: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S J; Stevelink, S A M; Hatch, S L; Denny, J A; Greenberg, N

    2017-08-01

    A recent quantitative review in the area of stigma and help seeking in the armed forces has questioned the association between these factors (Sharp et al. 2015). To date, the contribution of qualitative literature in this area has largely been ignored, despite the value this research brings to the understanding of complex social constructs such as stigma. The aim of the current systematic review of qualitative studies was to identify appropriate literature, assess the quality and synthesize findings across studies regarding evidence of stigma-related barriers and facilitators to help seeking for mental health issues within the armed forces. A multi-database text word search incorporating searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Social Policy and Practice, Social Work Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC and EBM Review databases between 1980 and April 2015 was conducted. Literature was quality assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Thematic synthesis was conducted across the literature. The review identified eight studies with 1012 participants meeting the inclusion criteria. Five overarching themes were identified across the literature: (1) non-disclosure; (2) individual beliefs about mental health; (3) anticipated and personal experience of stigma; (4) career concerns; and (5) factors influencing stigma. The findings from the current systematic review found that unlike inconsistent findings in the quantitative literature, there was substantial evidence of a negative relationship between stigma and help seeking for mental health difficulties within the armed forces. The study advocates for refinement of measures to accurately capture the complexity of stigma and help seeking in future quantitative studies.

  1. HTA and synthesis of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva Ulriksen; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Health technology assessment is no longer simply a question of efficacy and economics. Internationally there is growing interest in patient-related and organisational aspects and questions of why and how the technologies work. Qualitative research has established a role in answering...... these kinds of questions. Key challenges using qualitative research in HTA are related to the interpretive and small scale nature of qualitative research and how to synthesise qualitative research. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine and discuss the relevance of synthesis of qualitative...... research (SQR) in HTAs and to address its possibilities and limitations. Methods: SQR is described and discussed focusing on definition of synthesis and of qualitative versus quantitative methods, on questions of evidence and on the relevance for HTA. SQR is understood as an umbrella term for different...

  2. A Preliminary Methodology, and a Cautionary Tale, for Determining How Students Seek Research Help Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study to examine undergraduate students' help-seeking behavior when undertaking library research in online courses. A novel methodology incorporating elements of ethnographic research resulted in a small, but rich and detailed, collection of qualitative data. The data suggest that the methodology has promise for…

  3. Parent Involvement in Homework: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children's education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child's homework results in (a)…

  4. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Dryer, David; Major, Debra; Fletcher, Tom

    2002-10-01

    The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a methodology for the assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments. This review provides the theoretical foundation upon which subsequent empirical work will be based. Our review of the team performance literature has identified the following 12 conceptually distinct team interaction processes as characteristic of effective teams. 1) Mission Analysis; 2) Resource Distribution; 3) Leadership; 4) Timing; 5) Intra-team Feedback; 6) Motivational Functions; 7) Team Orientation; 8) Communication; 9) Coordination; 10) Mutual Performance Monitoring; 11) Back-up Behaviors; and 12) Cooperation. In addition, this review summarizes how team task characteristics (i.e., task type, task complexity, motivation, and temporal changes), team characteristics (i.e., team structure and team knowledge), and individual team member characteristics (i.e., dispositions and teamwork knowledge, skills, and abilities) affect team interaction processes, determine the relevance of these processes, and influence team performance. The costs and benefits of distributed team collaboration are also considered. The review concludes with a brief discussion of the nature of collaborative team engineering tasks.

  5. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  6. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help: A Shortened Form and Considerations for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.; Farina, Amerigo

    1995-01-01

    Tested a new, shortened scale for measuring willingness to seek help from mental health professionals. Scores correlated with the 29-item scale developed by Fischer and Turner (1970); the new scale's brevity (10 items) should make it easier and less obtrusive for use in research. Discusses the need for further studies on attitudes toward…

  7. A review of Web information seeking research: considerations of method and foci of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Martzoukou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This review shows that Web information seeking research suffers from inconsistencies in method and a lack of homogeneity in research foci. Background. Qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to produce a comprehensive view of information seeking. Studies also recommend observation as one of the most fundamental ways of gaining direct knowledge of behaviour. User-centred research emphasises the importance of holistic approaches, which incorporate physical, cognitive, and affective elements. Problems. Comprehensive studies are limited; many approaches are problematic and a consistent methodological framework has not been developed. Research has often failed to ensure appropriate samples that ensure both quantitative validity and qualitative consistency. Typically, observation has been based on simulated rather than real information needs and most studies show little attempt to examine holistically different characteristics of users in the same research schema. Research also deals with various aspects of cognitive style and ability with variant definitions of expertise and different layers of user experience. Finally the effect of social and cultural elements has not been extensively investigated. Conclusion. The existing limitations in method and the plethora of different approaches allow little progress and fewer comparisons across studies. There is urgent need for establishing a theoretical framework on which future studies can be based so that information seeking behaviour can be more holistically understood, and results can be generalised.

  8. A Study of Social Information Seeking (SIS among LIS Research Scholars in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is ample evidence that students and teachers often seek academic information using participatory online social sites (POSS. The purpose of this study is to explore the intent of social information seeking (SIS among library & information science research students in Pakistan. The study also attempts to examine the relationship between change in information behaviour and information retrieval strategies while seeking information from online social spaces. The influence of online collaboration in the use of social media was also examined. Methodology: Quantitative research method was used to conduct this study. Data was collected from 123 research (MPhil & PhD students currently enrolled in seven postgraduate library schools in Pakistan. The data was gathered using survey questionnaire (using 5-point Likert scale items, administered both in print format and online through Google Form. SPSS version 19 was used to analyse the data. Findings: Major findings of this study were that there is a strong positive correlation between SIS and change in the overall information behaviour of research students. Majority of participants responded that social websites help in reshaping the information behaviour in a collaborative environment thus contributing to upsurge the SIS practices among research students. The study also found that LIS research scholars in Pakistan prefer to consult interactive websites more than social media spaces for academic information. Gender has been an influencing variable in SIS practices, however, time spent and frequency of using POSS does not affect one’s SIS practices. Originality: Social Information helps people to connect with each other and is comparatively a new concept in the field of Information Seeking Behaviour. This is the first study on SIS with respect to LIS research students in Pakistan.

  9. Novel data sources for women's health research: mapping breast screening online information seeking through Google trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Carlos, Ruth C; Hall, Kelli S; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2014-09-01

    Millions of people use online search engines everyday to find health-related information and voluntarily share their personal health status and behaviors in various Web sites. Thus, data from tracking of online information seeker's behavior offer potential opportunities for use in public health surveillance and research. Google Trends is a feature of Google which allows Internet users to graph the frequency of searches for a single term or phrase over time or by geographic region. We used Google Trends to describe patterns of information-seeking behavior in the subject of dense breasts and to examine their correlation with the passage or introduction of dense breast notification legislation. To capture the temporal variations of information seeking about dense breasts, the Web search query "dense breast" was entered in the Google Trends tool. We then mapped the dates of legislative actions regarding dense breasts that received widespread coverage in the lay media to information-seeking trends about dense breasts over time. Newsworthy events and legislative actions appear to correlate well with peaks in search volume of "dense breast". Geographic regions with the highest search volumes have passed, denied, or are currently considering the dense breast legislation. Our study demonstrated that any legislative action and respective news coverage correlate with increase in information seeking for "dense breast" on Google, suggesting that Google Trends has the potential to serve as a data source for policy-relevant research. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Study of the Information Seeking Behavior of Communication Graduate Students in Their Research Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chuan Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thesis is the research outcome that a graduate student spends most of his or her time and energies to achieve. Therefore, the research process of student’s thesis writing is an important topic to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to explore graduate students’ information seeking behavior during the process of thesis writing. Ten graduate students in the field of communication were interviewed, and their information horizon maps as well as bibliographical references were analyzed also. Results showed that the library, as a formal channel, is the primary source for graduate students. The documents that they used most often were theses and dissertations, monographs, and journals. In addition to the formal channels, social network also played as a very important role in students’ research process. The networks even changed their information seeking behaviors in formal channels. Students reported several problems encountered in the research process, such as lacking of the background knowledge of the interdisciplinary, being unable to find out the core and relevant documents from the search results, etc. In conclusion, graduate students’ information seeking behavior changed at different stages in the research process. [Article content in Chinese

  11. Information-Seeking Behaviors of Dental Practitioners in Three Practice-Based Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Harbaum, Maria T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Curro, Frederick A.; Rindal, D. Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Craig, Ronald G.; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson, Van; Lindblad, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists’ information-seeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing dental education (CDE) sources used and their influence on practice guidance were assessed. PBRN participation level and years since dental degree were measured. Full-participant dentists reported reading the Journal of the American Dental Association and General Dentistry more frequently than did their reference counterparts. Printed journals were preferred by most dentists. A lower proportion of full participants obtained their CDE credits at dental meetings compared to partial participants. Experienced dentists read other dental information sources more frequently than did less experienced dentists. Practitioners involved in a PBRN differed in their approaches to accessing information sources. Peer-reviewed sources were more frequently used by full participants and dentists with fifteen years of experience or more. Dental PBRNs potentially play a significant role in the dissemination of evidence-based information. This study found that specific educational sources might increase and disseminate knowledge among dentists. PMID:23382524

  12. A Synthesis of the Literature on Research Methods Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis is to examine the current research on teaching and learning research methods. The aims are to understand the themes present in the current literature and identify gaps in our understanding of how we teach, and how students learn, research methods. A synthesis of 89 studies generated three themes: (1)…

  13. Looking for information a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Case, Donald O

    2016-01-01

    The 4th edition of this popular and well-cited text is now co-authored, and includes significant changes from earlier texts. Presenting a comprehensive review of over a century of research on information behavior (IB), this book is intended for students in information studies and disciplines interested in research on information activities. The initial two chapters introduce IB as a multi-disciplinary topic, the 3rd provides a brief history of research on information seeking. Chapter four discusses what is meant by the terms 'information' and 'knowledge.' Chapter five discusses 'information needs,' and how they are addressed. The 6th chapter identifies many related concepts. Twelve models of information behavior (expanded from earlier editions) are illustrated in chapter seven. Chapter eight reviews various paradigms and theories informing IB research. Chapter nine examines research methods invoked in IB studies and a discussion of qualitative and mixed approaches. The 10th chapter gives examples of IB studie...

  14. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick-Makaroff, Kara; MacDonald, Marjorie; Plummer, Marilyn; Burgess, Judy; Neander, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use 'research synthesis' as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers.

  15. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Laura L; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository.

  16. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick-Makaroff, Kara; MacDonald, Marjorie; Plummer, Marilyn; Burgess, Judy; Neander, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use ‘research synthesis’ as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. Methods We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. Results We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. Conclusions The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers. PMID:29546155

  17. What Synthesis Methodology Should I Use? A Review and Analysis of Approaches to Research Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Schick-Makaroff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: When we began this process, we were doctoral students and a faculty member in a research methods course. As students, we were facing a review of the literature for our dissertations. We encountered several different ways of conducting a review but were unable to locate any resources that synthesized all of the various synthesis methodologies. Our purpose is to present a comprehensive overview and assessment of the main approaches to research synthesis. We use ‘research synthesis’ as a broad overarching term to describe various approaches to combining, integrating, and synthesizing research findings. Methods: We conducted an integrative review of the literature to explore the historical, contextual, and evolving nature of research synthesis. We searched five databases, reviewed websites of key organizations, hand-searched several journals, and examined relevant texts from the reference lists of the documents we had already obtained. Results: We identified four broad categories of research synthesis methodology including conventional, quantitative, qualitative, and emerging syntheses. Each of the broad categories was compared to the others on the following: key characteristics, purpose, method, product, context, underlying assumptions, unit of analysis, strengths and limitations, and when to use each approach. Conclusions: The current state of research synthesis reflects significant advancements in emerging synthesis studies that integrate diverse data types and sources. New approaches to research synthesis provide a much broader range of review alternatives available to health and social science students and researchers.

  18. Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research: ENTREQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The syntheses of multiple qualitative studies can pull together data across different contexts, generate new theoretical or conceptual models, identify research gaps, and provide evidence for the development, implementation and evaluation of health interventions. This study aims to develop a framework for reporting the synthesis of qualitative health research. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search for guidance and reviews relevant to the synthesis of qualitative research, methodology papers, and published syntheses of qualitative health research in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and relevant organisational websites to May 2011. Initial items were generated inductively from guides to synthesizing qualitative health research. The preliminary checklist was piloted against forty published syntheses of qualitative research, purposively selected to capture a range of year of publication, methods and methodologies, and health topics. We removed items that were duplicated, impractical to assess, and rephrased items for clarity. Results The Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research (ENTREQ) statement consists of 21 items grouped into five main domains: introduction, methods and methodology, literature search and selection, appraisal, and synthesis of findings. Conclusions The ENTREQ statement can help researchers to report the stages most commonly associated with the synthesis of qualitative health research: searching and selecting qualitative research, quality appraisal, and methods for synthesising qualitative findings. The synthesis of qualitative research is an expanding and evolving methodological area and we would value feedback from all stakeholders for the continued development and extension of the ENTREQ statement. PMID:23185978

  19. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  20. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research: the challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Moles, Rebekah J; Chen, Timothy F

    2016-06-01

    Synthesis of qualitative studies is an emerging area that has been gaining more interest as an important source of evidence for improving health care policy and practice. In the last decade there have been numerous attempts to develop methods of aggregating and synthesizing qualitative data. Although numerous empirical qualitative studies have been published about different aspects of health care research, to date, the aggregation and syntheses of these data has not been commonly reported, particularly in pharmacy practice related research. This paper describes different methods of conducting meta-synthesis and provides an overview of selected common methods. The paper also emphasizes the challenges and opportunities associated with conducting meta-synthesis and highlights the importance of meta-synthesis in informing practice, policy and research.

  1. Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

  2. Research progress on synthesis and characteristic about dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zitao

    2017-12-01

    Dendrimers are hyper-branched polymers which have perfectly defined structures. Different from the common polymers, dendrimers are synthesized by a step-by-step iterative style, which starts from a central core and forms branching parts outward. The dendrimers also have different physical and chemical characteristics from common polymers. In this paper, contributions to dendrimer synthesis from different researchers with different scientific background, synthesis of different dendrimers, and applications of them will be reviewed.

  3. Research progress in the electrochemical synthesis of ferrate(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macova, Zuzana; Bouzek, Karel; Hives, Jan; Sharma, Virender K.; Terryn, Raymond J.; Baum, J. Clayton

    2009-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the +6 oxidation state of iron, ferrate (VI) (Fe VI O 4 2- ), because of its potential as a benign oxidant for organic synthesis, as a chemical in developing cleaner ('greener') technology for remediation processes, and as an alternative for environment-friendly battery cathodes. This interest has led many researchers to focus their attention on the synthesis of ferrate(VI). Of the three synthesis methods, electrochemical, wet chemical and thermal, electrochemical synthesis has received the most attention due to its ease and the high purity of the product. Moreover, electrochemical processes use an electron as a so-called clean chemical, thus avoiding the use of any harmful chemicals to oxidize iron to the +6 oxidation state. This paper reviews the development of electrochemical methods to synthesize ferrate(VI). The approaches chosen by different laboratories to overcome some of the difficulties associated with the electrochemical synthesis of ferrate(VI) are summarized. Special attention is paid to parameters such as temperature, anolyte, and anode material composition. Spectroscopic work to understand the mechanism of ferrate(VI) synthesis is included. Recent advances in two new approaches, the use of an inert electrode and molten hydroxide salts, in the synthesis of ferrate(VI) are also reviewed. Progress made in the commercialization of ferrate(VI) continuous production is briefly discussed as well

  4. Teaching and Learning Children's Human Rights: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantefors, Lotta; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is a research synthesis examining how issues relating to the teaching and learning of children's human rights have been approached in educational research. Drawing theoretically on the European Didaktik tradition, the purpose of the paper is to map and synthesise the educational interest in children's rights…

  5. Synthesis of discipline-based education research in physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Docktor; José P. Mestre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive synthesis of physics education research at the undergraduate level. It is based on work originally commissioned by the National Academies. Six topical areas are covered: (1) conceptual understanding, (2) problem solving, (3) curriculum and instruction, (4) assessment, (5) cognitive psychology, and (6) attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning. Each topical section includes sample research questions, theoretical frameworks, common research methodolog...

  6. Synthesis of Discipline-Based Education Research in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Mestre, José P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive synthesis of physics education research at the undergraduate level. It is based on work originally commissioned by the National Academies. Six topical areas are covered: (1) conceptual understanding, (2) problem solving, (3) curriculum and instruction, (4) assessment, (5) cognitive psychology, and (6) attitudes…

  7. Synthesis of discipline-based education research in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Docktor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive synthesis of physics education research at the undergraduate level. It is based on work originally commissioned by the National Academies. Six topical areas are covered: (1 conceptual understanding, (2 problem solving, (3 curriculum and instruction, (4 assessment, (5 cognitive psychology, and (6 attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning. Each topical section includes sample research questions, theoretical frameworks, common research methodologies, a summary of key findings, strengths and limitations of the research, and areas for future study. Supplemental material proposes promising future directions in physics education research.

  8. Research Synthesis for "Adaptive Mentorship"©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Edwin G.; Walker, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    "Adaptive Mentorship"© (AM) is a mentoring model the authors have developed over a 21-year period. Mentor-protégé pairs originally applied it in teacher-education internship programs; however, the authors have subsequently witnessed its adoption by other mentorship/coaching practitioners/researchers across the professions. In this…

  9. Synthesis on biological soil crust research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Belnap, Jayne; Buedel, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    In this closing chapter, we summarize the advances in biocrust research made during the last 1.5 decades. In the first part of the chapter, we discuss how in some research fields, such as the microbial diversity of fungi, bacteria, and microfauna; the interaction between biocrusts and vascular plants; and in the rehabilitation of biocrusts; particularly large achievements have been made. In other fields, previously established knowledge of overall patterns has been corroborated and refined by additional studies, e.g., in the fields of soil stabilization and disturbance effects. In the second part of the chapter, we outline the research gaps and challenges foreseen by us. We identify multiple knowledge gaps, including many understudied geographic regions, the largely missing link between genetic and morphological species identification data, and the answers to some mechanistic questions, such as the overall role of biocrusts in hydrology and nutrient cycles. With some ideas on promising new research questions and approaches we close this chapter and the overall book.

  10. A Comprehensive Model of Cancer-Related Information Seeking Applied to Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. David; Meischke, Hendrika

    1993-01-01

    Examines a comprehensive model of information seeking resulting from the synthesis of three theoretical research streams: the health belief model, uses and gratifications research, and a model of media exposure. Suggests that models of information seeking from mass media should focus on purely communicative factors. (RS)

  11. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  12. Seeking to understand: using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese

    2016-06-01

    Introduction There are challenges associated with selecting a qualitative research approach. In a field abundant with terminology and theories, it may be difficult for a pharmacist to know where and how to begin a qualitative research journey. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into generic qualitative research and to describe the journey of data collection of a novice qualitative researcher in the quest to answer her research question: 'What are the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services for resettled refugees in Queensland, Australia?' Methodology Generic qualitative research draws on the strengths of one or more qualitative approaches. The aim is to draw out participants' ideas about things that are 'outside themselves'; rather than focussing on their inner feelings the research seeks to understand a phenomenon, a process, or the perspectives of participants. Sampling is designed to obtain a broad range of opinions about events and experiences and data collection includes interviews, questionnaires or surveys; thematic analysis is often used to analyse data. When to use Generic qualitative research provides an opportunity to develop research designs that fit researchers' epistemological stance and discipline, with research choices, including methodology and methods, being informed by the research question. Limitations Generic qualitative research is one of many methodologies that may be used to answer a research question and there is a paucity of literature about how to do it well. There is also debate about its validity as a qualitative methodology.

  13. Novel Data Sources for Women’s Health Research: Mapping Breast Screening Online Information Seeking Through Google Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordy, Soudabeh Fazeli; Carlos, Ruth C.; Hall, Kelli S.; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Millions of people use online search engines every day to find health-related information and voluntarily share their personal health status and behaviors in various Web sites. Thus, data from tracking of online information seeker’s behavior offer potential opportunities for use in public health surveillance and research. Google Trends is a feature of Google which allows internet users to graph the frequency of searches for a single term or phrase over time or by geographic region. We used Google Trends to describe patterns of information seeking behavior in the subject of dense breasts and to examine their correlation with the passage or introduction of dense breast notification legislation. Materials and Methods In order to capture the temporal variations of information seeking about dense breasts, the web search query “dense breast” was entered in the Google Trends tool. We then mapped the dates of legislative actions regarding dense breasts that received widespread coverage in the lay media to information seeking trends about dense breasts over time. Results Newsworthy events and legislative actions appear to correlate well with peaks in search volume of “dense breast”. Geographic regions with the highest search volumes have either passed, denied, or are currently considering the dense breast legislation. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that any legislative action and respective news coverage correlate with increase in information seeking for “dense breast” on Google, suggesting that Google Trends has the potential to serve as a data source for policy-relevant research. PMID:24998689

  14. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper is to o...... and corporeal information sources newcomers learn about the organizational practice, and the knowledge needed in order to develop as a competent practitioner and become a full member of the organization.......Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...

  15. Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research: an example using Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of a Critical Interpretive Synthesis to synthesize quantitative research, in the form of an effectiveness review and a guideline, with qualitative research to examine the use of morphine to treat cancer-related pain. Critical Interpretive Synthesis is a new method of reviewing, developed from meta-ethnography, which integrates systematic review methodology with a qualitative tradition of enquiry. It has not previously been used specifically to synthesize effectiveness and qualitative literature. Data sources. An existing systematic review of quantitative research and a guideline examining the effectiveness of oral morphine to treat cancer pain were identified. Electronic searches of Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, Health Management Information Consortium database and the Social Science Citation Index to identify qualitative research were carried out in May 2008. Qualitative research papers reporting on the use of morphine to treat cancer pain were identified. The findings of the effectiveness research were used as a framework to guide the translation of findings from qualitative research using an integrative grid. A secondary translation of findings from the qualitative research, not specifically mapped to the effectiveness literature, was guided by the framework. Nineteen qualitative papers were synthesized with the quantitative effectiveness literature, producing 14 synthetic constructs. These were developed into four synthesizing arguments which drew on patients', carers' and healthcare professionals' interpretations of the meaning and context of the use of morphine to treat cancer pain. Critical Interpretive Synthesis can be adapted to synthesize reviews of quantitative research into effectiveness with qualitative research and fits into an existing typology of approaches to synthesizing qualitative and quantitative research.

  16. Research program on regulatory safety research - Synthesis report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailaender, R

    2009-06-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the program's main points of interest, work done in the year 2008 and the results obtained. The main points of the research program, which is co-ordinated by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI, are discussed. Topics covered concern reactor safety as well as human, organisational and safety aspects. Work done in several areas concerning reactor safety and materials as well as interactions in severe accidents in light-water reactors is described. Radiation protection, the transport and disposal of radioactive wastes and safety culture are also looked at. Finally, national and international co-operation is briefly looked at and work to be done in 2009 is reviewed. The report is completed with a list of research and development projects co-ordinated by ENSI

  17. Initial treatment seeking from professional health care providers for eating disorders: A review and synthesis of potential barriers to and facilitators of "first contact".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Pamela; Cachelin, Fary M; Minnick, Alyssa M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of empirical research exploring barriers to and facilitators of initial treatment seeking ("first contact") from professional health care providers by adults and young adults with eating disorders (EDs). A search of databases PsycINFO and MEDLINE using the terms "treatment" and "eating disorder*" yielded 9,468 peer-reviewed articles published from January 1945 to June 2016. Screening identified 31 articles meeting the following criteria: (1) participants were 16 or older and presented with a self-reported or clinically diagnosed ED; (2) studies focused on (a) initial treatment seeking (b) for an ED (c) from professional health care providers; (3) articles were empirical, and (4) peer reviewed. Quantitative studies revealed few consistent correlates of treatment seeking, perhaps because most variables were examined in only one or two investigations. Variables with some degree of predictive utility (i.e., produced significant results in multiple studies) were age (older), ethnicity (nonethnic minority), ED type (anorexia, purging BN), specific ED-related behaviors (i.e., purging), and time spent on a treatment waitlist following referral (less). Although BMI was one of the most investigated variables, it did not predict treatment seeking. Qualitative studies revealed the following perceived barriers: (1) personal feelings of shame/fear, (2) ED-related beliefs/perceptions, (3) lack of access/availability, and (4) aspects of the treatment process. Perceived facilitators included (1) health-related concerns, (2) emotional distress, and (3) social support. Implications for clinical practice and areas for further research are discussed. Results highlight the need for shared definitions and methodologies across studies of treatment seeking. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploring the Research Mindset and Information-Seeking Behaviors of Undergraduate Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joe C.; Johnstone, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the mindset and process of undergraduate music majors conducting research in their discipline. While working with students in a writing-intensive music history class, the authors conducted several surveys, focus groups, and task-based assessments. Results indicated that most were overconfident in their research abilities,…

  19. Exploring the alchemy of qualitative management research: Seeking trustworthiness, credibility and rigor through crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Heather; Gapp, Rod; Harwood, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we explore crystallization in terms of its contribution to qualitative management research. This exploration of crystallization is based on a postmodern view where we utilize triangulation as a point of departure. Currently, the use of crystallization is under developed in the management discipline. Qualitative literature and metaphors are utilized to develop a focus on moving qualitative management research away from positivist terms. To do this we crystalize crystallization wi...

  20. Mapping publication trends and identifying hot spots of research on Internet health information seeking behavior: a quantitative and co-word biclustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Li, Min; Guan, Peng; Ma, Shuang; Cui, Lei

    2015-03-25

    The Internet has become an established source of health information for people seeking health information. In recent years, research on the health information seeking behavior of Internet users has become an increasingly important scholarly focus. However, there have been no long-term bibliometric studies to date on Internet health information seeking behavior. The purpose of this study was to map publication trends and explore research hot spots of Internet health information seeking behavior. A bibliometric analysis based on PubMed was conducted to investigate the publication trends of research on Internet health information seeking behavior. For the included publications, the annual publication number, the distribution of countries, authors, languages, journals, and annual distribution of highly frequent major MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were determined. Furthermore, co-word biclustering analysis of highly frequent major MeSH terms was utilized to detect the hot spots in this field. A total of 533 publications were included. The research output was gradually increasing. There were five authors who published four or more articles individually. A total of 271 included publications (50.8%) were written by authors from the United States, and 516 of the 533 articles (96.8%) were published in English. The eight most active journals published 34.1% (182/533) of the publications on this topic. Ten research hot spots were found: (1) behavior of Internet health information seeking about HIV infection or sexually transmitted diseases, (2) Internet health information seeking behavior of students, (3) behavior of Internet health information seeking via mobile phone and its apps, (4) physicians' utilization of Internet medical resources, (5) utilization of social media by parents, (6) Internet health information seeking behavior of patients with cancer (mainly breast cancer), (7) trust in or satisfaction with Web-based health information by consumers, (8

  1. Seeking help for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of the enablers and barriers conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen J; Rose, Diana; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers). A qualitative, exploratory study using in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews was conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. Seventeen people with OCD, contacted through the charity OCD-UK, were interviewed about the factors that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers identified were stigma, 'internal / cognitive' factors, not knowing what their problem was, factors relating to their GP or treatment, and fear of criminalisation. Positive enablers identified were being supported to seek help, information and personal accounts of OCD in the media, and confidence in their GP. Negative enablers were reaching a crisis point and for some participants (whose intrusive thoughts were about harming children) feeling driven to seek treatment because of the nature of the thoughts, that is, seeking help to prevent the 'harm' they feared they were capable of doing. Participants identified a range of barriers and enablers that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. These give important indicators about the likely causes for delayed help seeking in OCD and ways in which people might be encouraged to seek help earlier. People with OCD may face a wide range of barriers to seeking help, including concern about the reaction of health professionals. The level of awareness, kindness, and understanding shown by first-line practitioners can be very important to

  2. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-09-20

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process.

  3. Research programme on radioactive wastes - Synthesis report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, S.

    2010-02-01

    This short synthesis report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) issued by the head of the programme on radioactive wastes reports on activities during the year 2009. Background information on the definition of topics to be focussed on is briefly presented. In particular, topics such as communication with the general public, knowledge-saving and marking concepts for radioactive wastes are noted. Work done in these areas as well as on waste management in general are discussed. Conferences held and the transfer of know-how are noted, as is cooperation with foreign organisations active in the area of nuclear research and waste management. Finally, work planned for 2010 is noted

  4. Risk of vicarious trauma in nursing research: a focused mapping review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Jones, Christine; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    To provide a snapshot of how vicarious trauma is considered within the published nursing research literature. Vicarious trauma (secondary traumatic stress) has been the focus of attention in nursing practice for many years. The most pertinent areas to invoke vicarious trauma in research have been suggested as abuse/violence and death/dying. What is not known is how researchers account for the risks of vicarious trauma in research. Focused mapping review and synthesis. Empirical studies meeting criteria for abuse/violence or death/dying in relevant Scopus ranked top nursing journals (n = 6) January 2009 to December 2014. Relevant papers were scrutinised for the extent to which researchers discussed the risk of vicarious trauma. Aspects of the studies were mapped systematically to a pre-defined template, allowing patterns and gaps in authors' reporting to be determined. These were synthesised into a coherent profile of current reporting practices and from this, a new conceptualisation seeking to anticipate and address the risk of vicarious trauma was developed. Two thousand five hundred and three papers were published during the review period, of which 104 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were distributed evenly by method (52 qualitative; 51 quantitative; one mixed methods) and by focus (54 abuse/violence; 50 death/dying). The majority of studies (98) were carried out in adult populations. Only two papers reported on vicarious trauma. The conceptualisation of vicarious trauma takes account of both sensitivity of the substantive data collected, and closeness of those involved with the research. This might assist researchers in designing ethical and protective research and foreground the importance of managing risks of vicarious trauma. Vicarious trauma is not well considered in research into clinically important topics. Our proposed framework allows for consideration of these so that precautionary measures can be put in place to minimise harm to staff. © 2016

  5. Alternative Fuel Research in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has recently constructed an Alternative Fuels Laboratory which is solely being used to perform Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reactor studies, novel catalyst development and thermal stability experiments. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst screening experiments while focusing on reducing energy inputs, reducing CO2 emissions and increasing product yields within the F-T process. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which reacts syn-gas (a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), over the surface of a catalyst material which is then converted into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions1. These hydrocarbons can then be further processed into higher quality liquid fuels such as gasoline and diesel. The experiments performed in this laboratory will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics to focus on newly formulated catalysts, improved process conditions and enhanced catalyst activation methods. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor used solely for cobalt catalyst activation.

  6. "Professionalism" in Second and Foreign Language Teaching: A Qualitative Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansem, Anchalee

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative research synthesis concludes and displays pictures of professionalism in second/foreign language education. Adopting Weed's processes as the methodological framework for doing qualitative research synthesis, the researcher employed seven steps, from retrieving to selecting studies directly associated with professionalism. The…

  7. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of bone-seeking superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents for imaging bone metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Arash; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Doschak, Michael R

    2013-06-12

    In this article, we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a new class of nonionizing bone-targeting contrast agents based on bisphosphonate-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), for use in imaging of bone turnover with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Similar to bone-targeting (99m)Technetium medronate, our novel contrast agent uses bisphosphonates to impart bone-seeking properties, but replaces the former radioisotope with nonionizing SPIONs which enables their subsequent detection using MRI. Our reported method is relatively simple, quick and cost-effective and results in BP-SPIONs with a final nanoparticle size of 17 nm under electron microscopy technique (i.e., TEM). In-vitro binding studies of our novel bone tracer have shown selective binding affinity (around 65%) for hydroxyapatite, the principal mineral of bone. Bone-targeting SPIONs offer the potential for use as nonionizing MRI contrast agents capable of imaging dynamic bone turnover, for use in the diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases and related bone pathology.

  8. SEEK! Tiedonhakupeli

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Nina; Lassila, Matti; Rajahonka, Matti; Korkiakangas, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Finnish adaptation of SEEK! The search skills game. Includes press-ready files and Adobe Illustrator & Indesign templates. Original game developed by Andrew Walsh & Tanya Williamson, University of Huddersfield.

  9. Personal narrative approaches in rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury: A synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Kate; Douglas, Jacinta; Serry, Tanya

    2017-08-09

    Although narrative storytelling has been found to assist identity construction, there is little direct research regarding its application in rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this review was to identify published evidence on the use of personal narrative approaches in rehabilitation following TBI and to synthesise the findings across this literature. A systematic search of four databases was conducted in December 2016. No limit was set on the start date of the search. Personal narrative approaches were defined as direct client participation in sharing personal stories using written, spoken or visual methods. The search retrieved 12 qualitative research articles on the use of personal narrative approaches in TBI rehabilitation. Thematic synthesis of the narrative data and authors' reported findings of the 12 articles yielded an overall theme of building a strengths-based identity and four sub-themes: 1) expressing and communicating to others; 2) feeling validated by the act of someone listening; 3) reflecting and learning about oneself; and 4) being productive. The findings of this review support the use of personal narrative approaches in addressing loss of identity following TBI. Healthcare professionals and the community are encouraged to seek opportunities for survivors of TBI to share their stories.

  10. Mothering disrupted by illness: a narrative synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallido, Tamara; Wilkes, Lesley; Carter, Bernie; Jackson, Debra

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review of qualitative empirical research investigating women's experiences of mothering disrupted by illness. As a primary identity, motherhood is endangered by illness. Illness can interfere with a woman's ability to mother her child/children. Healthcare professionals regularly fail to acknowledge a woman's dual identities of mother and patient. CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus and Sociological abstracts were searched 1980-2009. A narrative synthesis was used, with quality appraisal guided by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme method. Concepts were analysed thematically, explicating common experiences of women disrupted in their mothering by illness. This allowed for both descriptive and narrative synthesis to occur. Thirteen papers were included in the final review. Themes identified were: mechanism of disruption; reframing the mother role; protecting the children; experiencing guilt or shame; problems with healthcare professionals; and living to mother, mothering to live. Women disrupted in their mothering by illness view themselves as a mother first and a patient second. Women found themselves unsupported in their mothering role by healthcare professionals, and this may have left them reluctant to broach difficulties they had relinquishing mothering duties when ill. Nurses are well-positioned to support women in illness by acknowledging the importance of their identity as mothers, offering them opportunities to discuss how illness is disrupting their ability to mother, providing support to help them negotiate the social/emotional distress experienced when mothering is disrupted and, where necessary, referring them to other members of the healthcare team, such as social workers.

  11. Social science to improve fuels management: a synthesis of research on aesthetics and fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ryan

    2005-01-01

    A series of syntheses were commissioned by the USDA Forest Service to aid in fuels mitigation project planning. This synthesis focuses on research addressing aesthetic considerations of fuels management. A general finding is that fuels management activities can contribute to the visual quality of a landscape. Topics covered in the synthesis include research findings on...

  12. Development and validation of SEER (Seeking, Engaging with and Evaluating Research): a measure of policymakers' capacity to engage with and use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sue E; McKenzie, Joanne E; Turner, Tari; Redman, Sally; Makkar, Steve; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Green, Sally E

    2017-01-17

    Capacity building strategies are widely used to increase the use of research in policy development. However, a lack of well-validated measures for policy contexts has hampered efforts to identify priorities for capacity building and to evaluate the impact of strategies. We aimed to address this gap by developing SEER (Seeking, Engaging with and Evaluating Research), a self-report measure of individual policymakers' capacity to engage with and use research. We used the SPIRIT Action Framework to identify pertinent domains and guide development of items for measuring each domain. Scales covered (1) individual capacity to use research (confidence in using research, value placed on research, individual perceptions of the value their organisation places on research, supporting tools and systems), (2) actions taken to engage with research and researchers, and (3) use of research to inform policy (extent and type of research use). A sample of policymakers engaged in health policy development provided data to examine scale reliability (internal consistency, test-retest) and validity (relation to measures of similar concepts, relation to a measure of intention to use research, internal structure of the individual capacity scales). Response rates were 55% (150/272 people, 12 agencies) for the validity and internal consistency analyses, and 54% (57/105 people, 9 agencies) for test-retest reliability. The individual capacity scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability (alpha coefficients > 0.7, all four scales) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.7 for three scales and 0.59 for fourth scale). Scores on individual capacity scales converged as predicted with measures of similar concepts (moderate correlations of > 0.4), and confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence that the scales measured related but distinct concepts. Items in each of these four scales related as predicted to concepts in the measurement model derived

  13. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...

  14. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  15. Solar Power and Solar Fuels Synthesis Report. Technology, market and research activities 2006-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt; Nilsson, Ronny; Rehnlund, Bjoern [Grontmij, Stockholm (Sweden); Kasemo, Bengt [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of the synthesis is to survey the situation and give an accumulated and concentrated knowledge about status, needs and opportunities for Swedish research and Swedish industry within the area of solar power and solar fuels, to be used for prioritisation of further efforts. The synthesis shall identify strengths and weaknesses in areas fundamental for development of solar power and solar fuels, focused on the development in Sweden, but in an international context. The synthesis shall also cover proposals for future Swedish research efforts and organisation of future Swedish research programs.

  16. Research in Korea on Gas Phase Synthesis and Control of Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Mansoo

    2001-01-01

    Research activity into the gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles has witnessed rapid growth on a worldwide basis, which is also reflected by Korean research efforts. Nanoparticle research is inherently a multi-disciplinary activity involving both science and engineering. In this paper, the recent studies undertaken in Korea on the gas phase synthesis and control of nanoparticles are reviewed. Studies on the synthesis of various kinds of nanoparticles are first discussed with a focus on the different types of reactors used. Recent experimental and theoretical studies and newly developed methods of measuring and modeling nanoparticle growth are also reviewed

  17. A Synthesis on Digital Games in Education: What the Research Literature Says from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert; Poling, Nathaniel; Frey, Christopher; Johnson, Margeaux

    2014-01-01

    This research reports the results of a literature synthesis conducted on digital gaming in education research literature. Seventy-three digital gaming research articles in education were identified through a systematic literature search and were coded across several relevant criteria. Our research indicates trends and patterns from empirical…

  18. Field Usage of Alternative Deicers for Snow and Ice Control : Transportation Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This Transportation Research Synthesis (TRS) summarizes non-chloride based deicers available on the market at this time, including acetate, formate, glycol, and succinate based deicing products. This report explores their feasibility for use as alter...

  19. Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rycroft-Malone Jo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Realist synthesis is an increasingly popular approach to the review and synthesis of evidence, which focuses on understanding the mechanisms by which an intervention works (or not. There are few published examples of realist synthesis. This paper therefore fills a gap by describing, in detail, the process used for a realist review and synthesis to answer the question ‘what interventions and strategies are effective in enabling evidence-informed healthcare?’ The strengths and challenges of conducting realist review are also considered. Methods The realist approach involves identifying underlying causal mechanisms and exploring how they work under what conditions. The stages of this review included: defining the scope of the review (concept mining and framework formulation; searching for and scrutinising the evidence; extracting and synthesising the evidence; and developing the narrative, including hypotheses. Results Based on key terms and concepts related to various interventions to promote evidence-informed healthcare, we developed an outcome-focused theoretical framework. Questions were tailored for each of four theory/intervention areas within the theoretical framework and were used to guide development of a review and data extraction process. The search for literature within our first theory area, change agency, was executed and the screening procedure resulted in inclusion of 52 papers. Using the questions relevant to this theory area, data were extracted by one reviewer and validated by a second reviewer. Synthesis involved organisation of extracted data into evidence tables, theming and formulation of chains of inference, linking between the chains of inference, and hypothesis formulation. The narrative was developed around the hypotheses generated within the change agency theory area. Conclusions Realist synthesis lends itself to the review of complex interventions because it accounts for context as well as

  20. Kuhlthau’s Classic Research on the Information Search Process (ISP Provides Evidence for Information Seeking as a Constructivist Process. A review of: Kuhlthau, Carol C. “Inside the Search Process: Information Seeking from the User's Perspective.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42.5 (1991: 361‐71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelagh K. Genuis

    2007-12-01

    general topic. A turning point occurs during focus formulation as constructs become clearer and uncertainty decreases. During information collection theuser is able to articulate focused need and is able to interact effectively with intermediaries and systems. Relief is commonly experienced at presentation stage when findings are presented or used. Although stages are laid out sequentially, Kuhlthau notes that the ISP is an iterative process in which stages merge and overlap.Central to this model is the premise that uncertainty is not due merely to a lack of familiarity with sources and technologies,but is an integral and critical part of a process of learning that culminates in finding meaning through personal synthesis of topic or problem. Conclusion – Kuhlthau provides evidence for a view of information seeking as an evolving, iterative process and presents amodel for purposeful information searching which, if understood by users, intermediaries and information system designers, provides a basis for productive interaction. While users will benefit from understanding the evolving nature of focus formulation and the affective dimensions of information seeking, intermediaries andsystems are challenged to improve information provision in the early formative stages of a search. Although Kuhlthau identifies this research on the ISP as exploratory in nature, this article affords methodological insight into the use of mixed methods for exploring complex user oriented issues, presents a model that effectively communicates an approximation of the common information‐seeking process of users, and provides ongoing impetus for exploring the user’s perspective on information seeking.

  1. 農業科學教師資訊搜尋行為之研究(上 Information Seeking Behavior of Agricultural Researchers(cont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-min Liao

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available 無The purpose of this research was trying to understand the information seeking behavior derived from the studying and teaching informationo needs of those agricultural researchers. Concluded from the phenomena of their information seeking behavior and the factors behind, it might offer the libraries and other agricultural information service center as a reference to improve their service.   The subjects involved in this research were the agricultural teachers at National Chiayi Institute of Agriculture. In this research, there were five questions raised. By way of clarify these five questions as followed, it is possible to reach the purpose of this research.   1.What is the current studying and teaching conditions of the teachers? 2.What kind of studying and teaching situations will make the teachers have information needs? 3.What are the critical ways for the teachers to get needed literature? 4.How do the teachers use formal information channels? 5.How do the teachers use informal information channels? The data supporting this research were gathered through the methods of interview and questionnaire survey. The findings were: on teaching, the major situation having information needs for the teachers occurred when they were compiling texbook or handouts; on studying, it also happened when they wanted to complete the studies subsidized by the National Science Council, Council of Agriculture or Department of Agriculture: Taiwan Provincial Government. The commonest way for the teachers to obtain information resources

  2. Research protocol: a realist synthesis of contestability in community-based mental health markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Bains, Amara

    2015-03-25

    In most developed nations, there has been a shift from public services to a marketisation of public goods and services - representing a significant reform process aiming to transform the way in which community-based human services, such as health, are delivered and consumed. For services, this means developing the capacity to adapt and innovate in response to changing circumstances to achieve quality. The availability of rigorous research to demonstrate whether a market approach and contestability, in particular, is a coherent reform process is largely absent. Contestability operates on the premise that better procurement processes allow more providers to enter the market and compete for contracts. This is expected to create stimulus for greater efficiencies, innovation and improved service delivery to consumers. There is limited understanding, however, about how community-based providers morph and re-configure in response to the opportunities posed by contestability. This study focuses on the effect of a contestability policy on the community-managed mental health sector. A realist review will be undertaken to understand how and why the introduction of contestability into a previously incontestable market influences the ways in which community-based mental health providers respond to contestability. The review will investigate those circumstances that shape organisational response and generate outcomes through activating mechanisms. An early scoping has helped to formulate the initial program theory. A realist synthesis will be undertaken to identify relevant journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the emerging contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations. The analysis will seek patterns and regularities in these configurations across the extracted data and will focus on addressing our theory-based questions. Increasingly, community-based mental health markets are moving to contestability models. Rigorous

  3. Presence seeking and sensation seeking as motives for international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G

    1994-12-01

    Although independent research has identified presence seeking and sensation seeking as important motives for a variety of activities, there is sufficient conceptual overlap to suggest the concepts describe in part the same motive or are related. The possible relationship was examined in motives of students for international travel. Nonsignificant correlations suggest that, at least for this activity, they are differentiable.

  4. Data Collection and Harmonization in HIV Research: The Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain Initiative at the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Redonna K; Kahana, Shoshana Y; Fletcher, Bennett; Jones, Dionne; Finger, Matthew S; Aklin, Will M; Hamill, Kathleen; Webb, Candace

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale, multisite data sets offer the potential for exploring the public health benefits of biomedical interventions. Data harmonization is an emerging strategy to increase the comparability of research data collected across independent studies, enabling research questions to be addressed beyond the capacity of any individual study. The National Institute on Drug Abuse recently implemented this novel strategy to prospectively collect and harmonize data across 22 independent research studies developing and empirically testing interventions to effectively deliver an HIV continuum of care to diverse drug-abusing populations. We describe this data collection and harmonization effort, collectively known as the Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain Data Collection and Harmonization Initiative, which can serve as a model applicable to other research endeavors.

  5. Experimental parameters research for oxides of synthesis by microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratmann, Ezequiel Cafumann; Moreira, Mário Lúcio; Ratmann, Cristiane Raubach; Cava, Sergio da Silva, E-mail: ezequiel.ratmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of experimental parameter of zinc oxide (ZnO) in the structural and optical properties obtained by a microwave-assisted solvo thermal method. The method consists in obtaining ZnO at temperatures from 90 - 140 °C and subsequently characterized structurally and verify possible variations in optical characteristics through photoluminescence measurements. The characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The results show that the change in temperature of synthesis does not affect the crystal structure of ZnO. The photoluminescence measurements show a shift only in the sample obtained at 120 °C temperature. A more detailed study on the 120°C system is necessary to be able to say that the effect observed in the optical property is due to the method of synthesis. References: [1] S. R. Pinnell, D. Fairhurst, R. Gillies, M. A. Mitchnick, and N. Kollias. Microfine zinc oxide is a superior sunscreen ingredient to microfine titanium dioxide, Dermatologic surgery, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 309-314, 2000; [2] Efracio M. Flores. Influência do solvente nas propriedades estruturais e ópticas de sistema ZnO@ZnS core-shell, obtidos pelo método solvotérmico assistido por microondas. Dissertação de Mestrado. 2015. (author)

  6. Creating the future together : toward a framework for research synthesis in entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van J.C.; Romme, A.G.L.

    2014-01-01

    To develop a body of evidence-based knowledge on entrepreneurship, findings and contributions from the positivist, narrative and design research traditions in this area need to be combined. Therefore, a framework for research synthesis in terms of social mechanisms, contextual conditions and outcome

  7. Creating the future together: Toward a framework for research synthesis in entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, J.C.; Romme, A.G.L.

    2014-01-01

    To develop a body of evidence-based knowledge on entrepreneurship, findings and contributions from the positivist, narrative, and design research traditions in this area need to be combined. Therefore, a framework for research synthesis in terms of social mechanisms, contextual conditions, and

  8. The Impact of Making Music on Aural Perception and Language Skills: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of research on the relationship between music and language, drawing on evidence from neuroscience, psychology, sociology and education. It sets out why it has become necessary to justify the role of music in the school curriculum and summarizes the different methodologies adopted by researchers in the field. It…

  9. Investigating Vocabulary and Reading Strategies with Middle Grades English Language Learners: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisco, Brooke Kandel; Padron, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Recent data indicate that many adolescent English language learners (ELLs) comprehend English texts at only a limited literal level. The purpose of this research synthesis was to systematically identify and describe the research related to the English reading comprehension of middle grades ELLs while also making practical connections to…

  10. Synthesis of Upper Verde River research and monitoring 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Alvin L. Medina; John N. Rinne

    2012-01-01

    This volume is a state-of-knowledge synthesis of monitoring and research conducted on the Upper Verde River (UVR) of Arizona. It contains information on the history, hydrology, soils, geomorphology, vegetation, and fish fauna of the area that can help land managers and other scientists in successfully conducting ecosystem management and future monitoring and research...

  11. Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency and Lexis in Task-Based Performance: A Synthesis of the Ealing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehan, Peter; Foster, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will present a research synthesis of a series of studies, termed here the Ealing research. The studies use the same general framework to conceptualise tasks and task performance, enabling easier comparability. The different studies, although each is self-contained, build into a wider picture of task performance. The major point of…

  12. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Refined Synthesis and Characterization of Controlled Diameter, Narrow Size Distribution Microparticles for Aerospace Research Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Wohl, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Flow visualization using polystyrene microspheres (PSL)s has enabled researchers to learn a tremendous amount of information via particle based diagnostic techniques. To better accommodate wind tunnel researchers needs, PSL synthesis via dispersion polymerization has been carried out at NASA Langley Research Center since the late 1980s. When utilizing seed material for flow visualization, size and size distribution are of paramount importance. Therefore, the work described here focused on further refinement of PSL synthesis and characterization. Through controlled variation of synthetic conditions (chemical concentrations, solution stirring speed, temperature, etc.) a robust, controllable procedure was developed. The relationship between particle size and salt concentration, MgSO4, was identified enabling the determination of PSL diameters a priori. Suggestions of future topics related to PSL synthesis, stability, and size variation are also described.

  14. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  15. Statistical Reform in School Psychology Research: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Hariharan; Rogers, H. Jane

    2007-01-01

    Statistical reform in school psychology research is discussed in terms of research designs, measurement issues, statistical modeling and analysis procedures, interpretation and reporting of statistical results, and finally statistics education.

  16. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  17. Seeking evidence of multidisciplinarity in environmental geochemistry and health: an analysis of arsenic in drinking water research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, Abiodun D; Stewart, Alex G; Hursthouse, Andrew S

    2018-02-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to research affords the opportunity of objectivity, creation of new knowledge and potentially a more generally acceptable solution to problems that informed the research in the first place. It increasingly features in national programmes supporting basic and applied research, but for over 40 years, has been the arena for many research teams in environmental geochemistry and health. This study explores the nature of multidisciplinary research in the earth and health sciences using a sample selected from co-authored articles reporting research on arsenic (As) in drinking water from 1979 to 2013. A total of 889 relevant articles were sourced using the online version of the science citation index-expanded (SCI-expanded). The articles were classified according to author affiliation and later by author discipline/research interests using the Revised Field of Science and Technology Frascati manual DSTI/EAS/STP/NESTI (2006) 19/FINAL and a decision algorithm. Few articles were published on the topic until 2000. More articles were published across all affiliations in the last 10 years of the review period (2004-2013) than in the first 10 years (1979-1988). Only 84 (~9%) articles fell within the "earth and health" only and "earth, health and other" categories when classification was undertaken by author affiliation alone. This suggests that level of collaboration between earth and health scientists in arsenic in drinking water research may be very low. By refining the classification further using author discipline/research interests, only 28 of the 84 articles appear to be co-authored by earth and health scientists alongside professionals in other fields. More than half of these 28 articles involved descriptive non-experimental, observational study designs, limited in direct causal hypotheses and mechanistic investigation. If collaborative research is to lead to the increased multidisciplinary research, early interaction should be encouraged

  18. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  19. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.

  20. Beyond Synthesis: Re-Presenting Heterogeneous Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Allan; Tate, Mary; Johnstone, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the nature, role and function of the literature review in academic discourse. Researchers in information systems (IS) are often advised to espouse a neutral viewpoint and adapt the goal of synthesising previous literature when conducting a literature review. However, since research literature in many areas of IS is diverse…

  1. Standards for reporting qualitative research: a synthesis of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Harris, Ilene B; Beckman, Thomas J; Reed, Darcy A; Cook, David A

    2014-09-01

    Standards for reporting exist for many types of quantitative research, but currently none exist for the broad spectrum of qualitative research. The purpose of the present study was to formulate and define standards for reporting qualitative research while preserving the requisite flexibility to accommodate various paradigms, approaches, and methods. The authors identified guidelines, reporting standards, and critical appraisal criteria for qualitative research by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Google through July 2013; reviewing the reference lists of retrieved sources; and contacting experts. Specifically, two authors reviewed a sample of sources to generate an initial set of items that were potentially important in reporting qualitative research. Through an iterative process of reviewing sources, modifying the set of items, and coding all sources for items, the authors prepared a near-final list of items and descriptions and sent this list to five external reviewers for feedback. The final items and descriptions included in the reporting standards reflect this feedback. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) consists of 21 items. The authors define and explain key elements of each item and provide examples from recently published articles to illustrate ways in which the standards can be met. The SRQR aims to improve the transparency of all aspects of qualitative research by providing clear standards for reporting qualitative research. These standards will assist authors during manuscript preparation, editors and reviewers in evaluating a manuscript for potential publication, and readers when critically appraising, applying, and synthesizing study findings.

  2. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Erich

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI, and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1 Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2 Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%; 3 Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4 Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5 Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences; 6 Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7 Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8 Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9 Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design

  3. Ecological Research on South African rivers - a preliminary synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Keeffe, JH

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological research on South African rivers has progressed in a number of phases. Until 1950 work was mainly taxonomic and descriptive, an essential prerequisite for more detailed studies. The realisation that South African rivers, a vital national...

  4. Contributions of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) to Quality Education: A Synthesis of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Robert; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Mckeown, Rosalyn; Hopkins, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This research is a synthesis of studies carried out in 18 countries to identify contributions of education for sustainable development (ESD) to quality education. Five common questions were used for the interviews in each country to solicit education leaders and practitioners' views on the outcome and implementation of ESD. The analysis revealed…

  5. Social science to improve fuels management: a synthesis of research on collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Sturtevant; Margaret Ann Moote; Pamela Jakes; Anthony S. Cheng

    2005-01-01

    A series of syntheses were commissioned by the USDA Forest Service to aid in fuels mitigation project planning. This synthesis focuses on collaboration research, and offers knowledge and tools to improve collaboration in the planning and implementation of wildland fire and fuels management projects. It covers a variety of topics including benefits of collaboration,...

  6. Intersecting Interests: Qualitative Research Synthesis on Art in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Samantha; Cowell, Amanda; Perreault-Laird, Jordyn; El-Lahib, Yahya; Straka, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative research synthesis that explored the intersections between art and social work. The scholarship notes a rise in interest in integrating creative arts practices in social work classrooms from assignment design to classroom activities. Also highlighted are the potential contributions of these artsinformed…

  7. Core Themes in Music Therapy Clinical Improvisation: An Arts-Informed Qualitative Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Wimpenny, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Although clinical improvisation continues to be an important focus of music therapy research and practice, less attention has been given to integrating qualitative research in this area. As a result, this knowledge base tends to be contained within specific areas of practice rather than integrated across practices and approaches. This qualitative research synthesis profiles, integrates, and re-presents qualitative research focused on the ways music therapists and clients engage in, and make meaning from, clinical improvisation. Further, as a conduit for broadening dialogues, opening up this landscape fully, and sharing our response to the analysis and interpretation process, we present an arts-informed re-presentation of this synthesis. Following an eight-step methodological sequence, 13 qualitative studies were synthesized. This included reciprocal and refutational processes associated with synthesizing the primary studies, and additional steps associated with an arts-informed representation. Three themes, professional artistry, performing self, and meaning-making, are presented. Each theme is explored and exemplified through the selected articles, and discussed within a larger theoretical framework. An artistic re-presentation of the data is also presented. Music therapists use complex frameworks through which to engage clients in, and make meaning from, improvisational experiences. Artistic representation of the findings offers an added dimension to the synthesis process, challenging our understanding of representation, and thereby advancing synthesis methodology. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Urbanization and the Carbon Cycle: Synthesis of Ongoing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Duren, R. M.; Hutyra, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; Huang, J.; Davis, K.; Kort, E. A.; Shepson, P. B.; Turnbull, J. C.; Lauvaux, T.; Rao, P.; Eldering, A.; Miller, C. E.; Wofsy, S.; McKain, K.; Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Given the explosive growth in urbanization and its dominant role in current and future global greenhouse gas emissions, urban areas have received increasing research attention from the carbon cycle science community. The emerging focus is driven by the increasingly dense atmospheric observing capabilities - ground and space-based - in addition to the rising profile of cities within international climate change policymaking. Dominated by anthropogenic emissions, urban carbon cycle research requires a cross-disciplinary perspective with contributions from disciplines such as engineering, economics, social theory, and atmospheric science. We review the recent results from a sample of the active urban carbon research efforts including the INFLUX experiment (Indianapolis), the Megacity carbon project (Los Angeles), Salt Lake City, and Boston. Each of these efforts represent unique approaches in pursuit of different scientific and policy questions and assist in setting priorities for future research. From top-down atmospheric measurement systems to bottom-up estimation, these research efforts offer a view of the challenges and opportunities in urban carbon cycle research.

  9. Guidance for deciding upon use of primary mixed methods studies in research synthesis : Lessons learned in childhood trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; van Wesel, F.; Slagt, M.

    2014-01-01

    When reviewing literature, mixed methods studies (MMS) are increasingly retrieved, yet it is unclear how they should be dealt with in a research synthesis. In this article we examine the inclusion of primary MMS in research synthesis, based on experiences with a meta-analysis (MA) and a qualitative

  10. Guidance for deciding upon use of primary mixed methods studies in research synthesis: lessons learned in childhood trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.R.; van Wesel, F.; Slagt, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    When reviewing literature, mixed methods studies (MMS) are increasingly retrieved, yet it is unclear how they should be dealt with in a research synthesis. In this article we examine the inclusion of primary MMS in research synthesis, based on experiences with a meta-analysis (MA) and a qualitative

  11. Guidance for deciding upon use of primary mixed methods studies in research synthesis: lessons learned in childhood trauma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; Wesel, F. van; Slagt, M.

    2014-01-01

    When reviewing literature, mixed methods studies (MMS) are increasingly retrieved, yet it is unclear how they should be dealt with in a research synthesis. In this article we examine the inclusion of primary MMS in research synthesis, based on experiences with a meta-analysis (MA) and a qualitative

  12. A Global Synthesis Reveals Gaps in Coastal Habitat Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stacy Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems have drastically declined in coverage and condition across the globe. To combat these losses, marine conservation has recently employed habitat restoration as a strategy to enhance depleted coastal ecosystems. For restoration to be a successful enterprise, however, it is necessary to identify and address potential knowledge gaps and review whether the field has tracked scientific advances regarding best practices. This enables managers, researchers, and practitioners alike to more readily establish restoration priorities and goals. We synthesized the peer-reviewed, published literature on habitat restoration research in salt marshes, oyster reefs, and seagrasses to address three questions related to restoration efforts: (i How frequent is cross-sector authorship in coastal restoration research? (ii What is the geographic distribution of coastal restoration research? and (iii Are abiotic and biotic factors equally emphasized in the literature, and how does this vary with time? Our vote-count survey indicated that one-third of the journal-published studies listed authors from at least two sectors, and 6% listed authors from all three sectors. Across all habitat types, there was a dearth of studies from Africa, Asia, and South America. Finally, despite many experimental studies demonstrating that species interactions can greatly affect the recovery and persistence of coastal foundation species, only one-fourth of the studies we examined discussed their effects on restoration. Combined, our results reveal gaps and discrepancies in restoration research that should be addressed in order to further propel coastal restoration science.

  13. On truth-telling and storytelling: Truth-seeking during research involving communities with an oral culture and a history of violent conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Vethuizen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose some principles and practices for truth-seeking during research into violent conflict. To achieve this aim, an argument is deployed by analysing the theoretical concepts “truth”, “myth” and “oral culture” as sources of knowledge. This conceptual analysis precedes a discussion on community-based participatory research (CBPR as a research methodology to access the knowledge of lived experiences embedded in the oral culture of the San community of Platfontein, near Kimberley, South Africa. It was found that CBPR contains good practices to use in research to judge the probable truth about disputes. The CBPR process is ideal for determining the accuracy of data in the context of a specific culture, considering the norms, spiritual influences and personal considerations of knowledge-holders that accompany a unique cosmology. A variety and equity of worldviews and perspectives of what happened during violent conflict successfully challenges hegemonic power relationships, paradigms and narratives, ultimately leading to informed judgements of what is probably true about a conflict. CBPR with the San of Platfontein revealed principles that can be used as guidelines for researching disputes where oral culture is involved.

  14. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harden Angela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitative research in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitative research. This paper reports on the use of this type of analysis in systematic reviews to bring together and integrate the findings of multiple qualitative studies. Methods We describe thematic synthesis, outline several steps for its conduct and illustrate the process and outcome of this approach using a completed review of health promotion research. Thematic synthesis has three stages: the coding of text 'line-by-line'; the development of 'descriptive themes'; and the generation of 'analytical themes'. While the development of descriptive themes remains 'close' to the primary studies, the analytical themes represent a stage of interpretation whereby the reviewers 'go beyond' the primary studies and generate new interpretive constructs, explanations or hypotheses. The use of computer software can facilitate this method of synthesis; detailed guidance is given on how this can be achieved. Results We used thematic synthesis to combine the studies of children's views and identified key themes to explore in the intervention studies. Most interventions were based in school and often combined learning about health benefits with 'hands-on' experience. The studies of children's views suggested that fruit and vegetables should be treated in different ways, and that messages should not focus on health warnings. Interventions that were in line with these suggestions tended to be more effective. Thematic synthesis enabled us to stay 'close' to the results of the primary studies, synthesising them in a transparent way, and facilitating the explicit production of new concepts and hypotheses

  15. Teachers' Instructional Adaptations: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Seth A.; Vaughn, Margaret; Scales, Roya Qualls; Gallagher, Melissa A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Davis, Stephanie G.; Pierczynski, Melissa; Allen, Melony

    2018-01-01

    Researchers recognize adaptive teaching as a component of effective instruction. Educators adjust their teaching according to the social, linguistic, cultural, and instructional needs of their students. While there is consensus that effective teachers are adaptive, there is no consensus on the language to describe this phenomenon. Diverse…

  16. Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

  17. Critical Thinking in Social Work Education: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    In a meta-analytic review of critical thinking in social work education, findings revealed variability in research designs, methods, and subsequent findings. The 10 studies reviewed assessed different components of critical thinking and highlighted different potential moderator variables. Although there are significant limitations to all the…

  18. Partnerships panel: natural, resource partnerships: literature synthesis and research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Selin; Nancy Myers

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of an annotated bibliography on natural resource partnerships. Resource areas and management functions addressed in the partnership literature are examined. Partnership research is summarized and broken into categories including: Partnership outcomes, assessing the potential for partnerships, characteristics of successful partnerships,...

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Polymerization Catalysis and Polymer Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Guyot, A

    1987-01-01

    Due to their specific properties, polymers with well-defined structures have been receiving increasing attention over the last several years. Owing to the wide variability of their properties, these specialty polymers have been used in various areas from biomedical engineering to electronics or energy applications. The synthesis of such polymers necessi­ tates the use of new methods of polymerization which derived from an insight into the mechanism of polymerization reactions. A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Frontiers in Polymerization Catalysis and Polymer Synthesis" was held in BANDOl (FRANCE) in February 1987. Its aim was to assess the new polymerization methods, as well as the latest advances in the mechanisms of conventional polymerization reactions together with their applications to the synthesis of new macromolecular structures. The financial support from the NATO Scientific Affairs Division which covered the "lecturers' accomodation and travel expenses as well as the organization charges of th...

  20. Bridges between multiple-point geostatistics and texture synthesis: Review and guidelines for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Multiple-Point Simulations (MPS) is a family of geostatistical tools that has received a lot of attention in recent years for the characterization of spatial phenomena in geosciences. It relies on the definition of training images to represent a given type of spatial variability, or texture. We show that the algorithmic tools used are similar in many ways to techniques developed in computer graphics, where there is a need to generate large amounts of realistic textures for applications such as video games and animated movies. Similarly to MPS, these texture synthesis methods use training images, or exemplars, to generate realistic-looking graphical textures. Both domains of multiple-point geostatistics and example-based texture synthesis present similarities in their historic development and share similar concepts. These disciplines have however remained separated, and as a result significant algorithmic innovations in each discipline have not been universally adopted. Texture synthesis algorithms present drastically increased computational efficiency, patterns reproduction and user control. At the same time, MPS developed ways to condition models to spatial data and to produce 3D stochastic realizations, which have not been thoroughly investigated in the field of texture synthesis. In this paper we review the possible links between these disciplines and show the potential and limitations of using concepts and approaches from texture synthesis in MPS. We also provide guidelines on how recent developments could benefit both fields of research, and what challenges remain open.

  1. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthmueller, A.

    2009-06-01

    Switzerland is associated to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project carried out in the framework of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The current stage includes on-site civil engineering works. The Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV) of the 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL will remain an important recognized research facility until the start of the ITER operation foreseen in 2018. At the European level, the whole fusion research is coordinated and partly financed by the Joint Undertaking Fusion for Energy (JU F4E). The large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus allow the creation and control of plasmas of various shapes, what is a very useful option to verify the results of numerical simulations. Besides, the hyper-frequency power density injected into the plasma is the highest ever recorded in the world. Research topics studied with the TCV include the stationary regimes in the tokamaks; a plasma current of more than 70 kA could be maintained, what represents an improvement by a factor of 3 to 4 of the confinement quality. For the first time in the world a configuration of the 'snowflake' type could be created and the power density on the wall of the vacuum chamber could be reduced accordingly. Numerical models allowed the analysis of turbulence and heat transport, of the magneto-hydrodynamic stability of the tokamaks and stellarators as well as the optimization of the magnetic confinement. Results concerning the so-called 'saw teeth' instability were experimentally confirmed on the Joint European Torus (JET). Theoretical researches were carried out on the fluctuations, turbulence and transport phenomena in the magnetized toric plasmas. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) the effect of the fast neutrons emitted by the fusion reactions on the walls of the fusion reactors was investigated. Irradiation simulations were carried out by means of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source

  2. Biomedical engineering education in developing countries: research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tania S

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical engineering (BME) contributes to development through improving human health. This paper examines BME education to address the needs of developing countries. Components of different BME programs described in the literature are synthesized to represent what has been proposed or implemented for the production of graduates able to address health problems in a manner suited to the local environment in which they occur. Published research on BME education is reviewed with reference to problem context, interventions and their mechanisms, and intended outcomes.

  3. Summary and synthesis: How to present a research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This concluding module attempts to synthesize the key learning points discussed during the course of the previous ten sets of modules on methodology and biostatistics. The objective of this module is to discuss how to present a model research proposal, based on whatever was discussed in the preceding modules. The lynchpin of a research proposal is the protocol, and the key component of a protocol is the study design. However, one must not neglect the other areas, be it the project summary through which one catches the eyes of the reviewer of the proposal, or the background and the literature review, or the aims and objectives of the study. Two critical areas in the “methods” section that cannot be emphasized more are the sampling strategy and a formal estimation of sample size. Without a legitimate sample size, none of the conclusions based on the statistical analysis would be valid. Finally, the ethical parameters of the study should be well understood by the researchers, and that should get reflected in the proposal.

  4. Summary and Synthesis: How to Present a Research Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Panda, Saumya

    2017-01-01

    This concluding module attempts to synthesize the key learning points discussed during the course of the previous ten sets of modules on methodology and biostatistics. The objective of this module is to discuss how to present a model research proposal, based on whatever was discussed in the preceding modules. The lynchpin of a research proposal is the protocol, and the key component of a protocol is the study design. However, one must not neglect the other areas, be it the project summary through which one catches the eyes of the reviewer of the proposal, or the background and the literature review, or the aims and objectives of the study. Two critical areas in the "methods" section that cannot be emphasized more are the sampling strategy and a formal estimation of sample size. Without a legitimate sample size, none of the conclusions based on the statistical analysis would be valid. Finally, the ethical parameters of the study should be well understood by the researchers, and that should get reflected in the proposal.

  5. Evaluating meta-ethnography: systematic analysis and synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R; Pound, P; Morgan, M; Daker-White, G; Britten, N; Pill, R; Yardley, L; Pope, C; Donovan, J

    2011-12-01

    Methods for reviewing and synthesising findings from quantitative research studies in health care are well established. Although there is recognition of the need for qualitative research to be brought into the evidence base, there is no consensus about how this should be done and the methods for synthesising qualitative research are at a relatively early stage of development. To evaluate meta-ethnography as a method for synthesising qualitative research studies in health and health care. Two full syntheses of qualitative research studies were conducted between April 2002 and September 2004 using meta-ethnography: (1) studies of medicine-taking and (2) studies exploring patients' experiences of living with rheumatoid arthritis. Potentially relevant studies identified in multiple literature searches conducted in July and August 2002 (electronically and by hand) were appraised using a modified version of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme questions for understanding qualitative research. Candidate papers were excluded on grounds of lack of relevance to the aims of the synthesis or because the work failed to employ qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. Thirty-eight studies were entered into the medicine-taking synthesis, one of which did not contribute to the final synthesis. The synthesis revealed a general caution about taking medicine, and that the practice of lay testing of medicines was widespread. People were found to take their medicine passively or actively or to reject it outright. Some, in particular clinical areas, were coerced into taking it. Those who actively accepted their medicine often modified the regimen prescribed by a doctor, without the doctor's knowledge. The synthesis concluded that people often do not take their medicines as prescribed because of concern about the medicines themselves. 'Resistance' emerged from the synthesis as a concept that best encapsulated the lay response to prescribed medicines. It was suggested that a

  6. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Movva, Sunil [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Chase, Adrian S Z [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  7. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the design of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. In 2013, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. A new improved confinement regime, called IN-mode, was discovered on TCV. The theory and numerical simulation group interprets the experimental results and foresees those of futures machines. It requires very high performance computers. The Gyrotron group develops radiofrequency sources in the mm range for heating the TCV plasma as well as for ITER and the Wendelstein-7 stellarator. Concerning superconductivity, tests are conducted at PSI on toroidal cables of ITER. The development of conductors and coils for the DEMO reactor has been pursued. In the context of international

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  9. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.; Soom, P.

    2016-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. In 2015 its name was changed to Swiss Plasma Centre (SPC). The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world, in which an energy yield Q of 0.65 could be obtained. In 2015, the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7X), the largest in the world, was set into operation. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject permanently electricity into the grid. In 2015, SPC participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity; at the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes which

  10. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include superconductivity and materials. The Fusion

  11. Research program. Controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Marot, L.; Fiocco, D.

    2015-01-01

    In 1961, 3 years after the 2 nd International Conference on Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy, the Research Centre on Plasma Physics (CRPP) was created as a department of the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne (Switzerland). From 1979, CRPP collaborates to the European Program on fusion research in the framework of EURATOM. The advantages of fusion are remarkable: the fuel is available in great quantity all over the world; the reactor is intrinsically safe; the reactor material, activated during operation, loses practically all its activity within about 100 years. But the working up of the controlled fusion necessitates extreme technological conditions. In 1979, the Joint European Torus (JET) began its operation; today it is still the most powerful tokamak in the world; its energy yield Q reached 0.65. The progress realized in the framework of EURATOM has led to the planning of the experimental reactor ITER which is being built at Cadarache (France). ITER is designed to reach a Q-value largely above 1. The future prototype reactor DEMO is foreseen in 2040-2050. It should demonstrate the ability of a fusion reactor to inject electricity into the grid for long term. In 2014, CRPP participated in the works on ITER in the framework of the Fusion for Energy (F4E) agency. At EPFL the research concerns the physics of the magnetic confinement with experiments on the tokamak TCV (variable configuration tokamak), the numerical simulations, the plasma heating and the generation of current by hyper frequency radio waves. At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research is devoted to the superconductivity. At the Basel University the studies get on interactions between the plasma and the tokamak walls. The large flexibility of TCV allows creating and controlling plasmas of different shapes which are necessary to optimise the core geometry of future reactors. Moreover, the plasma heating by mm radio waves allows guiding the injected power according to specific

  12. Quantitative and qualitative synthesis of socio-hydrological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Gober, P.; Wheater, H. S.; Kajikawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The challenge of climate change adaptation has raised awareness of the feedbacks and interconnections in complex human-natural coupled water systems. This has reinforced the call for a socio-hydrological approach to better understand, and represent in models, the associated system dynamics. Such models can potentially provide the tools to link knowledge about complex water systems to decision-making and policy frameworks. Socio-hydrology, as the subfield of human-natural coupled systems analysis, has been dramatically developed in the past few years. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine work that has been framed under the umbrella of socio-hydrology, to provide insights into the participants and their disciplinary perspectives, and to draw conclusions about where the field is headed. In doing so, we used a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to synthesise current knowledge of socio-hydrology and to propose some promising future directions in this subfield of water sciences. The general statistics of the existing literature showed that socio-hydrological research has become an emerging topic and is drawing more concern and engagement of hydrologists. However, the participation of social scientists is inadequate and greater cross-disciplinary integration is desirable. Current concerns in this subfield of water research centre on two basic challenges: (1) the need to embrace the social dimensions of water-related risks, and (2) the importance of interactions and feedbacks in dynamic socio-hydrological systems. A third challenge identified here relates to the large-scale implications of 1) and 2) above, i.e. virtual water flows as a mechanism to track the human use of water at the global scale. Accordingly, we propose five potential directions with regard to socio-hydrological models, interdisciplinary collaboration and transdisciplinary studies, the science-policy interface, resilience in socio-hydrological systems, and data sharing for human

  13. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, C.; Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L.; Marot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET), which started operation again in 2011. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the last step before DEMO, a prototype fusion reactor able to deliver electricity and demonstrate the economic viability of fusion energy. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL went on with its participation to the scientific and technological programme of EURATOM. Researches are carried out essentially on 2 sites: (i) at EPFL, where topics dealt with include the physics of magnetic confinement studied using the Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV), the basic experiment TORPEX, theory and numerical modelling, and the technology of plasma heating and current generation by hyper-frequency waves; (ii) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), where activities are devoted to superconductivity and structure materials. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. In the TCV it could be demonstrated for the first time that the injection of Electronic Cyclotronic Heating (ECH) waves is able to double the frequency of so-called 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELM), reducing by a factor of 2 the energy expelled by each ELM. In particular, it was possible to considerably reduce the statistical dispersion of the repetition frequency of ELM, and to avoid the appearance of gigantic ELM that are particularly harmful for reactor operation. The effect of plasma internal relaxation

  14. Participation in medical research as a resource-seeking strategy in socio-economically vulnerable communities: call for research and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph; Van Nuil, Jennifer Ilo; Lutumba, Pascal; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; Nahum, Alain; Tinto, Halidou; Addissie, Adamu; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Grietens, Koen Peeters

    2015-01-01

    The freedom to consent to participate in medical research is a complex subject, particularly in socio-economically vulnerable communities, where numerous factors may limit the efficacy of the informed consent process. Informal consultation among members of the Switching the Poles Clinical Research Network coming from various sub-Saharan African countries, that is Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Rwanda, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Benin, seems to support the hypothesis that in socio-economical vulnerable communities with inadequate access to health care, the decision to participate in research is often taken irrespectively of the contents of the informed consent interview, and it is largely driven by the opportunity to access free or better quality care and other indirect benefits. Populations' vulnerability due to poverty and/or social exclusion should obviously not lead to exclusion from medical research, which is most often crucially needed to address their health problems. Nonetheless, to reduce the possibility of exploitation, there is the need to further investigate the complex links between socio-economical vulnerability, access to health care and individual freedom to decide on participation in medical research. This needs bringing together clinical researchers, social scientists and bioethicists in transdisciplinary collaborative research efforts that require the collective input from researchers, research sponsors and funders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research: The Influence of School Context on Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Moore, Darren A.; Cooper, Paul; Russell, Abigail Emma; Richardson, Michelle; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin J.; Garside, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research explored contextual factors relevant to non-pharmacological interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schools. We conducted meta-ethnography to synthesise 34 studies, using theories of stigma to further develop the synthesis. Studies suggested that the…

  16. Social science to improve fuels management: a synthesis of research on assessing social acceptability of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry C. Daniel; Michael Valdiserri; Carrie R. Daniel; Pamela Jakes; Pamela Jakes; Susan Barro

    2005-01-01

    A series of syntheses were commissioned by the USDA Forest Service to aid in fuels mitigation project planning. This synthesis focuses on research for assessing the social acceptability of fuels treatments. The synthesis is structured around six important considerations for any social acceptability assessment: defining the fuels treatments being assessed; representing...

  17. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour.

  18. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Connell, Janice; Brazier, John; O?Cathain, Alicia; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy; Paisley, Suzy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe m...

  19. Synthesis of qualitative linguistic research--a pilot review integrating and generalizing findings on doctor-patient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Peter

    2011-03-01

    There is a broad range qualitative linguistic research (sequential analysis) on doctor-patient interaction that had only a marginal impact on clinical research and practice. At least in parts this is due to the lack of qualitative research synthesis in the field. Available research summaries are not systematic in their methodology. This paper proposes a synthesis methodology for qualitative, sequential analytic research on doctor-patient interaction. The presented methodology is not new but specifies standard methodology of qualitative research synthesis for sequential analytic research. This pilot review synthesizes twelve studies on German-speaking doctor-patient interactions, identifies 45 verbal actions of doctors and structures them in a systematics of eight interaction components. Three interaction components ("Listening", "Asking for information", and "Giving information") seem to be central and cover two thirds of the identified action types. This pilot review demonstrates that sequential analytic research can be synthesized in a consistent and meaningful way, thus providing a more comprehensive and unbiased integration of research. Future synthesis of qualitative research in the area of health communication research is very much needed. Qualitative research synthesis can support the development of quantitative research and of educational materials in medical training and patient training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Managerial leadership for research use in nursing and allied health care professions: a narrative synthesis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Wendy A; Holyoke, Paul; Squires, Janet E; Angus, Douglas; Brosseau, Lucie; Egan, Mary; Graham, Ian D; Miller, Carol; Wallin, Lars

    2014-06-05

    Nurses and allied health care professionals (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, dietitians) form more than half of the clinical health care workforce and play a central role in health service delivery. There is a potential to improve the quality of health care if these professionals routinely use research evidence to guide their clinical practice. However, the use of research evidence remains unpredictable and inconsistent. Leadership is consistently described in implementation research as critical to enhancing research use by health care professionals. However, this important literature has not yet been synthesized and there is a lack of clarity on what constitutes effective leadership for research use, or what kinds of intervention effectively develop leadership for the purpose of enabling and enhancing research use in clinical practice. We propose to synthesize the evidence on leadership behaviours amongst front line and senior managers that are associated with research evidence by nurses and allied health care professionals, and then determine the effectiveness of interventions that promote these behaviours. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach that supports a partnership between researchers and knowledge users throughout the research process, we will follow principles of knowledge synthesis using a systematic method to synthesize different types of evidence involving: searching the literature, study selection, data extraction and quality assessment, and analysis. A narrative synthesis will be conducted to explore relationships within and across studies and meta-analysis will be performed if sufficient homogeneity exists across studies employing experimental randomized control trial designs. With the engagement of knowledge users in leadership and practice, we will synthesize the research from a broad range of disciplines to understand the key elements of leadership that supports and enables research use

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  2. The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence - Seventh edition Grove Susan K The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence - Seventh edition 752pp Elsevier 9781455707362 1455707368 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    This classic research text has been updated for nursing students and those in nursing practice. Though a substantial book, it is easy to dip in and out of, covering a wide range of topics from the research process and analysing data to sampling and seeking funding.

  3. STC synthesis of research results for water quality management at construction sites : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The RAC Region II has initiated a collaborative research program consortium through the : Transportation Pooled Fund (TPF) Program. The research program is called the Southeast : Transportation Consortium (STC) and is intended to encourage coordinati...

  4. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information......, the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  5. Time, Cost, Information Seeking Skills and Format of Resources Present Barriers to Information Seeking by Primary Care Practitioners in a Research Environment. A review of: Andrews James E., Kevin A. Pearce, Carol Ireson, and Margaret M. Love. “Information‐Seeking Behaviors of Practitioners in a Primary Care Practice‐Based Research Network (PBRN.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 93.2 (Apr. 2005: 206‐12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the information seeking behaviors of primary care practitioners in order to inform future efforts towards the design of information services that would support quality inprimary care.Design – A cross‐sectional survey.Setting – A primary care practice based research network (PBRN of caregivers who serve a broad population while simultaneously studying and disseminating innovations aimed at improvements in quality, efficiency and/or safety of primaryhealth care in the United States.Subjects – All primary care practitioners in the PBRN including family practitioners, general practitioners, nurse practitioners and physician assistants.Methods – A questionnaire comprising twenty‐six questions was distributed to 116 practitioners. Practitioners attached to academic centres (who were also members of the PBRN were excluded in order “to achieve a sample of practices more representative of the primary care practising population” (208. Descriptive data were collected and analyzed. SPSS v11.5 was used for statistical analyses.Main results – There was a response rate of 51% (59 of 116. Fifty‐eight percent of the respondents stated that they sought information (excluding drug dosing or drug interactions information to support patient care several times a week. Sixty‐eight per cent sought this information while the patient waited. Almost half of therespondents had access to a small medical library (48% or a hospital library (46%, while 21% used a university medical library.Approximately 14% had no immediate access to a medical library. Almost 60% of practitioners stated that they had an e‐mail account. Thirty‐four percent agreed that the use of e‐mail to communicate with patients enhanced medical practice, while 24% disagreed. There was frequent prescribing of Internet‐based consumer health information to patients by only 16% of the practitioners, while Internet support groups were frequently recommended

  6. A Synthesis of Research on Informational Text Reading Interventions for Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Lo, Yu-Ling Sabrina; Wanzek, Jeanne; Reed, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    This research synthesis was conducted to understand the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve learning from informational text for students with learning disabilities in elementary school (K-5). The authors identified 18 studies through a comprehensive search. The interventions were evaluated to determine treatment effects and to understand implementation and methodological variables that influenced outcomes. Moderate to large effect sizes on researcher-developed measures for cognitive strategy interventions were reported. Interventions that utilized graphic organizers as study guides to support social studies learning were also associated with improved outcomes. The findings are considered within the context of limited implementation of standardized measures. The authors extend findings from previous research by reporting a paucity of interventions to enhance higher-level cognitive and comprehension skills. The majority of reviewed studies targeted fact acquisition and main idea identification, and overall encouraging findings were noted for these skills. Implications for future research are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  7. Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory: A Virtual Organization for Transformative Research and Education on a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Hinzman, L.; Holland, M.; Murray, M. S.; Vörösmarty, C.; Loring, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    About the Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory The Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory concept, developed through a series of NSF-funded workshops and town hall meetings, is envisioned as a cyber-enabled, technical, organizational, and social-synthesis framework to foster: • Interactions among interdisciplinary experts and stakeholders • Integrated data analysis and modeling activities • Training and development of the arctic science community • Delivery of outreach, education, and policy-relevant resources Scientific Rationale The rapid rate of arctic change and our incomplete understanding of the arctic system present the arctic community with a grand scientific challenge and three related issues. First, a wealth of observations now exists as disconnected data holdings, which must be coordinated and synthesized to fully detect and assess arctic change. Second, despite great strides in the development of arctic system simulations, we still have incomplete capabilities for modeling and predicting the behavior of the system as a whole. Third, policy-makers, stakeholders, and the public are increasingly making demands of the science community for forecasts and guidance in mitigation and adaptation strategies. Collaboratory Components The Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory is organized around four integrated functions that will be established virtually as a distributed set of activities, but also with the advantage of existing facilities that could sponsor some of the identified activities. Community Network "Meeting Grounds:" The Collaboratory will link distributed individuals, organizations, and activities to enable collaboration and foster new research initiatives. Specific activities could include: an expert directory, social networking services, and virtual and face-to-face meetings. Data Integration, Synthesis, and Modeling Activities: The Collaboratory will utilize appropriate tools to enable the combination of data and models. Specific activities could include: a web

  8. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Elements for harnessing participatory action research to strengthen health managers' capacity: a critical interpretative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetui, Moses; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2018-04-19

    Health managers play a key role in ensuring that health services are responsive to the needs of the population. Participatory action research (PAR) is one of the approaches that have been used to strengthen managers' capacity. However, collated knowledge on elements for harnessing PAR to strengthen managers' capacity is missing. This paper bridges this gap by reviewing existing literature on the subject matter. A critical interpretive synthesis method was used to interrogate eight selected articles. These articles reported the use of PAR to strengthen health managers' capacity. The critical interpretive synthesis method's approach to analysis guided the synthesis. Here, the authors interpretively made connections and linkages between different elements identified in the literature. Finally, the Atun et al. (Heal Pol Plann, 25:104-111, 2010) framework on integration was used to model the elements synthesised in the literature into five main domains. Five elements with intricate bi-directional interactions were identified in the literature reviewed. These included a shared purpose, skilled facilitation and psychological safety, activity integration into organisational procedures, organisational support, and external supportive monitoring. A shared purpose of the managers' capacity strengthening initiative created commitment and motivation to learn. This purpose was built upon a set of facilitation skills that included promoting participation, self-efficacy and reflection, thereby creating a safe psychological space within which the managers interacted and learnt from each other and their actions. Additionally, an integrated intervention strengthened local capacity and harnessed organisational support for learning. Finally, supportive monitoring from external partners, such as researchers, ensured quality, building of local capacity and professional safety networks essential for continued learning. The five elements identified in this synthesis provide a basis upon

  10. Pharmaceutical supply chain models: A synthesis from a systems view of operations research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Settanni

    Full Text Available This research evaluates reconfiguration opportunities in Pharmaceutical Supply Chains (PSC resulting from technology interventions in manufacturing, and new, more patient-centric delivery models. A critical synthesis of the academic and practice literature is used to identify, conceptualise, analyse and categorise PSC models. From a theoretical perspective, a systems view of operations research is adopted to provide insights on a broader range of OR activities, from conceptual to mathematical modelling and model solving, up to implementation.The research demonstrates that: 1 current definitions of the PSC are largely production-centric and fail to capture patient consumption, and hence healthcare outcomes; 2 most PSC mathematical models lack adequate conceptualisation of the structure and behaviour of the supply chain, and the boundary conditions that need to be considered for a given problem; 3 models do not adequately specify current unit operations or future production technology options, and are therefore unable to address the critical questions around alternative product or process technologies; 4 economic evaluations are limited to direct costing, rather than systemic approaches such as supply chain costing and total cost of ownership.While current models of the PSC may help with the optimisation of specific unit operations, their theoretical benefits could be offset by the dynamics of complex upstream (supply and downstream (distribution and healthcare delivery systems. To overcome these limitations, this research provides initial directions towards an integrated systems approach to PSC modelling. This perspective involves problem conceptualisation and boundary definition; design, formulation and solution of mathematical models, through to practical implementation of identified solutions. For both academics and practitioners, research findings suggest a systems approach to PSC modelling can provide improved conceptualisation and

  11. Towards a Creative Synthesis of Participant Observation and Participatory Research: Reflections on Doing Research "with" and "on" Young Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Wright and Nelson's (1995) call for a "creative synthesis" of participant observation and participatory research, which may allow the limitations of both methods to be addressed. It does so by reflecting on the experience of doing long-term research both with and on young Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Although…

  12. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase I investigation 2001-2005. Volume 'geoscientific research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kunio; Abe, Hironobu; Kunimaru, Takanori

    2011-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe in Hokkaido, northern Japan. The project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. The present report summarises the results of the Phase I geoscientific research carried out from March 2001 to March 2005. Integration of the results from different disciplines ensures that the Phase I goals have been successfully achieved and identifies key issues that need to be addressed in Phases II and III. More importantly, efforts are made to summarise as many lessons learnt from the Phase I investigations and other technical achievements as possible to form a 'knowledge base' that will reinforce the technical basis for both implementation and the formulation of safety regulations. Based on experiences of selecting the URL area and site in Horonobe Town, important factors that should be taken into consideration in such selection processes and their rationale are demonstrated. In the course of stepwise surface-based investigations, a number of achievements have been made, which can eventually provide examples of integrated methodologies for characterising the sedimentary formations. The relevant surface-based investigation techniques have thus been further developed. The Horonobe URL has been designed based on geoscientific information accumulated during the surface-based investigations and the plans for safe construction and operation of the URL have been defined in a feasible manner. In addition, a variety of environmental measures taken during Phase I have proved to be

  13. Anniversary Article--Interactional Feedback in Second Language Teaching and Learning: A Synthesis and Analysis of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The role of interactional feedback has long been of interest to both second language acquisition researchers and teachers and has continued to be the object of intensive empirical and theoretical inquiry. In this article, I provide a synthesis and analysis of recent research and developments in this area and their contributions to second language…

  14. Social science to improve fuels management: a synthesis of research on the impacts of wildland fires on communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool; James Burchfield; Daniel R. Williams; Matt Carroll; Patricia Cohn; Yoshitaka Kumagai; Tam Ubben

    2007-01-01

    A series of syntheses were commissioned by the U.S. Forest Service to aid in fuels mitigation project planning. Focusing on research on the social impacts of wildland fire, this synthesis explores decisions and actions taken by communities before, during, and after a wildland fire to minimize its impacts. It then synthesizes the research studying (1) the consequences...

  15. The Actions of Teacher-Librarians Minimize or Reinforce Barriers to Adolescent Information Seeking. A Review of: Meyers, Eric M., Lisa P. Nathan, and Matthew L. Saxton. “Barriers to Information Seeking in School Libraries: Conflicts in Perceptions and Practice.” Information Research 12:2 (2007: paper 295.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study high school teacher-librarians and whether their actions and reactions are aligned with their perception of the role they play in creating an information seeking and learning environment.Design – Triangulation qualitative research undertaken over a 16 month period (Fall 2005 – 2007.Setting – Six high school libraries in the Puget Sound region of the state of Washington, United States.Subjects – Six teacher-librarians, each with a minimum of ten years experience and classroom teachers and students. This sample represented the range of school sizes, the rural, urban, and suburban mix, and the range of significant socioeconomic conditions (qualification for subsidized lunch and English as an additional language in the region.Methods – Four interviews of one to two hours were held with each teacher-librarian during school hours. Initial interviews were recorded by hand and a set question protocol was used (and included in the appendix. Questions were asked about their professional background and training; their job duties, day to day activities and priorities; their perceptions as to how others (e.g., peers and administrators support the library; the goals of their library’s services; how students use the library; and their critical assessment of their role. Subsequent interviews were undertaken within two days of a classroom visit to the library and also followed a set protocol of questions (Appendix D. The second set of interviews was audio recorded and transcribed. Two classroom teachers from each school were interviewed for 30 minutes and audio recorded using a set interview protocol (Appendix C within two days of class participation in library instruction. Library observations ranging from two to three hours each occurred during a minimum of seven randomized times at each library. These observation sessions typically included class instructional sessions of thirty to ninety minutes. The observation protocols

  16. Protocol for a thematic synthesis to identify key themes and messages from a palliative care research network.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, Emma

    2016-10-21

    Research networks that facilitate collaborative research are increasing both regionally and globally and such collaborations contribute greatly to knowledge transfer particularly in health research. The Palliative Care Research Network is an Irish-based network that seeks to create opportunities and engender a collaborative environment to encourage innovative research that is relevant for policy and practice. The current review outlines a methodology to identify cross-cutting messages to identify how dissemination outputs can be optimized to ensure that key messages from this research reaches all knowledge users.

  17. Skills Decay in Military Medical Training: A Meta-synthesis of Research Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Amber S; Caridha, Jona; Kunkler, Kevin J

    2018-01-01

    In fiscal year 2012, the Medical Simulation and Information Sciences Research Program released two Skills Decay (SD) research program announcements (PAs) under the Medical Readiness Initiative entitled "Medical Practice Initiative Breadth of Medical Practice & Disease Frequency Exposure (MPI-BMP)" and the "Medical Practice Initiative Procedural Skill Decay and Maintenance (MPI-PSD)." The Office of Naval Research also released a PA entitled "Medical Modeling and Simulation (MM&S) for Military Training and Education." A total investment of $12 M was made. This article provides a meta-synthesis of the Skills Decay research conducted under these efforts. The MSIRRP Medical Simulation Portfolio collected, reviewed, and analyzed the final reports of the Skills Decay research efforts from the three PAs. This paper provides a meta-synthesis of the outcomes of those studies. Focus of this study was to determine if the anticipated goals of the Skills Decay PAs were met as well as to provide a summary of lessons learned to the research community. Fourteen research questions posed by the PAs were structured into four main goals: (1) Skills Decay identification, (2) creation/validity of Skills Decay tools and feasibility and viability of data extraction project, (3) refreshment training to prevent or alleviate Skills Decay project, and (4) Skills Decay education content. Using a combination of training styles, choosing variables known to have Skills Decay predication value, and developing better ways of mining available data that can, in turn, provide feedback to training needs, it is possible for accurate Skills Decay models to be developed. These technologies have the ability not only capture the learner's reaction during the simulation, but to capture the simulation outcomes to predict a medical professional's level of experience and background. Lessons learned from the investments made by the government are extremely important in order to ensure that the outcomes of the

  18. I sleep, because we sleep: a synthesis on the role of culture in sleep behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Iwelunmor, J I; Ezepue, C J; Williams, N J; Jean-Louis, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the literature on the cultural aspects of sleep and their relevance to behavioral sleep research. A narrative synthesis of the existing literature on sleep was conducted with a focus on its biological, sociological, political, and anthropological aspects. This synthesis was guided by the PEN-3 cultural model, developed by the primary author. The findings highlight the cross-cultural contexts within which people sleep and the role of varied sleeping arrangements in influencing sleep behavior and perspectives. Furthermore, the contexts in which sleep occurs, coupled with the influence of the family, and the positive aspects of sleep helped illustrate why cultural aspects of sleep are vital for a broader understanding of sleep. The authors conclude by highlighting the need to integrate studies on the biological, sociological, and political aspects of sleep. Our examination of the literature strongly suggests that careful assessment of epidemiological and clinical sleep data should consider the cultural aspects of sleep as well as the context in which sleep occurs, the role of the family, and positive aspects of sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A synthesis of qualitative research exploring the barriers to staying in work with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Barker, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research can help to advance our understanding, management and prevention of work disability. Our aim was to integrate qualitative research findings in order to increase our understanding of barriers to stay in work with chronic pain. We searched five electronic bibliographic databases until September 2012, supplemented by citation tracking and hand-searching. We used meta-ethnography to synthesis our findings. Central to meta-ethnography is identifying “concepts” and developing a conceptual model. Concepts were compared and organised into categories. The following categories can have an impact on the decision to remain in work: struggling to affirm myself as a good worker; balancing life and work in the face of unpredictable symptoms; my work colleagues don't believe me; the system does not facilitate return to work; the battle for legitimacy. Our innovation is to present an internationally relevant model based on a conceptual synthesis. This model highlights the adversarial work experience of people with chronic. The papers span 15 years of qualitative research. A significant finding is that these themes continue to pervade the current work environment for those in pain, and this has clear implications for education, social care and policy. People with chronic pain face an adversarial struggle to maintain their credibility at work. Strategies to maintain personal credibility can have an adverse effect on working lives. Changes at a systems level are needed to facilitate continuance and return to work. Cultural changes in the way that we view people with pain would help to keep people in work.

  20. The substance of love when encountering suffering: an interpretative research synthesis with an abductive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Kari Marie; Eriksson, Katie; Råholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    This study presents the results of an interpretative research synthesis undertaken to explore the essence of love when encountering suffering. The idea of caring as an expression of love and compassion belongs with ideas that have shaped caring for hundreds of years. Love and suffering are the core concepts in caring science and thus demand a basic research approach. The synthesis was undertaken by the interpretation of 15 articles focusing on love in different aspects, but within a caring science perspective. The research process was guided by a hermeneutical perspective with an abductive approach. The substance of love, when encountering suffering, reveals itself in three themes: love as a holy power, love as fundamental for being and love as an ethical act, which are to be found, respectively, within three dimensions: love as holiness, love as a communion and love as an art. Love is a holy power and encompasses everything; it is the well of strength that heals. No human can exist without love: this points to the ethical responsibility one has as a neighbour. In the ethical act, love is evident in concrete caring actions. The core of the substance of love within the three dimensions can be understood as agape. Agape connects and mirrors the dimensions, while at the same time it is clear that agape stems from and moves towards holiness, enabling love to be the ethical foundation when encountering suffering. Through the dimensions of love as communion and love as an art agape intertwine with eros forming caritas enabling the human being to move towards the dimension of holiness, which signifies becoming through suffering. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Pleasure seeking and birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V

    2011-10-01

    Songbirds sing at high rates within multiple contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to communicate and that the act of singing itself may be rewarding. Little is known about the neural regulation of the motivation to communicate. Dopamine and opioid neuropeptides play a primary role in reward seeking and sensory pleasure. In songbirds, these neurochemicals are found within brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several lines of research indicate that dopamine and opioids in these regions play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is used to attract females (female-directed song) or is not directed towards other individuals (undirected song). Evidence is reviewed supporting the hypotheses: (1) that distinct patterns of dopamine activity influence the motivation to produce undirected and female-directed song, (2) that undirected communication is intrinsically reinforced by immediate release of opioids induced by the act of singing, and (3) that directed communication is socially reinforced by opioids released as part of social interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A synthesis of convergent reflections, tensions and silences in linking gender and global environmental change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Ravera, Federica; Buechler, Stephanie; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Fernández-Giménez, María E; Reed, Maureen G; Thompson-Hall, Mary; Wilmer, Hailey; Aregu, Lemlem; Cohen, Philippa; Djoudi, Houria; Lawless, Sarah; Martín-López, Berta; Smucker, Thomas; Villamor, Grace B; Wangui, Elizabeth Edna

    2016-12-01

    This synthesis article joins the authors of the special issue "Gender perspectives in resilience, vulnerability and adaptation to global environmental change" in a common reflective dialogue about the main contributions of their papers. In sum, here we reflect on links between gender and feminist approaches to research in adaptation and resilience in global environmental change (GEC). The main theoretical contributions of this special issue are threefold: emphasizing the relevance of power relations in feminist political ecology, bringing the livelihood and intersectionality approaches into GEC, and linking resilience theories and critical feminist research. Empirical insights on key debates in GEC studies are also highlighted from the nine cases analysed, from Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and the Pacific. Further, the special issue also contributes to broaden the gender approach in adaptation to GEC by incorporating research sites in the Global North alongside sites from the Global South. This paper examines and compares the main approaches adopted (e.g. qualitative or mixed methods) and the methodological challenges that derive from intersectional perspectives. Finally, key messages for policy agendas and further research are drawn from the common reflection.

  3. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Michael C; Raker, Jeffrey R; Kobilka, Brandon; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2014-01-14

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world.

  4. Mergers and acquisitions: A synthesis of theories and directions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissal Ben Letaifa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review a synthesis of theories and empirical studies dealing with the mergers and acquisitions in the recent decay in an attempt to provide directions for future research. The review focuses on four main streams including: first, the motives for mergers-acquisitions; which are the strategic profits, the overconfidence of managers and the desire to create a big empire resulting from merger. From second, corporate characteristics of firms that did merger or acquisition; third, the economic consequences of the operation of merger and acquisition and finally; fourth, the implication on the market with the impact of merger on the value of the firm. We think that this article can give another idea about the information disclosed by any company choosing to merge and can be analyzed by practitioners by giving them the theoretical background of the merger and acquisition problem.

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Gruen, Dieter M; Vul', Alexander Ya; Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond

    2005-01-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) is one of the important members of the triad of nanostructured carbons, which includes fullerenes and nanotubes. UNCD with characteristic sizes of primary particles less than 10 nm occurs in two forms: as a dispersed powder made by detonation techniques and as a chemical vapor deposited film. This book for the first time combines results of research pursued by the two communities of scientists, which up to now, have been working rather independently and largely unaware of the vast synergistic relationships existing between them. It is particularly noteworthy that much of the Russian work on disperse UNCD is available here in English for the first time. The outstanding experts in the two fields are represented in this volume discussing the basic theoretical concepts underlying the synthesis and characterization of these nanomaterials and describing progress that has been made in several areas of applications such as nanocomposites, selective adsorbents, colloidal suspensions...

  6. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    El Mokhtar Essassi; R. Bouhfid; Y. Kandri Rodi; S. Ferfra; H. Benzeid; Y. Ramli

    2010-01-01

    Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  7. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Immunization and appropriate health-seeking behavior are effective strategies to reduce child ..... be cured in the hospital which the TBA can cure like 'iru inu'. ... with a rural nurse) Rural Indian mothers were also.

  8. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinis, Sylvie; Lalieux, Philippe; Thury, Marc; Horseman, Steve

    2001-01-01

    To prevent radioactive contamination and undue exposure to the public, it is required that long-lived and/or high-level radioactive wastes be isolated from the human environment for a very long period of time. For the purpose of isolating such wastes, the basic concept of deep disposal is to place packaged waste in a geological formation such as clay. One of main functions of the geological formation is to isolate waste from moving groundwater, thus minimising lixiviation of waste and advective radionuclide transport and, hence the amount of radionuclides that could reach the human environment. Improving our understanding of processes that might affect the containment properties of the geological barrier can reduce uncertainties about the performance of the repository. In particular, during the stepwise development of the research programme, it is important to clarify if fractures that might be induced by the excavation of the underground facilities might have a significant impact on the radiological safety of a repository in a host formation such as clay. In this framework, the self- healing properties of argillaceous media - often quoted as one of the advantages of such host formations - play a major role, notably in reducing the long-term impacts of such induced fracturing. Twenty-six participants representing several national waste management organisations, regulatory authorities, government agencies and the academic community from the OECD member countries and the EC took part in the Topical Session. The session was mainly aimed at exchanging information on: The general point of view on self-healing from geomechanical and geochemical experts; The approaches that are or will be followed by the various organisations in order to deal with the self-healing. The geological settings covered in the presentations related to the whole range of argillaceous media relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes, including poorly indurated clays and indurated mud

  9. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report outlines the energy research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The report is the result of the research project Competitive policies in the Nordic Energy Research and Innovation Area (eNERGIA). The project was co-funded by Nordic Energy Research and NIFU STEP. The objective of the project was to determine possible policy interventions targeted at the development and commercial promotion of promising renewable energy production technologies in the Nordic countries. The report is based on an analysis of the framework conditions for the sector innovation systems for energy production, with a focus on research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries. We identified the key actors and institutions in all the eight countries studied. In addition, we conducted a performance assessment based on the quantitative indicators of publishing and patenting, international collaboration and funding data. Using these indicators as a basis, we conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Nordic sector innovation systems for energy production. This analysis identified common or diverging characteristics, challenges, framework conditions, energy-technology specialisation and, most important of all, cases of good practice in key technologies. The project included two workshops, and the results of these are also reported here. The outcomes of the workshops have been used in several parts of the project: A Nordic workshop on the environmental consequences of deployment at scale of these technologies to replace existing energy systems, with a focus on wind energy and photovoltaic energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and second-generation bioenergy. A Nordic workshop on policy implications for Nordic Energy Research. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports

  10. Managing lifestyle change to reduce coronary risk: a synthesis of qualitative research on peoples’ experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease is an incurable condition. The only approach known to slow its progression is healthy lifestyle change and concordance with cardio-protective medicines. Few people fully succeed in these daily activities so potential health improvements are not fully realised. Little is known about peoples’ experiences of managing lifestyle change. The aim of this study was to synthesise qualitative research to explain how participants make lifestyle change after a cardiac event and explore this within the wider illness experience. Methods A qualitative synthesis was conducted drawing upon the principles of meta-ethnography. Qualitative studies were identified through a systematic search of 7 databases using explicit criteria. Key concepts were identified and translated across studies. Findings were discussed and diagrammed during a series of audiotaped meetings. Results The final synthesis is grounded in findings from 27 studies, with over 500 participants (56% male) across 8 countries. All participants experienced a change in their self-identity from what was ‘familiar’ to ‘unfamiliar’. The transition process involved ‘finding new limits and a life worth living’ , ‘finding support for self’ and ‘finding a new normal’. Analyses of these concepts led to the generation of a third order construct, namely an ongoing process of ‘reassessing past, present and future lives’ as participants considered their changed identity. Participants experienced a strong urge to get back to ‘normal’. Support from family and friends could enable or constrain life change and lifestyle changes. Lifestyle change was but one small part of a wider ‘life’ change that occurred. Conclusions The final synthesis presents an interpretation, not evident in the primary studies, of a person-centred model to explain how lifestyle change is situated within ‘wider’ life changes. The magnitude of individual responses to a changed health status

  11. Managing lifestyle change to reduce coronary risk: a synthesis of qualitative research on peoples' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Felicity; Horrocks, Judith; Closs, S Jose

    2014-08-05

    Coronary heart disease is an incurable condition. The only approach known to slow its progression is healthy lifestyle change and concordance with cardio-protective medicines. Few people fully succeed in these daily activities so potential health improvements are not fully realised. Little is known about peoples' experiences of managing lifestyle change. The aim of this study was to synthesise qualitative research to explain how participants make lifestyle change after a cardiac event and explore this within the wider illness experience. A qualitative synthesis was conducted drawing upon the principles of meta-ethnography. Qualitative studies were identified through a systematic search of 7 databases using explicit criteria. Key concepts were identified and translated across studies. Findings were discussed and diagrammed during a series of audiotaped meetings. The final synthesis is grounded in findings from 27 studies, with over 500 participants (56% male) across 8 countries. All participants experienced a change in their self-identity from what was 'familiar' to 'unfamiliar'. The transition process involved 'finding new limits and a life worth living' , 'finding support for self' and 'finding a new normal'. Analyses of these concepts led to the generation of a third order construct, namely an ongoing process of 'reassessing past, present and future lives' as participants considered their changed identity. Participants experienced a strong urge to get back to 'normal'. Support from family and friends could enable or constrain life change and lifestyle changes. Lifestyle change was but one small part of a wider 'life' change that occurred. The final synthesis presents an interpretation, not evident in the primary studies, of a person-centred model to explain how lifestyle change is situated within 'wider' life changes. The magnitude of individual responses to a changed health status varied. Participants experienced distress as their notion of self identity

  12. Governance of complex environmental situations through social learning: a synthesis of SLIM's lessons for research, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyaert, P.; Jiggins, Janice

    2007-01-01

    This synthesis of the SLIM project findings deals with the development and deployment of knowledge and research that is useful for actions that transform at socially and ecologically meaningful scales. A diagnostic framework (DF) is elaborated that aims to transform the findings into a tool that

  13. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  14. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada - Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  15. The dignity of the nursing profession: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Laura; Stievano, Alessandro; Rocco, Gennaro; Kallio, Hanna; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Kangasniemi, Mari K

    2014-09-01

    Nursing continues to gain legitimation epistemologically and ontologically as a scientific discipline throughout the world. If a profession gains respect as a true autonomous scientific profession, then this recognition has to be put in practice in all environments and geographical areas. Nursing professional dignity, as a self-regarding concept, does not have a clear definition in the literature, and it has only begun to be analyzed in the last 10 years. The purpose of this meta-synthesis was to determine the various factors that constitute the notion of nursing professional dignity. The target was to create a tentative model of the concept. The research design was a meta-synthesis (N = 15 original articles) of nursing professional dignity described in the literature, based on the guidelines by Noblit and Hare. Original studies were sought out from electronic databases and manual searches. The selection of literature was conducted on stages based on titles (n = 2595), abstracts (n = 70), and full-texts (n = 15) according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From this analysis, a clear definition of nursing professional dignity emerged that underscored two main macro-dimensions constituting this intertwined, multidimensional, and complex notion: characteristics of the human beings and workplace elements. The recognition of nursing professional dignity could have a positive impact on patients because the results clearly showed that nurses are more prone to foster patients' dignity, patients' safety, and a better quality of care if their own dignity is respected. If nurses are uncomfortable, humiliated, or not seen in their professional role, it is difficult to give to others good care, good support, or good relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System as a Functional Communication Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Practice-Based Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Kai-Chien

    2008-01-01

    This research synthesis verifies the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for improving the functional communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research synthesis was focused on the degree to which variations in PECS training are associated with variations in functional…

  17. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 635. Anisotropic Nanoparticles - Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyon, L

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at Symposium C, "Anisotropic Nanoparticles Synthesis, Characterization and Applications," at the 2000 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts...

  18. The nature of outsourced preclinical research--the example of chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festel, Gunter W

    2013-09-01

    The possibility to buy standardized external services or even new and innovative methods within drug discovery has increased dramatically during the last decades. Service providers are able to provide timely and efficient solutions to any given problem within preclinical research. The outsourcing behavior depends on the specific company type. Generally, the outsourcing level of emerging pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies is much higher than established companies due to low or missing internal resources. Whereas the "make-or-buy" decisions of large and fully integrated pharmaceutical companies are mainly competency driven, those of mid-size and small pharmaceutical, as well as biotech companies show a specific combination of cost/capacity and competency. The three different cooperation models "price competition", "project selection," and "strategic partnership" were identified. For all types of companies, the cooperation model of "strategic partnership" offers access to high-level expertise while reducing fixed costs and complexity. This was shown using chemical synthesis as an example but is also true for other areas of preclinical research.

  19. Assessing elements of an extended evolutionary synthesis for plant domestication and agricultural origin research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R.

    2017-01-01

    The development of agricultural societies, one of the most transformative events in human and ecological history, was made possible by plant and animal domestication. Plant domestication began 12,000–10,000 y ago in a number of major world areas, including the New World tropics, Southwest Asia, and China, during a period of profound global environmental perturbations as the Pleistocene epoch ended and transitioned into the Holocene. Domestication is at its heart an evolutionary process, and for many prehistorians evolutionary theory has been foundational in investigating agricultural origins. Similarly, geneticists working largely with modern crops and their living wild progenitors have documented some of the mechanisms that underwrote phenotypic transformations from wild to domesticated species. Ever-improving analytic methods for retrieval of empirical data from archaeological sites, together with advances in genetic, genomic, epigenetic, and experimental research on living crop plants and wild progenitors, suggest that three fields of study currently little applied to plant domestication processes may be necessary to understand these transformations across a range of species important in early prehistoric agriculture. These fields are phenotypic (developmental) plasticity, niche construction theory, and epigenetics with transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. All are central in a controversy about whether an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis is needed to reconceptualize how evolutionary change occurs. An exploration of their present and potential utility in domestication study shows that all three fields have considerable promise in elucidating important issues in plant domestication and in agricultural origin and dispersal research and should be increasingly applied to these issues. PMID:28576881

  20. Putting research in place: an innovative approach to providing contextualized evidence synthesis for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bornstein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP, developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. Methods As an integrated knowledge translation (KT method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies. Although it was developed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the CHRSP methodology is adaptable to a variety of settings with distinctive features, such as those in rural, remote, and small-town locations. Results CHRSP has published 25 syntheses on priority topics chosen by the provincial healthcare system, including: Clinical and cost-effectiveness: telehealth, rural renal dialysis, point-of-care testing; Community-based health services: helping seniors age in place, supporting seniors with dementia, residential treatment centers for at-risk youth; Healthcare organization/service delivery: reducing acute-care length of stay, promoting flu vaccination among health workers, safe patient handling, age-friendly acute care; and Health promotion: diabetes prevention, promoting healthy dietary habits. These studies have been used by decision makers to inform local policy and practice decisions. Conclusions By asking the health

  1. Intersecting Interests: Qualitative Research Synthesis on Art in the Social Work Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wehbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a qualitative research synthesis that explored the intersections between art and social work. The scholarship notes a rise in interest in integrating creative arts practices in social work classrooms from assignment design to classroom activities. Also highlighted are the potential contributions of these arts-informed practices to teaching about topics related to oppression. The synthesis presented in this paper explored this potential through an interpretivist analysis of articles on the intersection of art and social work. Findings highlight the contribution of this approach to enhancing student engagement and critical reflexivity; creating a sense of collectivity and solidarity in the classroom; as well as transforming the role of the educator. Findings suggest the need for further research to explore the potential contributions of arts-informed approaches in social work education beyond a single classroom. Cet article présente la synthèse d’une recherche qualitative qui a exploré les intersections entre l’art et le travail social. Les recherches effectuées indiquent qu’il existe une augmentation de l’intérêt à intégrer les pratiques des arts créatifs dans les salles de classe de travail social, allant de la conception des devoirs aux activités en salle de classe. Les contributions potentielles de ces pratiques qui intègrent l’art à l’enseignement de sujets liés à l’oppression sont également mises en relief. Les synthèses présentées dans cet article explorent ce potentiel par le biais d’une analyse interprétative d’articles qui se situent à l’intersection de l’art et du travail social. Les résultats mettent en relief la contribution de cette approche à l’amélioration de l’engagement des étudiants et de la réflexion critique; à la création d’un sens de collectivité et de solidarité dans la salle de classe; ainsi qu’à la transformation du rôle de l

  2. Postsecondary study and mental ill-health: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research exploring students' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennals, Priscilla; Fossey, Ellie; Howie, Linsey

    2015-04-01

    The postsecondary educational experiences of students living with mental health issues are not well understood. Existing studies are generally qualitative, small and context-specific in nature, and individually have limited influence on policy and practice. To identify and synthesise the findings of qualitative studies exploring student views of studying while living with mental ill-health. A systematic search of six electronic databases including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO and Medline up to March 2013 was conducted. Findings were extracted from included studies and combined using qualitative meta-synthesis to identify core processes. The search identified 16 studies from five countries, with a total of 231 participants. Meta-synthesis of the findings revealed three common core processes: (1) knowing oneself and managing one's mental illness, (2) negotiating the social space, and (3) doing the academic work required for successful postsecondary participation. Beyond the learning processes that underpin studying, these findings suggest knowing oneself and negotiating social spaces of educational settings are key processes for students living with mental ill-health seeking to survive and thrive in postsecondary education. With increased awareness of these processes, students and policy makers may conceive new ways to optimise student experiences of postsecondary study.

  3. Smart Tools for Academic Information Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva Koponen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic information seeking is an essential part of academic work. Research and information seeking go hand in hand, and both need planning. In the academic world you can hardly avoid the research plan, but you probably won’t hear that much about the information seeking plan. The information seeking plan guides you through the research process from the first sparks of an idea to the last dot in the bibliography from the point of view of the often invisible process of systematic information seeking. Systematic Information Seeking Framework designed in the Jyväskylä University Library has its roots in Carol Kuhlthau's Guided Inquiry Design Process. Our model, designed for more contextual adjustability, is presented in our Library Tutorial (https://koppa.jyu.fi/avoimet/kirjasto/en/library-tutorial, an open self-study material. The process starts with “Defining the topic and finding search terms”. This stage requires extensive reading about the subject matter, understanding the basic differences between everyday knowledge and scientific knowledge and distinguishing information resources for different kinds of needs. Analysis of concepts and understanding of their contextuality are at the core of scientific knowledge. With the information seeking plan and a mind map one can work on the search terms, discover connections and construct search statements for different resources and the search strategies they require. The second section is about “Finding sources”, which students often understand as the starting point for systematic information seeking. Knowledge of the publication cultures in different disciplines guide the information seeker to the different types of sources needed. Finally, “Citing and managing references”. One of the most essential skills in all academic work is the appropriate use of scientific sources, citing and managing references correctly. As academic dishonesty hurts the whole community, academic fraud, e

  4. Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes and Barriers to Help-Seeking in Young People in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koydemir, Selda; Erel, Ozge; Yumurtaci, Duygu; Sahin, Gozde Nur

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research sought to understand the needs of Turkish university students related to adjustment to university, the sources they seek help from, their attitudes about and barriers to psychological help-seeking. Data analysis of interview transcriptions from 15 undergraduates identified several themes. Interpersonal problems,…

  5. Research algorithm for synthesis of double conjugation optical systems in the Gauss region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Ostrun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the research of variable magnification optical systems of sophistic class - so-called double conjugation systems. When the magnification changes, they provide two pairs of fixed conjugate planes, namely object and image, as well as entrance and exit pupils. Similar systems are used in microscopy and complex schemes, where it is necessary to conform the pupils of contiguous removable optical components. Synthesis of double conjugation systems in Gauss region is not an easy task. To ensure complete immobility of the exit pupil in the system there should be three movable components or components with variable optical power.Analysis of the literature shows that the design of double conjugation optical system in the paraxial region has been neglected, all methods are not completely universal and suitable for automation.Based on the foregoing, the research and development of a universal method for automated synthesis of double conjugation systems in Gauss region formulated as an objective of the present work seem to be a challenge.To achieve this goal a universal algorithm is used. It is based on the fact that the output coordinates of paraxial rays are multilinear functions of optical surfaces and of axial thicknesses between surfaces. It allows us to create and solve a system of multilinear equations in semi-automatic mode to achieve the chosen values of paraxial characteristics.As a basic scheme for the synthesis a five-component system has been chosen with extreme fixed components and three mobile "internal" ones. The system was considered in two extreme states of moving parts. Initial values of axial thicknesses were taken from Hopkins' patent. Optical force five components were considered unknown. For calculation the system of five equations was created, which allowed us to obtain a certain back focal length, to provide the specified focal length and a fixed position of the exit pupil at a fixed entrance pupil.The scheme

  6. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    A general theory of information seeking behaviour must include an outline of an evolutionary theory of how organisms have adapted their cognitive apparatus to the demands raised in order to cope with their environments. It should describe important qualitative stages in this development and explain...

  7. Research work of radiation induced graft polymerization for synthesis and modification of polymer materials in CRICI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Fumin; Ma Xueming [Chenguan Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Chengdu (China)

    2000-03-01

    The direct and post radiation induced graft polymerization had been studied in CRICI (Chenguan Research Institute of Chemical Industry). The method consists of irradiation of various polymer substrates in the presence (or absence) of monomers in a liquid, saturated vapour or gaseous and non-saturated vapour. 1. Grafting of functional monomers. --- It is possible to divide the grafting into two main approaches for synthesis of functional polymer materials. The first is grafting of monomers attached required functional group such as unsaturated carboxylic acid (acrylic and methacrylic acid), unsaturated nitrogen containing (alkali) base (vinylpyridine), monomers with hydrophilic unionized and polar groups (acrylamide, N-vinylpyrrolidone glycidylmethacrylate) and so on. The second is grafting of monomers capable of continuing chemical modification after graft polymerization. This approach essentially expands synthetic possibility of RGP for preparing functional polymers. 2. The effect of some salts on aqueous solution graft polymerization. The grafting of AA or AAm onto PE by direct or post radiation method in the presence of Mohr's salt or cupric nitrate was studied in detail. 3. Radiation induced graft polymerization by gaseous phase of monomers. This method consists of irradiation or preirradiation of various polymer substrates in the presence (or absence for preirradiation) of monomer in a gaseous of nonsaturated vapour state. (J.P.N.)

  8. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Janice; Brazier, John; O'Cathain, Alicia; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy; Paisley, Suzy

    2012-11-22

    To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or 'ill-being' were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  9. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connell Janice

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  10. Research work of radiation induced graft polymerization for synthesis and modification of polymer materials in CRICI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Fumin; Ma Xueming

    2000-01-01

    The direct and post radiation induced graft polymerization had been studied in CRICI (Chenguan Research Institute of Chemical Industry). The method consists of irradiation of various polymer substrates in the presence (or absence) of monomers in a liquid, saturated vapour or gaseous and non-saturated vapour. 1. Grafting of functional monomers. --- It is possible to divide the grafting into two main approaches for synthesis of functional polymer materials. The first is grafting of monomers attached required functional group such as unsaturated carboxylic acid (acrylic and methacrylic acid), unsaturated nitrogen containing (alkali) base (vinylpyridine), monomers with hydrophilic unionized and polar groups (acrylamide, N-vinylpyrrolidone glycidylmethacrylate) and so on. The second is grafting of monomers capable of continuing chemical modification after graft polymerization. This approach essentially expands synthetic possibility of RGP for preparing functional polymers. 2. The effect of some salts on aqueous solution graft polymerization. The grafting of AA or AAm onto PE by direct or post radiation method in the presence of Mohr's salt or cupric nitrate was studied in detail. 3. Radiation induced graft polymerization by gaseous phase of monomers. This method consists of irradiation or preirradiation of various polymer substrates in the presence (or absence for preirradiation) of monomer in a gaseous of nonsaturated vapour state. (J.P.N.)

  11. Study Describes Research Scientists’ Information Seeking Behaviour, but Methodological Issues Make Usefulness as Evidence Debatable. A Review of: Hemminger, B.M., Lu, D., Vaughan, K.T.L., & Adams, S. J. (2007. Information seeking behavior of academic scientists. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(14, 2205‐2225.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the transition to electronic communication in information‐seeking behaviour of academic scientists.Design – Census survey.Setting – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a large public research university.Subjects – Nine hundred two faculty, research staff, and graduate students involved in research in basic or medical science departments. Participants self‐selected (26% from 3523 recruited. The sample reflected the larger population in terms of gender, age, university position, and department.Methods – The authors developed a web‐based survey and delivered it via PHP Survey Tool. They developed the questions to parallel similar earlier studies to allow for comparative analysis. The survey included 28 main questions with some questions including further follow‐up questions depending on the initial answer. The instrument included three initial questions designed to reveal the participant’s place and role in the university, and further coding classified participants’ department as either basic or medical science. The questions included categorical, continuous, and open‐ended types. While most questions focused on the scientists’ information seeking behaviour, the three final open‐ended questions asked about their opinions of the library and ideal searching environment. Answers were transferred into a MySQL database, then imported into SAS to generate simple descriptive statistics.Main Results – Participants reported easy access to online resources, and a strong preference for conducting research online, even when access to a physical library is convenient. Infrequent visits to the library predominantly took place to utilize materials not available online, although the third most common answer for visiting was to take advantage of the library building as a quiet reading space (14%. Additional questions revealed both type and specifics of most popular sources for research, preferred

  12. Food Safety at Farmers' Markets: A Knowledge Synthesis of Published Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Thaivalappil, Abhinand; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy

    2017-12-01

    Farmers' markets are increasingly popular venues in North America for the sale of fresh produce and other foods. However, the nature of their operation can present possible food safety issues, challenges, and risks to consumers. A knowledge synthesis was conducted to identify, characterize, and summarize published research on the microbial food safety issues and implications associated with farmers' markets. A scoping review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy, relevance screening of abstracts, and characterization of relevant articles. Two subsets of data were prioritized for more detailed systematic review (data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment) and meta-analysis: (i) studies comparing the microbial safety of foods from farmers' markets versus other sources and (ii) studies evaluating the use of food safety practices at farmers' markets. Overall, 83 relevant studies were identified. The majority of studies were published as journal articles (64%), used a cross-sectional design (81%), and were conducted in the United States (78%). Most studies (39%; n = 32) investigated stakeholder, mostly consumer (n = 22), attitudes toward food safety at farmers' markets. Limited but heterogeneous evidence indicated a higher prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken meat from farmers' markets versus other retail sources, but there was no difference in the microbial contamination of fresh produce. Studies evaluating the use of food safety practices at farmers' markets identified some gaps; for example, the average prevalence of vendor hand washing was 4% (95% confidence interval: 0 to 11%; I 2 = 27%; n = 5 studies). Twelve foodborne outbreaks and case reports were identified, resulting in a total of 411 illnesses, 38 hospitalizations, and two deaths from 1994 to 2016. Only five intervention studies were identified. Key knowledge gaps and areas warranting future research, training, and education are highlighted and discussed.

  13. Intention to seek information on cancer genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Andrews

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The public has a high interest in seeking personal genetic information, which holds implications for health information seeking research and health care policy. Rapid advances in cancer genetics research promise early detection, prevention and treatment, yet consumers may have greater difficulty finding and using the information they may need to make informed decisions regarding their personal health and the future of their families. Design. A statewide telephone survey was conducted of non-institutionalized Kentucky residents 18 years of age or older to investigate factors associated with the intention to seek cancer genetics information, including the need for such information seeking help. Results. The results show that intention to seek cancer genetics information, if testing were readily available, is moderately high (62.5% of those responding; n=835, and that status as a racial minority, the perception that cancer runs in one's family, and frequent worrying about cancer risk are statistically significant predictors of intent to seek genetics information. Conclusion. . We argue that an already complex health information environment will be even more difficult for individuals to navigate as genetic research becomes more ubiquitous in health care. An increase in demand for genetics information in various forms, as suggested by these results and those of other studies, implies that enduring intervention strategies are needed to help individuals acquire necessary health information literacy skills, with special attention given to racial minorities.

  14. Synthesis and research of products of epichlorhydrin interaction with N-protected dipeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, M.B.; Yusupov, T.Yu.; Radjabov, S.I.; Kimsanov, B.Kh.

    2006-01-01

    The clause of the new method of synthesis of new connections of epichlorhydrin with the rests is dipeptides given which the group protected amines. The physics determined by chemical methods structure of the received connection

  15. Seeking an African Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2008-07-01

    A new postgraduate centre for maths and computer science is set to open in the Nigerian capital of Abuja this month as part of an ambitious plan to find the "next Einstein" in Africa. The centre will provide advanced training to graduate students from across Africa in maths and related fields. It will seek to attract the best young African scientists and nurture their talents as problem-solvers and teachers.

  16. Rent-seeking behaviors in property development: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suhaila; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature on rent-seeking behaviors in property development, and discusses three major areas: (1) definition and concept of rent-seeking; (2) factors for the rent-seeking behavior appeared; and (3) the impact of rent-seeking behaviors, particularly on property development. In general, there is no exact word that can define what rent-seeking is. It is found that from the reviewed studies that a few researches have adopted search tasks to predict rent-seeking behavior effects in the economy and the respective economic performance. Based on the findings of the review, rent-seeking behavior increases social cost and this might lead to problems such as corruption. This paper paves the way for future studies in examining rent-seeking behaviors in the Malaysian property development, especially for targeted actions to be taken to alleviate upward pressure on home prices.

  17. The use of meta-analysis or research synthesis to combine driving simulation or naturalistic study results on driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Johnston, Katherine A; Willness, Chelsea R; Asbridge, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Three important and inter-related topics are addressed in this paper. First, the importance of meta-analysis and research synthesis methods to combine studies on traffic safety, in general, and on driver distraction, in particular, is briefly reviewed. Second, naturalistic, epidemiologic, and driving simulation studies on driver distraction are used to illustrate convergent and divergent results that have accumulated thus far in this domain of research. In particular, mobile phone conversation, passenger presence, and text messaging naturalistic studies use meta-analyses and research syntheses to illustrate important patterns of results that are in need of more in-depth study. Third, a number of driver distraction study limitations such as poorly defined dependent variables, lack of methodological detail, and omission of statistical information prevent the integration of many studies into meta-analyses. In addition, the overall quality of road safety studies suffers from these same limitations and suggestions for improvement are made to guide researchers and reviewers. Practical Applications. The use of research synthesis and meta-analysis provide comprehensive estimates of the impact of distractions on driving performance, which can be used to guide public policy and future research. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Graphic organizers and their effects on the reading comprehension of students with LD: a synthesis of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ae-Hwa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wei, Shangjin

    2004-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of graphic organizers on reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) are reviewed. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1963 and June 2001 yielded a total of 21 group design intervention studies that met the criteria for inclusion in the synthesis. Using graphic organizers (i.e., semantic organizers, framed outlines, cognitive maps with and without a mnemonic) was associated with improved reading comprehension overall for students with LD. Compared to standardized reading measures, researcher-developed comprehension measures were associated with higher effect sizes. Initial gains demonstrated when using graphic organizers were not revealed during later comprehension tasks or on new comprehension tasks.

  19. Who Are the Science Teachers That Seek Professional Development in Research Experience for Teachers (RET's)? Implications for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    To address the need to better prepare teachers to enact science education reforms, the National Science Foundation has supported a Research Experience for Teachers (RET's) format for teacher professional development. In these experiences, teachers work closely with practicing scientists to engage in authentic scientific inquiry. Although…

  20. ‘Continuity of care’: a critical interpretive synthesis of how the concept was elaborated by a national research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Heaton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A Continuity of Care Research Programme was undertaken in England in 2000-9. The Programme was informed by a conceptual framework proposed by Freeman and colleagues in an earlier scoping study. At the end of the Programme, a conceptual synthesis was carried out in order to confirm or refine the 'Freeman model' of continuity of care.Methods: A conceptual synthesis of the outputs of the Programme, using Critical Interpretive Synthesis.Results: The conceptual framework underpinning the Freeman model of continuity of care, which prioritises the perspectives of service users and carers, was variously utilised in the Programme. Analysis revealed indications of an emerging shift from the patient and carer 'perspectivist' paradigm of the Freeman model towards a new 'partnership' paradigm where continuity is recognised to be co-constructed by patients, families and professionals, all of whom have an active part to play in its accomplishment.Conclusions: The projects in the Programme have advanced understanding of patients' perspectives on continuity of care and on the complex nature of this concept. At the same time, they have raised issues and reported findings which may be indicative of an emergent paradigm shift in this area of research, towards a more dynamic partnership model.

  1. The Information Practices of Physical Science Librarians Differ from Those of the Scientific Community: More Research is Needed to Characterize Specific Information Seeking and Use. A Review of: Brown, Cecilia M. and Lina Ortega. “Information-Seeking Behavior of Physical Science Librarians: Does Research Inform Practice?” College & Research Libraries 66.3 (2005): 231-47.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Perryman

    2008-01-01

    Objective - As part of a larger study exploring the information environments of physical science librarians (Ortega & Brown), the authors’ overall objective for this study is to profile physical science librarians’ information behaviours. The authors’ two-part hypothesis was that first, peer-reviewed journals would be preferred over all other sources for research dissemination, resembling the preferences of scientists, and second, that peer-to-peer consultation would predominate for practice-...

  2. The Information Practices of Physical Science Librarians Differ from Those of the Scientific Community: More Research is Needed to Characterize Specific Information Seeking and Use. A Review of: Brown, Cecilia M. and Lina Ortega. “Information-Seeking Behavior of Physical Science Librarians: Does Research Inform Practice?” College & Research Libraries 66.3 (2005: 231-47.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective - As part of a larger study exploring the information environments of physical science librarians (Ortega & Brown, the authors’ overall objective for this study is to profile physical science librarians’ information behaviours. The authors’ two-part hypothesis was that first, peer-reviewed journals would be preferred over all other sources for research dissemination, resembling the preferences of scientists, and second, that peer-to-peer consultation would predominate for practice-oriented decisions.Design – Mixed methods: survey questionnaire followed by citation and content analysis.Setting – Five internationally disseminated professional association electronic mailing lists whose readership comprised those with interests in science librarianship: the American Library Association (ALA Science and Technology Section; the American Society for Information Science & Technology (ASIST Science and Technology Information Special Interest Group; the Special Library Association (SLA Chemistry Division and its Physics-Astronomy-Mathematics Division; and the American Geological Institute Geoscience Information Society.Subjects – Seventy-two physical science librarians voluntarily responding to an online survey.Methods – A questionnaire was distributed to inquire about physical science librarians’ professional reading practices as well as their perceptions about the applicability of research to their work. Participants were asked to rank preferences among 11 resource types as sources supporting daily business, including personal communication, conference attendance, electronic mailing lists, and scholarly journals. Differences between the mean rankings of preferences were tested for significance by applying the Friedman test with p>0.0005. Journals identified most frequently were analyzed using the Institute for Scientific Information’s (ISI Web of Science index and Ulrich’s Periodical Index to measure proportions of research

  3. Younger Adults Derive Pleasure and Utilitarian Benefits from Browsing for Music Information Seeking in Physical and Digital Spaces. A Review of: Laplante, A., & Downie, J. S. (2011. The utilitarian and hedonic outcomes of music information-seeking in everyday life. Library & Information Science Research, 33, 202-210. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2010.11.002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study’s objective was to identify the utilitarian and hedonic features of satisfying music information seeking experiences from the perspective of younger adults when using physical and digital music information retrieval (MIR systems in their daily lives.Design – In-depth, semi-structured interviews.Setting – Large public library in Montreal, Canada.Subjects – 15 French-speaking younger adults,10 males and 5 females (aged 18 to 29 years, mean age of 24 years.Methods – A pre-test was completed to test the interview guide. The guide was dividedinto five sections asking the participants questions about their music tastes, how music fit into their daily lives, how they discovered music, what music information sources were used and how they were used, what made their experiences satisfying, and theirbiographical information. Participants were recruited between April 1, 2006 and August 8,2007 following maximum variation samplingfor the main study. Recruitment stopped whendata saturation was reached and no new themes arose during analysis. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed via constant comparative method (CCM to determine themes and patterns. Main Results – The researchers found that both utilitarian and hedonic factors contributed to satisfaction with music information seeking experiences for the young adults. Utilitarian factors were divided between two main categories: finding music and finding information about music. Finding information about music could be further divided into three sub-categories: increasing cultural knowledge and social acceptance through increased knowledge about music, enriching the listening experience by finding information about the artist and the music, and gathering information to help with future music purchases including information that would help the participants recommend music to others. Hedonic outcomes that contributed to satisfying information seeking

  4. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  5. Toward a History of Student Affairs: A Synthesis of Research, 1996-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a synthesis of over 40 journal articles, book chapters, and books related to the history of student affairs published since 1996. Within this literature, scholars have explored the roles and responsibilities of early student affairs administrators ("positions and practice"), demonstrated efforts to establish a…

  6. Synthesis and research of derived oxazol-5-ones based on α,β – unsaturated ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Александрович Петров

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the production of new fluorescent dyes derived oxazol-5-ones based on α, β-unsaturated ketones, as well as confirmation of the structure of the compounds obtained using NMR and IR spectroscopy. The dyes of this series are relevant because one of the important practical problems in organic chemistry and chemical technology is currently seeking new fluorescent dyes for dyeing polyester materials and polymers

  7. Strategic bioenergy research. A knowledge compilation and synthesis of research projects funded by the Swedish Energy Agency's fuel program 2007-2011; Strategisk bioenergiforskning. En kunskapssammanstaellning och syntes av forskningsprojekt finansierade av Energimyndighetens braensleprogram 2007-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Gustavsson, Mathias; Hoeglund, Jonas; Hellsten, Sofie; Martinsson, Fredrik; Stadmark, Johanna [IVL Svenska Miljoeinstitutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    During 2007-2011 the Swedish Energy Agency has run the program 'Sustainable supply and processing of biofuels'. To summarise the state of knowledge, identify knowledge gaps and analyse the results in a broader context, three different synthesis reports have been performed in the program's final phase. This report is one of these synthesis reports and concerns the area of strategic bioenergy research. In this context, 'strategic' means research that is of significance from the system, marketing and/or policy perspective. The work is based on research conducted mainly in the research programme 'Sustainable supply and processing of biofuels'. This report constitutes the final report of the synthesis project on strategic bioenergy research and includes knowledge compilation, identification of knowledge gaps and synthesis. The results of the synthesis project provide a basis for planning new research programs in the auspices of the Swedish Energy Agency. The two other synthesis projects concern forest fuels as well as energy crops and fuel quality. The report covers a rather broad field of research, e.g. environmental impact, carbon balances, nitrous oxide, bioenergy systems, scenarios, trade and marketing, standardization and certification. The work has been based on project plans and publications for a predefined number of projects, as well as on interviews and discussions with project leaders. Furthermore, several seminars and workshops also provided information for the compilation. Other studies have also been taken into account to some extent.

  8. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  9. DEPSCOR: Research on ARL's Intelligent Control Architecture: Hierarchical Hybrid-Model Based Design, Verification, Simulation, and Synthesis of Mission Control for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Holloway, Lawrence E

    2007-01-01

    ... modeling, verification, simulation and automated synthesis of coordinators has lead to research in this area. We have worked and are working on these issues with Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) at Pennsylvania State University (PSU) who have designed autonomous underwater vehicles for over 50 years primarily under the support of the U.S. Navy through the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  10. Young learners' use of social media for information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2015-01-01

    information seeking activities, strategies and preferences can be identified when young learners use social media for information seeking in relation to course work and other study-related work tasks? 2) What motivations can be identified among young learners for using social media for information seeking....... The reported factors motivating information seeking were convenience and easy access to information, in addition to the content associated with specific social media types. Students’ use of social media for information seeking was associated primarily with their private information landscape. Contributions......Background. Increased use of social media for information seeking and learning calls for more research and knowledge of how these emerging technologies can support students’ learning. Objectives. The focus is on recent studies of young learners’ use of social media for information seeking...

  11. A hierarchical modeling of information seeking behavior of school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the information seeking behavior of school teachers in the public primary schools of rural areas of Nigeria and to draw up a model of their information-seeking behavior. A Cross-sectional survey design research was employed to carry out the research. Findings showed that the ...

  12. Synthesis of the IRSN report on the second safety re-examination of the EOLE and MINERVE research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This synthesis briefly discusses the results of the second safety re-examination of the EOLE and MINERVE research reactors which are operated by the CEA in a same building in Cadarache, and are presented in appendix. It addresses the seismic behaviour diagnosis of the EOLE and MINERVE installations, other possible external aggressions (plane crash, rising of underground water sheet, thunder, heat or cold wave, effects of wind and snow), the organisational processes, measures regarding radiation protection, the reactor operation safety, the safety of handling operations, the safety of warehousing sites, possible internal aggressions (fire, explosion), the confinement with respect to the environment

  13. Synthesis and identification of organic components of 'Red Oil' (contact research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Teijiro; Takada, Junichi; Nakagiri, Naotaka; Koike, Tadao; Tsukamoto, Michio; Watanabe, Koji; Nishio, Gunji

    1999-05-01

    To make clear the organic constituents of the energetic material described as 'Red Oil', laboratory studies were made on the synthesis and identification of chemical constituents of the materials obtained in the synthesis. In the studies, the synthesis was made using a variety of solvent systems (100%TBP/HNO 3 , 100%TBP/HNO 3 /U, 30%TBP/70%n-Dodecane/HNO 3 , 30%TBP/70%n-Dodecane/HNO 3 /U) with an experimental apparatus (1.0 liter under) under conditions, e.g., a temperature range 129 - 192degC and a reaction time 90 - 270 minutes, and GC and GC/MS techniques were mainly used for the identification. A GC analysis showed that the 'Red Oil' prepared from a solvent system (30%TBP/70%n-Dodecane/HNO 3 ) should comprised more than 150 degraded products, 94 products of which were identified purely by a GC/MS technique. Major components found, except for TBP and n-Dodecane being used as the starting materials, were mono- and di-nitro compounds of them, dodecanones, n-butyl nitrate, DBP and MBP. The quantitative analysis of gases formed in the 'Red Oil' synthesis experiments showed that they consisted of various compounds, the order of decreasing content in volume % were NO 2 (23 - 50), CO 2 (17 - 34), N 2 O(5.5 - 15), N 2 (4.3 - 12), CO(4 - 12), NO(1.5 - 8), and hydrocarbons (0.7 - 1.2), and that no detectable presence of O 2 and N 2 . Most of the components in the distillated volatiles collected in the condenser were n-botyl nitrate, but n-butanol were found in relatively small quantities. No significant effect of uranyl nitrate was found on the organic constituents in the 'Red Oil' synthesized. (author)

  14. Synthesis and identification of organic components of `Red Oil` (contact research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Teijiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Takada, Junichi; Nakagiri, Naotaka; Koike, Tadao; Tsukamoto, Michio; Watanabe, Koji; Nishio, Gunji

    1999-05-01

    To make clear the organic constituents of the energetic material described as `Red Oil`, laboratory studies were made on the synthesis and identification of chemical constituents of the materials obtained in the synthesis. In the studies, the synthesis was made using a variety of solvent systems (100%TBP/HNO{sub 3}, 100%TBP/HNO{sub 3}/U, 30%TBP/70%n-Dodecane/HNO{sub 3}, 30%TBP/70%n-Dodecane/HNO{sub 3}/U) with an experimental apparatus (1.0 liter under) under conditions, e.g., a temperature range 129 - 192degC and a reaction time 90 - 270 minutes, and GC and GC/MS techniques were mainly used for the identification. A GC analysis showed that the `Red Oil` prepared from a solvent system (30%TBP/70%n-Dodecane/HNO{sub 3}) should comprised more than 150 degraded products, 94 products of which were identified purely by a GC/MS technique. Major components found, except for TBP and n-Dodecane being used as the starting materials, were mono- and di-nitro compounds of them, dodecanones, n-butyl nitrate, DBP and MBP. The quantitative analysis of gases formed in the `Red Oil` synthesis experiments showed that they consisted of various compounds, the order of decreasing content in volume % were NO{sub 2} (23 - 50), CO{sub 2} (17 - 34), N{sub 2}O(5.5 - 15), N{sub 2}(4.3 - 12), CO(4 - 12), NO(1.5 - 8), and hydrocarbons (0.7 - 1.2), and that no detectable presence of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Most of the components in the distillated volatiles collected in the condenser were n-botyl nitrate, but n-butanol were found in relatively small quantities. No significant effect of uranyl nitrate was found on the organic constituents in the `Red Oil` synthesized. (author)

  15. Collaborative Information Seeking and Expertise Seeking: Different Discourses about Similar Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This study compares and contrasts research on collaborative information seeking (CIS) and expertise seeking (EXS) to identify focal themes, blind spots, and possibilities for cross-fertilization. Design/methodology/approach – Existing research was reviewed. The review consisted of a con......Purpose – This study compares and contrasts research on collaborative information seeking (CIS) and expertise seeking (EXS) to identify focal themes, blind spots, and possibilities for cross-fertilization. Design/methodology/approach – Existing research was reviewed. The review consisted...... the information need is held by an individual but resolved by consulting other people. While the typical scope of EXS studies is source selection, CIS studies mostly concern the consultation of the sources and the use of the obtained information. CIS and EXS studies also attend differentially to the information...... and prevent duplication of effort. Topics for future research are identified. It should be noted that the findings are limited to the 142 studies reviewed. Originality/value – By analyzing CIS in the context of EXS, and vice versa, this study provides a fresh look at the information-seeking research...

  16. Wasted research when systematic reviews fail to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis: the example of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cr?quit, Perrine; Trinquart, Ludovic; Yavchitz, Am?lie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple treatments are frequently available for a given condition, and clinicians and patients need a comprehensive, up-to-date synthesis of evidence for all competing treatments. We aimed to quantify the waste of research related to the failure of systematic reviews to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis over time. Methods We performed a series of systematic overviews and networks of randomized trials assessing the gap between evidence covered by systematic revie...

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace Research and Development (R&D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    The present exploration of the diffusion of federally-funded R&D via the information-seeking behavior of scientists and engineers proceeds under three assumptions: (1) that knowledge transfer and utilization is as important as knowledge production; (2) that the diffusion of knowledge obtained through federally-funded R&D is necessary for the maintenance of U.S. preeminence in the aerospace field; and (3) that federally-funded NASA and DoD technical reports play an important, albeit as-yet undefined, role in aerospace R&D diffusion. A conceptual model is presented for the process of knowledge diffusion that stresses the role of U.S. government-funded technical reports.

  18. Mathematic anxiety, help seeking behavior and cooperative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Gholamali Lavasani; Farah Khandan

    2011-01-01

    Present project assess the effectiveness of cooperative learning over the mathematic anxiety and review the behavior of help seeking in first grade high school girl students. The experimental research procedure was in the form of pre-post tests after a period of 8 sessions of teaching. To measure the variables, the questionnaire of mathematic anxiety (Shokrani, 2002) and the questionnaire of help seeking technique (Ghadampour, 1998) were practiced (accepting or avoiding help seeking).To perfo...

  19. Pregnant women's perceptions of gestational weight gain: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstone, Meredith; Kandasamy, Sujane; Giacomini, Mita; DeJean, Deirdre; McDonald, Sarah D

    2017-10-01

    Excess gestational weight gain has numerous negative health outcomes for women and children, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and cesarean section (maternal) and high birth weight, trauma at birth, and asphyxia (infants). Excess weight gain in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of long-term obesity in both mothers and children. Despite a concerted public health effort, the proportion of pregnant women gaining weight in excess of national guidelines continues to increase. To understand this phenomenon and offer suggestions for improving interventions, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research on pregnant women's perceptions and experiences of weight gain in pregnancy. We used the methodology of qualitative meta-synthesis to analyze 42 empirical qualitative research studies conducted in high-income countries and published between 2005 and 2015. With this synthesis, we provide an account of the underlying factors and circumstances (barriers, facilitators, and motivators) that pregnant women identify as important for appropriate weight gain. We also offer a description of the strategies identified by pregnant women as acceptable and appropriate ways to promote healthy weight gain. Through our integrative analysis, we identify women's common perception on the struggle to enact health behaviors and physical, social, and environmental factors outside of their control. Effective and sensitive interventions to encourage healthy weight gain in pregnancy must consider the social environment in which decisions about weight take place. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pharmaceutical research at the AAEC Part I: Ligand synthesis and biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J G [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-09-01

    Work on the synthesis of ligands capable of forming chelate complexes with technetium-99m as part of a search for tumour-localising radiopharmaceuticals is described. An account of the biological evaluation of a range of these compounds, in particular, benzimidazoles, sulphanilamides and acridines, and of the investigation of certain biochemical and biological properties affecting the clinical application of both ligands and radiopharmaceuticals is given. Interactions between therapeutic drugs and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are considered. The toxicological evaluation of a prospective hepatobiliary imaging agent, dimethyl-BIMIDA, is described.

  1. Model Research On Synthesis Of Al2O3-C Layers By MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawka A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available These are model studies whose aim is to obtain information that would allow development of new technology for synthesizing monolayers of Al2O3-C with adjusted microstructure on cemented carbides. The Al2O3-C layer will constitute an intermediate layer on which the outer layer of Al2O3 without carbon is synthesized. The purpose of the intermediate layer is to block the cobalt diffusion to the synthesized outer layer of Al2O3 and to stop the diffusion of air oxygen to the substrate during the synthesis of the outer layer. This layer should be thin, continuous, dense and uniform in thickness.

  2. SYNTHESIS, REACTIVITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOXALIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mokhtar Essassi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalines have a great interest in various fields and particularly in chemistry, biology and pharmacology. It enabled the researchers to develop many methods for their preparations and to seek new fields of application. In this review, we’ll expose different methods of synthesis of the quinoxalin-2-one, its reactivity and finally we’ll discuss the various biological activities of its derivatives.

  3. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research on return to work among employees with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Malene Friis; Nielsen, Karina M; Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which opportunities and obstacles employees with common mental disorders (CMD) experience in relation to return to work (RTW) and how they perceive the process of returning to work. In addition, the study explores what characterizes an optimal RTW intervention and points to possible ways to improve future interventions for employees with CMD. A systematic literature search was conducted, and eight qualitative studies of medium or high quality published between 1995-2011 were included in this systematic review. The eight studies were synthesized using the meta-ethnographic method. This meta-synthesis found that employees with CMD identify a number of obstacles to and facilitators of returning to work related to their own personality, social support at the workplace, and the social and rehabilitation systems. The employees found it difficult to decide when they were ready to resume work and experienced difficulties implementing RTW solutions at the workplace. This study reveals that the RTW process should be seen as a continuous and coherent one where experiences of the past and present and anticipation of the future are dynamically interrelated and affect the success or failure of RTW. The meta-synthesis also illuminates insufficient coordination between the social and rehabilitation systems and suggests how an optimal RTW intervention could be designed.

  4. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research: An interpretive synthesis of experiences from six interlinked Danish studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Vitus, Kathrine; Ditlevsen, Kia; TØrslev, Mette Kirstine; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational settings as sites for recruitment. Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion of experiences among the researchers involved. Success in recruitment seemed to depend partly on recruitment site. Using healthcare facilities as the recruitment site and healthcare professionals as gatekeepers was less efficient than using schools and employees from educational institutions. Successful study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite their interest in high-quality health research into all population groups, fail to facilitate research access to some of the most disadvantaged groups, who need to be included in order to understand the mechanisms behind health disparities. This happens despite the genuine wish of many healthcare professionals to help facilitate such research. In this way, the findings indirectly emphasize the specific challenge of accessing more vulnerable and sick groups in research studies.

  5. Care seeking for orofacial pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollman, A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the contribution of a wide range of factors to care-seeking behavior in orofacial pain patients, expressed as (A) decision to seek care and (B) number of health care practitioners visited. METHODS: Subjects with orofacial pain complaints were recruited in seven TMD clinics and

  6. Being, Seeking and Telling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    University's Centre for Research in Education, Equity and Work. Both Peter Willis ... medical and science and communication but who has an interest in education. ... virtual reality, sketches imagery, produces poetry and presents an aesthetic ...

  7. Cultural differences in professional help seeking: A comparison of Japan and the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh eMojaverian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found cultural differences in the frequency of support seeking. Asians and Asian Americans report seeking support from their close others to deal with their stress less often compared to European Americans. Similarly, other research on professional help seeking has shown that Asians and Asian Americans are less likely than European Americans to seek professional psychological help. Previous studies link this difference to multitude of factors, such as cultural stigma and reliance on informal social networks. The present research examined another explanation for cultural differences in professional help seeking. We predicted that the observed cultural difference in professional help seeking is an extension of culture-specific interpersonal relationship patterns. In the present research, undergraduate students in Japan and the United States completed the Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS, which measures professional help seeking propensity, psychological openness to acknowledging psychological problems, and indifference to the stigma of seeking professional help. The results showed that Japanese reported greater reluctance to seek professional help compared to Americans. Moreover, the relationship between culture and professional help seeking attitudes was partially mediated by use of social support seeking among close others. The implications of cultural differences in professional help seeking and the relationship between support seeking and professional help seeking are discussed.

  8. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these breakdowns...... are breakdowns in collaborative grounding rather than information seeking, that the medication incidents mainly concern breakdowns in the use of records as opposed to oral communication, that the breakdowns span multiple degrees of separation between clinicians, and that the electronic medication record has...

  9. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, J.Y.; Fetizon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  10. Bringing research into a first semester organic chemistry laboratory with the multistep synthesis of carbohydrate-based HIV inhibitor mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of incorporating research experiences into laboratory courses have been well documented, yet examples of research projects designed for the first semester introductory organic chemistry lab course are extremely rare. To address this deficiency, a Carbohydrate-Based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Inhibitor project consisting of a synthetic scheme of four reactions was developed for and implemented in the first semester organic lab. Students carried out the synthetic reactions during the last 6 of 10 total labs in the course, generating carbohydrate-based dimeric target molecules modeled after published dimers with application in HIV therapy. The project was designed to provide a research experience through use of literature procedures for reactions performed, exploration of variation in linker length in the target structure, and synthesis of compounds not previously reported in the scientific literature. Project assessment revealed strong student support, indicating enhanced engagement and interest in the course as a direct result of the use of scientific literature and the applications of the synthesized carbohydrate-based molecules. Regardless of discussed challenges in designing a research project for the first semester lab course, the finding from data analysis that a project implemented in the first semester lab had significantly greater student impact than a second semester project should provide motivation for development of additional research projects for a first semester organic course. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Information-seeking behavior of social sciences scholars: A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...

  12. Elaborating the Conceptual Space of Information-Seeking Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to conceptual studies of information behaviour research by examining the conceptualisations of information seeking and related terms such as information search and browsing. Method: The study builds on Bates' integrated model of information seeking and searching, originally presented in 2002. The model was…

  13. The Role of Personality in Musicians' Information Seeking for Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostagiolas, Petros; Lavranos, Charilaos; Martzoukou, Konstantina; Papadatos, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the relationship between musicians' information seeking behaviour and their personality traits within the context of musical creativity. Although previous research has addressed different socio-technological and behavioral aspects of music information seeking, the role of personality characteristics around…

  14. Barriers to Chinese College Students Seeking Psychological Help from Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese students were found less likely to seek professional help for psychological problems compared to their western counterparts. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the barriers to Chinese college students seeking psychological help from professionals. Quantitative data on Asian values, social supports, self-stigma,…

  15. Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors that Inhibit Seeking Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…

  16. Mapping training needs for dissemination and implementation research: lessons from a synthesis of existing D&I research training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David A; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-09-01

    With recent growth in the field of dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, multiple training programs have been developed to build capacity, including summer training institutes, graduate courses, degree programs, workshops, and conferences. While opportunities for D&I research training have expanded, course organizers acknowledge that available slots are insufficient to meet demand within the scientific and practitioner community. In addition, individual programs have struggled to best fit various needs of trainees, sometimes splitting coursework between specific D&I content and more introductory grant writing material. This article, stemming from a 2013 NIH workshop, reviews experiences across multiple training programs to align training needs, career stage and role, and availability of programs. We briefly review D&I needs and opportunities by career stage and role, discuss variations among existing training programs in format, mentoring relationships, and other characteristics, identify challenges of mapping needs of trainees to programs, and present recommendations for future D&I research training.

  17. Procesos de búsqueda de información y zonas de intervención: un estudio de investigadores en Literatura Information seeking process: A study of Literature researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Romanos de Tiratel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo informa sobre un estudio exploratorio de un grupo de personas, graduadas en Literatura, que, durante un lapso prolongado de sus vidas, se dedican a investigar un tema para obtener el doctorado. Se identifican las estrategias involucradas en el proceso de búsqueda de información (PBI en actividades complejas; se establece que las actividades del PBI se combinan y se influyen dinámica y recurrentemente; se identifican las zonas de intervención en el PBI; se utilizan modelos combinados para describir los momentos del PBI y verificar la viabilidad de su aplicación.This paper informs about an exploratory study referred to a group of literature postgraduates who, for many years, were devoted to research a topic in order to obtain a doctor degree. The involved strategies in the information seeking process (ISP in complex activities are identified; it is established that the ISP activities combined themselves and are dynamically and recurrently influenced by each other; the ISP zones of intervention are identified; combined models are used to describe the ISP moments, and to verify the models application viability.

  18. Reasons for mother-infant bed-sharing: a systematic narrative synthesis of the literature and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Trina C Salm

    2015-03-01

    Mother-infant bed-sharing has been a common practice for centuries. Understanding the reasons parents choose to bed-share can help tailor safe sleep education. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the international literature on: (1) reasons parents bed-share, (2) the cultural context of bed-sharing, and (3) implications for interventions and future research. The search occurred August-September 2013 via PubMed, CINAHL, and Psyc INFO using the terms: "infant," "sleep," "bed shar*," "co sleep*," "sleep location," "sleep practices," and "sleep arrangements," alone or in combination. Google Scholar was searched using: "bed share," "bed sharing," "co sleep," and "co sleeping." Inclusion criteria were: (1) referenced bed-sharing with infants 12 months or younger; (2) provided reasons for bed-sharing; and (3) published between 1990 and 2013. Studies were excluded if they focused on disorders such as epilepsy, breathing disorders, or among multi-gestational infants. Narrative synthesis was used to summarize findings. Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. The main themes around bed-sharing based on this synthesis included: (1) breastfeeding, (2) comforting, (3) better/more sleep, (4) monitoring, (5) bonding/attachment, (6) environmental, (7) crying, (8) tradition, (9) disagree with danger, and (10) maternal instinct. Findings suggest that future research should examine parents' decision-making process on infant sleep location, including how they weigh personal reasons and sources of advice. Public health interventions should incorporate the particular reasons of the population they are targeting. Clinicians should discuss infant sleep environment with each family, along with their motivations for choosing this environment, and work within that framework to address the safety of the sleep environment.

  19. Mirtazapine attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Leff, Phillipe; Arías-Caballero, Adriana; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Heinze, Gerardo; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule. Mirtazapine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during extinction. Mirtazapine significantly attenuated non-reinforced lever-press responses during extinction. Moreover, the mirtazapine dosed for 30 days during extinction produced sustained attenuation of lever-press responses during re-acquisition of cocaine self-administration, without changing food-seeking behavior. Our results showed that mirtazapine attenuated the re-acquisition of cocaine-seeking responses. Our study pointed to the efficacy of mirtazapine in reducing the risk of drug relapse during abstinence, suggesting for its potential use as a novel pharmacological agent to treat drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The interpersonal effects of Facebook reassurance seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Smith, April R; Hames, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook represent a potentially valuable means for individuals with low self-esteem or interpersonal difficulties to connect with others; however, recent research indicates that individuals who are most in need of social benefits from Facebook may be ineffective in their communication strategies, and thereby sabotage their potential to benefit interpersonally. The current study tested whether reassurance seeking via Facebook negatively influenced self-esteem, and whether this change in self-esteem mediated the relationship between Facebook reassurance seeking and greater thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Participants completed measures online at two time-points approximately 24 days apart. Results provided evidence that Facebook reassurance seeking predicted lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn predicted increased feelings that one does not belong and that one is a burden. Key limitations to this study include our use of a predominantly young, female, Caucasian sample, a novel reassurance seeking measure, and only evaluating two time points. These results suggest that Facebook usage has the potential for negative and far-reaching influences on one's interpersonal functioning. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications. Final results of a co-ordinated research project. 1996-2000

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Radiation techniques are being used for synthesis of hydrogels, functional polymers, interpenetrating systems, chemical modification of surfaces, immobilization of bioactive materials, synthesis of functional micro- and nanospheres and processing of naturally derived biomaterials. Potential medical applications of these biomaterials include implants, topical dressings, treatment devices and drug delivery systems. Biotechnological applications include diagnostic assays, separation and purification systems, immobilized enzyme and cell bioprocesses and cell culture surfaces. The main objective of the CRP on The use of Radiation Processing to Prepare Biomaterials for Application in Medicine was to co-ordinate the research carried out in the participating countries, to ensure that different research programmes complement each other and the information exchange is available to all. Furthermore, the objective was to expand the use of ionizing radiation in two major areas: synthesis of polymers and gels for medical a...

  2. Abortion and mental health: quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K

    2011-09-01

    Given the methodological limitations of recently published qualitative reviews of abortion and mental health, a quantitative synthesis was deemed necessary to represent more accurately the published literature and to provide clarity to clinicians. To measure the association between abortion and indicators of adverse mental health, with subgroup effects calculated based on comparison groups (no abortion, unintended pregnancy delivered, pregnancy delivered) and particular outcomes. A secondary objective was to calculate population-attributable risk (PAR) statistics for each outcome. After the application of methodologically based selection criteria and extraction rules to minimise bias, the sample comprised 22 studies, 36 measures of effect and 877 181 participants (163 831 experienced an abortion). Random effects pooled odds ratios were computed using adjusted odds ratios from the original studies and PAR statistics were derived from the pooled odds ratios. Women who had undergone an abortion experienced an 81% increased risk of mental health problems, and nearly 10% of the incidence of mental health problems was shown to be attributable to abortion. The strongest subgroup estimates of increased risk occurred when abortion was compared with term pregnancy and when the outcomes pertained to substance use and suicidal behaviour. This review offers the largest quantitative estimate of mental health risks associated with abortion available in the world literature. Calling into question the conclusions from traditional reviews, the results revealed a moderate to highly increased risk of mental health problems after abortion. Consistent with the tenets of evidence-based medicine, this information should inform the delivery of abortion services.

  3. Reported credibility techniques in higher education evaluation studies that use qualitative methods: A research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongjing; Hitchcock, John

    2018-06-01

    This synthesis study examined the reported use of credibility techniques in higher education evaluation articles that use qualitative methods. The sample included 118 articles published in six leading higher education evaluation journals from 2003 to 2012. Mixed methods approaches were used to identify key credibility techniques reported across the articles, document the frequency of these techniques, and describe their use and properties. Two broad sets of techniques were of interest: primary design techniques (i.e., basic), such as sampling/participant recruitment strategies, data collection methods, analytic details, and additional qualitative credibility techniques (e.g., member checking, negative case analyses, peer debriefing). The majority of evaluation articles reported use of primary techniques although there was wide variation in the amount of supporting detail; most of the articles did not describe the use of additional credibility techniques. This suggests that editors of evaluation journals should encourage the reporting of qualitative design details and authors should develop strategies yielding fuller methodological description. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. It's Not Just the Pills: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of HIV Antiretroviral Adherence Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Julie; Leblanc, Natalie M; Flores, Dalmacio

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the health and longevity of people living with HIV infection (PLWH) and also prevents transmission of the virus. Yet, lack of adherence to ART regimens has been a persistent problem, even with simpler regimens. Guidelines that deal with ART adherence are based almost solely on quantitative studies; this focus ignores the context and complexity of patients' lives. Guidelines are also focused on the individual. We argue that the solution is to include the broader communities in which patients live, and to deal with systemic disparities that persist worldwide; this can be done in part through demedicalizing HIV care for healthy PLWH. We present findings from a qualitative meta-synthesis of 127 studies conducted around the world on the last two pillars of the HIV treatment cascade: starting and remaining on ART until optimal viral suppression is achieved. We use Maslow's hierarchy of needs to frame our findings. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contemporary public perceptions of nursing: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the international research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, June; Jackson, Debra; Hutchinson, Marie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the current public understanding and perceptions of nursing. In recent years, attention to large scale health-care failures has focused considerable concern upon nursing standards. To avoid short-term solutions, and the temptation to see individual failures as representative of the wider profession, it is important to understand contemporary public perceptions of nursing. A systematic review and narrative synthesis of peer reviewed papers from January 2010 to September 2015. Four main themes were identified: (1) media portrayal of nursing as a troubled profession; (2) entertainment value in demeaning nursing; (3) role incongruity - nursing trusted but not respected; and (4) nursing roles remain poorly understood. Although there is evidence of strong public trust, this does not generally appear to be born out of an understanding of nursing work and impact; rather it appears to stem from the respect held for the traditional, more sentimental stereotypes of selfless, hardworking young females. A long-term, strategic solution is required that focuses on public engagement and interaction with the profession in a context wider than personal health/ill-health, and that goes beyond the marketing campaigns seen in the past to address recruitment crises. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Patient issues in health research and quality of care: an inventory and data synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, G.J.; Visse, M.A.; Boer, P.; Abma, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this review is to generate an inventory of issues that matter from a patient perspective in health research and quality of care. From these issues, criteria will be elicited to support patient(s) (groups) in their role as advisor or advocate when appraising health research, health

  7. Action Researchers Encountering Ethical Review: A Literature Synthesis on Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouché, Christa B.; Chubb, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Action research (AR) comprises a diverse family of methodologies. Common amongst most types of AR are both an emergent design--leading to action or change--and participation or community involvement. While this type of research has expanded considerably since the early 2000s, the criteria used for ethical review have apparently been slow to adapt…

  8. Prioritizing qualitative research in surgery: A synthesis and analysis of publication trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Appelson, Jessica R; Changoor, Navin R; Davis, W Austin; Haider, Adil H; Morris, Megan A

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 2 decades, researchers have recognized the value of qualitative research. Little has been done to characterize its application to surgery. We describe characteristics and overall prevalence of qualitative surgical research. We searched PubMed and CINAHL using "surgery" and 7 qualitative methodology terms. Four researchers extracted information; a fifth researcher reviewed 10% of abstracts for inter-rater reliability. A total of 3,112 articles were reviewed. Removing duplicates, 28% were relevant (N = 878; κ = 0.70). Common qualitative methodologies included phenomenology (34.3%) and grounded theory (30.2%). Interviews were the most common data collection method (81.9%) of patients (64%) within surgical oncology (15.4%). Postdischarge was the most commonly studied topic (30.8%). Overall, 41% of studies were published in nursing journals, while 8% were published in surgical journals. More than half of studies were published since 2011. Results suggest qualitative surgical research is gaining popularity. Most is published in nonsurgical journals, however, utilizing only 2 methodologies (phenomenology, grounded theory). The surgical journals that have published qualitative research had study topics restricted to a handful of surgical specialties. Additional surgical qualitative research should take advantage of a greater variety of approaches to provide insight into rare phenomena and social context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase 1 investigation 2001-2005, Volume 'geological disposal research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Taniguchi, Naoki; Maekawa, Keisuke; Sawada, Atsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shibata, Masahiro; Ota, Kunio; Miyahara, Kaname; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Matsui, Hiroya; Hama, Katsuhiro; Kunimaru, Takanori; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Tanai, Kenji; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of research and development on geological disposal during the surface-based investigation phase (2001-2005) in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project, of which aims are to apply the design methods of geological disposal and mass transport analysis to actual geological conditions obtained from the project as an example of actual geological environment. For the first aim, the design methods for the geological disposal facility proposed in 'H12 report (the second progress report)' was reviewed and then improved based on the recent knowledge. The applicability of design for engineered barrier system, backfill of disposal tunnel, underground facility was illustrated. For the second aim, the conceptual structure from site investigation and evaluation to mass transport analysis was developed as a work flow at first. Then following this work flow a series of procedures for mass transport analysis was applied to the actual geological conditions to illustrate the practical workability of the work flow and the applicability of this methodology. Consequently, based on the results, future subjects were derived. (author)

  10. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project synthesis of phase I investigation 2001-2005. Volume 'Geological disposal research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tanai, Kenji; Nishimura, Mayuka; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Maekawa, Keisuke; Sawada, Atsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shibata, Masahiro; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Nakano, Katsushi; Seo, Toshihiro; Miyahara, Kaname; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Matsui, Hiroya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kunimaru, Takanori; Ishii, Eiichi; Ota, Kunio; Hama, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Ryuji

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of research and development on geological disposal during the surface-based investigation phase (2001-2005) in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project (HOR), of which aims are to apply the design methods of geological disposal and mass transport analysis to actual geological conditions obtained from the surface-based investigations in HOR as an example of actual geological environment. For the first aim, the design methods for the geological disposal facility proposed in 'H12 report (the second progress report)' was reviewed and then improved based on the recent knowledge. The applicability of design for engineered barrier system, backfill of disposal tunnel, underground facility was illustrated. For the second aim, the conceptual structure from site investigation and evaluation to mass transport analysis was developed as a work flow at first. Then following this work flow a series of procedures for mass transport analysis was applied to the actual geological conditions to illustrate the practical workability of the work flow and the applicability of this methodology. Consequently, based on the results, future subjects were derived. (author)

  11. A synthesis of research on color, typography and graphics as they relate to readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, M. E.

    1985-09-01

    A foundation for future research on the use of color, typography, and graphics to improve readability is provided. Articles from the broad fields of education and psychology, as well as from the fields of journalism and printing, have been reviewed for research relating color, typography, and graphics to reading ease, speed, or comprehension. The most relevant articles reviewed are presented in an annoated bibliography; the remaining articles are also presented in bibliographic format. This literature review indicates that recognition and recall of printed material may be improved through the use of headings, underlining, color, and, especially, illustrations. Current research suggests that individuals can remember pictures far longer than past research indicates. However, researchers are divided on the usefulness of illustrations to improve reading comprehension. On the other hand, reading comprehension can be improved through the use of statistical graphs and tables if the reader is properly trained in the use of these devices.

  12. Modelling of ion sorption on complex solid materials. Synthesis of research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmier, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to Supervise Researches) report, the author proposes an overview of his research activities which are part of efforts of qualification and quantification of retention capacities of synthetic and artificial materials used to confine nuclear wastes in an underground geological site by absorption of radio-elements possibly passed into solution. More specifically, these research works focused on models aimed at predicting the behaviour of a mixing with respect to adsorption, and thus at avoiding too cumbersome experimental characterizations. The author presents the designed modelling approach and models, describes the implemented scientific approach and the associated data acquisition methodology, and discusses the obtained results. He finally proposed an assessment of these research works, and discusses research perspectives on a short and medium term [fr

  13. Identification of energy conservation research opportunities: a review and synthesis of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Hauser, S.G.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-03-01

    Thirty-eight studies of energy conservation research opportunities are reviewed. The 38 studies chosen for review include many of the major efforts in the identification of energy conservation research and development (R and D) opportunities and provide a representative sample of the types of studies that have been performed. The sample includes studies that focus on specific energy use (e.g., auto transport), as well as studies that focus on specific types of research (e.g., materials science). The sample also includes studies that can be further contrasted in terms of long-term vs. short-term projects, evolutionary vs. revolutionary ideas, generic vs. process-specific activities, and technology base research vs. hardware development. Each of these perspectives contributes toward assuring coverage of the breadth of energy conservation R and D opportunities. In each review the technical or end-use focus is described, the research ideas identified in the study are listed, and a critical summary is given. The reviews also indicate whether the studies present end-use consumption data, estimate potential energy savings, estimate times to commercialization, summarize existing research programs, or describe the identification methodology. In Section 2.0 the various research studies are compared. In Section 3.0 the characteristics of an aggregate list of research ideas are discussed. The characteristics were collected from the research opportunities studies, which are included in Appendix A. Appendix A contains a compilation of energy conservation R and D opportunities arranged by energy end-use applications. Appendix B contains an outline of the format followed in writing the critical reviews of the studies, the individual study reviews, and the extended bibliography of 88 studies that describe energy conservation research opportunities.

  14. Stream microbial diversity responds to environmental changes: Review and synthesis of existing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia eZeglin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of microbial activity to ecosystem function in aquatic ecosystems is well established, but microbial diversity has been less frequently addressed. This review and synthesis of the hundreds of published studies on stream microbial diversity shows that factors known to drive ecosystem processes, such as nutrient availability, hydrology, metal contamination, contrasting land-use and temperature, also cause heterogeneity in bacterial diversity. Temporal heterogeneity in stream bacterial diversity was frequently observed, reflecting the dynamic nature of both stream ecosystems and microbial community composition. However, within-stream spatial differences in stream bacterial diversity were more commonly observed, driven specifically by different organic matter compartments. Bacterial phyla showed similar patterns in relative abundance with regard to compartment type across different streams. For example, surface water contained the highest relative abundance of Actinobacteria, while epilithon contained the highest relative abundance of Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. This suggests that contrasting physical and/or nutritional habitats characterized by different stream organic matter compartment types may select for certain bacterial lineages. When comparing the prevalence of physicochemical effects on stream bacterial diversity, effects of changing metal concentrations were most, while effects of differences in nutrient concentrations were least frequently observed. This may indicate that although changing nutrient concentrations do tend to affect microbial diversity, other environmental factors are more likely to alter stream microbial diversity and function. The common observation of connections between ecosystem process drivers and microbial diversity suggests that microbial taxonomic turnover could mediate ecosystem-scale responses to changing environmental conditions, including both microbial habitat distribution and

  15. STC synthesis of best practices for determining value of research results : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Transportation research projects are aimed at fostering innovation in different areas, such as : safety, cost savings, quality, efficiency, project delivery, and policy. Transportation agencies and : most notably State Departments of Transportation (...

  16. A Research Synthesis of the Associations between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Moore, Hadass; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2017-01-01

    Educational researchers and practitioners assert that supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students, thus potentially reducing academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Nonetheless, scientific evidence establishing directional…

  17. Transportation literature search & synthesis report : research and state DOT practice on construction cost indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    The literature review identifies completed research and other authoritative information in an area of interest. The citations below are representative, rather than exhaustive, of available English-language studies on the topic. Primary online resourc...

  18. GPs' perspectives on the management of patients with multimorbidity: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sinnott, Carol

    2013-01-01

    To synthesise the existing published literature on the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) or their equivalent on the clinical management of multimorbidity and determine targets for future research that aims to improve clinical care in multimorbidity.

  19. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Guszkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.

  20. Students seeking technical internships as part of an exchange program

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    Virginia Tech students are seeking the support of research centers, academic departments, and area businesses to provide opportunities for technical internships through the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE).

  1. Physical Self Perception and Sensation seeking tendency in gym gores

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Annotation: The work deals with the relationship between physical self-concept and experience of the search terms sensation seeking. It contains theoretical research of these areas, their position in the discourse of fitness and also presents a starting points for comparison. The research was conducted on a group of gym-goers and analyzed the relationship of concepts Physical Self Perception Profile and Sensation Seeking Scale version V including individual subscales. Comparison showed a weak...

  2. Communication and information-seeking behavior of PhD students in physicists and astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jamali, Hamid R.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of a wider doctoral research, this paper deals with the communication and information-seeking behavior of research (PhD) students in physics and astronomy. Based on a qualitative case study of PhD students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at University College London, this study seeks to derive behavioral patterns in information-seeking activities of PhD students. The study aims to investigate the intradisciplinary differences in information-seeking activities of physicist...

  3. Mathematics interventions for children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, C J; Powell, S R; King, S A; Davidson, K A

    2015-08-01

    Many children and adolescents with Down syndrome fail to achieve proficiency in mathematics. Researchers have suggested that tailoring interventions based on the behavioural phenotype may enhance efficacy. The research questions that guided this review were (1) what types of mathematics interventions have been empirically evaluated with children and adolescents with Down syndrome?; (2) do the studies demonstrate sufficient methodological rigor?; (3) is there evidence of efficacy for the evaluated mathematics interventions?; and (4) to what extent have researchers considered aspects of the behavioural phenotype in selecting, designing and/or implementing mathematics interventions for children and adolescents with Down syndrome? Nine studies published between 1989 and 2012 were identified for inclusion. Interventions predominantly focused on early mathematics skills and reported positive outcomes. However, no study met criteria for methodological rigor. Further, no authors explicitly considered the behavioural phenotype. Additional research using rigorous experimental designs is needed to evaluate the efficacy of mathematics interventions for children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Suggestions for considering the behavioural phenotype in future research are provided. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Foreign Entry Modes Under Institutional Pressures: The Impact of Strategic Resource Seeking and Market Seeking Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinational corporations (MNCs are subject to the various dimensions of the external institutional environments. Institutional theory suggests that MNCs need to conform to the prevailing rules, norms and procedures of the locations where they operate in order to survive and grow. This means that MNCs need to develop the best possible configuration of strategy-structure for their worldwide operations. Previous research has noted that in these conditions firms may simply seek to follow a referent other. However, MNCs’ specific strategy for a focal foreign operation is likely to determine the entry mode for each host country. In certain circumstances it may be whether MNCs are pursuing a market-seeking strategy or a strategic resource seeking strategy that shapes the entry mode in face of the prevailing institutional pressures. We contribute to the understanding of entry modes into foreign markets as a reflection of a strategic choice that is bound by institutional constraints.

  5. The national strategy synthesis on the research in the energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The energy research strategy takes into account two main orientations: the identification, the design and the industrial validation of new technologies generating no or less greenhouse gases, progresses relative to the today technologies in order to decrease the energy consumption. The report discusses the following axis of research: technologies of poor greenhouse gases emission and alternative energy resources, the nuclear energy for the electric power production, the biomass, the photovoltaic energy by the development of less expensive technologies, the CO 2 capture and storage, the energy efficiency, the energy storage, the transport sector and the fuel cells development. (A.L.B.)

  6. Synthesis of the 1. ANR Energy Assessment colloquium - Which research for tomorrow's energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecourtier, Jacqueline; Pappalardo, Michele; Bucaille, Alain; Falanga, Anne; Fouillac, Christian; Amouroux, Jacques; Bouchard, Patrick; Cadet, Daniel; Fioni, Gabriele; Appert, Olivier; Le Quere, Patrick; Bernard, Herve; Moisan, Francois; Witte, Marc de; Cochevelou, Gilles; Bastien, Remi; Heitzmann, Martha; Lefebvre, Thierry; Michon, Ulysse; Perrier, Olivier; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Lincot, Daniel; Hadziioannou, Georges; Jacquemelle, Michele; Mermilliod, Nicole; Saulnier, Jean-Bernard

    2009-11-01

    Proposed by representatives of the main involved companies, agencies and institutions, the contributions of this colloquium addressed the following issues: the role of new energy technologies in the French and World sustainable development; The programmes 'New energy technologies'; Research priorities for these new technologies; Industry Perspectives and challenges; SMEs and the ANR; Research perspectives and challenges (electrochemical storage of energy, solar photovoltaic energy, new materials for energy, integration of renewable energies in electric systems, technological innovations for new energy technologies)

  7. A synthesis of evidence on inhibitory control and auditory hallucinations based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Mental Health initiative called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC project aims to provide a new approach to understanding mental illness grounded in the fundamental domains of human behaviour and psychological functioning. To this end the RDoC framework encourages researchers and clinicians to think outside the [diagnostic]box, by studying symptoms, behaviours or biomarkers that cut across traditional mental illness categories. In this article we examine and discuss how the RDoC framework can improve our understanding of psychopathology by zeroing in on hallucinations- now widely recognized as a symptom that occurs in a range of clinical and non-clinical groups. We focus on a single domain of functioning - namely cognitive [inhibitory] control - and assimilate key findings structured around the basic RDoC units of analysis, which span the range from observable behaviour to molecular genetics. Our synthesis and critique of the literature provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of auditory hallucinations, linked to the individual dynamics of inhibitory development before and after puberty; favours separate developmental trajectories for clinical and nonclinical hallucinations; yields new insights into co-occurring emotional and behavioural problems; and suggests some novel avenues for treatment.

  8. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.-P., E-mail: jean-pierre.van-dorsselaere@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland); Beraha, D. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Chatelard, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas MedioAmbientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Journeau, C. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Paris (France); Klein-Hessling, W. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Köln (Germany); Kljenak, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miassoedov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Paci, S. [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Zeyen, R. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy (JRC/IET), Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented.

  9. Evaluations of Sexual Assault Prevention Programs in Military Settings: A Synthesis of the Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Prisock, Kara; Borsari, Brian; Kazemi, Donna M

    2018-03-01

    The prevention of sexual assault (SA) in the U.S. military is a significant priority. This study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to a literature search that identified research evaluating SA prevention programs conducted within military settings. Only six studies published between 2005 and 2016 met criteria for inclusion in the review. Studies demonstrated high heterogeneity in the: (1) conceptual framework of the prevention approach; (2) target population and timing of administration; (3) study recruitment methods; (4) methodological design; (5) method of delivery, program dosage and theory of change; and (6) outcome administration and efficacy. Scientific rigor according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine was also variable. Several gaps in the research base were identified. Specifically, research evaluating SA prevention programs have only been conducted among U.S. Army and U.S. Navy samples. Most studies did not examine whether program participation was associated with reductions in rates of sexual violence. Studies also lacked utilization of a long-term follow-up period. Additionally, studies did not reflect the types of SA prevention programs currently being implemented in military settings. Taken together, further research is needed to enhance the evidence base for SA prevention in the military, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approaches currently being conducted with service members.

  10. Recent severe accident research synthesis of the major outcomes from the SARNET network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.-P.; Auvinen, A.; Beraha, D.; Chatelard, P.; Herranz, L.E.; Journeau, C.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Kljenak, I.; Miassoedov, A.; Paci, S.; Zeyen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SARNET network of excellence integration mid-2013 in the NUGENIA Association. • Progress of knowledge on corium behaviour, hydrogen explosion and source term. • Further development of ASTEC integral code to capitalize knowledge. • Ranking of next R&D high priority issues accounting for international research. • Dissemination of knowledge through education courses and ERMSAR conferences. - Abstract: The SARNET network (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence), co-funded by the European Commission from 2004 to 2013, has allowed to significantly improve the knowledge on severe accidents and to disseminate it through courses and ERMSAR conferences. The major investigated topics, involving more than 250 researchers from 22 countries, were in- and ex-vessel corium/debris coolability, molten-core–concrete-interaction, steam explosion, hydrogen combustion and mitigation in containment, impact of oxidising conditions on source term, and iodine chemistry. The ranking of the high priority issues was updated to account for the results of recent international research and for the impact of Fukushima nuclear accidents in Japan. In addition, the ASTEC integral code was further developed to capitalize the new knowledge. The network has reached self-sustainability by integration in mid-2013 into the NUGENIA Association. The main activities and outcomes of the network are presented

  11. Research on the Value of AACSB Business Accreditation in Selected Areas: A Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The AACSB claims that its accreditation provides evidence of business school quality in a variety of areas. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing research on the value of AACSB accreditation on four key topics of importance to schools, prospective students, and employers: effect on obtaining quality students, students' job placement, faculty…

  12. Increasing the Effectiveness of Inservice Training for Desegregation: A Synthesis of Current Research. Reference & Resource Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Mark A.; Hawley, Willis D.

    This report reviews recent research on strategies that have been found to promote useful and effective inservice training programs in desegregated schools. The first section presents approaches for planning and implementing inservice training for desegregation. The second section describes inservice desegregation training programs that focus on:…

  13. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance abuse. In order to measure the sensation seeking of subjects “Sensation Seeking Scale” (SSS were used. 31 opium abusers were matched to 31 normal controls according to the following variables: age, education, father and mother education. Results showed that opium abusers obtain higher scores on the total sensation seeking score ,“variety seeking” and “experience seeking” subscales.

  14. Research program on nuclear technology and nuclear safety - Synthesis report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.

    2009-06-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the program's main points of interest, work done in the year 2008 and the results obtained. Four main projects at the Paul Scherrer Institute's Laboratory for Reactor Physics and System Behaviour LRS are noted, and work done at the Laboratories for Thermohydraulics LTH, Nuclear Materials LNM, Final Depository Safety LES and Energy System Analyses LEA are discussed. The results obtained in thirteen areas of research in 2008 are discussed in some detail. Finally, national and international co-operation is briefly looked at and work to be done in 2009 is reviewed. The report is completed with a list of the PSI research and development projects referred to

  15. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  16. Establishing confidence in the output of qualitative research synthesis: the ConQual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Zachary; Porritt, Kylie; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Edoardo; Pearson, Alan

    2014-09-20

    The importance of findings derived from syntheses of qualitative research has been increasingly acknowledged. Findings that arise from qualitative syntheses inform questions of practice and policy in their own right and are commonly used to complement findings from quantitative research syntheses. The GRADE approach has been widely adopted by international organisations to rate the quality and confidence of the findings of quantitative systematic reviews. To date, there has been no widely accepted corresponding approach to assist health care professionals and policy makers in establishing confidence in the synthesised findings of qualitative systematic reviews. A methodological group was formed develop a process to assess the confidence in synthesised qualitative research findings and develop a Summary of Findings tables for meta-aggregative qualitative systematic reviews. Dependability and credibility are two elements considered by the methodological group to influence the confidence of qualitative synthesised findings. A set of critical appraisal questions are proposed to establish dependability, whilst credibility can be ranked according to the goodness of fit between the author's interpretation and the original data. By following the processes outlined in this article, an overall ranking can be assigned to rate the confidence of synthesised qualitative findings, a system we have labelled ConQual. The development and use of the ConQual approach will assist users of qualitative systematic reviews to establish confidence in the evidence produced in these types of reviews and can serve as a practical tool to assist in decision making.

  17. Stepwise hydrogeological characterisation utilising a geo-synthesis methodology - A case study from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, H.; Osawa, H.; Onoe, H.; Ohyama, T.; Takeuchi, R.; Takeuchi, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is now under construction by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area of central Japan. One of the main goals of the MIU project, which is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes, is to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. For this purpose, a geo-synthesis methodology has been developed and will be tested in a dry run to determine if it produces the data required for repository design and associated integrated safety assessment modelling. Surface-based hydrogeological characterisation, intended to develop conceptual models of the deep geological environment based on an understanding of the undisturbed conditions before excavation of this URL, was carried out in a stepwise manner. This allows field investigations, construction of geological and hydrogeological models and interpretation of resultant groundwater flow simulations to develop in an iterative manner. Investigations have the goal of obtaining information on factors relevant to repository design, associated construction, operational and postclosure safety assessment, evaluation of the practicality of implementation and environmental impact assessment. Such factors include bulk hydraulic conductivity, the locations and properties of water conducting features, direct and indirect indicators of regional and local flow (e.g. based on chemistry or isotopes), etc. Following evaluation of pre-existing site information, field investigations began with fault mapping. This was followed by reflection seismic and vertical seismic profile surveys. In addition, a large programme of investigations was carried out in boreholes, including cross-hole tomography and hydraulic tests. Such input is utilised for the construction

  18. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savolainen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  19. International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

    2009-04-01

    During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network

  20. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Young

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11, moderate (11, and low (9. Overarching analytical themes included: 1 safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2 most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3 consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  1. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers’ perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed. PMID:27907161

  2. Younger Adults Derive Pleasure and Utilitarian Benefits from Browsing for Music Information Seeking in Physical and Digital Spaces. A Review of: Laplante, A., & Downie, J. S. (2011). The utilitarian and hedonic outcomes of music information-seeking in everyday life. Library & Information Science Research, 33, 202-210. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2010.11.002

    OpenAIRE

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2012-01-01

    Objective – This study’s objective was to identify the utilitarian and hedonic features of satisfying music information seeking experiences from the perspective of younger adults when using physical and digital music information retrieval (MIR) systems in their daily lives.Design – In-depth, semi-structured interviews.Setting – Large public library in Montreal, Canada.Subjects – 15 French-speaking younger adults,10 males and 5 females (aged 18 to 29 years, mean age of 24 years).Methods – A pr...

  3. Synthesis of borehole geophysical data at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, W.S.

    1984-07-01

    A suite of borehole-geophysical logs, supported by core data, was used to describe the rock matrix and fractures in a granitic pluton near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. The site is being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, as an underground research laboratory to conduct geotechnical research and to validate predictive models as part of Canada's nuclear-fuel, waste-management program. However, the site is not planned to be used for waste disposal. Geophysical well logs were used to distinguish and correlate rock types and fractures between drill holes. Two significant fracture zones that are two of the major zones of ground-water movement at the site were identified by acoustic-televiewer logs. A new heat-pulse flowmeter provided repeatable measurements of very low-velocity, vertical flow in drill holes which enabled the identification of specific fractures that were transmitting water. Borehole gamma spectra showed that some fractures are enriched in uranium, and others may be depleted. This study demonstrates some of the advantages of synthesizing available borehole-geophysical logs at a site in fractured plutonic rocks and indicates how this information can contribute to an understanding of the geophysical conditions at the site

  4. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  5. Towards a framework for modular service design synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve the understanding of how service-based companies can benefit from developing and delivering service offerings from a standardised core of service modules, which are organised through a service architecture. Research within the field is relatively sparse, and there is s......This paper seeks to improve the understanding of how service-based companies can benefit from developing and delivering service offerings from a standardised core of service modules, which are organised through a service architecture. Research within the field is relatively sparse...... model for modular service design synthesis presented in this paper. The case study is based on internal documentation and a high level of interview data. Inductive research methods have been used for the analysis. The presented conceptual model defines three suggested dimensions (Market Segmentation...

  6. Consumer Behavior and the Plug-In Electric Vehicle Purchase Decision Process: A Research Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Dept.; Fujita, K. Sydney [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Dept.

    2018-01-31

    This report synthesizes consumer behavior research as it pertains to the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) purchase decision process. The purpose is to clarify what is known about the vital role consumers play in the U.S. PEV market as it matures to become less policy-reliant and more representative of the U.S., both spatially and demographically. A more representative PEV market will: help OEMs recoup more of their R&D investments in PEVs; help American consumers access the economic and performance benefits of PEVs; and help the U.S. become more energy independent while improving air quality-related public health and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Enteric methane mitigation technologies for ruminant livestock: a synthesis of current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Enteric methane (CH(4)) emission in ruminants, which is produced via fermentation of feeds in the rumen and lower digestive tract by methanogenic archaea, represents a loss of 2% to 12% of gross energy of feeds and contributes to global greenhouse effects. Globally, about 80 million tonnes of CH(4) is produced annually from enteric fermentation mainly from ruminants. Therefore, CH(4) mitigation strategies in ruminants have focused to obtain economic as well as environmental benefits. Some mitigation options such as chemical inhibitors, defaunation, and ionophores inhibit methanogenesis directly or indirectly in the rumen, but they have not confirmed consistent effects for practical use. A variety of nutritional amendments such as increasing the amount of grains, inclusion of some leguminous forages containing condensed tannins and ionophore compounds in diets, supplementation of low-quality roughages with protein and readily fermentable carbohydrates, and addition of fats show promise for CH(4) mitigation. These nutritional amendments also increase the efficiency of feed utilization and, therefore, are most likely to be adopted by farmers. Several new potential technologies such as use of plant secondary metabolites, probiotics and propionate enhancers, stimulation of acetogens, immunization, CH(4) oxidation by methylotrophs, and genetic selection of low CH(4)-producing animals have emerged to decrease CH(4) production, but these require extensive research before they can be recommended to livestock producers. The use of bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and development of recombinant vaccines targeting archaeal-specific genes and cell surface proteins may be areas worthy of investigation for CH(4) mitigation as well. A combination of different CH(4) mitigation strategies should be adopted in farm levels to substantially decrease methane emission from ruminants. Evidently, comprehensive research is needed to explore proven and reliable CH(4) mitigation technologies

  8. The use of Bayesian networks to assess the quality of evidence from research synthesis: 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin B Stewart

    Full Text Available The grades of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE approach is widely implemented in systematic reviews, health technology assessment and guideline development organisations throughout the world. A key advantage to this approach is that it aids transparency regarding judgments on the quality of evidence. However, the intricacies of making judgments about research methodology and evidence make the GRADE system complex and challenging to apply without training.We have developed a semi-automated quality assessment tool (SAQAT l based on GRADE. This is informed by responses by reviewers to checklist questions regarding characteristics that may lead to unreliability. These responses are then entered into the Bayesian network to ascertain the probabilities of risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision and publication bias conditional on review characteristics. The model then combines these probabilities to provide a probability for each of the GRADE overall quality categories. We tested the model using a range of plausible scenarios that guideline developers or review authors could encounter.Overall, the model reproduced GRADE judgements for a range of scenarios. Potential advantages over standard assessment are use of explicit and consistent weightings for different review characteristics, forcing consideration of important but sometimes neglected characteristics and principled downgrading where small but important probabilities of downgrading are accrued across domains.Bayesian networks have considerable potential for use as tools to assess the validity of research evidence. The key strength of such networks lies in the provision of a statistically coherent method for combining probabilities across a complex framework based on both belief and evidence. In addition to providing tools for less experienced users to implement reliability assessment, the potential for sensitivity analyses and automation may be

  9. Patients' and professionals' experiences and perspectives of obesity in health-care settings: a synthesis of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Freda; Forbes, Angus

    2013-06-01

    Obesity-related stigma likely influences how obese people interact with health-care professionals and access health care. To undertake a synthesis of studies examining the views and experiences of both obese people in relation to their health-care provision and health-care professionals in providing care to obese patients. A systematic search of key electronic databases relating to professional or patient experiences of, or perspectives on, obesity was performed in 2008 and updated in 2010. Reference lists of article bibliographies were searched, along with hand searches of relevant journals.   Studies were screened against explicit inclusion criteria and published between 1990 and 2010. Findings were examined and organized thematically.   Data were extracted focusing on obesity, stigma and access to health-care services. All included studies were subject to critical appraisal to assess the quality of the research. Thirty studies were identified. All the studies reported obesity impacting on health-care interactions. Key themes identified were experiences of stigma and feelings of powerlessness, treatment avoidance, psycho-emotional functioning, professional attitudes, confidence and training, variations in health contact time and finally, differences in treatment options and preventative measures. Obesity is a stigmatized condition that impacts negatively on the relationship between patients and health-care providers. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and the range of therapeutic options available, further work is necessary to understand how the presence of obesity affects health-care interactions and decision making. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Seeking health care through international medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...

  12. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  13. Strategic Asset Seeking by EMNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Seifert, Jr., Rene E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The chapter provides an economic explanation and perspectivation of strategic asset seeking of multinational enterprises from emerging economies (EMNEs) as a prominent feature of today’s global economy. Approach: The authors apply and extend the “springboard perspective.” This perspective...

  14. Health care information seeking and seniors: determinants of Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaojing; Simpson, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    While seniors are the most likely population segment to have chronic diseases, they are the least likely to seek information about health and diseases on the Internet. An understanding of factors that impact seniors' usage of the Internet for health care information may provide them with tools needed to improve health. This research examined some of these factors as identified in the comprehensive model of information seeking to find that demographics, trust in health information websites, perceived usefulness of the Internet, and internal locus of control each significantly impact seniors' use of the Internet to seek health information.

  15. Information needs and seeking behaviour of Tanzanian forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined information needs and seeking behaviour of Tanzanian forestry researchers in the growing global electronic environment. A questionnaire based survey was conducted in three forestry research institutions. The findings indicated a wide range of information needs among forestry researchers in the ...

  16. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  17. Self-Management and Self-Management Support Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Mixed Research Synthesis of Stakeholder Views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Boger

    Full Text Available Self-management has received growing attention as an effective approach for long-term condition management. Little is known about which outcomes of supported self-management are valued by patients, their families, health professionals and those who commission self-management services. This study systematically reviewed published empirical evidence in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to determine the outcomes of self-management valued by these key stakeholder groups, using three prominent exemplar conditions: colorectal cancer, diabetes and stroke.To systematically review the literature to identify which generic outcomes of self-management have been targeted and are considered important using three exemplar conditions (colorectal cancer, diabetes and stroke, which collectively have a range of features that are likely to be representative of generic self-management issues.Systematic searching of nine electronic databases was conducted in addition to hand searches of review articles. Abstracts were identified against inclusion criteria and appraised independently by two reviewers, using a critical appraisal tool. Synthesis of findings was conducted using mixed research synthesis.Over 20,536 abstracts were screened. 41 studies which met the review criteria were fully retrieved and appraised. The majority of evidence related to diabetes. Few studies directly focussed on stakeholders' views concerning desired self-management outcomes; the majority of evidence was derived from studies focusing upon the experience of self-management. The views of health care commissioners were absent from the literature. We identified that self-management outcomes embrace a range of indicators, from knowledge, skills, and bio-psychosocial markers of health through to positive social networks.Patients', families', health professionals' and commissioners' views regarding which outcomes of self-management are important have not been clearly elicited. The extent to which

  18. The Haleakala Argentine ant project: a synthesis of past research and prospects for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushelnycky, Paul; Haines, William; Loope, Lloyd; Van Gelder, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    1. The Haleakala Argentine Ant Project is an ongoing effort to study the ecology of the invasive Argentine ant in the park, and if possible to develop a strategy to control this destructive species. 2. Past research has demonstrated that the Argentine ant causes very significant impacts on native arthropods where it invades, threatening a large portion of the park’s biodiversity in subalpine shrubland and alpine aeolian ecosystems. 3. Patterns of spread over the past 30+ years indicate that the invasion process is influenced to a substantial degree by abiotic factors such as elevation, rainfall and temperature, and that the ant has not reached its potential range. Predictions of total range in the park suggest that it has only invaded a small fraction of available suitable habitat, confirming that this species is one of most serious threats to the park’s natural resources. 4. Numerous experiments have been conducted since 1994 in an attempt to develop a method for eradicating the Argentine ant at Haleakala using pesticidal ant baits. Thirty baits have been screened for attractiveness to ants in the park, and ten of these were tested for effectiveness of control in field plots. While some of these baits have been very effective in reducing numbers of ants, none has been able to eliminate all nests in experimental plots. 5. Research into a secondary management goal of ant population containment was initiated in 1996. By treating only expanding margins of the park’s two ant populations with an ant pesticide, rates of outward spread were substantially reduced in some areas. While this strategy was implemented from 1997 to 2004, it was ultimately discontinued after 2004 because of the difficulty and insufficient effectiveness of the technique. 6. In order to achieve the types of results necessary for eradication, the project would probably need to explore the possibility of developing a specialized bait, rather than relying on a commercially produced bait. An

  19. The quality of research synthesis in surgery: the case of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel Guillaume

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses populate the literature on the effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. The utility of this body of work is unclear. The objective of this study was to synthesize all such systematic reviews in terms of clinical effectiveness, to appraise their quality, and to determine whether areas of duplication exist across reviews. Methods Systematic reviews comparing laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal cancer were identified using a comprehensive search protocol (1991 to 2008. The primary outcome was overall survival. The methodological quality of reviews was appraised using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR instrument. Abstraction and quality appraisal was carried out by two independent reviewers. Reviews were synthesized, and outcomes were compared qualitatively. A citation analysis was carried out using simple matrices to assess the comprehensiveness of each review. Results In total, 27 reviews were included; 13 reviews included only randomized controlled trials. Rectal cancer was addressed exclusively by four reviews. There was significant overlap between review purposes, populations and, outcomes. The mean AMSTAR score (out of 11 was 5.8 (95% CI: 4.6 to 7.0. Overall survival was evaluated by ten reviews, none of which found a significant difference. Three reviews provided a selective meta-analysis of time-to-event data. Previously published systematic reviews were poorly and highly selectively referenced (mean citation ratio 0.16, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.22. Previously published trials were not comprehensively identified and cited (mean citation ratio 0.56, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.65. Conclusions Numerous overlapping systematic reviews of laparoscopic and open surgery for colorectal cancer exist in the literature. Despite variable methods and quality, survival outcomes are congruent across reviews. A duplication of research efforts appears to exist

  20. Toward a deeper understanding of the willingness to seek help: the case of teleworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy D; Schoenleber, Alisa H W

    2014-01-01

    Employees frequently do not engage in help-seeking due to the associated social costs. Despite the importance of help-seeking, little research has been done to explore factors affecting whether individuals will or will not engage in help-seeking at work, and existing research has thus far not addressed help seeking in the telework context. This paper expands the current literature on help-seeking by exploring this behavior in the context of teleworkers and develops propositions regarding how aspects of virtual work environments will help determine teleworkers' willingness to engage in help-seeking behavior. This article presents a review with critical analysis and integration of selected telework and help-seeking literatures. Grounded in the literature on inequity/indebtedness and the literature on threats to self-esteem, theoretically-derived research propositions are developed that help shed insights into help seeking behaviors in the telework context. These research propositions encompass media presence and the teleworker's perceived opportunity for reciprocation, and their associated impacts on the perceived cost of seeking help. The proposed research propositions provide practitioners and researchers a means to be better able to assess telework applications and prevent unintended effects. Through such systematic understanding of how telework alters the perceived cost of seeking help and the teleworker's willingness to seek help, telework may be further improved to contribute to more effective and productive individuals and organizations.

  1. Source memory errors in schizophrenia, hallucinations and negative symptoms: a synthesis of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, G; Ohlsen, R I; Bressan, R A; David, A S

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown associations between source memory errors and hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. We bring together here findings from a broad memory investigation to specify better the type of source memory failure that is associated with auditory and visual hallucinations. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 43 healthy participants underwent a memory task involving recall and recognition of lists of words, recognition of pictures, memory for temporal and spatial context of presentation of the stimuli, and remembering whether target items were presented as words or pictures. False recognition of words and pictures was associated with hallucination scores. The extra-list intrusions in free recall were associated with verbal hallucinations whereas the intra-list intrusions were associated with a global hallucination score. Errors in discriminating the temporal context of word presentation and the spatial context of picture presentation were associated with auditory hallucinations. The tendency to remember verbal labels of items as pictures of these items was associated with visual hallucinations. Several memory errors were also inversely associated with affective flattening and anhedonia. Verbal and visual hallucinations are associated with confusion between internal verbal thoughts or internal visual images and perception. In addition, auditory hallucinations are associated with failure to process or remember the context of presentation of the events. Certain negative symptoms have an opposite effect on memory errors.

  2. Pain perception in people with Down syndrome: a synthesis of clinical and experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brian E.; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability experience both acute and chronic pain with at least the same frequency as the general population. However, considerably less is known about the pain perception of people with Down syndrome. In this review paper, we evaluated the available clinical and experimental evidence. Some experimental studies of acute pain have indicated that pain threshold was higher than normal but only when using a reaction time method to measure pain sensitivity. However, when reaction time is not part of the calculation of the pain threshold, pain sensitivity in people with Down syndrome is in fact lower than normal (more sensitive to pain). Clinical studies of chronic pain have shown that people with an intellectual disability experience chronic pain and within that population, people with Down syndrome also experience chronic pain, but the precise prevalence of chronic pain in Down syndrome has yet to be established. Taken together, the literature suggests that people with Down syndrome experience pain, both acute and chronic, with at least the same frequency as the rest of the population. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that although acute pain expression appears to be delayed, once pain is registered, there appears to be a magnified pain response. We conclude by proposing an agenda for future research in this area. PMID:26283936

  3. Research on Synthesis of New Azo Calix[4]arene and its Dyeing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the raw materials of calix[4]arene, benzocaine, tricaine and procaine hydrochloride, three new azo calix[4]arene derivatives—6a, 6b and 6c are synthesized by diazotization–coupling reaction of an aromatic amine, with its yield of 83%, 81% and 83% respectively. The structural characterization is in a way of IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. This paper investigates the spectral properties of azo calix[4]arene derivatives under different solution pH conditions through the UV–visible spectroscopy, and researches the dyeing properties through the dyeing curve, color yield test and fastness test. The results show that, with the increase of pH value, the azo calix[4]arene derivatives—6a, 6b and 6c form azo–hydrazone tautomeric isomers with the maximum absorption peak redshift; the dyeing effect of the compound is good, of which the dye–uptake rate of the compound 6a is as high as 78%; the surface depth of color yield is 2.798, and the dry and wet rubbing fastness and the soaping fastness are respectively 4, which is a better disperse dye.

  4. Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rob W; Bennett, Alison E; Cong, Wen-Feng; Daniell, Tim J; George, Timothy S; Hallett, Paul D; Hawes, Cathy; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Jones, Hamlyn G; Karley, Alison J; Li, Long; McKenzie, Blair M; Pakeman, Robin J; Paterson, Eric; Schöb, Christian; Shen, Jianbo; Squire, Geoff; Watson, Christine A; Zhang, Chaochun; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling; White, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Intercropping is a farming practice involving two or more crop species, or genotypes, growing together and coexisting for a time. On the fringes of modern intensive agriculture, intercropping is important in many subsistence or low-input/resource-limited agricultural systems. By allowing genuine yield gains without increased inputs, or greater stability of yield with decreased inputs, intercropping could be one route to delivering ‘sustainable intensification’. We discuss how recent knowledge from agronomy, plant physiology and ecology can be combined with the aim of improving intercropping systems. Recent advances in agronomy and plant physiology include better understanding of the mechanisms of interactions between crop genotypes and species – for example, enhanced resource availability through niche complementarity. Ecological advances include better understanding of the context-dependency of interactions, the mechanisms behind disease and pest avoidance, the links between above- and below-ground systems, and the role of microtopographic variation in coexistence. This improved understanding can guide approaches for improving intercropping systems, including breeding crops for intercropping. Although such advances can help to improve intercropping systems, we suggest that other topics also need addressing. These include better assessment of the wider benefits of intercropping in terms of multiple ecosystem services, collaboration with agricultural engineering, and more effective interdisciplinary research.

  5. Medical students’ perceptions and attitudes about family practice: a qualitative research synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva Olid Anna

    2012-08-01

    find family medicine appealing, it is regarded as a career of low interest and prestige. More research is needed on the influence of role models, medical school and post graduate training.

  6. Evaluating interventions against Salmonella in broiler chickens: applying synthesis research in support of quantitative exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, O; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Farrar, A; Wills, R; McEwen, S A

    2012-05-01

    A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area.

  7. Rethinking research in the medical humanities: a scoping review and narrative synthesis of quantitative outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Silke; Apramian, Tavis; Lingard, Lorelei; Torabi, Nazi; Arntfield, Shannon

    2016-03-01

    The rise of medical humanities teaching in medical education has introduced pressure to prove efficacy and utility. Review articles on the available evidence have been criticised for poor methodology and unwarranted conclusions. To support a more nuanced discussion of how the medical humanities work, we conducted a scoping review of quantitative studies of medical humanities teaching. Using a search strategy involving MEDLINE, EMBASE and ERIC, and hand searching, our scoping review located 11 045 articles that referred to the use of medical humanities teaching in medical education. Of these, 62 studies using quantitative evaluation methods were selected for review. Three iterations of analysis were performed: descriptive, conceptual, and discursive. Descriptive analysis revealed that the medical humanities as a whole cannot be easily systematised based on simple descriptive categories. Conceptual analysis supported the development of a conceptual framework in which the foci of the arts and humanities in medical education can be mapped alongside their related epistemic functions for teaching and learning. Within the framework, art functioned as expertise, as dialogue or as a means of expression and transformation. In the discursive analysis, we found three main ways in which the relationship between the arts and humanities and medicine was constructed as, respectively, intrinsic, additive and curative. This review offers a nuanced framework of how different types of medical humanities work. The epistemological assumptions and discursive positioning of medical humanities teaching frame the forms of outcomes research that are considered relevant to curriculum decision making, and shed light on why dominant review methodologies make some functions of medical humanities teaching visible and render others invisible. We recommend the use of this framework to improve the rigor and relevance of future explorations of the efficacy and utility of medical humanities teaching

  8. Radiation application for synthesis of advanced materials and the related research on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The irradiation effects of polymers was studied in the wide temperature range from very low temperature to high temperature under vacuum or oxygen free atmosphere.The chemical reactions for polymers showed a rather large difference depending on irradiation temperature in quality and/or quantity. The dependence is though to be the difference in molecular motion of polymers during irradiation. The clear difference on irradiation temperature was observed for polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) and polystyrene(PS). For other polymers, the irradiation temperature effects are observed, which may be expanding to develop new products. The newly developed technology in radiation application is the curing of polymer fiber as ceramic fiber precursor. The silicon carbide(SiC) fiber is synthesized from silicon containing polymer of polycarbosilane(PCS) fiber by the pyrolysis at high temperature of 1200 deg or more. As the melting temperature of PCS is about 230 deg, the fiber must be cured to not melt down during the pyrolysis. The purpose of this work was the radiation crosslinking of PCS fiber without oxygen contamination. The basic research was carried out using gamma-rays irradiation under vacuum, where the fundamental data were obtained such as the yield of active sites and the reactivity with oxygen and the decomposed gases. The SiC fiber obtained from the radiation cured PCS fiber has a high tensile strength of 3GPa and high heat-resistance up to 1700 deg. The heat resistance of SiC fiber obtained from ordinary processing is about 1200 deg. This technology was transferred to a company and the product is supplied to the market. The silicon nitride(Si 3 N 4 ) fibre was also synthesized from radiation cured PCS fiber by the pyrolysis in ammonia gas atmosphere

  9. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    OpenAIRE

    M Guszkowska; A Bołdak

    2010-01-01

    The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98); wakeboarding (n=30); snowboarding (n=30);...

  10. Social norms on rent seeking and preferences for redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco; Yamamura, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that preferences for redistribution are sig- nificantly correlated with expectations of future mobility and the belief that society offers equal opportunities. We add to previous research by inves- tigating the role of individual and social norms on rent seeking. We find that the individual propensity for stigmatizing rent seeking significantly and positively affects preferences for redistribution. On the other hand, living in an area where most citizens do not st...

  11. STC synthesis of transportation funding sources and alternatives in the southeastern states now and in the future : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this synthesis is to examine a wide variety of alternative funding mechanisms currently employed : by individual states and to comprehensively assess policy and fi nance proposals with respect to their suffi ciency, : pragmatism, and p...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Nurses, midwives or nurse assistants 72.2%, physicians 12% and clinical ... The main reasons inducing persons with diabetes to seek care outside the health care sector were reported to be seeking a cure for the condition, ...

  13. [Men and depression: gender-related help-seeking behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M

    2000-11-01

    As epidemiological data concerning gender-related help-seeking behaviour indicate, consultation rate and help-seeking by men is consistently lower, especially in the case of emotional problems and depressive symptoms. There is empirical evidence that the poor treatment rate of men cannot be explained by a better health but must be attributed to a discrepancy of need and help-seeking behaviour. Social change and epidemiological trends in depression point to the male gender-role being an important factor of increasing rates among young men as well as an important determinant of help-seeking behaviour. It is argued that social norms of traditional masculinity make help-seeking more difficult because of the inhibition of expressiveness affecting symptom perception and symptomatology of depression. Besides these predisposing factors of male help-seeking other medical and social factors are mentioned producing further barriers to help-seeking. Further research is needed to investigate the question whether changing masculinity implies gender-role conflict or positive health effects.

  14. To seek work and worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Yong Gyu

    2010-07-01

    It describes the documentary which shows US writers effect and process to seek worth though the work related nuclear power for half a century such as international nuclear school start of use of nuclear energy industry, establishment of nuclear society, by becoming a member of a standing committee and introduction of KINS, KANS and NSSC. It also describes his personal history about family and work and a brief summary of his career.

  15. Patients’ perspectives on the medical primary–secondary care interface: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Rod; Cooper, Jamie; Barbour, Rosaline; Polson, Rob; Wilson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To synthesise the published literature on the patient experience of the medical primary–secondary care interface and to determine priorities for future work in this field aimed at improving clinical outcomes. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Setting International primary–secondary care interface. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite, Biomedica Reference Collection: Comprehensive Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, eBook Collection, Web of Science Core Collection: Citation Indexes and Social Sciences Citation Index, and grey literature. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were full research papers employing qualitative methodology to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results The search identified 690 articles, of which 39 were selected for full-text review. 20 articles were included in the systematic review that encompassed a total of 689 patients from 10 countries. 4 important areas specific to the primary–secondary care interface from the patients’ perspective emerged: barriers to care, communication, coordination, and ‘relationships and personal value’. Conclusions and implications of key findings Patients should be the focus of any transfer of care between primary and secondary systems. From their perspective, areas for improvement may be classified into four domains that should usefully guide future work aimed at improving quality at this important interface. Trial registration number

  16. Patients' perspectives on the medical primary-secondary care interface: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Rod; Cooper, Jamie; Barbour, Rosaline; Polson, Rob; Wilson, Philip

    2015-10-15

    To synthesise the published literature on the patient experience of the medical primary-secondary care interface and to determine priorities for future work in this field aimed at improving clinical outcomes. Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore patients' perspectives of the medical primary-secondary care interface. International primary-secondary care interface. EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite, Biomedica Reference Collection: Comprehensive Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, eBook Collection, Web of Science Core Collection: Citation Indexes and Social Sciences Citation Index, and grey literature. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were full research papers employing qualitative methodology to explore patients' perspectives of the medical primary-secondary care interface. The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. The search identified 690 articles, of which 39 were selected for full-text review. 20 articles were included in the systematic review that encompassed a total of 689 patients from 10 countries. 4 important areas specific to the primary-secondary care interface from the patients' perspective emerged: barriers to care, communication, coordination, and 'relationships and personal value'. Patients should be the focus of any transfer of care between primary and secondary systems. From their perspective, areas for improvement may be classified into four domains that should usefully guide future work aimed at improving quality at this important interface. PROSPERO CRD42014009486. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Synthesis report regarding the Forest Industry Program 1997-2002[Energy research]; Skogsindustriell energiforskning syntesrapport 1997-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders; Olle, Nystroem

    2003-07-01

    This synthesis report commissioned by the Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Varmeforsk) constitutes a summary of the Forest Industry Program up to and including turn of the year 2002/2003. According to the assignment the resulting reports of the program has specifically been related to the present and expected EU-directives and, as a base for interpretation, national rules and regulations of relevance to the programme. Also there is a discussion, from a broad perspective, of the value and usefulness of these reports as well as of how the resources should be spent and prioritised in a coming program. As a basis for the analysis a survey of the program directions and the aims descriptions for the periods 97-98, 99-00 and 01-02 has been carried out. Throughout the three periods there is a tendency going from specific areas of interest to a more general approach which in the last program period has resulted in program directions emphasizing utilization of energy, energy integration and coordination with industry and enterprises outside the forest industry where it applies. A survey of the relevant EU-directives has been carried out. A division was made between directives related to legislation overall, permits related to combustion, operation of combustion plants and landfilling of refuse. In total 26 reports have been summarized and evaluated. They include some, which, at the time of finishing the present report, had not yet been published. The overall result has been synthesized in a discussion covering contents, aims, fulfillment and value of the reports. The work have been structured and presented based on some main activity areas that have been possible to identify from the program directions and policy statements, they are: combustion efficiency, improved energy utilization and novel concepts. Some reports, which have not been possible to arrange under these headings and furthermore are difficult to associate with the main areas defined are covered under a

  18. The neuropharmacology of relapse to food seeking: methodology, main findings, and comparison with relapse to drug seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sunila G; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-09-01

    Relapse to old, unhealthy eating habits is a major problem in human dietary treatments. The mechanisms underlying this relapse are unknown. Surprisingly, until recently this clinical problem has not been systematically studied in animal models. Here, we review results from recent studies in which a reinstatement model (commonly used to study relapse to abused drugs) was employed to characterize the effect of pharmacological agents on relapse to food seeking induced by either food priming (non-contingent exposure to small amounts of food), cues previously associated with food, or injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. We also address methodological issues related to the use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to food seeking, similarities and differences in mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking versus drug seeking, and the degree to which the reinstatement procedure provides a suitable model for studying relapse in humans. We conclude by discussing implications for medication development and future research. We offer three tentative conclusions: (1)The neuronal mechanisms of food-priming- and cue-induced reinstatement are likely different from those of reinstatement induced by the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. (2)The neuronal mechanisms of reinstatement of food seeking are possibly different from those of ongoing food-reinforced operant responding. (3)The neuronal mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking overlap to some degree with those of reinstatement of drug seeking.

  19. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  20. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online Among Runaway and Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.

  1. Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis I

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents revised versions of the best papers selected from the symposium “Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis” (MEIS2013) held in Fukuoka, Japan, in 2013. The topics cover various areas of computer graphics (CG), such as surface deformation/editing, character animation, visual simulation of fluids, texture and sound synthesis, and photorealistic rendering. From a mathematical point of view, the book also presents papers addressing discrete differential geometry, Lie theory, computational fluid dynamics, function interpolation, and learning theory. This book showcases the latest joint efforts between mathematicians, CG researchers, and practitioners exploring important issues in graphics and visual perception. The book provides a valuable resource for all computer graphics researchers seeking open problem areas, especially those now entering the field who have not yet selected a research direction.

  2. "Narrowing the transmission gap: A synthesis of three decades of research on intergenerational transmission of attachment": Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Reports an error in "Narrowing the transmission gap: A synthesis of three decades of research on intergenerational transmission of attachment" by Marije L. Verhage, Carlo Schuengel, Sheri Madigan, R. M. Pasco Fearon, Mirjam Oosterman, Rosalinda Cassibba, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn ( Psychological Bulletin , 2016[Apr], Vol 142[4], 337-366). In the article, there are errors in Table 7. The percentages of the attachment classifications do not add up to 100%. The corrected version of Table 7 is provided in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-55801-001.) Twenty years ago, meta-analytic results (k = 19) confirmed the association between caregiver attachment representations and child-caregiver attachment (Van IJzendoorn, 1995). A test of caregiver sensitivity as the mechanism behind this intergenerational transmission showed an intriguing "transmission gap." Since then, the intergenerational transmission of attachment and the transmission gap have been studied extensively, and now extend to diverse populations from all over the globe. Two decades later, the current review revisited the effect sizes of intergenerational transmission, the heterogeneity of the transmission effects, and the size of the transmission gap. Analyses were carried out with a total of 95 samples (total N = 4,819). All analyses confirmed intergenerational transmission of attachment, with larger effect sizes for secure-autonomous transmission (r = .31) than for unresolved transmission (r = .21), albeit with significantly smaller effect sizes than 2 decades earlier (r = .47 and r = .31, respectively). Effect sizes were moderated by risk status of the sample, biological relatedness of child-caregiver dyads, and age of the children. Multivariate moderator analyses showed that unpublished and more recent studies had smaller effect sizes than published and older studies. Path analyses showed that the transmission could not

  3. An orientation toward help-seeking for emotional problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Peters, L.; Foets, M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers tried to explain the social selection in use of mental health care services. A modest role is attributed to the orientation toward help-seeking. This article studies this orientation. Our research-population consisted of 10,171 Dutch persons, aged 18 and older.

  4. Radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications. Final results of a co-ordinated research project. 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    Radiation techniques are being used for synthesis of hydrogels, functional polymers, interpenetrating systems, chemical modification of surfaces, immobilization of bioactive materials, synthesis of functional micro- and nanospheres and processing of naturally derived biomaterials. Potential medical applications of these biomaterials include implants, topical dressings, treatment devices and drug delivery systems. Biotechnological applications include diagnostic assays, separation and purification systems, immobilized enzyme and cell bioprocesses and cell culture surfaces. The main objective of the CRP on The use of Radiation Processing to Prepare Biomaterials for Application in Medicine was to co-ordinate the research carried out in the participating countries, to ensure that different research programmes complement each other and the information exchange is available to all. Furthermore, the objective was to expand the use of ionizing radiation in two major areas: synthesis of polymers and gels for medical and biotechnological applications, and modification of surfaces to achieve a specific functionality and/or to immobilize bioactive materials. This publication contains 10 reports of participants; each of the reports has been indexed separately.

  5. Radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications. Final results of a co-ordinated research project. 1996-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    Radiation techniques are being used for synthesis of hydrogels, functional polymers, interpenetrating systems, chemical modification of surfaces, immobilization of bioactive materials, synthesis of functional micro- and nanospheres and processing of naturally derived biomaterials. Potential medical applications of these biomaterials include implants, topical dressings, treatment devices and drug delivery systems. Biotechnological applications include diagnostic assays, separation and purification systems, immobilized enzyme and cell bioprocesses and cell culture surfaces. The main objective of the CRP on The use of Radiation Processing to Prepare Biomaterials for Application in Medicine was to co-ordinate the research carried out in the participating countries, to ensure that different research programmes complement each other and the information exchange is available to all. Furthermore, the objective was to expand the use of ionizing radiation in two major areas: synthesis of polymers and gels for medical and biotechnological applications, and modification of surfaces to achieve a specific functionality and/or to immobilize bioactive materials. This publication contains 10 reports of participants; each of the reports has been indexed separately

  6. From the "Modern Synthesis" to cybernetics: Ivan Ivanovich Schmalhausen (1884-1963) and his research program for a synthesis of evolutionary and developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2006-03-15

    Ivan I. Schmalhausen was one of the central figures in the Russian development of the "Modern Synthesis" in evolutionary biology. He is widely cited internationally even today. Schmalhausen developed the main principles of his theory facing the danger of death in the totalitarian Soviet Union. His great services to evolutionary and theoretical biology are indisputable. However, the received view of Schmalhausen's contributions to evolutionary biology makes an unbiased reading of his texts difficult. Here we show that taking all of his works into consideration (including those only available in Russian) paints a much more dynamic and exciting picture of what he tried to achieve. Schmalhausen pioneered the integration of a developmental perspective into evolutionary thinking. A main tool for achieving this was his approach to living objects as complex multi-level self-regulating systems. Schmalhausen put enormous effort into bringing this idea into fruition during the final stages of his career by combining evolutionary theory with cybernetics. His results and ideas remain thought-provoking, and his texts are of more than just historical interest. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Social science to improve fuels management: a synthesis of research relevant to communicating with homeowners about fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe; Lisa Pennisi; Sarah McCaffrey; Dennis Mileti

    2006-01-01

    A series of syntheses were commissioned by the USDA Forest Service to aid in fuels mitigation project planning. This synthesis focuses on how managers can most effectively communicate with the public about fuels management efforts. It summarizes what is known about the techniques of persuasive communication programs and provides an outline of the characteristics of...

  8. Workshop Synthesis: Stated Preference Surveys and Experimental Design, an Audit of the Journey so far and Future Research Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchi, Elisabetta; Hensher, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the discussions and ideas that were generated during the workshop on “Stated preference surveys and experimental design” at the 2014 Travel Survey Methods Conference in Leura (Australia). The workshop addressed the challenges related to the design and implementation o...

  9. Research perspectives on the public and fire management: a synthesis of current social science on eight essential questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Christine S. Olsen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a Joint Fire Science Program project, a team of social scientists reviewed existing fire social science literature to develop a targeted synthesis of scientific knowledge on the following questions: 1. What is the public's understanding of fire's role in the ecosystem? 2. Who are trusted sources of information about fire? 3. What are the public...

  10. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  11. Financial Literacy, Confidence and Financial Advice Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.

  12. The association of hand preference and sensation seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuderer, Sonja; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    Although the human body shows a superficial symmetry, the disparate functions and skills of both body halves lead to an asymmetrical use. As a result, lateral preferences are detectable, which also include the favoured use of one hand ('handedness'). The collection of questionnaire data on sensation seeking and the conduction of behavioral handedness tasks by 55 research participants enabled the investigation of the interaction of handedness and sensation seeking. For this procedure the age-homogeneous study population is divided according to the Handedness-Index (HI) - a calculated value, indicating the practical hand preference. The results reveal a stronger lateralization in right-handed participants as well as a difference in the mean value of hand use in the three handedness groups. Sensation seeking behavior shows significant negative correlations with age as well as with the HI. Higher scores of left-handers in Experience Seeking (ES), Sensation Seeking (SS) as well as in Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) indicate a larger risk investment in this handedness group. Hence, the results of this study suggest that handedness is a strong indicator of risk behavior.

  13. Who Seeks Help Online for Self-Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between young people who seek help online for self-injury and those who self-injure but do not seek help online, in order to improve online services for young people at high risk of suicide. Young people reporting a history of self-injury (N = 679) were identified as part of larger study (N = 1,463) exploring help-seeking. One third of young people with a history of self-injury reported online help-seeking for self-injury. Online help-seekers were significantly more distressed, suicidal, and had a greater degree of self-injury compared to those who did not seek help online. The Internet provides an important form of support to the most at risk young people in this population, and may be a proximal step to face-to-face help-seeking. Further research is required to investigate the forms of support currently accessed by young people online, and their effectiveness.

  14. Predictors of Delayed Healthcare Seeking Among American Muslim Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala; Padela, Aasim I

    2016-06-01

    Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement "I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me." Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p 20 years (OR = 0.22, p American Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims.

  15. "Research protocol: a synthesis of qualitative studies on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dealing with dependency in the elderly and their families leads us to explore the life experience of those involved together with the processes of adaptation to this condition. A number of original studies have been published which, following a qualitative methodology, have dealt with both dimensions. Methods/Design Objectives: 1) To present a synthesis of the qualitative evidence available on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families; 2) to conduct an in-depth study into the experiences and strategies developed by both to optimise their living conditions; 3) to enable standards of action/intervention to be developed in the caregiving environment. A synthesis of qualitative studies is projected with an extensive and inclusive bibliography search strategy. The primary search will focus on the major databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, PSICODOC, Cochrane Library, JBI, EMBASE, LILACS, CUIDEN, CUIDEN qualitative, CUIDATGE, British Nursing Index, SSCI). The secondary search will be conducted in articles taken from the references to studies identified in the articles and reports and the manual search in congresses and foundation papers. Article quality will be assessed by the guide proposed by Sandelowski & Barroso and data extraction done using the QARI data extraction form proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence-Based Practice. The synthesis of the findings will be based on the principles and procedures of grounded theory: coding, identification and relationship between categories, and synthesis using constant comparison as a strategy. Discussion This synthesis of qualitative evidence will enable us to detect health needs as perceived by the receivers in their own interaction contexts. PMID:20738846

  16. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  17. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M

    2008-09-09

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  18. Modeling stigma, help-seeking attitudes, and intentions to seek behavioral healthcare in a clinical military sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nathaniel G; Vogel, David L; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Meit, Scott S; Heath, Patrick J; Strass, Haley A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between public and self-stigma of seeking behavioral health services, and help-seeking attitudes and intent in a sample of active duty military personnel currently being assessed for traumatic brain injuries in a military health center. Although it has been suggested that many military personnel in need of care do not seek services due to concerns with stigma it is not fully clear what role different types of stigma play in the process. Using previously collected data from a clinical sample of 97 military personnel, we conducted path analyses to test the mediation effects of self-stigma on the relationship between public stigma and attitudes toward and intentions to seek behavioral health care. In contrast to a model of military stigma but in line with research with civilian samples, results from this study indicate that self-stigma fully mediates the relationship between public stigma and help-seeking attitudes and intentions. These results indicate that programming aimed at increasing mental health care use in the military might best focus on reducing self-stigma associated with seeking mental health services. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Characterizing the Long-Term PM2.5 Concentration-Response Function: Comparing the Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Synthesis Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Neal; Gilmore, Elisabeth A; Walker, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    The magnitude, shape, and degree of certainty in the association between long-term population exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and the risk of premature death is one of the most intensely studied issues in environmental health. For regulatory risk analysis, this relationship is described quantitatively by a concentration-response (C-R) function that relates exposure to ambient concentrations with the risk of premature mortality. Four data synthesis techniques develop the basis for, and derive, this function: systematic review, expert judgment elicitation, quantitative meta-analysis, and integrated exposure-response (IER) assessment. As part of an academic workshop aiming to guide the use of research synthesis approaches, we developed criteria with which to evaluate and select among the approaches for their ability to inform policy choices. These criteria include the quality and extent of scientific support for the method, its transparency and verifiability, its suitability to the policy problem, and the time and resources required for its application. We find that these research methods are both complementary and interdependent. A systematic review of the multidisciplinary evidence is a starting point for all methods, providing the broad conceptual basis for the nature, plausibility, and strength of the associations between PM exposure and adverse health effects. Further, for a data-rich application like PM2.5 and premature mortality, all three quantitative approaches can produce estimates that are suitable for regulatory and benefit analysis. However, when fewer data are available, more resource-intensive approaches such as expert elicitation may be more important for understanding what scientists know, where they agree or disagree, and what they believe to be the most important areas of uncertainty. Whether implicitly or explicitly, all require considerable judgment by scientists. Finding ways for all these methods to acknowledge

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-06-24

    Jun 24, 2012 ... Conclusion: Our result showed increased plasma tHcy, triglyceride and waist ... A standard structured questionnaire was administered to .... acids to the liver which can lead to increase synthesis of TG and in turn gives rise to.

  1. A non-linear model of information seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen E. Foster

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a qualitative, naturalistic, study of information seeking behaviour are reported in this paper. The study applied the methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling combined purposive and snowball methods, and led to a final sample of 45 inter-disciplinary researchers from the University of Sheffield. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to elicit detailed examples of information seeking. Coding of interview transcripts took place in multiple iterations over time and used Atlas-ti software to support the process. The results of the study are represented in a non-linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour. The model describes three core processes (Opening, Orientation, and Consolidation and three levels of contextual interaction (Internal Context, External Context, and Cognitive Approach, each composed of several individual activities and attributes. The interactivity and shifts described by the model show information seeking to be non-linear, dynamic, holistic, and flowing. The paper concludes by describing the whole model of behaviours as analogous to an artist's palette, in which activities remain available throughout information seeking. A summary of key implications of the model and directions for further research are included.

  2. Promoting Informal and Professional Help-Seeking for Adolescent Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Jasmine M; Hudson-Flege, Matthew D; McDonell, James R

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined factors that differentiate adolescents with varied intentions of informal and professional help-seeking for dating violence. Help-seeking intentions among 518 ethnically diverse adolescents from a rural, southern county who participated in a longitudinal study of teen dating violence were categorized into three groups: adolescents unlikely to seek any help, adolescents likely to seek only informal help, and adolescents likely to seek informal and professional help. Multinomial logistic regression found that gender, family functioning, problem-solving competency, dating status, having an adult to talk to about a dating relationship, and acceptability of family violence significantly predicted membership in the help-seeking groups. Implications for promoting informal and professional help-seeking and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  3. Promoting Informal and Professional Help-Seeking for Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Jasmine M.; Hudson-Flege, Matthew D.; McDonell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined factors that differentiate adolescents with varied intentions of informal and professional help-seeking for dating violence. Help-seeking intentions among 518 ethnically diverse adolescents from a rural, southern county who participated in a longitudinal study of teen dating violence were categorized into three groups: adolescents unlikely to seek any help, adolescents likely to seek only informal help, and adolescents likely to seek informal and professional help. Multinomial logistic regression found that gender, family functioning, problem-solving competency, dating status, having an adult to talk to about a dating relationship, and acceptability of family violence significantly predicted membership in the help-seeking groups. Implications for promoting informal and professional help-seeking and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:28584387

  4. Assessing the Utility of the Willingness/Prototype Model in Predicting Help-Seeking Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Joseph H.; Vogel, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on professional psychological help-seeking behavior has operated on the assumption that the decision to seek help is based on intentional and reasoned processes. However, research on the dual-process prototype/willingness model (PWM; Gerrard, Gibbons, Houlihan, Stock, & Pomery, 2008) suggests health-related decisions may also…

  5. Exploring College Students' Online Help-Seeking Behavior in a Flipped Classroom with a Web-Based Help-Seeking Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Erkan; Kopcha, Theodore J.; Orey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Today's generation often seeks help from each other in online environments; however, only a few investigated the role of Internet technologies and the nature of online help-seeking behavior in collaborative learning environments. This paper presents an educational design research project that examines college students' online help-seeking…

  6. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 12: strengthening global capacity for evidence synthesis of quasi-experimental health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Oliver, Sandy; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; Ranson, M Kent; Daniels, Karen; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Evidence from quasi-experimental studies is often excluded from systematic reviews of health systems research despite the fact that such studies can provide strong causal evidence when well conducted. This article discusses global coordination of efforts to institutionalize the inclusion of causal evidence from quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. In particular, we are concerned with identifying opportunities for strengthening capacity at the global and local level for implementing protocols necessary to ensure that reviews that include quasi-experiments are consistently of the highest quality. We first describe the current state of the global infrastructure that facilitates the production of systematic reviews of health systems research. We identify five important types of actors operating within this infrastructure: review authors; synthesis collaborations that facilitate the review process; synthesis interest groups that supplement the work of the larger collaborations; review funders; and end users, including policymakers. Then, we examine opportunities for intervening to build the capacity of each type of actors to support the inclusion of quasi-experiments in reviews. Finally, we suggest practical next steps for proceeding with capacity building efforts. Because of the complexity and relative nascence of the field, we recommend a carefully planned and executed approach to strengthening global capacity for the inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 資訊需求及資訊尋求 研究文獻特性之比較: 書目計量及社會網絡分析 A Comparative Study of the Research Literature on Information Needs and Information Seeking: A bibliometric and social network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究目的在以書目計量法及社會網絡分析法分析及比較1962至2009年有關資訊需求及資訊尋求二個主題研究論文之特性,包括論文的數量分布、作者數量分布、學科分布、國家合作及高被引文獻。研究結果顯示資訊需求及資訊需求二個主題之期刊論文均自1991年起明顯增加,且各有七成是合著論文,但國際合著論文數量僅占全部8%,另多數高產量作者亦是最重要的中心作者,以及資訊需求及資訊尋求均為跨學科研究主題,但資訊需求期刊論文集中在醫學領域,而資訊尋求論文集中在圖書資訊學領域。This paper aimed to use bibliometrics and social network analysis to compare the characteristics of research articles on information needs and information seeking published from 1962 to 2009. The results found that both the number of information needs journal articles and information seeking journal articles has been obviously rising since 1991. About 70 percent of journal articles on information needs and information seeking are coauthored papers, respectively. Only about 8 percent of journal articles are coauthored by researchers from different countries. Most of the top 10 prolific authors are also the top 10 coauthors with the highest betweenness centrality. Related studies on information needs and information seeking could be found across many disciplines. Among them, most articles on information needs published in journals of medicine, while most articles on information seeking published in journals of library and information science.

  8. Habitual alcohol seeking: modeling the transition from casual drinking to addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jacqueline M; Taylor, Jane R

    2014-01-01

    The transition from goal-directed actions to habitual ethanol seeking models the development of addictive behavior that characterizes alcohol use disorders. The progression to habitual ethanol-seeking behavior occurs more rapidly than for natural rewards, suggesting that ethanol may act on habit circuit to drive the loss of behavioral flexibility. This review will highlight recent research that has focused on the formation and expression of habitual ethanol seeking, and the commonalities and distinctions between ethanol and natural reward-seeking habits, with the goal of highlighting important, understudied research areas that we believe will lead toward the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies for uncontrolled drinking. PMID:25193245

  9. Seeking and Avoiding Information in a Risky World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Chun Wei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In an era where collective action is necessary to confront societal level risks such as climate change and food safety, we need to better understand how people are motivated to seek risk information that would lead them to make choices and behavioural changes to mitigate those hazards. Method: We selectively review the research in…

  10. Health Seeking Behaviours as Predictors of Hypertension Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined health seeking behaviour as predictor of hypertension among traders in Osun State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for this study while the instrument for data collection is self developed and structured questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.702. The population for this study ...

  11. Students' motivation toward feedback-seeking in the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, L.H. de; Favier, R.P.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Bok, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    In medical education, students are increasingly regarded as active seekers of feedback rather than passive recipients. Previous research showed that in the intentions of students to seek feedback, a learning and performance goal can be distinguished. In this study, we investigated the intentions

  12. Students’ motivation toward feedback-seeking in the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Lubberta H.; Favier, Robert P.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Bok, Harold G.J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In medical education, students are increasingly regarded as active seekers of feedback rather than passive recipients. Previous research showed that in the intentions of students to seek feedback, a learning and performance goal can be dis- tinguished. In this study, we investigated the

  13. Information seeking-pattern of Nigerian textile market women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the information seeking-pattern of Nigerian textile market women and strategies for improvement of which the study was an ex-post-facto type and adopted survey research design. Disproportional stratified random technique was used to select markets for the study while questionnaire was used to ...

  14. Information Seeking Behaviour of Mathematicians: Scientists and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapa, Remigiusz; Krakowska, Monika; Janiak, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The paper presents original research designed to explore and compare selected aspects of the information seeking behaviour of mathematicians (scientists and students) on the Internet. Method: The data were gathered through a questionnaire distributed at the end of 2011 and in January 2012. Twenty-nine professional mathematicians and…

  15. Exploring information seeking behaviour in a digital museum context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of a case study of task-based interactive information seeking and retrieval behaviour of virtual museum visitors in context. The research described here is part of a larger study: this paper specifically looks at 1) leisure tasks/interests and derived ...

  16. The Information-Seeking Habits of Architecture Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    This study examines results from a survey of architecture faculty across the United States investigating information-seeking behavior and perceptions of library services. Faculty were asked to rank information sources they used for research, teaching, and creativity within their discipline. Sources were ranked similarly across these activities,…

  17. A Non-Linear Model of Information Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Allen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction:The results of a study of information seeking behaviour of inter-disciplinary academic and postgraduate researchers are reported. Method. The study applied the naturalistic methods recommended by Lincoln and Guba for maximising credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in data collection and analysis. Sampling…

  18. SEEK: a systems biology data and model management platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Katherine; Owen, Stuart; Krebs, Olga; Nguyen, Quyen; Stanford, Natalie J; Golebiewski, Martin; Weidemann, Andreas; Bittkowski, Meik; An, Lihua; Shockley, David; Snoep, Jacky L; Mueller, Wolfgang; Goble, Carole

    2015-07-11

    Systems biology research typically involves the integration and analysis of heterogeneous data types in order to model and predict biological processes. Researchers therefore require tools and resources to facilitate the sharing and integration of data, and for linking of data to systems biology models. There are a large number of public repositories for storing biological data of a particular type, for example transcriptomics or proteomics, and there are several model repositories. However, this silo-type storage of data and models is not conducive to systems biology investigations. Interdependencies between multiple omics datasets and between datasets and models are essential. Researchers require an environment that will allow the management and sharing of heterogeneous data and models in the context of the experiments which created them. The SEEK is a suite of tools to support the management, sharing and exploration of data and models in systems biology. The SEEK platform provides an access-controlled, web-based environment for scientists to share and exchange data and models for day-to-day collaboration and for public dissemination. A plug-in architecture allows the linking of experiments, their protocols, data, models and results in a configurable system that is available 'off the shelf'. Tools to run model simulations, plot experimental data and assist with data annotation and standardisation combine to produce a collection of resources that support analysis as well as sharing. Underlying semantic web resources additionally extract and serve SEEK metadata in RDF (Resource Description Format). SEEK RDF enables rich semantic queries, both within SEEK and between related resources in the web of Linked Open Data. The SEEK platform has been adopted by many systems biology consortia across Europe. It is a data management environment that has a low barrier of uptake and provides rich resources for collaboration. This paper provides an update on the functions and

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-03-29

    Mar 29, 2011 ... clinicians and laboratory personnel to improve quality of services. ... Audit has been defined as a quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care and .... Principles for best practice in clinical audit. ... Luqman M. Clinician's responsibility in Pre-Analytical Quality Assurance of Histopathology.

  20. Internet information-seeking in mental health: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-09-01

    A major use of the of the internet is for health information-seeking. There has been little research into its use in relation to mental health. To investigate the prevalence of internet use for mental health information-seeking and its relative importance as a mental health information source. General population survey. Questions covered internet use, past psychiatric history and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Eighteen per cent of all internet users had used the internet for information related to mental health. The prevalence was higher among those with a past history of mental health problems and those with current psychological distress. Only 12% of respondents selected the internet as one of the three most accurate sources of information, compared with 24% who responded that it was one of the three sources they would use. The internet has a significant role in mental health information-seeking. The internet is used more than it is trusted.

  1. Consumer health information seeking in social media: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuehua; Zhang, Jin

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this literature review was to summarise current research regarding how consumers seek health-related information from social media. Primarily, we hope to reveal characteristics of existing studies investigating the health topics that consumers have discussed in social media, ascertaining the roles social media have played in consumers' information-seeking processes and discussing the potential benefits and concerns of accessing consumer health information in social media. The Web of Science Core Collection database was searched for existing literature on consumer health information seeking in social media. The search returned 214 articles, of which 21 met the eligibility criteria following review of full-text documents. Between 2011 and 2016, twenty-one studies published explored various topics related to consumer information seeking in social media. These ranged from online discussions on specific diseases (e.g. diabetes) to public health concerns (e.g. pesticide residues). Consumers' information needs vary depending on the health issues of interest. Benefits of health seeking on social media, in addition to filling a need for health information, include the social and emotional support health consumers gain from peer-to-peer interactions. These benefits, however, are tempered by concerns of information quality and authority and lead to decreased consumer engagement. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  3. Factors associated with attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Rena; Glasser, Saralee

    2017-12-27

    Attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment are a major predictor of seeking such treatment. Rates of seeking mental health treatment for postpartum depression are low despite contacts with health-care providers and available treatment. This study examined factors associated with four dimensions of attitude toward seeking mental health treatment among Israeli women in the postpartum period. Women (N = 1,059) were recruited (June 2008-February 2009) from a medical center's maternity department within the first two days following delivery and completed a sociodemographic survey and the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale. Low recognition of need for mental health treatment was associated with having a below average income and no personal and family depression history; low stigma tolerance was associated with being younger, having more children, and defining oneself as ultra-orthodox; low interpersonal openness was associated with having a below average income. Moreover, low confidence in mental health practitioners was associated with being younger and non-ultra-orthodox. Understanding which women are likely to score low on various dimensions of attitude can help target interventions for improving these factors, reducing barriers to receiving mental health treatment among specific groups of women. Research should continue to explore specific attitude dimensions among various populations.

  4. Information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios the impact of task, technology and individual characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmer, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The growing amount of information provided via web-based information technologies forces the users of these technologies to stop seeking for information before having acquired all available information. This stopping decision is either made actively following clear guidelines or subconsciously based on the seeker's intuition. This book analyzes the aforementioned duality by developing and testing a multi-theoretical research model dealing with information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios. Thus, by delivering insights into the mechanisms that influence information seeking activitie

  5. 'Mapping Backward' and 'Looking Forward' by the 'Invisible Educators'--Reimagining Research Seeking 'Common Features of Effective Teacher Preparation'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Evidence is growing that the quality of teachers and teaching are significant factors in enhancing student learning, so research into teacher education could make a major contribution to preparing our future teachers. Post-compulsory teacher education research lacks recognition almost to the point of invisibility. Post-Compulsory Education (PCE)…

  6. Diabetes-related information-seeking behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Silke; Schiereck, Tim; Grobosch, Sandra; Paduch, Andrea; Droste, Sigrid; Halbach, Sarah; Icks, Andrea

    2017-10-24

    pharmacological interactions' were the most frequently identified content of information. Seven main categories including associated variables were identified, e.g. 'socioeconomic', 'duration of DM', and 'lifestyle'. The systematic review provides a valuable overview of available knowledge on the information-seeking behaviour of people with diabetes mellitus, although there are only a few studies. There was a high heterogeneity regarding the research question, design, methods and participants. Although the Internet is often used to seek information, health professionals still play an important role in supporting their patients' information-seeking behaviour. Specific needs of people with diabetes must be taken into consideration. PROSPERO CRD42016037312.

  7. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  8. Public responses to the sharing and linkage of health data for research purposes: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Mhairi; de St Jorre, Jenna; Pagliari, Claudia; Jepson, Ruth; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2016-11-10

    The past 10 years have witnessed a significant growth in sharing of health data for secondary uses. Alongside this there has been growing interest in the public acceptability of data sharing and data linkage practices. Public acceptance is recognised as crucial for ensuring the legitimacy of current practices and systems of governance. Given the growing international interest in this area this systematic review and thematic synthesis represents a timely review of current evidence. It highlights the key factors influencing public responses as well as important areas for further research. This paper reports a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies examining public attitudes towards the sharing or linkage of health data for research purposes. Twenty-five studies were included in the review. The included studies were conducted primarily in the UK and North America, with one study set in Japan, another in Sweden and one in multiple countries. The included studies were conducted between 1999 and 2013 (eight studies selected for inclusion did not report data collection dates). The qualitative methods represented in the studies included focus groups, interviews, deliberative events, dialogue workshops and asynchronous online interviews. Key themes identified across the corpus of studies related to the conditions necessary for public support/acceptability, areas of public concern and implications for future research. The results identify a growing body of evidence pointing towards widespread general-though conditional-support for data linkage and data sharing for research purposes. Whilst a variety of concerns were raised (e.g. relating to confidentiality, individuals' control over their data, uses and abuses of data and potential harms arising) in cases where participants perceived there to be actual or potential public benefits from research and had trust in the individuals or organisations conducting and/or overseeing data linkage/sharing, they

  9. Interfaces for End-User Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionini, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Discusses essential features of interfaces to support end-user information seeking. Highlights include cognitive engineering; task models and task analysis; the problem-solving nature of information seeking; examples of systems for end-users, including online public access catalogs (OPACs), hypertext, and help systems; and suggested research…

  10. Professional e-government seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with professional e-government seeking behavior. With the digitalization of governments, expectations have been raised with regard to changes in the composition of employee work tasks. The purpose of our study is to determine whether these changes affect seeking beh...

  11. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  12. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-01-01

    Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  13. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  14. Employer's information and promotion-seeking activities

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model in which promotion of employees within the internal firm hierarchy is determined by the individuals' allocation of time between promotion/rent-seeking and productive activity. We consider the effect of an increase in the employer's knowledge (information) regarding the employees' productivity levels on the total time spent by the workers in non-productive promotion-seeking activities.

  15. Information seeking and communication behaviour of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the findings of a study which sought insight into engineer's information seeking and communication behaviour at Kenya Railways Corporation. The study employed a user centered approach to information seeking and use unlike many past studies which were system centered. It focused broadly and ...

  16. Enhanced Stereoselectivity of a Cu(II) Complex Chiral Auxiliary in the Synthesis of Fmoc-L-γ-carboxyglutamic Acid | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridging bioinorganic chemistry with asymmetric synthesis: a naturally occurring metalloprotein is used for the structure-based evolution of chiral auxiliaries that prove to be effective in the synthesis of Fmoc-L-γ-carboxyglutamic acid.

  17. A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research on Sexual Risk Taking Among Asian/Pacific Islander Men Who Have Sex With Men in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi Shiu, Chen; Voisin, Dexter R; Chen, Wet-Ti; Lo, Yi-An; Hardestry, Melissa; Nguyen, Huong

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, there has emerged a body of literature documenting a number of risk factors associated with Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men's unsafe sexual behaviors. This study aims to systematically review existing empirical studies and synthesize research results into a social-ecological framework using a mixed research synthesis. Empirical research articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and June 2013 were identified in six databases, including PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstract, CINAL, and Web of Knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Two analysts independently reviewed the articles, and findings were organized on a social-ecological framework. Twenty-two articles were included in the analysis; among these 13 were quantitative, 8 were qualitative, and 1 was mixed-methods research. Results indicated that demographic characteristics, psychological resources, behavioral patterns, relationships with family and friends, dynamics with romantic or sexual partners, community involvement, culture, discrimination, and institutional factors were related to unprotected anal intercourse. This article presents a critique of this literature and discusses implications for future research with this population. It concludes with prevention/intervention initiatives based on review findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and computational chemistry research of a Zinc(II complex: [Zn(Pt(Biim2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title metal-organic coordination complex [Zn(pt(Biim2] (pt=phthalic acid, benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate, Biim=2,2'-biimidazole 1 has been obtained by using hydrothermal synthesis and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 8.5466(15 Å, b = 11.760(2 Å, c = 20.829(4 Å, β = 95.56(2º, V = 2083.5(6 Å3, Mr =497.78, Dc = 1.587 g/cm3, μ(MoKα = 1.226 mm−1, F(000 = 1016, Z = 4, the final R = 0.0564 and wR = 0.1851 for 3656 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I. The elemental analysis, IR, TG and the theoretical calculation were also investigated.

  19. The synthesis, structure-toxicity relationship of cisplatin derivatives for the mechanism research of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Wu, Tian-Ming; Li, Hong-Ze; Zuo, Ze-Ping; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Yang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic drug, while its nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application. Although several mechanisms contributing to nephrotoxicity have been reported, the direct protein targets are unclear. Herein we reported the synthesis of 29 cisplatin derivatives and the structure-toxicity relationship (STR) of these compounds with MTT assay in human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2) and pig kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). To the best of our knowledge, this study represented the first report regarding the structure-toxicity relationship (STR) of cisplatin derivatives. The potency of biotin-pyridine conjugated derivative 3 met the requirement for target identification, and the preliminary chemical proteomics results suggested that it is a promising tool for further target identification of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Information seeking and use behaviour of economists and business analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Thivant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this paper is to deal with the information seeking and use problem in a professional context and understand how activity can influence practices, by taking as examples, the research undertaken by economic analysts. We analyse the relationship between the situational approach, described by Cheuk, the work environment complexity (with social, technological and personal aspects, and the information seeking and use strategies, which relied on Ellis and Wilson's model, with Bates's comments. Method. We interviewed eight economists, using a questionnaire and the SICIA (Situation, Complexity and Information Activity method. The SICAI method is a qualitative approach, which underlines the relationship between situations, professional contexts and strategies. Both methods allow better understanding of how investment analysts find out what they need for their job. We can clarify their information sources and practices of information seeking, which are very particular because of their activities. We complete our analysis by interviewing analysts from financial institutions. Analysis. A qualitative mode of analysis was used to interpret the interviewees' comments, within the research framework adopted. Results. We find similarity in information seeking and use strategies used by these two groups and environmental levels meet in most situations. But some differences can be also found, explained by the activity frameworks and goals. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the activity and also the professional context (here the financial context can directly influence practices.

  1. Predicting help-seeking behavior: The impact of knowing someone close who has sought help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disabato, David J; Short, Jerome L; Lameira, Diane M; Bagley, Karen D; Wong, Stephanie J

    2018-02-15

    This study sought to replicate and extend research on social facilitators of college student's help seeking for psychological problems. We collected data on 420 ethnically diverse college students at a large public university (September 2008-May 2010). Students completed a cross-sectional online survey. We found that students who were aware of close others' (eg, family, friends) help seeking were two times more likely to have sought formal (eg, psychologist) and informal (eg, clergy) help themselves. Tests of moderation revealed the incremental effect (ie, controlling for help-seeking attitudes, internalizing symptoms, cultural demographics) of close others' formal help seeking was strong and significant for men (R 2 = 0.112), while it was negligible and nonsignificant for women (R 2 = .002). We discuss the importance for students-particularly men-to learn about close others' help seeking for facilitating their own help seeking during times of distress.

  2. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  3. Determinants of College Students' Use of Online Collaborative Help-Seeking Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lu; Er, Erkan

    2018-01-01

    Research has noted the effectiveness of online tools (e.g., discussion boards) for supporting help seeking among class members. However, help seeking is not necessarily warranted via online learning tools because some factors (e.g., low Internet self-efficacy) may influence students' intention to use them. This study aims to identify the…

  4. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Counseling Services among Chinese International Students: Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…

  5. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  6. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  7. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  8. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  9. Mixed Methods Analysis of Multicultural Identity and Psychological Help Seeking Beliefs in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychological help-seeking beliefs and behaviors of college students has provided evidence for differences among students based on demographic factors, with different variables being salient for different cultural groups. This mixed methods study focuses on understanding how common psychological help-seeking variables, including…

  10. A systematic review of help-seeking interventions for depression, anxiety and general psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Methods Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database in November 2011. Studies were included if they included a randomised controlled trial of at least one intervention targeting help-seeking for depression or anxiety or general psychological distress, and contained extractable data on help-seeking attitudes or intentions or behaviour. Studies were excluded if they focused on problems or conditions other than the target (e.g., substance use, eating disorder. Results Six published studies of randomised controlled trials investigating eight different interventions for help-seeking were identified. The majority of trials targeted young adults. Mental health literacy content was effective (d = .12 to .53 in improving help-seeking attitudes in the majority of studies at post-intervention, but had no effect on help-seeking behaviour (d = −.01, .02. There was less evidence for other intervention types such as efforts to destigmatise or provide help-seeking source information. Conclusions Mental health literacy interventions are a promising method for promoting positive help-seeking attitudes, but there is no evidence that it leads to help-seeking behaviour. Further research investigating the effects of interventions on attitudes, intentions, and behaviour is required.

  11. Wasted research when systematic reviews fail to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis: the example of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créquit, Perrine; Trinquart, Ludovic; Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    Multiple treatments are frequently available for a given condition, and clinicians and patients need a comprehensive, up-to-date synthesis of evidence for all competing treatments. We aimed to quantify the waste of research related to the failure of systematic reviews to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis over time. We performed a series of systematic overviews and networks of randomized trials assessing the gap between evidence covered by systematic reviews and available trials of second-line treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other resources sequentially by year from 2009 to March 2, 2015. We sequentially compared the amount of evidence missing from systematic reviews to the randomized evidence available for inclusion each year. We constructed cumulative networks of randomized evidence over time and evaluated the proportion of trials, patients, treatments, and treatment comparisons not covered by systematic reviews on December 31 each year from 2009 to 2015. We identified 77 trials (28,636 patients) assessing 47 treatments with 54 comparisons and 29 systematic reviews (13 published after 2013). From 2009 to 2015, the evidence covered by existing systematic reviews was consistently incomplete: 45 % to 70 % of trials; 30 % to 58 % of patients; 40 % to 66 % of treatments; and 38 % to 71 % of comparisons were missing. In the cumulative networks of randomized evidence, 10 % to 17 % of treatment comparisons were partially covered by systematic reviews and 55 % to 85 % were partially or not covered. We illustrate how systematic reviews of a given condition provide a fragmented, out-of-date panorama of the evidence for all treatments. This waste of research might be reduced by the development of live cumulative network meta-analyses.

  12. Development of an intervention to reduce antibiotic use for childhood coughs in UK primary care using critical synthesis of multi-method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Lucas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overuse of antibiotics contributes to the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic stewardship interventions address this threat by reducing the use of antibiotics in occasions or doses unlikely to be effective. We aimed to develop an evidence-based, theory-informed, intervention to reduce antibiotic prescriptions in primary care for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTI. This paper describes our methods for doing so. Methods Green and Krueter’s Precede/Proceed logic model was used as a framework to integrate findings from a programme of research including 5 systematic reviews, 3 qualitative studies, and 1 cohort study. The model was populated using a strength of evidence approach, and developed with input from stakeholders including clinicians and parents. Results The synthesis produced a series of evidence-based statements summarizing the quantitative and qualitative evidence for intervention elements most likely to result in changes in clinician behaviour. Current evidence suggests that interventions which reduce clinical uncertainty, reduce clinician/parent miscommunication, elicit parent concerns, make clear delayed or no-antibiotic recommendations, and provide clinicians with alternate treatment actions have the best chance of success. We designed a web-based within-consultation intervention to reduce clinician uncertainty and pressure to prescribe, designed to be used when children with RTI present to a prescribing clinician in primary care. Conclusions We provide a worked example of methods for the development of future complex interventions in primary care, where multiple factors act on multiple actors within a complex system. Our synthesis provided intervention guidance, recommendations for practice, and highlighted evidence gaps, but questions remain about how best to implement these recommendations. The funding structure which enabled a single team of researchers to work on a multi

  13. Research priorities for adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries: A mixed-methods synthesis of two separate exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Hathi, Sejal; Ferguson, B Jane; Hindin, Michele J; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Ross, David A

    2018-06-01

    In order to clarify priorities and stimulate research in adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted two priority-setting exercises based on the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology related to 1) adolescent sexual and reproductive health and 2) eight areas of adolescent health including communicable diseases prevention and management, injuries and violence, mental health, non-communicable diseases management, nutrition, physical activity, substance use, and health policy. Although the CHNRI methodology has been utilized in over 50 separate research priority setting exercises, none have qualitatively synthesized the ultimate findings across studies. The purpose of this study was to conduct a mixed-method synthesis of two research priority-setting exercises for adolescent health in LMICs based on the CHNRI methodology and to situate the priority questions within the current global health agenda. All of the 116 top-ranked questions presented in each exercise were analyzed by two independent reviewers. Word clouds were generated based on keywords from the top-ranked questions. Questions were coded and content analysis was conducted based on type of delivery platform, vulnerable populations, and the Survive, Thrive, and Transform framework from the United Nations Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health, 2016-2030. Within the 53 top-ranked intervention-related questions that specified a delivery platform, the platforms specified were schools (n = 17), primary care (n = 12), community (n = 11), parenting (n = 6), virtual media (n = 5), and peers (n = 2). Twenty questions specifically focused on vulnerable adolescents, including those living with HIV, tuberculosis, mental illness, or neurodevelopmental disorders; victims of gender-based violence; refugees; young persons who inject drugs; sex workers; slum dwellers; out

  14. Research priorities for adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries: A mixed-methods synthesis of two separate exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Hathi, Sejal; Ferguson, B Jane; Hindin, Michele J; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Ross, David A

    2018-01-01

    Background In order to clarify priorities and stimulate research in adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted two priority-setting exercises based on the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology related to 1) adolescent sexual and reproductive health and 2) eight areas of adolescent health including communicable diseases prevention and management, injuries and violence, mental health, non-communicable diseases management, nutrition, physical activity, substance use, and health policy. Although the CHNRI methodology has been utilized in over 50 separate research priority setting exercises, none have qualitatively synthesized the ultimate findings across studies. The purpose of this study was to conduct a mixed-method synthesis of two research priority-setting exercises for adolescent health in LMICs based on the CHNRI methodology and to situate the priority questions within the current global health agenda. Methods All of the 116 top-ranked questions presented in each exercise were analyzed by two independent reviewers. Word clouds were generated based on keywords from the top-ranked questions. Questions were coded and content analysis was conducted based on type of delivery platform, vulnerable populations, and the Survive, Thrive, and Transform framework from the United Nations Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s, and Adolescents’ Health, 2016-2030. Findings Within the 53 top-ranked intervention-related questions that specified a delivery platform, the platforms specified were schools (n = 17), primary care (n = 12), community (n = 11), parenting (n = 6), virtual media (n = 5), and peers (n = 2). Twenty questions specifically focused on vulnerable adolescents, including those living with HIV, tuberculosis, mental illness, or neurodevelopmental disorders; victims of gender-based violence; refugees; young persons who inject drugs; sex

  15. Evidence-informed health policy 1 - synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Moynihan, Ray; Paulsen, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-17

    Organizations have been established in many countries and internationally to support the use of research evidence by producing clinical practice guidelines, undertaking health technology assessments, and/or directly supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level. Learning from these organizations can reduce the need to 'reinvent the wheel' and inform decisions about how best to organize support for such organizations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We undertook a multi-method study in three phases - a survey, interviews, and case descriptions that drew on site visits - and in each of the second and third phases we focused on a purposive sample of those involved in the previous phase. We used the seven main recommendations that emerged from the advice offered in the interviews to organize much of the synthesis of findings across phases and methods. We used a constant comparative method to identify themes from across phases and methods. Seven recommendations emerged for those involved in establishing or leading organizations that support the use of research evidence in developing health policy: 1) collaborate with other organizations; 2) establish strong links with policymakers and involve stakeholders in the work; 3) be independent and manage conflicts of interest among those involved in the work; 4) build capacity among those working in the organization; 5) use good methods and be transparent in the work; 6) start small, have a clear audience and scope, and address important questions; and 7) be attentive to implementation considerations, even if implementation is not a remit. Four recommendations emerged for the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations and networks: 1) support collaborations among organizations; 2) support local adaptation efforts; 3) mobilize support; and 4) create global public goods. This synthesis of

  16. Evidence-informed health policy 1 – Synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moynihan Ray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations have been established in many countries and internationally to support the use of research evidence by producing clinical practice guidelines, undertaking health technology assessments, and/or directly supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level. Learning from these organizations can reduce the need to 'reinvent the wheel' and inform decisions about how best to organize support for such organizations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods We undertook a multi-method study in three phases – a survey, interviews, and case descriptions that drew on site visits – and in each of the second and third phases we focused on a purposive sample of those involved in the previous phase. We used the seven main recommendations that emerged from the advice offered in the interviews to organize much of the synthesis of findings across phases and methods. We used a constant comparative method to identify themes from across phases and methods. Results Seven recommendations emerged for those involved in establishing or leading organizations that support the use of research evidence in developing health policy: 1 collaborate with other organizations; 2 establish strong links with policymakers and involve stakeholders in the work; 3 be independent and manage conflicts of interest among those involved in the work; 4 build capacity among those working in the organization; 5 use good methods and be transparent in the work; 6 start small, have a clear audience and scope, and address important questions; and 7 be attentive to implementation considerations, even if implementation is not a remit. Four recommendations emerged for the World Health Organization (WHO and other international organizations and networks: 1 support collaborations among organizations; 2 support local adaptation efforts; 3 mobilize support; and 4 create

  17. Agricultural Water Conservation in the Colorado River Basin: Alternatives to Permanent Fallowing Research Synthesis and Outreach Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, B. H.; Peterson, G.

    2017-12-01

    As increasing water scarcity occurs in the Colorado River Basin, water users have been looking for new sources of supply. The default solution is to transfer water from the cheapest and most plentiful source — agriculture — to supply new water demands in the region. However, if pursued in haste, and without sufficient information, the likely outcome may be permanent fallowing, along with serious economic disruption to agricultural communities, loss of valuable farmland, loss of important amenity values, and a loss of a sense of place in many rural communities within the basin. This project was undertaken to explore ways to minimize harm to agriculture if transfers out of agriculture were to occur. Four detailed synthesis reports of the four common methods used to temporarily transfer water from agriculture were produced by the project. The water saving methods covered by the reports are: (1) Deficit Irrigation of Alfalfa and other Forages; (2) Rotational Fallowing; (3) Crop Switching; and (4) Irrigation Efficiency and Water Conservation After the reports were drafted, three workshops were held, one in the Upper Basin in Grand Junction on November 4, 2016, one in the Lower Basin in Tucson on March 29, 2017, and one in Washington, DC on May 16, 2017 to disseminate the findings. Over 100 people attended these workshops.

  18. Towards a Better Understanding of Water Stores and Fluxes: Model Observation Synthesis in a Snowmelt Dominated Research Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryken, A.; Gochis, D.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Bearup, L. A.; Williams, K. H.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrology of high-elevation, mountainous regions is poorly represented in Earth Systems Models (ESMs). In addition to regulating downstream water delivery, these ecosystems play an important role in the storage and land-atmosphere exchange of carbon and water. Water balances are sensitive to the amount of water stored in the snowpack (SWE) and the amount of water leaving the system in the form of evapotranspiration—two pieces of the hydrologic cycle that are difficult to observe and model in heterogeneous mountainous regions due to spatially variant weather patterns. In an effort to resolve this hydrologic gap in ESMs, this study seeks to better understand the interactions between groundwater, carbon flux, and the lower atmosphere in these high-altitude environments through integration of field observations and model simulations. We compare model simulations to field observations to elucidate process performance combined with a sensitivity analysis to better understand parameter uncertainty. Observations from a meteorological station in the East River Basin are used to force an integrated single-column hydrologic model, ParFlow-CLM. This met station is co-located with an eddy covariance tower, which, along with snow surveys, is used to better constrain the water, carbon, and energy fluxes in the coupled land-atmosphere model to increase our understanding of high-altitude headwaters. Preliminary results suggest the model compares well to the eddy covariance tower and field observations, shown through both correct magnitude and timing of peak SWE along with similar magnitudes and diurnal patterns of heat and water fluxes. Initial sensitivity analysis results show that an increase in temperature leads to a decrease in peak SWE as well as an increase in latent heat revealing a sensitivity of the model to air temperature. Further sensitivity analysis will help us understand more parameter uncertainty. Through obtaining more accurate and higher resolution

  19. Communicative action seeking golden years!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the year of 2015 much has been said and celebrated about the 15 years of Rene. Profesor Lorita Pagliuca, the journal’s founder and my first counselor in research, in the editorial number one, brilliantly rescued, based on the doctor Saramago’s work, that “utopia is the spice of life” and warned that social responsibility preserves the affection and inclusive do over the magazine’s evolution(1.

  20. A Statement of Values for Our Research on Music in Peacebuilding: A Synthesis of Galtung and Ikeda's Peace Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in research linking musicking and peacebuilding, and the establishment of the Min-On Music Research Institute (MOMRI) in 2014 in Tokyo follows this trend. Its mission statement is: "To pursue a multidisciplinary investigation of the potential application of music in peacebuilding activities," in…

  1. The design and synthesis of biologically active organophosphorus compounds--the role of a central research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roger G

    2010-01-01

    The properties and benefits offered by incorporating phosphorus into molecules are varied and numerous as shown by the many divisional research programs within Ciba-Geigy in the early eighties. This paper describes how a Central Research Group developed new materials in organophosphorous chemistry and identified new leads for life science applications.

  2. Depression and Help-Seeking Among Native Hawaiian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta Park, Van M; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Chao, Puihan Joyce; Antonio, Mapuana

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to gain insight about Native Hawaiian (NH) women's experiences with, and viewpoints of, depression and help-seeking behaviors (N = 30: 10 from the university and 20 from the community). More women reported depression in the interviews than through their Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) responses. Quantitative data revealed 57% of the women had ever received mental health help (80% of university vs. 45% of community sample). There was a range of satisfaction reported for various types of mental health care, with satisfaction being the highest for spiritual/religious advisor/folk healer. During the interviews, one woman reported that she is currently receiving professional care and five women are seeking help from their family/social network. Future research should explore reasons for the differences in the quantitative and qualitative findings regarding depression and associated help-seeking as well as in the satisfaction levels by type of help-seeking.

  3. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  4. Long distance atmospheric pollution: assessment, risks, management and decision. Collection of abstracts of research works. Synthesis of results of researches performed within the framework of the PRIMEQUAL programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Severine; Ramalho, Olivier; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Blondeau, Patrice; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Campagna, Dave; Cellier, Pierre; Charles, Lionel; Coddeville, Patrice; Coll, Isabelle; Frejafon, Emeric; Gehin, Evelyne; George, Christian; Glorennec, Philippe; Gros, Valerie; Hecq, Walter; Laj, Paolo; Le Calve, Stephane; Mallet, Cecile; Momas, Isabelle; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Plaisance, Herve; Probst, Anne; Seigneur, Christian; Vlassopoulo, Chloe; Weiss, Karine

    2014-11-01

    After a brief presentation of the PRIMEQUAL programme, an inter-agency and institution research programme for a better air quality (275 supported research actions since the programme creation), an introduction presents the context of research works within this programme on long distance pollution. Various research works are then briefly presented. They address three main themes: 1) determining factors and atmospheric processes (role of organic nitrates in nitrogen transport, source and evolution of organic carbonated pollution in the atmosphere, modelling of long distance pollution, a miniature and autonomous station for atmospheric composition monitoring), 2) the regional evidence of pollutants transport (local and long distance pollution in Ile-de-France, pollutant transport and air quality in Mediterranean Sea, measurement and modelling of the deposition of Saharan dusts, relationship between forest fires and air quality), and 3) long term impacts on ecosystems, health and economy (peat lands as markers of atmospheric contamination, 20 years of measurements of atmospheric depositions in France and trends on the long term, vulnerability of ecosystems to atmospheric nitrogen, a cost-benefit approach to the relationship between long distance pollution and climate change). An appendix contains the call for research propositions which resulted in the above-mentioned researches

  5. Collaboration and Productivity in Scientific Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Parker, John N.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific synthesis has transformed ecological research and presents opportunities for advancements across the sciences; to date, however, little is known about the antecedents of success in synthesis. Building on findings from 10 years of detailed research on social interactions in synthesis groups at the National Center for Ecological Analysis…

  6. Radiation chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagoretz, P.A.; Poluetkov, V.A.; Shostenko, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider processes in radiation chemical synthesis which are being developed in various scientific-research organizations. The important advantages of radiation chlorination, viz. the lower temperature compared with the thermal method and the absence of dehydrochlorination products are discussed. The authors examine the liquid-phase chlorination of trifluorochloroethyltrichloromethyl ether to obtain the pentachloro-contining ether, trifluorodichloroethyltrichloromethyl ether. The authors discuss radiation synthesis processes that have be used formulated kinetic equations on which models have been based. It is concluded that the possibilities of preparative (micro- and low-tonnage) radiation synthesis are promising

  7. Characterization of Individuals Seeking Treatment for Caffeine Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano, Laura M.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Richards, Brian D.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for DSM-IV-TR substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-t...

  8. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Jane C.; Campbell, Karen J.; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women?s GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women?s sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Methods Consecutive women (n?=?1032) received a mailed que...

  9. Perceived Barriers and Enablers of Help-Seeking for Substance Use Problems During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Bonita J; McCann, Terence V; Cheetham, Ali; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-01-01

    Receiving professional help early can reduce long-term harms associated with substance use. However, little is known about the factors that influence help-seeking for substance use problems during early-mid adolescence, prior to the emergence of disorder. Given that beliefs regarding help-seeking are likely to develop early, understanding adolescent views of help-seeking during this period is likely to provide important information for prevention and intervention efforts. The current study identifies perceptions that would facilitate or prevent adolescents from seeking support for substance use problems from formal and informal help sources. Thirty-four 12- to 16-year-olds from two schools in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, were recruited. A qualitative interpretative design was used, incorporating semistructured, audio-recorded interviews. Three overlapping themes that reflected barriers or enablers to help-seeking were identified: approachability, confidentiality and trustworthiness, and expertise. Help-seeking was facilitated when adolescents believed that the help source would be supportive and understanding, would keep information confidential, and had expertise in the alcohol and drug field. Conversely, adolescents were reluctant to seek help from sources they believed would be judgmental, lacked expertise, or would inform their parents. These findings highlight perceptions that may influence help-seeking for alcohol and drug problems during adolescence. Further research is needed to determine if help-seeking can be facilitated by improving parents' and peers' knowledge and promoting health professionals' expertise in working with young people's alcohol and drug issues.

  10. Stigma and demographic correlates of help-seeking intentions in returning service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Rebecca K; Renshaw, Keith D

    2013-02-01

    Many U.S. Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans return from deployment with posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, but few veterans seek psychological help. Research on barriers to care is growing, but the link between stigma and help-seeking is understudied. The present study examined anticipated enacted stigma from military and nonmilitary sources, self-stigma, PTS, perceived likelihood of deploying again, marital status, and history of mental health care engagement as correlates of help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional or medical doctor/advance practice registered nurse (MD/APRN) in a sample of 165 combat veterans. Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that self-stigma was negatively associated with help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional and MD/APRN with small-to-medium effect sizes. Being married was positively associated with help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional and MD/APRN with small effect sizes. History of previous mental health care engagement was positively associated with help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional with a medium effect size, but unrelated to help-seeking intentions from a MD/APRN. Anticipated enacted stigma from any source, PTS, and greater perceived likelihood of deploying again were unrelated to help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional and MD/APRN. Implications for interventions aimed at decreasing self-stigma and increasing intention to seek help are discussed. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. When to Seek Help for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others; opposition to authority, truancy, thefts, or vandalism Strange thoughts, beliefs, feelings, or unusual behaviors If problems persist over an extended period of time or if others involved in the child's life are concerned, consider speaking with your seeking a ...

  12. Sexual information seeking on web search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Koricich, Andrew; Jansen, B J; Cole, Charles

    2004-02-01

    Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, including chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from logs of 1,025,910 Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com Web user queries from 2001. We compared the differences in sexually-related Web searching between Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com users. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and search term choices. Implications of the findings for sexual information seeking are discussed.

  13. EDITORIAL HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR IN CONTEXT Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-02-01

    Feb 1, 2003 ... coherent picture of specific cultural features that affect people's health ... seeking is not homogenous depending on cognitive and non-cognitive factors that call ... services that are drawn into the decision making process(5,6).

  14. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  15. Do online mental health services improve help-seeking for young people? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauer, Sylvia Deidre; Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena

    2014-03-04

    Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people.

  16. 'I feel stronger and younger all the time'-perspectives of elderly kidney transplant recipients: thematic synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Jule; Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Chapman, Jeremy R; Budde, Klemens; Halleck, Fabian; Tong, Allison

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation offers improved survival and quality of life to an increasing number of elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, elderly kidney transplant recipients may face unique challenges due to a higher burden of comorbidity, greater cumulative risk of immunosuppression-related complications and increasing frailty. We aimed to describe the perspectives of elderly kidney transplant recipients. Electronic databases were searched to April 2015. Qualitative studies were eligible if they reported views from elderly kidney transplant recipients (≥60 years). Thematic synthesis was used to analyse the findings. Twenty-one studies involving >116 recipients were included. We identified seven themes. 'Regaining strength and vitality' meant valuing the physical and psychosocial improvements in daily functioning and life participation. 'Extending life' was the willingness to accept any organ, including extended criteria kidneys, to prolong survival. 'Debt of gratitude' entailed conscious appreciation toward their donor while knowing they were unable to repay their sacrifice. 'Moral responsibility to maintain health' motivated adherence to medication and lifestyle recommendations out of an ethical duty to protect their gift for graft survival. 'Unabating and worsening forgetfulness' hindered self-management. 'Disillusionment with side effects and complications' reflected disappointment and exasperation with the unintended consequences of medications. 'Finality of treatment option' was an acute awareness that the current transplant may be their last. Kidney transplantation was perceived to slow and even reverse the experience of aging among elderly recipients, especially compared with dialysis. However, some were frustrated over persistent limitations after transplant, struggled with the burden of medication side effects and worried about a possible return to dialysis if the transplant failed. Clarifying patient expectations of transplantation

  17. Seabirds and marine plastic debris in the northeastern Atlantic: A synthesis and recommendations for monitoring and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Nina J; James, Neil A; Masden, Elizabeth A; Bond, Alexander L

    2017-12-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an increasing, and global, environmental issue. Numerous marine species are affected by plastic debris through entanglement, nest incorporation, and ingestion, which can lead to lethal and sub-lethal impacts. However, in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, an area of international importance for seabirds, there has been little effort to date to assess information from studies of wildlife and plastic to better understand the spatiotemporal variation of how marine plastic affects different seabird species. To improve our understanding of seabirds and marine plastic in this region, we completed a synthesis of the published and grey literature to obtain information on all known documented cases of plastic ingestion and nest incorporation by this group. We found that of 69 seabird species that commonly occur in the northeastern Atlantic, 25 had evidence of ingesting plastic. However, data on plastic ingestion was available for only 49% of all species, with 74% of investigated species recorded ingesting plastic. We found only three published studies on nest incorporation, for the Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus) and Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). For many species, sample sizes were small or not reported, and only 39% of studies were from the 21st century, whilst information from multiple countries and years was only available for 11 species. This indicates that we actually know very little about the current prevalence of plastic ingestion and nest incorporation for many species, several of them globally threatened. Furthermore, in the majority of studies, the metrics reported were inadequate to carry out robust comparisons among locations and species or perform meta-analyses. We recommend multi-jurisdictional collaboration to obtain a more comprehensive and current understanding of how marine plastic is affecting seabirds in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Information seeking behavior of Greek astronomers

    OpenAIRE

    Brindesi, Hara; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2011-01-01

    This study examines three aspects of information seeking behaviour of astronomers in Greece including a) the importance they place in keeping up- to-date with current developments b) the methods they depend on for keeping up-to-date and c) the information sources they mostly use. We adopted an intradisciplinary approach in order to investigate similarities and differences in information seeking behaviour among astronomers when examining them as groups bearing different characteristics, includ...

  19. Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Physical and Online Retailing:A Review, Synthesis and Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Bonetti, Francesca; Wamaby, Gary; Quinn, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) have emerged as rapidly developing technologies used in both physical and online retailing to enhance the selling environment and shopping experience. However, academic research on, and practical applications of, AR and VR in retail are still fragmented, and this state of affairs is arguably attributable to the interdisciplinary origins of the topic. Undertaking a comparative chronological analysis of AR and VR research and applications in a ret...

  20. Exploring arts-based knowledge translation: sharing research findings through performing the patterns, rehearsing the results, staging the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra; Schultz, Annette S H

    2014-04-01

    Cultivation of knowledge translation (KT) strategies that actively engage health professionals in critical reflection of their practice and research-based evidence are imperative to address the research-practice gap. While research-based evidence is exponentially growing, our ability to facilitate uptake by nurses and other health professionals has not kept pace. Innovative approaches that extend epistemological bias beyond a singular standpoint of postpositivism, such as the utilization of arts-based methods, expand the possibility to address the complexities of context, engage audience members, promote dissemination within communities of practice, and foster new audiences interested in research findings. In this paper, we address the importance of adopting a social constructivist epistemological stance to facilitate knowledge translation to diverse audiences, explore various arts-based knowledge translation (ABKT) strategies, and open a dialogue concerning evaluative tenets of ABKT. ABKT utilizes various art forms to disseminate research knowledge to diverse audiences and promote evidence-informed practice. ABKT initiatives translate knowledge not based upon a linear model, which views knowledge as an objective entity, but rather operate from the premise that knowledge is socially situated, which demands acknowledging and engaging the learner within their context. Theatre, dance, photography, and poetry are art forms that are commonly used to communicate research findings to diverse audiences. Given the emerging interest and importance of utilizing this KT strategy situated within a social constructivist epistemology, potential challenges and plausible evaluative criteria specific to ABKT are presented. ABKT is an emerging KT strategy that is grounded in social constructivist epistemological tenets, and holds potential for meaningfully sharing new research knowledge with diverse audiences. ABKT is an innovative and synergistic approach to traditional

  1. Who seeks bariatric surgery? Psychosocial functioning among adolescent candidates, other treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, C C; Devlin, M J; Fennoy, I; Zitsman, J L; Walsh, B T; Sysko, R

    2017-12-01

    Limited data are available on the characteristics of adolescents with obesity who seek bariatric surgery. Existing data suggest that adolescent surgery candidates have a higher body mass index (BMI) than comparison adolescents with obesity, but the limited findings regarding psychosocial functioning are mixed. This study aimed to compare BMI and psychosocial functioning among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates, outpatient medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity (receiving lifestyle modification), and adolescents in the normal-weight range. All adolescents completed self-report measures of impulsivity, delay discounting, depression, anxiety, stress, eating pathology, family functioning and quality of life, and had their height and weight measured. Adolescent surgical candidates had higher BMIs than both comparison groups. Surgical candidates did not differ from medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity on any measure of psychosocial functioning, but both groups of adolescents with obesity reported greater anxiety and eating pathology and poorer quality of life than normal-weight adolescents. Quality of life no longer differed across groups after controlling for BMI, suggesting that it is highly related to weight status. Adolescents with obesity may experience greater anxiety, eating pathology, and quality of life impairments than their peers in the normal-weight range regardless of whether they are seeking surgery or outpatient medical treatment. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Adolescents' Help-Seeking Behavior and Intentions Following Adolescent Dating Violence: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundock, Kerrie; Chan, Carmen; Hewitt, Olivia

    2018-01-01

    The review aimed to systematically identify and summarize empirical work examining adolescent victims' help-seeking behaviors and intentions in relation to their own experience of adolescent dating violence (ADV) and to critically evaluate the literature. Three main objectives were addressed: identify factors associated with help seeking, identify help-seeking source (who adolescents disclose to), and explore the barriers and facilitators for help seeking. Results were separated into actual help seeking and help-seeking intentions. A systematic search was conducted via an electronic search on February 10, 2017. Studies were identified by systematically searching the following electronic databases: Amed, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, Health Business Elite, HMIC, Medline, PsychINFO, and PubMed. Nineteen studies were included in the review. Adolescents were more likely to go to informal sources of support, with friends being the most commonly reported source. The majority of studies found females were more likely than males to seek help; however, inconsistencies in gender differences emerged. The variation in measurement and definition of ADV and help seeking included in this review impacts on its conclusions. Adolescents identify a number of barriers to help seeking for ADV. Emotional factors were identified as important barriers to seeking help; however, very little research in this review explored this area. Further research is required on age and cultural differences, use of the Internet, and preference for different sources for different types of abuse. There is a need for a greater focus on help seeking to ensure government campaigns are appropriately meeting the needs of young people experiencing ADV.

  3. Sensation Seeking or Empathy? Physically Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behaviors (ASBs Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Eman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has linked anti-social behavior (ASB to subtypes of empathy and also to sensation seeking, but there is limited research on the relative roles of empathy subtypes and sensation seeking traits in predicting ASB subtypes. The current study therefore investigated the relationship between sensation seeking, the three subtypes of empathy (emotional reactivity, cognitive empathy and social skills and the two subtypes of ASB (physically aggressive and non-aggressive. An online survey consisting of Demographic Variables Questionnaire, Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, Empathy Quotient and the Antisocial Behavior Measure was sent to student volunteers, leading to a total of 537 respondents. Empathy alone accounted for a relatively modest proportion of the total variance in the ASBs, with emotional reactivity being the only significant predictor. Adding sensation seeking to the regression led to a marked improvement in prediction for non-aggressive ASB and a slight but significant improvement for physically aggressive ASB. Sensation seeking, emotional reactivity and social skills (but not cognitive empathy contributed unique variance for both ASB subtypes. The greatest variance for physically aggressive and non-aggressive ASB were accounted for by emotional reactivity and sensation seeking, respectively. The results indicate that both sensation seeking and sub-types of empathy are important in predicting ASBs. This has theoretical implications for different personality models and has practical implications for the development of preventive measures to avoid such behaviors.

  4. Sensation seeking related to varied definition of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastol, O.U.; Drottz-Sjoberg, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. It has been shown in previous risk perception studies that some people report their definition or normal use of the concept of risk as e.g. mainly probability, a combination of probability and consequences, mainly consequences, or due to the nature of the event (Drottz-Sjoeberg, 1991). Another field of research has developed measures for personality traits, i.e. facets of Sensation Seeking; Disinhibition, Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, and Boredom Susceptibility (Zuckerman, 1994). The design of the present study involved three independent groups of first year psychology students (N=93). They were presented with one of three response formats regarding their normal use of the word risk, i.e. an open-ended format, separate ratings of four items suggesting a definition of risk on five-point scales, and one single five-point scale with the extremes labelled probability and consequences, and with their combination as the scale mid-point. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was 'danger', but among the responses were also 'chance', and 'outcome'. Another finding was that people who defined risk as 'outcome' and 'chance', using the open-ended format tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale than those who defined risk as 'danger'. In addition, subjects who defined risk as the 'combination' of probability and consequences, using other response formats, also tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), especially as compared to those defining risk as the 'probability' of an event. (authors)

  5. RATU2 - The Finnish research programme on the structural integrity of nuclear power plants. Synthesis of achievements 1995-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, J.; Sarkimo, M.; Asikainen, M.; Aavall, Aa.

    1998-01-01

    The symposium summarises the scientific and technical achievements within the Finnish Research programme on the structural integrity of nuclear power plants (RATU2). The programme began in 1995 and will be accomplished at the end of 1998. The annual volume of this programme represented approximately 6 % of the total nuclear energy R and D in Finland. The research programme was mainly publicly funded and supplied impartial expertise for the regulation of nuclear energy. It also played an important role in the education of new experts, technology transfer and the international exchange of scientific results. (orig.)

  6. Catalysis for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis from Biomass Derived Syngas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-292

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, J.

    2013-04-01

    The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) developed and tested catalysts for production of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas (syngas), under research and development (R&D) projects that were discontinued a number of years ago. Dow possesses detailed laboratory notebooks, catalyst samples, and technical expertise related to this past work. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting R&D in support of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to develop methods for economically producing ethanol from gasified biomass. NREL is currently conducting biomass gasification research at an existing 1/2 ton/day thermochemical test platform. Both Dow and NREL believe that the ability to economically produce ethanol from biomass-derived syngas can be enhanced through collaborative testing, refinement, and development of Dow's mixed-alcohol catalysts at NREL's and/or Dow's bench- and pilot-scale facilities. Dow and NREL further agree that collaboration on improvements in catalysts as well as gasifier operating conditions (e.g., time, temperature, upstream gas treatment) will be necessary to achieve technical and economic goals for production of ethanol and other alcohols.

  7. The ethical issues regarding consent to clinical trials with pre-term or sick neonates: a systematic review (framework synthesis) of the analytical (theoretical/philosophical) research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megone, Christopher; Wilman, Eleanor; Oliver, Sandy; Duley, Lelia; Gyte, Gill; Wright, Judy

    2016-09-09

    Conducting clinical trials with pre-term or sick infants is important if care for this population is to be underpinned by sound evidence. Yet, approaching the parents of these infants at such a difficult time raises challenges to obtaining valid informed consent for such research. In this study, we asked, What light does the analytical literature cast on an ethically defensible approach to obtaining informed consent in perinatal clinical trials? In a systematic search, we identified 30 studies. We began our analysis by applying philosophical frameworks, which were then refined as concepts emerged from the analytical studies, to present a coherent picture of a broad literature. Between them, the studies addressed four themes. The first three were the ethical basis for parental informed consent for neonatal and/or perinatal research, the validity of parental consent in this context, and the range of possible options in methods for gaining consent. The last was the issue of risk and the possibility of a double-standard or asymmetry in the current approaches to the requirement for consent for research and consent for clinical treatment. In addressing these issues, the analysed studies showed that, whilst there are a variety of possible defences for seeking parental 'consent' to neonatal and/or perinatal clinical trials, these are all consistent with the strongly and widely held view that it is important that parents do give (or decline) consent for such research. So far as the method of obtaining consent is concerned, none of the existing consent processes reviewed by the research is satisfactory, and there are philosophical reasons for supposing that at least some parents will fail to give valid consent in a neonatal context. Furthermore, in giving parental 'consent' in a perinatal context, parents are authorising infant participation, not giving 'proxy consent'. Finally, there are reasons for giving weight to both parental 'consent' and the infant's best interests in

  8. (Un)Hidden Figures: A Synthesis of Research Examining the Intersectional Experiences of Black Women and Girls in STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Danyelle T.; Freeman, Kimberley Edelin; Winston-Proctor, Cynthia E.; DeLaine, Kendra D.; McDonald Lowe, Stacey; Woodson, Kamilah M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we argue that intersectionality is a theoretical and methodological framework by which education researchers can critically examine why and how students in STEM fields who are members of intersecting marginalized groups have distinctive experiences related to their social identities, other psychological processes, and educational…

  9. A Program of Research and Education to Advance the Design, Synthesis, and Optimization of Aero-Space System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception in December 1999, the program has provided support for a total of 11 Graduate Research Scholar Assistants, of these, 6 have completed their MS degree program. The program has generated 3 MS theses and a total of 4 publications/presentations.

  10. Effects of Student Participation in Decision Making at School. A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ursula; Nowak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews empirical research on the effects of student participation in school decision-making processes. Out of 3102 searched citations, a total of 32 publications met the inclusion criteria. The qualitative analyses employed in this review yielded a typology of student participation, a categorisation of the diverse effects of student…

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  12. Goal-seeking neural net for recall and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Omid M.

    1990-07-01

    Neural networks have been used to mimic cognitive processes which take place in animal brains. The learning capability inherent in neural networks makes them suitable candidates for adaptive tasks such as recall and recognition. The synaptic reinforcements create a proper condition for adaptation, which results in memorization, formation of perception, and higher order information processing activities. In this research a model of a goal seeking neural network is studied and the operation of the network with regard to recall and recognition is analyzed. In these analyses recall is defined as retrieval of stored information where little or no matching is involved. On the other hand recognition is recall with matching; therefore it involves memorizing a piece of information with complete presentation. This research takes the generalized view of reinforcement in which all the signals are potential reinforcers. The neuronal response is considered to be the source of the reinforcement. This local approach to adaptation leads to the goal seeking nature of the neurons as network components. In the proposed model all the synaptic strengths are reinforced in parallel while the reinforcement among the layers is done in a distributed fashion and pipeline mode from the last layer inward. A model of complex neuron with varying threshold is developed to account for inhibitory and excitatory behavior of real neuron. A goal seeking model of a neural network is presented. This network is utilized to perform recall and recognition tasks. The performance of the model with regard to the assigned tasks is presented.

  13. Pursuit of comfort and pursuit of harmony: culture, relationships, and social support seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K; Ko, Deborah; Taylor, Shelley E

    2006-12-01

    This research examined whether people from collectivistic cultures are less likely to seek social support than are people from individualistic cultures because they are more cautious about potentially disturbing their social network. Study 1 found that Asian Americans from a more collectivistic culture sought social support less and found support seeking to be less effective than European Americans from a more individualistic culture. Study 2 found that European Americans' willingness to seek support was unaffected by relationship priming, whereas Asian Americans were willing to seek support less when the relationship primed was closer to the self. Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 and found that the tendency to seek support and expect social support to be helpful as related to concerns about relationships. These findings underscore the importance of culturally divergent relationship patterns in understanding social support transactions.

  14. AAPI college students' willingness to seek counseling: the role of culture, stigma, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na-Yeun; Miller, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    This study tested 4 theoretically and empirically derived structural equation models of Asian, Asian American, and Pacific Islanders' willingness to seek counseling with a sample of 278 college students. The models represented competing hypotheses regarding the manner in which Asian cultural values, European American cultural values, public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help related to willingness to seek counseling. We found that Asian and European American cultural values differentially related to willingness to seek counseling indirectly through specific indirect pathways (public stigma, stigma by close others, self-stigma, and attitudes toward seeking professional help). Our results also showed that the magnitude of model-implied relationships did not vary as a function of generational status. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for counseling are discussed.

  15. Students' motivation toward feedback-seeking in the clinical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Lubberta H; Favier, Robert P; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Bok, Harold G J

    2017-09-01

    In medical education, students are increasingly regarded as active seekers of feedback rather than passive recipients. Previous research showed that in the intentions of students to seek feedback, a learning and performance goal can be distinguished. In this study, we investigated the intentions (defined as level and orientation of motivation) of different performing students (low, average, and high performing students) to seek feedback in the clinical workplace using Self-Determination Theory. We conducted a quantitative study with students in their clinical clerkships and grouped them based on their performance. The level of motivation was measured by the number of Mini-CEXs each student collected. The orientation of motivation was measured by conducting the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. We found that high performing students were more motivated and demonstrated higher self-determination compared to low performing students.

  16. Alcohol and drug abusers' reasons for seeking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J A; Sobell, L C; Sobell, M B; Gaskin, J

    1994-01-01

    Clients at two different treatment facilities were asked at assessment how influential each of 10 possible reasons were in their decision to change their alcohol or drug use. Clients at both facilities most often endorsed "weighing the pros and cons of drinking or drug use" and a "warning from spouse." Client's reasons for seeking treatment were also examined in relation to treatment compliance. Three reasons--"weighing the pros and cons," "hitting rock bottom," and experiencing a "major lifestyle change"--were predictive of treatment compliance. Clients who rated any of these reasons as influential were more likely to enter and complete treatment. Although more research is needed, knowledge of clients' reasons for seeking treatment might be useful in treatment matching.

  17. Varied definitions of risk related to sensation seeking trait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event

  18. Varied definitions of risk related to sensation seeking trait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event.

  19. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH) Scale: Examination across Six Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Efstathiou, Georgios; Holtham, Elizabeth; Kouvaraki, Elli; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Shechtman, Zipora; Topkaya, Nursel

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that the stigma associated with seeking therapy--particularly self-stigma--can inhibit the use of psychological services. Yet, most of the research on self-stigma has been conducted in the United States. This is a considerable limitation, as the role of self-stigma in the help-seeking process may vary across cultural groups.…

  20. Context-driven Salt Seeking Test (Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Smith, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation. Importantly, this adaptive salt-seeking behavior occurs despite the fact that the rats never tasted salt in the depleted state, and therefore never tasted it as a highly desirable reward. The following protocol is a method to investigate the neural circuitry mediating adaptive salt seeking using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The procedure is designed to provide an opportunity to discover possible dissociations between the neural circuitry mediating salt seeking and salt consumption to replenish the bodily deficit after sodium depletion. Additionally, this procedure is amenable to incorporating a number of neurobiological techniques for studying the brain basis of this behavior.

  1. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thrill and adventure seeking in risky driving at work: The moderating role of safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Darren; Somoray, Klaire; Evenhuis, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Within many industrialized countries, the leading cause of worker fatalities and serious injuries can be attributed to road trauma. In non-occupational research, high levels of sensation seeking personality, and specifically thrill and adventure seeking, have been associated with risky driving behaviors. In work driving literature, high organizational safety climate has been associated with reduced risky driving in work drivers. However, the extent that factors such as safety climate and thrill seeking interact in regard to work driving safety remains unclear, and the current research examined this interaction. Methods A total of 1,011 work drivers from four organizations participated in the research. Surveys were distributed online and hardcopies were sent via mail. The survey included measures of thrill and adventure seeking, safety climate and work-related driving behaviors, as well as questions relating to participant demographics and information about their work driving. Results The results demonstrated that safety climate significantly moderated the effect of thrill and adventure seeking trait on driving errors, driving violations, and driving while fatigued. Conclusion These results suggest that the development of a strong safety climate has the potential to improve work driving safety outcomes by reducing the impact of particular personality traits such as thrill seeking within an organizational context. Practical application To improve work driving safety, organizations and management need to develop strategies to encourage and foster positive work driving safety climate, particularly within work settings that may attract thrill and adventure seeking employees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Cleaning up the big muddy: A meta-synthesis of the research on the social impact of dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchherr, Julian, E-mail: julian.kirchherr@sant.ox.ac.uk; Pohlner, Huw, E-mail: huw.pohlner@oxfordalumni.org; Charles, Katrina J., E-mail: katrina.charles@ouce.ox.ac.uk

    2016-09-15

    Scholars have been exploring the social impacts of dams for over 50 years, but a lack of systematic approaches has resulted in many research gaps remaining. This paper presents the first systematic review of the literature on the social impacts of dams. For this purpose, we built a sample of 217 articles published in the past 25 years via key word searches, expert consultations and bibliography reviews. All articles were assessed against an aggregate matrix framework on the social impact of dams, which combines 27 existing frameworks. We find that existing literature is highly biased with regard to: perspective (45% negative versus 5% positive); dam size (large dams are overrepresented); spatial focus (on the resettlement area); and temporal focus (5–10 years ex-post resettlement). Additionally, there is bias in terms of whose views are included, with those of dam developers rarely examined by scholars. These gaps need to be addressed in future research to advance our knowledge on the social impact of dams to support more transparency in the trade-offs being made in dam development decisions. - Highlights: • Very first systematic review of the research on dams' social impact • Biases in the literature identified, e. g. large dams over-studied, too much focus solely on resettlement area impacts • Implications of these biases for understanding of the topic are discussed.

  4. Climate change and human infectious diseases: A synthesis of research findings from global and spatio-temporal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lu; Gong, Peng

    2017-06-01

    The life cycles and transmission of most infectious agents are inextricably linked with climate. In spite of a growing level of interest and progress in determining climate change effects on infectious disease, the debate on the potential health outcomes remains polarizing, which is partly attributable to the varying effects of climate change, different types of pathogen-host systems, and spatio-temporal scales. We summarize the published evidence and show that over the past few decades, the reported negative or uncertain responses of infectious diseases to climate change has been growing. A feature of the research tendency is the focus on temperature and insect-borne diseases at the local and decadal scale. Geographically, regions experiencing higher temperature anomalies have been given more research attention; unfortunately, the Earth's most vulnerable regions to climate variability and extreme events have been less studied. From local to global scales, agreements on the response of infectious diseases to climate change tend to converge. So far, an abundance of findings have been based on statistical methods, with the number of mechanistic studies slowly growing. Research gaps and trends identified in this study should be addressed in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Cleaning up the big muddy: A meta-synthesis of the research on the social impact of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Pohlner, Huw; Charles, Katrina J.

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have been exploring the social impacts of dams for over 50 years, but a lack of systematic approaches has resulted in many research gaps remaining. This paper presents the first systematic review of the literature on the social impacts of dams. For this purpose, we built a sample of 217 articles published in the past 25 years via key word searches, expert consultations and bibliography reviews. All articles were assessed against an aggregate matrix framework on the social impact of dams, which combines 27 existing frameworks. We find that existing literature is highly biased with regard to: perspective (45% negative versus 5% positive); dam size (large dams are overrepresented); spatial focus (on the resettlement area); and temporal focus (5–10 years ex-post resettlement). Additionally, there is bias in terms of whose views are included, with those of dam developers rarely examined by scholars. These gaps need to be addressed in future research to advance our knowledge on the social impact of dams to support more transparency in the trade-offs being made in dam development decisions. - Highlights: • Very first systematic review of the research on dams' social impact • Biases in the literature identified, e. g. large dams over-studied, too much focus solely on resettlement area impacts • Implications of these biases for understanding of the topic are discussed

  6. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase II (construction phase) investigations to a depth of 350 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Eiichi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Hayano, Akira; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Fujita, Tomoo; Tanai, Kenji; Nakayama, Masashi; Takeda, Masaki; Yokota, Hideharu; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ohno, Hirokazu; Shigeta, Naotaka; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. This report summarizes the results of the Phase II investigations carried out from April 2005 to June 2014 to a depth of 350 m. Integration of work from different disciplines into a 'geosynthesis' ensures that the Phase II goals have been successfully achieved and identifies key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II investigations. Efforts are made to summarize as many lessons learnt from the Phase II investigations and other technical achievements as possible to form a 'knowledge base' that will reinforce the technical basis for both implementation and the formulation of safety regulations. (author)

  7. O behaviorismo radical e a interdisciplinaridade: possibilidade de uma nova síntese? Radical behaviorism and interdisciplinary research: would a new synthesis be possible in psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenice Santos Chaves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A ciência psicológica é historicamente atravessada por conflitos inter teóricos, decorrentes de enfoques diferenciados com relação a conhecimentos produzidos pelos fundamentos epistemológicos, teóricos e metodológicos, pelas hegemonias e pelo próprio recorte sobre o objeto em estudo, realizado por pesquisadores. Contemporaneamente, a epistemologia da complexidade chama atenção para a incompletude de cada tipo de conhecimento científico produzido, o que tem gerado ressonâncias nos fazeres de pesquisadores e propiciado novos diálogos entre perspectivas diversificadas em cada enfoque, ou entre enfoques. O presente artigo propõe diálogos entre aspectos do behaviorismo radical e do construtivismo crítico formal, ressaltando relações de complementaridade, a partir da unidade de contrários, que podem implicar numa nova síntese: uma teoria geral do significado. Nessa direção enfocar-se-á a proposição de nova síntese, a qual configura uma compreensão teórica sobre o desenvolvimento do significado e reinterpreta o papel do reforçamento na construção e ampliação dos significados.Psychology as science is historically engaged in theoretical disputes resulting from divergent viewpoints concerning the nature of knowledge generated by different epistemological, theoretical and methodological approaches, and by the particular divisions in the subject matter made by the researchers themselves. At the present time, epistemology of the complexity calls attention to the incompleteness, characteristic of scientific knowledge, that in turn affects the conduct of researchers, creating conditions for new dialogues between differing perspectives within and between disciplines. This article proposes a renewal of the dialogue between radical behaviorism and formal critical constructivism that, by emphasizing complementary relationships and opposing polarized thinking which has permeated these disciplines, may result in a new synthesis or

  8. An overview of the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: Chapter 1 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Turner, Kent; Raish, Carol B.; Ostoja, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    discusses the Science and Research Strategy developed by the SNAP agencies, the Science and Research Report, and need for science-based management in southern Nevada.

  9. Accreditation to supervise researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gall, Thierry

    1999-01-01

    In this report, the author first proposes an overview of his academic researches and works performed within the framework of a thesis (approach to the indolizidine skeleton, synthesis of analogues of biosynthesis intermediates of leukotrienes, approach to the synthesis of compactin). In a second part, he presents and comments research works performed within the CEA: cyclo-addition of nitrile oxide with trienes complexed by tricarbonyl iron, synthesis of sulphur-containing analogues of myo-inositol, new approaches to taxol synthesis, stereo-selective synthesis with Lewis complexes of borided derived compounds, study of the bio-synthesis of biotin. The report contains lists of contributions and publications

  10. Sensation seeking and smoking behaviors among adolescents in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heejin; Park, Sunhee

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between the four components of sensation seeking (i.e., disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, and boredom susceptibility) and three types of smoking behavior (i.e., non-smoking, experimental smoking, and current smoking) among high school students in the Republic of Korea. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed using two models. In Model 1, the four subscales of sensation seeking were used as covariates, and in Model 2, other control factors (i.e., characteristics related to demographics, individuals, family, school, and friends) were added to Model 1 in order to adjust for their effects. In Model 1, the impact of disinhibition on experimental smoking and current smoking was statistically significant. In Model 2, the influence of disinhibition on both of these smoking behaviors remained statistically significant after controlling for all the other covariates. Also, the effect of thrill and adventure seeking on experimental smoking was statistically significant. The two statistically significant subscales of sensation seeking were positively associated with the risk of smoking behaviors. According to extant literature and current research, sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition, is strongly associated with smoking among youth. Therefore, sensation seeking should be measured among adolescents to identify those who are at greater risk of smoking and to develop more effective intervention strategies in order to curb the smoking epidemic among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes.

  12. Coronary heart disease in South Asian immigrants: synthesis of research and implications for health promotion and prevention in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Zachariah, Rachel

    2008-07-01

    Although the literature reflects that Asian Indians in the United States and globally have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality because of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes, few studies have described the clinical implications in the United States. Traditional risk factors dictate practice, yet these risk factors do not fully explain the rates. Central obesity, lipoprotein (a), and insulin resistance may have a strong role. The literature suggests that proactive nursing using culturally specific clinical measures are necessary to reduce risk factors for CHD and diabetes in South Asians. Additional research and prevention strategies focused on immigrant South Asians in the United States are recommended.

  13. Exploring the influence of culture on hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Manchaiah, Vinaya; St Claire, Lindsay; Danermark, Berth; Jones, Lesley; Brandreth, Marian; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Goodwin, Robin

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to highlight the importance of cultural influence in understanding hearing-help seeking and hearing-aid uptake. Information on audiological services in different countries and 'theories related to cross-culture' is presented, followed by a general discussion. Twenty-seven relevant literature reviews on hearing impairment, cross-cultural studies, and the health psychology model and others as secondary resources. Despite the adverse consequences of hearing impairment and the significant potential benefits of audiological rehabilitation, only a small number of those with hearing impairment seek professional help and take up appropriate rehabilitation. Therefore, hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake has recently become the hot topic for clinicians and researchers. Previous research has identified many contributing factors for hearing help-seeking with self-reported hearing disability being one of the main factors. Although significant differences in help-seeking and hearing-aid adoption rates have been reported across countries in population studies, limited literature on the influence of cross-cultural factors in this area calls for an immediate need for research. This paper highlights the importance of psychological models and cross-cultural research in the area of hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake, and consequently some directions for future research are proposed.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  15. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 3 – Interventions for Subacute WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature.

  16. A synthesis of the literature on breaking bad news or truth telling: potential for research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Lawrence; Westhues, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The high incidence of fatal diseases, inequitable access to health care, and socioeconomic disparities in India generate plentiful clinical bad news including diagnosis of a life-limiting disease, poor prognosis, treatment failure, and impending death. These contexts compel health care professionals to become the messengers of bad news to patients and their families. In global literature on breaking bad news, there is very little about such complex clinical interactions occurring in India or guiding health care providers to do it well. The purpose of this article is to identify the issues for future research that would contribute to the volume, comprehensiveness, and quality of empirical literature on breaking bad news in clinical settings across India. Towards this end, we have synthesized the studies done across the globe on breaking bad news, under four themes: (a) deciding the amount of bad news to deliver; (b) attending to cultural and ethical issues; (c) managing psychological distress; and (d) producing competent messengers of bad news. We believe that robust research is inevitable to build an indigenous knowledge base, enhance communicative competence among health care professionals, and thereby to improve the quality of clinical interactions in India.

  17. A synthesis of the literature on breaking bad news or truth telling: Potential for research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Martis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of fatal diseases, inequitable access to health care, and socioeconomic disparities in India generate plentiful clinical bad news including diagnosis of a life-limiting disease, poor prognosis, treatment failure, and impending death. These contexts compel health care professionals to become the messengers of bad news to patients and their families. In global literature on breaking bad news, there is very little about such complex clinical interactions occurring in India or guiding health care providers to do it well. The purpose of this article is to identify the issues for future research that would contribute to the volume, comprehensiveness, and quality of empirical literature on breaking bad news in clinical settings across India. Towards this end, we have synthesized the studies done across the globe on breaking bad news, under four themes: (a deciding the amount of bad news to deliver; (b attending to cultural and ethical issues; (c managing psychological distress; and (d producing competent messengers of bad news. We believe that robust research is inevitable to build an indigenous knowledge base, enhance communicative competence among health care professionals, and thereby to improve the quality of clinical interactions in India.

  18. The SEEK Program: A SEEK Student's View. Community Issues, July 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jackie

    The Search for Elevation through Education and Knowledge (SEEK) experience at Queens College has been a hectic and strained undertaking, culminating in a confrontation between black and white students which gained national attention. The white community at Queens reacted negatively towards SEEK students, faculty, and counseling staff. The…

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  20. A worked example of "best fit" framework synthesis: a systematic review of views concerning the taking of some potential chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Cooper, Katy

    2011-03-16

    A variety of different approaches to the synthesis of qualitative data are advocated in the literature. The aim of this paper is to describe the application of a pragmatic method of qualitative evidence synthesis and the lessons learned from adopting this "best fit" framework synthesis approach. An evaluation of framework synthesis as an approach to the qualitative systematic review of evidence exploring the views of adults to the taking of potential agents within the context of the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Twenty papers from North America, Australia, the UK and Europe met the criteria for inclusion. Fourteen themes were identified a priori from a related, existing conceptual model identified in the literature, which were then used to code the extracted data. Further analysis resulted in the generation of a more sophisticated model with additional themes. The synthesis required a combination of secondary framework and thematic analysis approaches and was conducted within a health technology assessment timeframe. The novel and pragmatic "best fit" approach to framework synthesis developed and described here was found to be fit for purpose. Future research should seek to test further this approach to qualitative data synthesis.

  1. An evidence synthesis of the international knowledge base for new care models to inform and mobilise knowledge for multispecialty community providers (MCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alison; Mulla, Abeda; Booth, Andrew; Aldridge, Shiona; Stevens, Sharon; Battye, Fraser; Spilsbury, Peter

    2016-10-01

    NHS England's Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and deliver services closer to home through integrated models. This synthesis focuses on a multispecialty community provider (MCP) model. This new model of care seeks to overcome the limitations in current models of care, often based around single condition-focused pathways, in contrast to patient-focused delivery (Royal College of General Practitioners, The 2022 GP: compendium of evidence, 2012) which offers greater continuity of care in recognition of complex needs and multimorbidity. The synthesis, an innovative combination of best fit framework synthesis and realist synthesis, will develop a "blueprint" which articulates how and why MCP models work, to inform design of future iterations of the MCP model. A systematic search will be conducted to identify research and practice-derived evidence to achieve a balance that captures the historical legacy of MCP models but focuses on contemporary evidence. Sources will include bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, HMIC and Cochrane Library; and grey literature sources. The Best Fit synthesis methodology will be combined with a synthesis following realist principles which are particularly suited to exploring what works, when, for whom and in what circumstances. The aim of this synthesis is to provide decision makers in health and social care with a practical evidence base relating to the multispecialty community provider (MCP) model of care. PROSPERO CRD42016039552 .

  2. [Differentiation and synthesis. Forms of reception of acoustical research in the musical literature of the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias

    2008-09-01

    In the nineteenth century, both musical scholars and natural scientists discussed the relevance of acoustical research for the theory and practice of music. Whereas some musical theorists and acousticians plead together for an acoustical foundation of musical theory, other scholars questioned the significance of physical and physiological knowledge for a deeper understanding of music. Based on an analysis of musical journals, popular scientific writings, theoretical treatises and musical dictionaries this article demonstrates how musical scholars and natural scientists argued about the question which discipline should have the final say about musical concepts and terminologies. To merge both heterogeneous spheres--music and acoustics--or to carefully distinguish between them--these two positions shaped the dispute over the relationship between music and natural sciences in the nineteenth century.

  3. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include

  4. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder: Part 1 – Overview and Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in a substantial socioeconomic burden throughout the industrialized world, wherever costs are documented. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence of their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence supporting various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the first in a five-part series, provides an overview of the review methodology as well as a summary and discussion of the review’s main findings. Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria, 40 of which were randomized controlled trials. The majority of studies (n=47 evaluated treatments initiated in the chronic stage of the disorder, while 23 evaluated treatments for acute WAD and 13 assessed therapies for subacute WAD. Exercise and mobilization programs for acute and chronic WAD had the strongest supporting evidence, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various protocols. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support any treatment for subacute WAD. For patients with chronic WAD who do not respond to conventional treatments, it appears that radiofrequency neurotomy may be the most effective treatment option. The present review found a relatively weak but growing research base on which one could make recommendations for patients at any stage of the WAD continuum. Further research is needed to determine which treatments are most effective at reducing the disabling symptoms associated with WAD.

  5. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2011; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET), which started operation again in 2011. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the last step before DEMO, a prototype fusion reactor able to deliver electricity and demonstrate the economic viability of fusion energy. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL went on with its participation to the scientific and technological programme of EURATOM. Researches are carried out essentially on 2 sites: (i) at EPFL, where topics dealt with include the physics of magnetic confinement studied using the Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV), the basic experiment TORPEX, theory and numerical modelling, and the technology of plasma heating and current generation by hyper-frequency waves; (ii) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), where activities are devoted to superconductivity and structure materials. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. In the TCV it could be demonstrated for the first time that the injection of Electronic Cyclotronic Heating (ECH) waves is able to double the frequency of so-called 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELM), reducing by a factor of 2 the energy expelled by each ELM. In particular, it was possible to considerably reduce the statistical dispersion of the repetition frequency of ELM, and to avoid the appearance of gigantic ELM that are particularly harmful for reactor operation. The effect of plasma

  6. Health information-seeking among Latino newcomers - an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Courtright

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction. This exploratory study examines health information-seeking practices among Latin American newcomers to a small city in the United States. The framework locates these practices within social networks, the local institutional context and the use and non-use of information technologies. Method. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Spanish with seven immigrant workers. Interviews elicited incidents of both purposive seeking and accidental encountering of health information. Analysis. Data were coded for reference to social networks, strengths of social networks, and perceptions and uses of institutions, organizations, and technologies, treating the information incident as unit of analysis. Results. Information seeking is often assisted by both social networks and key institutions, yet the quality of the information transmitted through social networks is apt to be uneven, and newcomers are unable to obtain an adequate overview of local health care for improved decision-making. Of particular interest is the finding that the local information environment has evolved significantly in response to growing demand for Spanish-language and low-income services. Conclusion. It is particularly important for information behaviour researchers to examine the dynamic interactions among study populations and their information environments over time.

  7. Managing Understory Vegetation for Maintaining Productivity in Black Spruce Forests: A Synthesis within a Multi-Scale Research Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Joanisse

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of boreal ecosystems involves the establishment of vigorous tree regeneration after harvest. However, two groups of understory plants influence regeneration success in eastern boreal Canada. Ericaceous shrubs are recognized to rapidly dominate susceptible boreal sites after harvest. Such dominance reduces recruitment and causes stagnant conifer growth, lasting decades on some sites. Additionally, peat accumulation due to Sphagnum growth after harvest forces the roots of regenerating conifers out of the relatively nutrient rich and warm mineral soil into the relatively nutrient poor and cool organic layer, with drastic effects on growth. Shifts from once productive black spruce forests to ericaceous heaths or paludified forests affect forest productivity and biodiversity. Under natural disturbance dynamics, fires severe enough to substantially reduce the organic layer thickness and affect ground cover species are required to establish a productive regeneration layer on such sites. We succinctly review how understory vegetation influences black spruce ecosystem dynamics in eastern boreal Canada, and present a multi-scale research model to understand, limit the loss and restore productive and diverse ecosystems in this region. Our model integrates knowledge of plant-level mechanisms in the development of silvicultural tools to sustain productivity. Fundamental knowledge is integrated at stand, landscape, regional and provincial levels to understand the distribution and dynamics of ericaceous shrubs and paludification processes and to support tactical and strategic forest management. The model can be adapted and applied to other natural resource management problems, in other biomes.

  8. Relapse to cocaine seeking in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaning-Kwarteng, Akua O; Asif-Malik, Aman; Pei, Yue; Canales, Juan J

    2017-06-01

    Addiction is characterised by cycles of compulsive drug taking, periods of abstinence and episodes of relapse. The extinction/reinstatement paradigm has been extensively used in rodents to model human relapse and explore underlying mechanisms and therapeutics. However, relapse to drug seeking behaviour has not been previously demonstrated in invertebrates. Here, we used a cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the flatworm, planarian, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug seeking. Once baseline preference was established for one of two distinctly textured environments (i.e. compartments with a coarse or smooth surface), planarian received pairings of cocaine (5μM) in the non-preferred, and vehicle in the most preferred, environment, and were tested for conditioning thereafter. Cocaine produced robust CPP, measured as a significant increase in the time spent in the cocaine-paired compartment. Subsequently, planarian underwent extinction training, reverting back to their original preference within three sessions. Brief exposure to cocaine (5μM) or methamphetamine (5μM) reinstated cocaine-seeking behaviour. By contrast, the high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitor, (N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis (4-fluorophenyl) methoxy]-tropane) (JHW007), which in rodents exhibits a neurochemical and behavioural profile distinct from cocaine, was ineffective. The present findings demonstrate for the first time reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in an invertebrate model and suggest that the long-term adaptations underlying drug conditioning and relapse are highly conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Patricia G.; McLoughlin, Mary Ellen

    1977-01-01

    Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills includes skill development in initiating the job search; arranging actual interviews; preparing a resume; articulating strengths, weaknesses, and career objectives; responding assertively in interviews; asking appropriate questions; accepting or rejecting job offers; confronting discrimination;…

  10. Information Seeking in a Natural Stress Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, David T. A.

    1971-01-01

    Compares hospitalized tuberculosis patients with informative and uninformative physicians as to their use of library books. Finds that the two groups did not differ in general reading, but that those with uninformative physicians tended to seek out books about tuberculosis and its treatment more often. (MB)

  11. Changing Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…

  12. An anlaysis of engineers information seeking activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Information seeking is an important part of the engineering design process. In this context the Internet has become a significant source of information, shaping the way engineers work and interact. Current work has focused on characterizing this activity in terms of total time allocated to differ...

  13. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  14. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  15. Programmatic correlates of maternal healthcare seeking behaviors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    be biased due to variations in some other factors between the exposure groups that influence maternal health seeking behaviors (for example, education, access to services, urbanization, among others). Accordingly, logistics regression models were implemented afterwards to get the unbiased (adjusted) program effects.

  16. Information seeking and reciprocity: A transformational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, M.; Perugini, M.

    2003-01-01

    The motivation to reciprocate is analyzed within the framework of interdependence theory, with focus on the process of transformation of situations. A model of transformation is presented for the motivation to reciprocate and hypotheses regarding allocation behavior and information seeking are

  17. Help-Seeking After Domestic Violence: The Critical Role of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Shahana

    2016-05-01

    Limited knowledge is available on the conditions that contribute to women's help-seeking after domestic violence in South Africa. Qualitative research conducted with 17 abused women in shelters in South Africa indicate that the best interests of children are influential both in women's decisions to stay in abusive relationships and to seek help. The personal decisions of women to seek help are influenced by powerful social discourses on the best interests of the child. Policy and practice that advocate for the best interests of the child need to prioritize the safety of both mothers and their children in domestic violence situations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Synthesis and morphology research of framework Ti-rich TS-1 containing no extraframework Ti species in the presence of CO2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Guowei

    2014-02-01

    A new method to synthesis TS-1 has been developed using the carbon dioxide (CO2) as an alkalinity regulator that resulted in the increased framework Ti contents. The prepared catalyst had a Si/Ti ratio as low as 40 in contrast to the ratio of 56 prepared through conventional synthesis. The twin crystals with the length of 2 μm were formed via introduction of CO 2. The catalytic activity of TS-1 is remarkably enhanced compared with the conventional synthesis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on reactions of organoboranes. Organoboron routes to unsaturated hydrocarbons. Boronic ester homologation. Properties of organosilicon compounds. Alkene synthesis (Peterson olefination). Allylsilanes and acylsilanes.

  20. Participation in novelty-seeking leisure activities and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Thomas; Smyth, Kathleen A; Debanne, Sara M; Petot, Grace J; Friedland, Robert P

    2005-09-01

    The objective was to study the associations between participation in different types of mentally stimulating leisure activities and status as Alzheimer's disease (AD) case or normal control. Research suggests that participation in leisure activities, especially mentally stimulating activities, is associated with a lower risk for AD. However, no study has yet evaluated associations between AD and different types of mental leisure activities, especially those involving "novelty seeking." The authors used a case-control design to compare participation in activities across the life span in persons with AD and normal controls. Cases (n = 264) were recruited from clinical settings and from the community. Controls were drawn from 2 populations. Control group A members (n = 364) were the friends or neighbors of the cases or members of the same organizations to which the cases belonged. Control group B members (n = 181) were randomly drawn from the community. The 2 control groups did not differ in their responses to most activity questions, so they were combined. Factor analysis of activity questions identified 3 activity factors: (1) novelty seeking; (2) exchange of ideas; and (3) social. Logistic regression analysis indicated that, adjusting for control variables, greater participation in novelty-seeking and exchange-of-ideas activities was significantly associated with decreased odds of AD. The odds of AD were lower among those who more often participated in activities involving exchange of ideas and were lower yet for those who more frequently participated in novelty-seeking activities. We conclude that participation in a variety of mental activities across the life span may lower one's chances of developing AD.

  1. Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, St.

    2007-06-01

    Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

  2. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 4 – Noninvasive Interventions for Chronic WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence for various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the fourth in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for noninvasive interventions initiated during the chronic phase of WAD. Twenty-two studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, 12 of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodological quality (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. For the treatment of chronic WAD, there is evidence to suggest that exercise programs are effective in relieving whiplash-related pain, at least over the short term. While the majority of a subset of nine studies supported the effectiveness of interdisciplinary interventions, the two randomized controlled trials provided conflicting results. Finally, there was limited evidence, consisting of one supportive case series each, that both manual joint manipulation and myofeedback training may provide some benefit. Based on the available research, exercise programs were the most effective noninvasive treatment for patients with chronic WAD, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various exercise regimens.

  3. First treatment contact for ADHD: predictors of and gender differences in treatment seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakwar, Elias; Levin, Frances R; Olfson, Mark; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    For attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), treatment seeking is a critical first step in treatment initiation and remains insufficiently understood. The aims of this study were to estimate ADHD treatment-seeking probabilities over the lifetime and to identify predictors of treatment seeking for ADHD separately for males and females. Data were drawn from 2001 to 2005 as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a two-wave face-to-face survey conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (N=34,653). The lifetime cumulative probability of ADHD treatment seeking was estimated at 55%. Males identifying as African American, with less than 12 years of education, or paranoid personality disorder or in an older cohort (>30 years old) at the time of interview were more likely to experience delays, whereas males with comorbid alcohol dependence, dysthymic disorder, borderline personality disorder, or histrionic personality disorder were less likely. Among females, older age (>44 years) was the only predictor of a delay to first treatment seeking, whereas bipolar disorder was associated with more rapid treatment seeking. Age of onset had opposite effects on treatment-seeking delays by gender; males but not females with early-onset ADHD were more likely to experience treatment-seeking delays. A large proportion of persons with ADHD do not seek treatment. Furthermore, treatment seeking by males was affected by a greater number of identifiable characteristics, suggesting that males might be more responsive to efforts directed toward expediting treatment entry. Future research should explore how to facilitate early access to treatment for individuals with ADHD.

  4. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the 'Top End' of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lesley; Kruske, Sue; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Steenkamp, Malinda; Josif, Cathryn; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Wardaguga, Molly; Belton, Suzanne; Gao, Yu; Dunbar, Terry; Kildea, Sue

    2014-06-02

    Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of 'out of hospital' or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the

  5. Medical returns: seeking health care in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Cole, Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of transnational medical travel among immigrant groups in industrialized nations, relatively little scholarship has explored the diverse reasons immigrants return home for care. To date, most research suggests that cost, lack of insurance and convenience propel US Latinos to seek health care along the Mexican border. Yet medical returns are common even among Latinos who do have health insurance and even among those not residing close to the border. This suggests that the distinct culture of medicine as practiced in the border clinics Latinos visit may be as important a factor in influencing medical returns as convenience and cost. Drawing upon qualitative interviews, this article presents an emic account of Latinos' perceptions of the features of medical practice in Mexico that make medical returns attractive. Between November 15, 2009 and January 15, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 15 Mexican immigrants and nine Mexican Americans who sought care at Border Hospital, a private clinic in Tijuana. Sixteen were uninsured and eight had insurance. Yet of the 16 uninsured, six had purposefully dropped their insurance to make this clinic their permanent "medical home." Moreover, those who substituted receiving care at Border Hospital for their US health insurance plan did so not only because of cost, but also because of what they perceived as the distinctive style of medical practice at Border Hospital. Interviewees mentioned the rapidity of services, personal attention, effective medications, and emphasis on clinical discretion as features distinguishing "Mexican medical practice," opposing these features to the frequent referrals and tests, impersonal doctor-patient relationships, uniform treatment protocols and reliance on surgeries they experienced in the US health care system. While interviewees portrayed these features as characterizing a uniform "Mexican medical culture," we suggest that they are best described as

  6. Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…

  7. Synthesis of ammonia using sodium melt

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Fumio; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Research into inexpensive ammonia synthesis has increased recently because ammonia can be used as a hydrogen carrier or as a next generation fuel which does not emit CO2. Furthermore, improving the efficiency of ammonia synthesis is necessary, because current synthesis methods emit significant amounts of CO2. To achieve these goals, catalysts that can effectively reduce the synthesis temperature and pressure, relative to those required in the Haber-Bosch process, are required. Although severa...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  11. Culture, distress, and oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR) interact to influence emotional support seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Sasaki, Joni Y.; Xu, Jun; Chu, Thai Q.; Ryu, Chorong; Suh, Eunkook M.; Graham, Kelsey; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that certain genotypes are expressed in different forms, depending on input from the social environment. To examine sensitivity to cultural norms regarding emotional support seeking as a type of social environment, we explored the behavioral expression of oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR) rs53576, a gene previously related to socio-emotional sensitivity. Seeking emotional support in times of distress is normative in American culture but not in Korean culture. Con...

  12. Why don't men seek help? Family physicians' perspectives on help-seeking behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudiver, F; Talbot, Y

    1999-01-01

    Men tend to underuse primary care health services despite their susceptibility to particular types of illness. The purpose of this study was to report the family physician's perspective on why men do not access the health care system for medical problems. We used focus group interviews to identify major themes. The participants were family physicians in active practice randomly selected from a list of 500 full- and part-time teachers. Four focus groups were formed from 18 participants (12 men, 6 women), in practice an average of 17 years. Eleven of the physicians were in community practice. Three key themes were identified: (1) Support: Men appear to get most of their support for health concerns from their female partners, little from their male friends. Their pattern of seeking support tends to be indirect rather than straightforward. (2) Help Seeking: Perceived vulnerability, fear, and denial are important influences on whether men seek help. They look for help for specific problems rather than for more general health concerns. (3) Barriers: Personal barriers involved factors related to a man's traditional social role characteristics: a sense of immunity and immortality; difficulty relinquishing control; a belief that seeking help is unacceptable; and believing men are not interested in prevention. Systematic barriers had to do with time and access; having to state the reason for a visit; and the lack of a male care provider. Many of these findings are supported by psychological theories. Future research should apply these theories in more transferable populations and settings. However, an in-depth understanding of the patterns of men's use of primary care services is needed before we can determine if a regular source of primary care would have a positive impact on their health.

  13. Destructive competition : oil and rent seeking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Selvik, Kjetil

    2005-01-01

    In countries with poorly developed institutions, rent seeking may impose serious costs for the economy. Our analysis demonstrates how rent seeking distorts the economy through two channels. First, there is the direct cost of the resources wasted in the rent seeking contest. Second, rent seeking distorts firms’ investment decisions, and leads to underinvestment. We conduct a case study of rent seeking in Iran in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. Iran is ...

  14. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  15. Identification of cultural determinants of antibiotic use cited in primary care in Europe: a mixed research synthesis study of integrated design "Culture is all around us".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul-Lundgren, Pia; Jensen, Siri; Drai, Johann; Lindbæk, Morten

    2015-09-17

    Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, particularly for respiratory tract infections (RTI) in ambulatory care, has become a worldwide public health threat due to resulting antibiotic resistance. In spite of various interventions and campaigns, wide variations in antibiotic use persist between European countries. Cultural determinants are often referred to as a potential cause, but are rarely defined. To our knowledge, so far no systematic literature review has focused on cultural determinants of antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to identify cultural determinants, on a country-specific level in ambulatory care in Europe, and to describe the influence of culture on antibiotic use, using a framework of cultural dimensions. A computer-based systematic literature review was conducted by two research teams, in France and in Norway. Eligible publications included studies exploring antibiotic use in primary care in at least two European countries based on primary study results, featuring a description of cultural determinants, and published between 1997 and 2015. Quality assessment was conducted independently by two researchers, one in each team, using appropriate checklists according to study design. Each included paper was characterized according to method, countries involved, sampling and main results, and cultural determinants mentioned in each selected paper were extracted, described and categorized. Finally, the influence of Hofstede's cultural dimensions associated with antibiotic consumption within a primary care setting was described. Among 24 eligible papers, 11 were rejected according to exclusion criteria. Overall, 13 papers meeting the quality assessment criteria were included, of which 11 used quantitative methods and two qualitative or mixed methods. The study participants were patients (nine studies) and general practitioners (two studies). This literature review identified various cultural determinants either patient-related (illness perception

  16. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Kathleen M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adults frequently experience mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers and facilitators of help-seeking in young people using both qualitative research from surveys, focus groups, and interviews and quantitative data from published surveys. It extends previous reviews through its systematic research methodology and by the inclusion of published studies describing what young people themselves perceive are the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Methods Twenty two published studies of perceived barriers or facilitators in adolescents or young adults were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the results reported in the qualitative literature and quantitative literature. Results Fifteen qualitative and seven quantitative studies were identified. Young people perceived stigma and embarrassment, problems recognising symptoms (poor mental health literacy, and a preference for self-reliance as the most important barriers to help-seeking. Facilitators were comparatively under-researched. However, there was evidence that young people perceived positive past experiences, and social support and encouragement from others as aids to the help-seeking process. Conclusions Strategies for improving help-seeking by adolescents and young adults should focus on improving mental health literacy, reducing stigma, and taking into account the desire of young people for self-reliance.

  17. The role of masculinity in men's help-seeking for depression: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Zac E; Dawes, Alexei J; Rice, Simon M; Oliffe, John L; Dhillon, Haryana M

    2016-11-01

    Conformity to traditional masculine gender norms may deter men's help-seeking and/or impact the services men engage. Despite proliferating research, current evidence has not been evaluated systematically. This review summarises findings related to the role of masculinity on men's help-seeking for depression. Six electronic databases were searched using terms related to masculinity, depression and help-seeking. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and data systematically extracted and examined for methodological quality. Of 1927 citations identified, 37 met inclusion criteria. Seventeen (46%) studies reported qualitative research; eighteen (49%) employed quantitative methods, and two (5%) mixed methods. Findings suggest conformity to traditional masculine norms has a threefold effect on men experiencing depression, impacting: i) their symptoms and expression of symptoms; ii) their attitudes to, intention, and, actual help-seeking behaviour; and, iii) their symptom management. Results demonstrate the problematic impact of conformity to traditional masculine norms on the way men experience and seek help for depression. Tailoring and targeting clinical interventions may increase men's service uptake and the efficacy of treatments. Future research examining factors associated with men's access to, and engagement with depression care will be critical to increasing help-seeking, treatment uptake, and effectual self-management among men experiencing depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Amelia; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2010-12-30

    Adolescents and young adults frequently experience mental disorders, yet tend not to seek help. This systematic review aims to summarise reported barriers and facilitators of help-seeking in young people using both qualitative research from surveys, focus groups, and interviews and quantitative data from published surveys. It extends previous reviews through its systematic research methodology and by the inclusion of published studies describing what young people themselves perceive are the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for common mental health problems. Twenty two published studies of perceived barriers or facilitators in adolescents or young adults were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the results reported in the qualitative literature and quantitative literature. Fifteen qualitative and seven quantitative studies were identified. Young people perceived stigma and embarrassment, problems recognising symptoms (poor mental health literacy), and a preference for self-reliance as the most important barriers to help-seeking. Facilitators were comparatively under-researched. However, there was evidence that young people perceived positive past experiences, and social support and encouragement from others as aids to the help-seeking process. Strategies for improving help-seeking by adolescents and young adults should focus on improving mental health literacy, reducing stigma, and taking into account the desire of young people for self-reliance.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.