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Sample records for research study involving

  1. Salutogenic service user involvement in nursing research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjøsund, Nina Helen; Vinje, Hege Forbech; Eriksson, Monica; Haaland-Øverby, Mette; Jensen, Sven Liang; Kjus, Solveig; Norheim, Irene; Portaasen, Inger-Lill; Espnes, Geir Arild

    2018-05-12

    The aim was to explore the process of involving mental healthcare service users in a mental health promotion research project as research advisors and to articulate features of the collaboration which encouraged and empowered the advisors to make significant contributions to the research process and outcome. There is an increasing interest in evaluating aspects of service user involvement in nursing research. Few descriptions exist of features that enable meaningful service user involvement. We draw on experiences from conducting research which used the methodology interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore how persons with mental disorders perceived mental health. Aside from the participants in the project, five research advisors with service user experience were involved in the entire research process. We applied a case study design to explore the ongoing processes of service user involvement. Documents and texts produced while conducting the project (2012-2016), as well as transcripts from multistage focus group discussions with the research advisors, were analysed. The level of involvement was dynamic and varied throughout the different stages of the research process. Six features: leadership, meeting structure, role clarification, being members of a team, a focus on possibilities and being seen and treated as holistic individuals, were guiding principles for a salutogenic service user involvement. These features strengthened the advisors' perception of themselves as valuable and competent contributors. Significant contributions from research advisors were promoted by facilitating the process of involvement. A supporting structure and atmosphere were consistent with a salutogenic service user involvement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of consumer involvement in research: an evaluation of consumer involvement in the London Primary Care Studies Programme.

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    Wyatt, Katrina; Carter, Mary; Mahtani, Vinita; Barnard, Angela; Hawton, Annie; Britten, Nicky

    2008-06-01

    The value of consumer involvement in health services research is widely recognized. While there is a growing body of evidence about the principles of good consumer involvement, there is little research about the effect that involvement can have on the research. This evaluation assessed the level and impact of consumer involvement in the London Primary Care Studies Programme (LPCSP), all of whose individual projects had to demonstrate substantial involvement as a condition of funding. To evaluate consumer involvement in the LPSCP and understand what impact consumers had on the research process and outcomes. A multi-method case study approach was undertaken, using survey techniques, interviews, focus groups, observation and scrutiny of written documents. The overall data set comprised 61 questionnaires, 44 semi-structured interviews, 2 focus groups and 15 hours of observation of meetings. Eleven primary care-based research projects which together made up the LPCSP. An in-depth description of consumer involvement in the Programme was produced. Nine projects had consumers as co-applicants, four projects had been completed before the evaluation began and one was still ongoing at the time of the evaluation. Of the eight projects which have produced final reports, all met their aims and objectives. Consumers had had an additional impact in the research, in the initial design of the study, in recruitment of the research subjects, in developing data collection tools, in collecting the data, in analysis and disseminating the findings. Consumer involvement in National Health Service research is a relatively recent policy development and while there is an increasing amount of literature about how and why consumers should be involved in research, there is less evidence about the impact of such involvement. This evaluation provides evidence about the impact that consumers have not only on the research process but also on the outcomes of the research.

  3. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  4. Lay involvement in the analysis of qualitative data in health services research: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, S; Jheeta, S; Husson, F; Jacklin, A; Bischler, A; Norton, C; Franklin, B D

    2016-01-01

    There is a consensus that patients and the public should be involved in research in a meaningful way. However, to date, lay people have been mostly involved in developing research ideas and commenting on patient information.We previously published a paper describing our experience with lay partners conducting observations in a study of how patients in hospital are involved with their medicines. In a later part of the same study, lay partners were also involved in analysing interviews that a researcher had conducted with patients, carers and healthcare professionals about patient and carer involvement with medicines in hospital. We therefore wanted to build on our previous paper and report on our experiences with lay partners helping to conduct data analysis. We therefore interviewed the lay members and researchers involved in the analysis to find out their views.Both lay members and researchers reported that lay partners added value to the study by bringing their own perspectives and identifying further areas for the researcher to look for in the interviews. In this way researchers and lay partners were able to work together to produce a richer analysis than would have been possible from either alone. Background It is recognised that involving lay people in research in a meaningful rather than tokenistic way is both important and challenging. In this paper, we contribute to this debate by describing our experiences of lay involvement in data analysis. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with the lay partners and researchers involved in qualitative data analysis in a wider study of inpatient involvement in medication safety. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using open thematic analysis. Results We interviewed three lay partners and the three researchers involved. These interviews demonstrated that the lay members added value to the analysis by bringing their own perspectives; these were systematically integrated into the analysis by the

  5. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study.

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    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2012-09-01

      Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement.   To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research.   Mixed methods including a two-round Delphi study with pre-specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow-up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self-selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed.   Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement.   This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Can the impact of public involvement on research be evaluated? A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D; Parry, Glenys D; Cooper, Cindy L; Yeeles, Philippa; Cook, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Public involvement is central to health and social research policies, yet few systematic evaluations of its impact have been carried out, raising questions about the feasibility of evaluating the impact of public involvement. Objective  To investigate whether it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on health and social research. Methods  Mixed methods including a two‐round Delphi study with pre‐specified 80% consensus criterion, with follow‐up interviews. UK and international panellists came from different settings, including universities, health and social care institutions and charitable organizations. They comprised researchers, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and policy makers, self‐selected as having knowledge and/or experience of public involvement in health and/or social research; 124 completed both rounds of the Delphi process. A purposive sample of 14 panellists was interviewed. Results  Consensus was reached that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on 5 of 16 impact issues: identifying and prioritizing research topics, disseminating research findings and on key stakeholders. Qualitative analysis revealed the complexities of evaluating a process that is subjective and socially constructed. While many panellists believed that it is morally right to involve the public in research, they also considered that it is appropriate to evaluate the impact of public involvement. Conclusions  This study found consensus among panellists that it is feasible to evaluate the impact of public involvement on some research processes, outcomes and on key stakeholders. The value of public involvement and the importance of evaluating its impact were endorsed. PMID:21324054

  7. Public involvement in research within care homes: benefits and challenges in the APPROACH study.

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    Froggatt, Katherine; Goodman, Claire; Morbey, Hazel; Davies, Sue L; Masey, Helen; Dickinson, Angela; Martin, Wendy; Victor, Christina

    2016-12-01

    Public involvement in research (PIR) can improve research design and recruitment. Less is known about how PIR enhances the experience of participation and enriches the data collection process. In a study to evaluate how UK care homes and primary health-care services achieve integrated working to promote older people's health, PIR was integrated throughout the research processes. This paper aims to present one way in which PIR has been integrated into the design and delivery of a multisite research study based in care homes. A prospective case study design, with an embedded qualitative evaluation of PIR activity. Data collection was undertaken in six care homes in three sites in England. Six PIR members participated: all had prior personal or work experience in care homes. Qualitative data collection involved discussion groups, and site-specific meetings to review experiences of participation, benefits and challenges, and completion of structured fieldwork notes after each care home visit. PIR members supported recruitment, resident and staff interviews and participated in data interpretation. Benefits of PIR work were resident engagement that minimized distress and made best use of limited research resources. Challenges concerned communication and scheduling. Researcher support for PIR involvement was resource intensive. Clearly defined roles with identified training and support facilitated involvement in different aspects of the data collection process. This can also ensure that vulnerable older people who participate in research have a positive experience that reinforces the value of their views. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An Observational Study of Children's Involvement in Informed Consent for Exome Sequencing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Werner-Lin, Allison; Walser, Sarah A; Biswas, Sawona; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine children's involvement in consent sessions for exome sequencing research and associations of involvement with provider and parent communication. Participants included 44 children (8-17 years) from five cohorts who were offered participation in an exome sequencing study. The consent sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded. Providers attempted to facilitate the child's involvement in the majority (73%) of sessions, and most (75%) children also verbally participated. Provider facilitation was strongly associated with likelihood of child participation. These findings underscore that strategies such as asking for children's opinions and soliciting their questions show respect for children and may increase the likelihood that they are engaged and involved in decisions about research participation.

  9. A devolved model for public involvement in the field of mental health research: case study learning.

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    Moule, Pam; Davies, Rosie

    2016-12-01

    Patient and public involvement in all aspects of research is espoused and there is a continued interest in understanding its wider impact. Existing investigations have identified both beneficial outcomes and remaining issues. This paper presents the impact of public involvement in one case study led by a mental health charity conducted as part of a larger research project. The case study used a devolved model of working, contracting with service user-led organizations to maximize the benefits of local knowledge on the implementation of personalized budgets, support recruitment and local user-led organizations. To understand the processes and impact of public involvement in a devolved model of working with user-led organizations. Multiple data collection methods were employed throughout 2012. These included interviews with the researchers (n = 10) and research partners (n = 5), observation of two case study meetings and the review of key case study documentation. Analysis was conducted in NVivo10 using a coding framework developed following a literature review. Five key themes emerged from the data; Devolved model, Nature of involvement, Enabling factors, Implementation challenges and Impact. While there were some challenges of implementing the devolved model it is clear that our findings add to the growing understanding of the positive benefits research partners can bring to complex research. A devolved model can support the involvement of user-led organizations in research if there is a clear understanding of the underpinning philosophy and support mechanisms are in place. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Institutional ethical review and ethnographic research involving injection drug users: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators' responses to the committee's concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork, and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing Ethical Problems in Qualitative Research Involving Vulnerable Populations, Using a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk RN, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the researcher's study was to examine the meaning that intimate partners of female rape victims attached to their lived experiences after the rape. The conduct of qualitative research concerning non-offending partners of female rape victims, however, often involves multifaceted ethical and practical challenges, which can be managed through the use of pilot studies. The pilot study described in this report had three objectives. The first was to pretest and refine the proposed method for locating, accessing, and recruiting intimate partners of female rape victims, within the first two weeks after the rape, for participation in a six-month longitudinal study. The second objective was to identify and prevent all possible risk factors in the proposed recruitment and data collection methods that could harm the participants' safety during the main study. The third objective was to determine the feasibility of the main study, in terms of the limited financial and human resources available. The pilot phase was valuable in identifying ethical and methodological problems during the recruitment of participants and collection of data. It allowed for methodological adjustments prior to the main study and confirmed the feasibility of the overall research design. A pilot, pretesting phase is therefore seen as an essential component of a qualitative study involving a vulnerable population.

  12. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT.

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    Taylor, Rachel M; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A

    2015-03-14

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is central to research and service planning. Identifying effective, meaningful ways of involvement is challenging. The cohort study 'Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?' follows young people for three years, examining outcomes associated with specialist care. Participant retention in longitudinal research can be problematic potentially jeopardising study completion. Maximising study awareness through high impact branding and publicity may improve study retention. Study names are typically generated by researchers rather than designed with patients. We aimed to involve young people in developing a brand identity and name to 'Do specialist services for teenagers and young adults with cancer add value?'. Nine young people aged 17-26 years diagnosed with cancer when aged 14-25 years participated in a one day workshop with further data collection at a patient conference. Methodology was similar to conventional branding and naming exercises and was divided into six stages. The workshop comprised five stages. Stage 1: 'What's in a brand' allowed young people to enquire why brands/logos are important, Stage 2: 'Brand Transformation' identified what young people needed to know and believe about the study when approached about participation, Stage 3: 'Brand Essence' determined how we wanted the study to be perceived by young people, Stage 4: 'What's in a name' identified potential names for the study. Stage 5: 'Logo creation' assembled the mood and feel of logos. Stage 6 was logo design and an electronic survey of 249 young people attending a patient conference. BRIGHTLIGHT was the final study name and the brand essence (or study personality) was friendly, supportive and inspiring. Four logos were designed and the final logo received 47% (n = 115) of votes. Acceptance and retention to BRIGHTLIGHT is higher than anticipated (80% versus 60%), this may be related to our integral PPI strategy. We

  13. Involving Latina/o parents in patient-centered outcomes research: Contributions to research study design, implementation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Jolles, Mónica; Martinez, Maria; Garcia, San Juanita; Stein, Gabriela L; Thomas, Kathleen C

    2017-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is supported by policymakers as a way to provide service providers and patients with evidence-based information to make better health-care decisions and ultimately improve services for patients. However, Latina/o patients are rarely involved as study advisors, and there is a lack of documentation on how their voices contribute to the research process when they are included as collaborators. The purpose of this article was to contribute to the literature by presenting concrete contributions of Latina/o parent involvement to study design, implementation and outcomes in the context of a CER study called Padres Efectivos (Parent Activation). Researchers facilitated a collaborative relationship with parents by establishing a mentor parent group. The contributions of parent involvement in the following stages of the research process are described: (i) proposal development, (ii) implementation of protocols, (iii) analysis plan and (iv) dissemination of results. Mentor parents' contributions helped tailor the content of the intervention to their needs during proposal, increased recruitment, validated the main outcome measure and added two important outcome measures, emphasized the importance of controlling for novice treatment status and developed innovative dissemination strategies. Mentor parents' guidance to the researchers has contributed to reaching recruitment goals, strengthened the study protocol, expanded findings, supported broad ownership of study implications and enriched the overall study data collection efforts. These findings can inform future research efforts seeking an active Latino parent collaboration and the timely incorporation of parent voices in each phase of the research process. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey

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    Vale Claire L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs, meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86% were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31% had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development

  15. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Claire L; Thompson, Lindsay C; Murphy, Claire; Forcat, Silvia; Hanley, Bec

    2012-01-13

    We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009) were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86%) were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31%) had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG) [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development of a unit policy on consumer involvement, to guide future

  16. Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrandeur Jane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern

  17. A SHARED study-the benefits and costs of setting up a health research study involving lay co-researchers and how we overcame the challenges.

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    Mockford, Carole; Murray, Matt; Seers, Kate; Oyebode, Jan; Grant, Richard; Boex, Sue; Staniszewska, Sophie; Diment, Yvonne; Leach, Jim; Sharma, Uma; Clarke, Rosemary; Suleman, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), official bodies such as the Department of Health and research funders such as the National Institute for Health Research support and encourage lay involvement in all stages of research studies. The SHARED study has had substantial patient and public involvement (PPI) from developing the idea to dissemination. The aim of the study has been to develop recommendations led by service users for health and social care professionals to use at hospital discharge and in care planning for people living with memory loss and their carers. This article is about how the study started and the benefits, costs and challenges we encountered as the lead and lay co-researchers. Once we were successful with the grant application, we had to recruit and train the lay co-researchers and obtain various approvals before we could start the project. We had various support from funders, the Research Ethics Committee, lay members of Alzheimer's Society and from the lay co-researchers. However, we encountered some challenges with paying the lay co-researchers and with getting the approval for the co-researchers to interview staff on NHS premises. The challenges were overcome eventually but some aspects of the study changed because of this. We suggest that some changes could be made to the research system which would lead to greater inclusion of the lay co-researchers in research studies and would make the process more straightforward for the research team. Background Involving patients and the public in all stages of research has been the focus of the SHARED study. Patient and public involvement (PPI) is an important strategic priority for the Department of Health and funders such as the National Institute for Health Research. The aim of this paper is to describe the benefits, challenges and costs involved in setting up the research study with lay members as part of the research team. The study focused on developing service user-led recommendations for people with

  18. Supporting public involvement in research design and grant development: a case study of a public involvement award scheme managed by a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Twiddy, Maureen; Baird, Wendy; Birks, Yvonne; Clarke, Clare; Beever, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing health research. Resources should be available for researchers to fund the involvement of the public in the development of their grants. To describe a funding award scheme to support public involvement in grant development, managed by an NIHR Research Design Service (RDS). Case examples of how the award contributed to successful grant applications and findings from a recent evaluation of the scheme are presented. A case study of resource provision to support public involvement activities in one region of England. University and NHS-based researchers, and members of the public. Between 2009 and 2012, the RDS approved 45 public involvement funding awards (totalling nearly £19,000). These awards contributed to 27 submitted applications at the time of writing, of which 11 were successful (totalling over £7.5 million). The evaluation revealed difficulties encountered by some researchers when involving the public in grant development, which led to suggestions about how the scheme could be improved. This award scheme represents an efficient method of providing researchers with resources to involve the public in grant development and would appear to represent good value for money. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Experiences of service users involved in recruitment for nursing courses: A phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Katie; Bernal, Cathy; Devis, Kate; Southgate, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into service users' experiences of participating in recruitment for Adult, Mental Health and Child nursing studies at the authors' university; to establish potential motivations behind such participation; and to make suggestions for improved future practice. The involvement of service users in nurse education and recruitment has for some years been required by the Nursing and Midwifery Council, but there is a dearth of publications on the meaning of that involvement to participating service users. It is hoped that this study will contribute to this body of knowledge. A phenomenological approach was selected, field-specific focus groups of service users being facilitated using a semi-structured interview format; these were audio recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. Participation was subject to the service users having been involved in recruitment to nursing studies at the authors' university and the focus groups took place either at the university or at the child participants' school. Themes identified demonstrated largely positive experiences and a sense of meaningful involvement for all concerned. Findings indicated a close link between the values of the participants and those of the wider NHS, benefits to a sense of wellbeing and achievement, as well as the need for greater ownership of the recruitment process by service users. Potential lessons for academics wishing to promote greater service user involvement in student recruitment are articulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  1. Parent Involvement in Homework: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children's education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child's homework results in (a)…

  2. Ethics in research involving prisoners.

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    Pont, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  3. Human Securitability: A Participatory Action Research Study Involving Novice Teachers and Youngsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravale-Paulina, Marite; Olehnovica, Eridiana

    2015-01-01

    Civic participation, initiative and interest in current events can bridge the alienation felt towards national and municipal institutions, thereby enabling individuals to improve their quality of life and contribute to all-round sustainable development of their resident state. This paper reports on a participatory action research study into civic…

  4. Service user involvement enhanced the research quality in a study using interpretative phenomenological analysis - the power of multiple perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjøsund, Nina Helen; Eriksson, Monica; Espnes, Geir Arild; Haaland-Øverby, Mette; Jensen, Sven Liang; Norheim, Irene; Kjus, Solveig Helene Høymork; Portaasen, Inger-Lill; Vinje, Hege Forbech

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how service user involvement can contribute to the development of interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology and enhance research quality. Interpretative phenomenological analysis is a qualitative methodology used in nursing research internationally to understand human experiences that are essential to the participants. Service user involvement is requested in nursing research. We share experiences from 4 years of collaboration (2012-2015) on a mental health promotion project, which involved an advisory team. Five research advisors either with a diagnosis or related to a person with severe mental illness constituted the team. They collaborated with the research fellow throughout the entire research process and have co-authored this article. We examined the joint process of analysing the empirical data from interviews. Our analytical discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and subsequently interpreted following the guidelines for good qualitative analysis in interpretative phenomenological analysis studies. The advisory team became 'the researcher's helping hand'. Multiple perspectives influenced the qualitative analysis, which gave more insightful interpretations of nuances, complexity, richness or ambiguity in the interviewed participants' accounts. The outcome of the service user involvement was increased breadth and depth in findings. Service user involvement improved the research quality in a nursing research project on mental health promotion. The interpretative element of interpretative phenomenological analysis was enhanced by the emergence of multiple perspectives in the qualitative analysis of the empirical data. We argue that service user involvement and interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology can mutually reinforce each other and strengthen qualitative methodology. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Involving the public in epidemiological public health research: a qualitative study of public and stakeholder involvement in evaluation of a population-wide natural policy experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson de Cuevas, Rachel; Nylén, Lotta; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2018-04-20

    Public involvement in research is considered good practice by European funders; however, evidence of its research impact is sparse, particularly in relation to large-scale epidemiological research. To explore what difference public and stakeholder involvement made to the interpretation of findings from an evaluation of a natural policy experiment to influence the wider social determinants of health: 'Flexicurity'. Stockholm County, Sweden. Members of the public from different occupational groups represented by blue-collar and white-collar trade union representatives. Also, members of three stakeholder groups: the Swedish national employment agency; an employers' association and politicians sitting on a national labour market committee. Total: 17 participants. Qualitative study of process and outcomes of public and stakeholder participation in four focused workshops on the interpretation of initial findings from the flexicurity evaluation. New insights from participants benefiting the interpretation of our research findings or conceptualisation of future research. Participants sensed more drastic and nuanced change in the Swedish welfare system over recent decades than was evident from our literature reviews and policy analysis. They also elaborated hidden developments in the Swedish labour market that were increasingly leading to 'insiders' and 'outsiders', with differing experiences and consequences for financial and job security. Their explanation of the differential effects of the various collective agreements for different occupational groups was new and raised further potential research questions. Their first-hand experience provided new insights into how changes to the social protection system were contributing to the increasing trends in poverty among unemployed people with limiting long-standing illness. The politicians provided further reasoning behind some of the policy changes and their intended and unintended consequences. These insights fed into

  6. Criticality safety studies involved in actions to improve conditions for storing 'RA' research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.; Marinkovic, N.

    1998-01-01

    A project has recently been initiated by the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences to improve conditions in the spent fuel storage pool at the 6.5 MW research reactor RA, as well as to consider transferring this spent fuel into a new dry storage facility built for the purpose. Since quantity and contents of fissile material in the spent fuel storage at the RA reactor are such that possibility of criticality accident can not be a priori excluded, according to standards and regulations for handling fissile material outside a reactor, before any action is undertaken subcriticality should be proven under normal, as well as under credible abnormal conditions. To perform this task, comprehensive nuclear criticality safety studies had to be performed. (author)

  7. Involving students in real-world research: a pilot study for teaching public health and research skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that medical students consider population health issues less important than other domains in the health sciences and attitudes to this field may become more negative as training progresses. A need to improve research skills among medical students has also been suggested. Therefore we piloted an integrative teaching exercise that combined teaching of research skills and public health, with real-world research. Methods Third year medical students at the University of Otago (Dunedin, New Zealand filled in a questionnaire on their housing conditions and health. The students were given the results of the survey to discuss in a subsequent class. Student response to this teaching exercise was assessed using a Course Evaluation Questionnaire. Results Of the 210 students in the class, 136 completed the Course Evaluation Questionnaire (65%. A majority of those who responded (77% greatly supported or supported the use of the survey and seminar discussion for future third year classes. Most (70% thought that the session had made them more aware and concerned about societal problems, and 72% felt that they now had an improved understanding of the environmental determinants of health. Students liked the relevance and interaction of the session, but thought it could be improved by the inclusion of small group discussion. The findings of the students' housing and health were considered by the tutors to be of sufficient value to submit to a scientific journal and are now contributing to community action to improve student housing in the city. Conclusion In this pilot study it was feasible to integrate medical student teaching with real-world research. A large majority of the students responded favourably to the teaching exercise and this was generally successful in raising the profile of public health and research. This approach to integrated teaching/research should be considered further in health sciences training and

  8. Missed opportunities for impact in patient and carer involvement: a mixed methods case study of research priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R; Crocker, J C; Crowe, S

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers want to listen more to patients and their carers in all sorts of areas of healthcare. This can include choosing topics for medical research. We looked at how patients and carers have helped to choose topics for research about type I diabetes. We aimed to find out if, and why, researchers often rejected their choices. We looked at a project which brought together patients, carers and healthcare workers to choose topics for research about type 1 diabetes. The group first asked patients, carers and healthcare workers to suggest ideas for research questions. But the group had to follow rules about what counted as a good research question. Some people's ideas did not count as good research questions, and they were rejected at the start. We looked at who were most likely to have their ideas rejected at the start. We found that patients and carers were most likely to have a suggestion rejected. Then we looked at the rejected questions in detail. They were mostly about curing diabetes, preventing diabetes and understanding how diabetes works. There were also some questions about access to medicines and the quality of care. Researchers should ask patients and carers for help deciding what counts as a good research question from the start of projects like these. We should also think about what might be getting in the way of patients and carers making more of a difference in research. Background Patients and carers are increasingly involved in deciding on topics for medical research. However, so far, it has been difficult to gain an accurate picture of the impact of such involvement because of poor reporting and evaluation in published studies to date. This study aimed to explore how a partnership of patients, carers, healthcare professionals and organisations identified questions for future research and why patients and carers had a limited impact on this process. Methods In the first stage of the partnership process, relevant service users and providers

  9. The extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in primary care research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Steven; McLachlan, Sarah; Jowett, Sue; Kinghorn, Philip; Gill, Paramjit; Higginbottom, Adele; Rhodes, Carol; Stevenson, Fiona; Jinks, Clare

    2018-01-01

    In the UK, more patients go to primary care than other parts of the health service. Therefore it is important for research into primary care to include the insights and views of people who receive these services. To explore the extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in primary care research, we examined documents of 200 projects and surveyed 191 researchers.We found that about half of studies included PPI to develop research ideas and during the study itself. Common activities included designing study materials, advising on methods, and managing the research. Some studies did not undertake the PPI activities initially planned and funded for. PPI varied by study design, health condition and study population. We found pockets of good practice: having a PPI budget, supporting PPI contributors, and PPI informing recruitment issues. However, good practice was lacking in other areas. Few projects offered PPI contributors training, used PPI to develop information for participants about study progress and included PPI to advise on publishing findings.Researchers reported beneficial impacts of PPI. Most impact was reported when the approach to PPI included more indicators of good practice. The main cost of PPI for researchers was their time. Many reported difficulties providing information about PPI.In partnership with PPI contributors, we have used these findings to develop:a new Cost and Consequences Framework for PPI highlighting financial and non-financial costs, benefits and harms of PPIFifteen co-produced recommendations to improve the practice and delivery of PPI. Background: To improve the lives of patients in primary care requires the involvement of service users in primary care research. We aimed to explore the extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in primary care research. Methods: We extracted information about PPI from grant applications, reports and an electronic survey of researchers of studies funded

  10. Ethical practice in internet research involving vulnerable people: lessons from a self-harm discussion forum study (SharpTalk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Siobhan; Jones, Ray; Smithson, Janet; Hewis, Elaine; Emmens, Tobit; Ford, Tamsin; Owens, Christabel

    2011-12-01

    The internet is widely used for health information and support, often by vulnerable people. Internet-based research raises both familiar and new ethical problems for researchers and ethics committees. While guidelines for internet-based research are available, it is unclear to what extent ethics committees use these. Experience of gaining research ethics approval for a UK study (SharpTalk), involving internet-based discussion groups with young people who self-harm and health professionals is described. During ethical review, unsurprisingly, concerns were raised about the vulnerability of potential participants. These were dominated by the issue of anonymity, which also affected participant safety and consent. These ethical problems are discussed, and our solutions, which included: participant usernames specific to the study, a closed website, private messaging facilities, a direct contact email to researchers, information about forum rules displayed on the website, a 'report' button for participants, links to online support, and a discussion room for forum moderators. This experience with SharpTalk suggests that an approach to ethics, which recognises the relational aspects of research with vulnerable people, is particularly useful for internet-based health research. The solutions presented here can act as guidance for researchers developing proposals and for ethics committees reviewing them.

  11. Patient involvement in research priorities (PIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Karin; Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in healthcare has expanded from the clinical practice setting to include collaboration during the research process. There has been a growing international interest in patient and public involvement in setting research priorities to reduce the risk of discrepancy...... between what patients with cancer and their relatives experience as important unanswered questions and those which are actually researched. This study aims to challenge the conventional research process by inviting patients with life-threatening cancer (primary malignant brain tumours or acute leukaemia......), relatives and patient organisations to join forces with clinical specialists and researchers to identify, discuss and prioritise supportive care and rehabilitation issues in future research. Methods and analysis: This is an exploratory qualitative study comprising two sets of three focus group interviews...

  12. Participatory public health systems research: value of community involvement in a study series in mental health emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Marum, Felicity; Semon, Natalie; Mosley, Adrian; Gwon, Howard; Perry, Charlene; Moore, Suzanne Straub; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have arisen over recent years about the absence of empirically derived evidence on which to base policy and practice in the public health system, in general, and to meet the challenge of public health emergency preparedness, in particular. Related issues include the challenge of disaster-caused, behavioral health surge, and the frequent exclusion of populations from studies that the research is meant to aid. To characterize the contributions of nonacademic collaborators to a series of projects validating a set of interventions to enhance capacity and competency of public mental health preparedness planning and response. Urban, suburban, and rural communities of the state of Maryland and rural communities of the state of Iowa. Study partners and participants (both of this project and the studies examined) were representatives of academic health centers (AHCs), local health departments (LHDs), and faith-based organizations (FBOs) and their communities. A multiple-project, case study analysis was conducted, that is, four research projects implemented by the authors from 2005 through 2011 to determine the types and impact of contributions made by nonacademic collaborators to those projects. The analysis involved reviewing research records, conceptualizing contributions (and providing examples) for government, faith, and (nonacademic) institutional collaborators. Ten areas were identified where partners made valuable contributions to the study series; these "value-areas" were as follows: 1) leadership and management of the projects; 2) formulation and refinement of research topics, aims, etc; 3) recruitment and retention of participants; 4) design and enhancement of interventions; 5) delivery of interventions; 6) collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; 7) dissemination of findings; 8) ensuring sustainability of faith/government preparedness planning relationships; 9) optimizing scalability and portability of the model; and 10) facilitating

  13. Service user involvement in research may lead to contrary rather than collaborative accounts: findings from a qualitative palliative care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Hubbard, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore what data emerge when former carergivers (co-researchers) are trained to interview current care-givers about their experiences. Despite a trend of involving service users in conducting research interviews, there have been few examinations of how and whether a common service user identity has an impact on the data generated. Four co-researchers were recruited, trained and supported to conduct qualitative interviews with 11 current carers of people receiving palliative services. Conversation analysis was used to examine the conversational characteristics of the research interviews. Data were collected in 2010-2011. Conversation analysis identified that interactional difficulties were evident across the data. When co-researchers talked about their own experiences as carers, interviewees frequently changed the topic of conversation, thereby closing-down opportunities for further disclosure or elaboration from the interviewee about the original topic. Conversation analysis identifies how caregiving identities are co-constructed and points where there is agreement and disagreement in the co-construction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  15. 'But is it a question worth asking?' A reflective case study describing how public involvement can lead to researchers' ideas being abandoned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan D; Dalgleish, Mary; Freeman, Janet; Jones, Zena; Miles, Marianne; Rodgers, Helen

    2014-06-01

    It is good practice for the public to be involved in developing research ideas into grant applications. Some positive accounts of this process have been published, but little is known about when their reactions are negative and when researchers' ideas are abandoned. To present a case study account of when an academic-led idea for funding was not supported by stroke survivors and carers who were asked to contribute to its development, together with a reflection on the implications of the case from all the stakeholders involved. A reflective case study of a research idea, developed by an academic researcher, on which stakeholders were consulted. University researchers, clinicians, public involvement managers, and stroke survivors and carers from the NIHR's Stroke Research Network. Although the idea met with the approval of health professionals, who were keen to develop it into a funding bid, the stroke survivors and carers did not think the idea worth pursuing. This lack of patient and carer support led to the idea being abandoned. Reflecting on this, those involved in the consultation believed that the savings accrued from abandoning the idea, in terms of ensuring that public money is not wasted, should be seen as an important benefit of public involvement in the research process. Little is known about the role of the public in the abandonment of research ideas. We recommend that further research is undertaken into this important contribution that patients and the public can make to health research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  17. Frequency of reporting on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research studies published in a general medical journal: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy; Schroter, Sara; Snow, Rosamund; Hicks, Melissa; Harmston, Rebecca; Staniszewska, Sophie; Parker, Sam; Richards, Tessa

    2018-03-23

    While documented plans for patient and public involvement (PPI) in research are required in many grant applications, little is known about how frequently PPI occurs in practice. Low levels of reported PPI may mask actual activity due to limited PPI reporting requirements. This research analysed the frequency and types of reported PPI in the presence and absence of a journal requirement to include this information. A before and after comparison of PPI reported in research papers published in The BMJ before and 1 year after the introduction of a journal policy requiring authors to report if and how they involved patients and the public within their papers. Between 1 June 2013 and 31 May 2014, The BMJ published 189 research papers and 1 (0.5%) reported PPI activity. From 1 June 2015 to 31 May 2016, following the introduction of the policy, The BMJ published 152 research papers of which 16 (11%) reported PPI activity. Patients contributed to grant applications in addition to designing studies through to coauthorship and participation in study dissemination. Patient contributors were often not fully acknowledged; 6 of 17 (35%) papers acknowledged their contributions and 2 (12%) included them as coauthors. Infrequent reporting of PPI activity does not appear to be purely due to a failure of documentation. Reporting of PPI activity increased after the introduction of The BMJ 's policy, but activity both before and after was low and reporting was inconsistent in quality. Journals, funders and research institutions should collaborate to move us from the current situation where PPI is an optional extra to one where PPI is fully embedded in practice throughout the research process. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW.

  19. Is it worth it? Patient and public views on the impact of their involvement in health research and its assessment: a UK-based qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Joanna C; Boylan, Anne-Marie; Bostock, Jennifer; Locock, Louise

    2017-06-01

    There are mounting calls for robust, critical evaluation of the impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health research. However, questions remain about how to assess its impact, and whether it should be assessed at all. The debate has thus far been dominated by professionals. To explore the views of PPI contributors involved in health research regarding the impact of PPI on research, whether and how it should be assessed. Qualitative interview study. Thirty-eight PPI contributors involved in health research across the UK. Participants felt that PPI has a beneficial impact on health research. They described various impactful roles, which we conceptualize as the 'expert in lived experience', the 'creative outsider', the 'free challenger', the 'bridger', the 'motivator' and the 'passive presence'. Participants generally supported assessing the impact of PPI, while acknowledging the challenges and concerns about the appropriateness and feasibility of measurement. They expressed a range of views about what impacts should be assessed, by whom and how. Individual feedback on impact was seen as an important driver of improved impact and motivation to stay involved. While there appears to be widespread support for PPI impact assessment among PPI contributors, their views on what to assess and how are diverse. PPI contributors should be involved as equal partners in debates and decisions about these issues. Individual feedback on impact may increase PPI contributors' potential impact and their motivation to stay involved. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The impact of patient and public involvement in the work of the Dementias & Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Network (DeNDRoN): case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliffe, Steve; McGrath, Terry; Mitchell, Douglas

    2013-12-01

    (i) To describe patient and public involvement (PPI) in a network promoting research in dementia and neurodegenerative diseases, in terms of activity at the different stages of the research cycle and within the different levels of the research network. (ii) To use case studies to try and answer the question: what benefits (if any) does PPI in research bring to the research process? PPI in health research is a central part of government policy, but the evidence base underpinning it needs strengthening. PPI allows exploration of feasibility, acceptability and relevance of hypotheses, assists in the precise definition of research questions and increases accrual to studies. However, the measurement of outcomes is methodologically difficult, because the impact of lay researchers may occur through team interactions and be difficult to untangle from the efforts of professional researchers. Opportunities for PPI in rapidly progressive diseases may be limited, and involvement of people with marked cognitive impairment is particularly challenging. (i) Description of PPI within the DeNDRoN network. (ii) Case studies of three research projects which asked for extra help from centrally organized PPI. PPI in research projects on the DeNDRoN portfolio may function at different levels, occurring at project, local research network and national level. Case studies of three research projects show different roles for PPI in research and different functions for centrally organized PPI, including contribution to remedial action in studies that are not recruiting to target, solving problems because of the complexity and sensitivity of the research topic, and linking researchers to PPI resources. The case studies suggest that centrally organized PPI can have 'diagnostic' and remedial functions in studies that are struggling to recruit and serve as reinforcement for study-level PPI in the complex and sensitive research topics that are typical in neurodegenerative diseases research. PPI may

  1. Enhancing public involvement in assistive technology design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracey; Kenney, Laurence; Barker, Anthony T; Cooper, Glen; Good, Tim; Healey, Jamie; Heller, Ben; Howard, David; Matthews, Martin; Prenton, Sarah; Ryan, Julia; Smith, Christine

    2015-05-01

    To appraise the application of accepted good practice guidance on public involvement in assistive technology research and to identify its impact on the research team, the public, device and trial design. Critical reflection and within-project evaluation were undertaken in a case study of the development of a functional electrical stimulation device. Individual and group interviews were undertaken with lay members of a 10 strong study user advisory group and also research team members. Public involvement was seen positively by research team members, who reported a positive impact on device and study designs. The public identified positive impact on confidence, skills, self-esteem, enjoyment, contribution to improving the care of others and opportunities for further involvement in research. A negative impact concerned the challenge of engaging the public in dissemination after the study end. The public were able to impact significantly on the design of an assistive technology device which was made more fit for purpose. Research team attitudes to public involvement were more positive after having witnessed its potential first hand. Within-project evaluation underpins this case study which presents a much needed detailed account of public involvement in assistive technology design research to add to the existing weak evidence base. The evidence base for impact of public involvement in rehabilitation technology design is in need of development. Public involvement in co-design of rehabilitation devices can lead to technologies that are fit for purpose. Rehabilitation researchers need to consider the merits of active public involvement in research.

  2. Exploring areas of consensus and conflict around values underpinning public involvement in health and social care research: a modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, D; Kirkham, J; Preston, J; Popay, J; Britten, N; Collins, M; Froggatt, K; Gibson, A; Lobban, F; Wyatt, K; Jacoby, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is growing interest in the potential benefits of public involvement (PI) in health and social care research. However, there has been little examination of values underpinning PI or how these values might differ for different groups with an interest in PI in the research process. We aimed to explore areas of consensus and conflict around normative, substantive and process-related values underpinning PI. Design Mixed method, three-phase, modified Delphi study, conducted as part of a larger multiphase project. Setting The UK health and social care research community. Participants Stakeholders in PI in research, defined as: clinical and non-clinical academics, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and funders; identified via research networks, online searches and a literature review. Results We identified high levels of consensus for many normative, substantive and process-related issues. However, there were also areas of conflict in relation to issues of bias and representativeness, and around whether the purpose of PI in health and social care research is to bring about service change or generate new knowledge. There were large differences by group in the percentages endorsing the ethical justification for PI and the argument that PI equalises power imbalances. With regard to practical implementation of PI, research support infrastructures were reported as lacking. Participants reported shortcomings in the uptake and practice of PI. Embedding PI practice and evaluation in research study designs was seen as fundamental to strengthening the evidence base. Conclusions Our findings highlight the extent to which PI is already embedded in research. However, they also highlight a need for ‘best practice’ standards to assist research teams to understand, implement and evaluate PI. These findings have been used in developing a Public Involvement Impact Assessment Framework (PiiAF), which offers guidance to researchers and members of the

  3. Exploring perceived barriers, drivers, impacts and the need for evaluation of public involvement in health and social care research: a modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, D; Kirkham, J; Britten, N; Froggatt, K; Gradinger, F; Lobban, F; Popay, Jennie; Wyatt, K; Jacoby, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived public involvement (PI) barriers and drivers, perceived impacts of PI and ways of evaluating PI approaches in health and social care research. Background Internationally and within the UK the recognition of potential benefits of PI in health and social care research is gathering momentum and PI is increasingly identified by organisations as a prerequisite for funding. However, there is relatively little examination of the impacts of PI and how those impacts might be measured. Design Mixed method, three-phase, modified Delphi technique, conducted as part of a larger MRC multiphase project. Sample Clinical and non-clinical academics, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and funders. Findings This study found high levels of consensus about the most important barriers and drivers to PI. There was acknowledgement that tokenism was common in relation to PI; and strong support for the view that demonstrating the impacts and value of PI was made more difficult by tokenistic practice. PI was seen as having intrinsic value; nonetheless, there was clear support for the importance of evaluating its impact. Research team cohesion and appropriate resources were considered essential to effective PI implementation. Panellists agreed that PI can be challenging, but can be facilitated by clear guidance, together with models of good practice and measurable standards. Conclusions This study is the first to present empirical evidence of the opinions voiced by key stakeholders on areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived PI barriers and drivers, perceived impacts of PI and the need to evaluate PI. As such it further contributes to debate around best practice in PI, the potential for tokenism and how best to evaluate the impacts of PI. These findings have been used in the development of the Public Involvement Impact Assessment Framework (PiiAF), an online resource which offers

  4. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-09-18

    Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). 12 UK children's hospitals. Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication and appropriate timing of deferred consent discussions

  5. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  6. Research Education: Perspectives and subjective processes involved in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm H. Tillema

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational research acknowledges that researcher’s beliefs and training play a role in framing the outcomes of any study. Research not only consists of defining objectives and following certain methods (search but also of making decisions over the steps taking during the inquiry process (research.Establishing a conceptual framework to guide actions on the subjective processes in research is then crucial to control them. With that purpose in mind we offer researchers and Teacher Educators a heuristic tool to be conscious on the risks that can be taken when immersed in research interpretative process. This instrument could be utilised in PhD programs, masters and research projects.

  7. Ethical issues in research involving children and young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scally, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought

  8. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major requirement both of national and international ethical codes for human experimentation, and of national legislation in many cases, is that new substances or devices should not be used for the first time on human beings unless previous tests on animals have provided a reasonable presumption of their safety. That is so called: Good Clinical Praxis (GCP. There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formulated their own ethical requirements for human experimentation: The Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and The Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and the World Health Organization[1].Animal experimentation is fundamental to the biomedical sciences, not only for the advancement of specific vital processes, but also for the improvement of methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease both in man and in animals. The use of animals is also indispensable for testing the potency and safety of biological substances used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for determining the toxicity of the rapidly growing number of molecules that never existed before in nature and which may represent a hazard to health. This extensive exploitation by man of animals implies philosophical and moral problems that are not peculiar to their use for scientific purposes, and there are no objective ethical criteria by which to judge claims and counterclaims in such matters[2]. However, there is a consensus that „deliberate cruelty is repugnant”.While many countries have general laws or regulations imposing penalties for ill-treatment of animals, relatively few make specific provision for their use for scientific purposes. Because of differing legal systems and cultural backgrounds there are varying approaches to the use of

  9. Involving lay People in Research and Professional Development Through Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    a systematic mapping review methodology, the focus was to map and examine research in these types of games or game environments, and to identify potentials and gaps in the field to inform future research. 89 studies were identified through iterative searching and identification processes applying keywords......Due to the increasing significance of games where lay people are involved in generating knowledge for research or development, the current paper presents a mapping review of status and trends in research of games designed for citizen science, crowdsourcing or community driven research. Using...... they were involved and studies where participants develop knowledge for professional use. The 32 studies were selected for a grounded theory inspired qualitative review and six themes were identified: 1. Motivation; 2. Quality of participant contribution; 3. Learning/education; 4. System/task analysis; 5...

  10. Important considerations for feasibility studies in physical activity research involving persons with multiple sclerosis: a scoping systematic review and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Motl, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Much research has been undertaken to establish the important benefits of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). There is disagreement regarding the strength of this research, perhaps because the majority of studies on physical activity and its benefits have not undergone initial and systematic feasibility testing. We aim to address the feasibility processes that have been examined within the context of physical activity interventions in MS. A systematic scoping review was conducted based on a literature search of five databases to identify feasibility processes described in preliminary studies of physical activity in MS. We read and extracted methodology from each study based on the following feasibility metrics: process (e.g. recruitment), resource (e.g. monetary costs), management (e.g. personnel time requirements) and scientific outcomes (e.g. clinical/participant reported outcome measures). We illustrate the use of the four feasibility metrics within a randomised controlled trial of a home-based exercise intervention in persons with MS. Twenty-five studies were identified. Resource feasibility (e.g. time and resources) and scientific outcomes feasibility (e.g. clinical outcomes) methodologies were applied and described in many studies; however, these metrics have not been systematically addressed. Metrics related to process feasibility (e.g. recruitment) and management feasibility (e.g. human and data management) are not well described within the literature. Our case study successfully enabled us to address the four feasibility metrics, and we provide new information on management feasibility (i.e. estimate data completeness and estimate data entry) and scientific outcomes feasibility (i.e. determining data collection materials appropriateness). Our review highlights the existing research and provides a case study which assesses important metrics of study feasibility. This review serves as a clarion call for feasibility trials that will

  11. Models and impact of patient and public involvement in studies carried out by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London: findings from ten case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Annabelle; Hanley, Bec; Gafos, Mitzy; Cromarty, Ben; Stephens, Richard; Sturgeon, Kate; Scott, Karen; Cragg, William J; Tweed, Conor D; Teera, Jacqueline; Vale, Claire L

    2016-07-29

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit (MRC CTU) at University College London varies by research type and setting. We developed a series of case studies of PPI to document and share good practice. We used purposive sampling to identify studies representing the scope of research at the MRC CTU and different approaches to PPI. We carried out semi-structured interviews with staff and patient representatives. Interview notes were analysed descriptively to categorise the main aims and motivations for involvement; activities undertaken; their impact on the studies and lessons learned. We conducted 19 interviews about ten case studies, comprising one systematic review, one observational study and 8 randomised controlled trials in HIV and cancer. Studies were either open or completed, with start dates between 2003 and 2011. Interviews took place between March and November 2014 and were updated in summer 2015 where there had been significant developments in the study (i.e. if the study had presented results subsequent to the interview taking place). A wide range of PPI models, including representation on trial committees or management groups, community engagement, one-off task-focused activities, patient research partners and participant involvement had been used. Overall, interviewees felt that PPI had a positive impact, leading to improvements, for example in the research question; study design; communication with potential participants; study recruitment; confidence to carry out or complete a study; interpretation and communication of results; and influence on future research. A range of models of PPI can benefit clinical studies. Researchers should consider different approaches to PPI, based on the desired impact and the people they want to involve. Use of multiple models may increase the potential impacts of PPI in clinical research.

  12. Is there a role for physician involvement in introducing research to surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit? (The Approach trial: a pilot mixed methods study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E A; Rizvi, L; Smith, O M; Lee, Y; Lee, J; Wang, M; Brown, M; Parker, M; Premji, A; Leung, D; Hammond Mobilio, M; Gotlib-Conn, L; Nisenbaum, R; Santos, M; Li, Y; Mehta, S

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial comparing two strategies [physician (MD) vs. non-physician (non-MD)] for approaching substitute decision makers (SDMs) for research and to evaluate SDMs' experiences in being approached for consent. A pilot mixed methods study of first encounters with SDMs. Of 137 SDMs (162 eligibility events), 67 and 70 were randomized to MD and non-MD introductions, respectively. Eighty SDMs (98 events) provided consent and 21 SDMs (24 events) declined consent for studies, including 2 SDMs who provided and declined consent. We identified few missed introductions [4/52 (7.7 %)] and protocol violations [6/117 (5.1 %)], high comfort, satisfaction and acceptance scores and similar consent rates in both arms. SDMs provided consent significantly more often when a patient update was provided in the MD arm. Most SDMs (85.7 %) felt that physician involvement was inconsequential and preferred physician time to be dedicated to patient care; however, SDM experiences were closely related to their recall of being approached and recall was poor. SDMs highlighted 7 themes of importance to them in research surrogate decision-making. SDMs prioritized the personal attributes of the person approaching them over professional designation and preferred physician time to be dedicated to patient care. A mixed methods design evaluated intervention fidelity and provided the rationale for not proceeding to a larger trial, despite achieving all feasibility metrics in the pilot trial. NCT01232621.

  13. What do pharmaceutical industry professionals in Europe believe about involving patients and the public in research and development of medicines? A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Suzanne; Starling, Bella; Mullan-Jensen, Christine; Tham, Su-Gwan; Warner, Kay; Wever, Kim

    2016-01-07

    To explore European-based pharmaceutical industry professionals' beliefs about patient and public involvement (PPI) in medicines research and development (R&D). Pharmaceutical companies in the UK, Poland and Spain. 21 pharmaceutical industry professionals, four based in the UK, five with pan-European roles, four based in Spain and eight based in Poland. Qualitative interview study (telephone and face-to-face, semistructured interviews). All interviews were audio taped, translated (where appropriate) and transcribed for analysis using the Framework approach. 21 pharmaceutical industry professionals participated. Key themes were: beliefs about (1) whether patients and the public should be involved in medicines R&D; (2) the barriers and facilitators to PPI in medicines R&D and (3) how the current relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations and patients influence PPI in medicines R&D. Although interviewees appeared positive about PPI, many were uncertain about when, how and which patients to involve. Patients and the public's lack of knowledge and interest in medicines R&D, and the pharmaceutical industry's lack of knowledge, interest and receptivity to PPI were believed to be key challenges to increasing PPI. Interviewees also believed that relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations, patients and the public needed to change to facilitate PPI in medicines R&D. Existing pharmaceutical industry codes of practice and negative media reporting of the pharmaceutical industry were also seen as negative influences on these relationships. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. What Difference Does Patient and Public Involvement Make and What Are Its Pathways to Impact? Qualitative Study of Patients and Researchers from a Cohort of Randomised Clinical Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dudley

    Full Text Available Patient and public involvement (PPI is advocated in clinical trials yet evidence on how to optimise its impact is limited. We explored researchers' and PPI contributors' accounts of the impact of PPI within trials and factors likely to influence its impact.Semi-structured qualitative interviews with researchers and PPI contributors accessed through a cohort of randomised clinical trials. Analysis of transcripts of audio-recorded interviews was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method, elements of content analysis and informant triangulation.We interviewed 21 chief investigators, 10 trial managers and 17 PPI contributors from 28 trials. The accounts of informants within the same trials were largely in agreement. Over half the informants indicted PPI had made a difference within a trial, through contributions that influenced either an aspect of a trial, or how researchers thought about a trial. According to informants, the opportunity for PPI to make a difference was influenced by two main factors: whether chief investigators had goals and plans for PPI and the quality of the relationship between the research team and the PPI contributors. Early involvement of PPI contributors and including them in responsive (e.g. advisory groups and managerial (e.g. trial management groups roles were more likely to achieve impact compared to late involvement and oversight roles (e.g. trial steering committees.Those seeking to enhance PPI in trials should develop goals for PPI at an early stage that fits the needs of the trial, plan PPI implementation in accordance with these goals, invest in developing good relationships between PPI contributors and researchers, and favour responsive and managerial roles for contributors in preference to oversight-only roles. These features could be used by research funders in judging PPI in trial grant applications and to inform policies to optimise PPI within trials.

  15. Ethical issues in neonatal research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    Research involving critically ill neonates creates many ethical challenges. Neonatal clinical research has always been hard to perform, is very expensive, and may generate some unique ethical concerns. This article describes some examples of historical and modern controversies in neonatal research, discusses the justification for research involving such vulnerable and fragile patients, clarifies current federal regulations that govern research involving neonates, and suggests ways that clinical investigators can develop and implement ethically grounded human subjects research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  17. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  18. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  19. Accessible Article: Involving People with Learning Disabilities in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  20. A little more conversation please? Qualitative study of researchers' and patients' interview accounts of training for patient and public involvement in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Louise; Gamble, Carrol; Allam, Alison; Bell, Philip; Buck, Deborah; Goodare, Heather; Hanley, Bec; Preston, Jennifer; Walker, Alison; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget

    2015-04-27

    Training in patient and public involvement (PPI) is recommended, yet little is known about what training is needed. We explored researchers' and PPI contributors' accounts of PPI activity and training to inform the design of PPI training for both parties. We used semi-structured qualitative interviews with researchers (chief investigators and trial managers) and PPI contributors, accessed through a cohort of clinical trials, which had been funded between 2006 and 2010. An analysis of transcripts of audio-recorded interviews drew on the constant comparative method. We interviewed 31 researchers and 17 PPI contributors from 28 trials. Most researchers could see some value in PPI training for researchers, although just under half had received such training themselves, and some had concerns about the purpose and evidence base for PPI training. PPI contributors were evenly split in their perceptions of whether researchers needed training in PPI. Few PPI contributors had themselves received training for their roles. Many informants across all groups felt that training PPI contributors was unnecessary because they already possessed the skills needed. Informants were also concerned that training would professionalise PPI contributors, limiting their ability to provide an authentic patient perspective. However, informants welcomed informal induction 'conversations' to help contributors understand their roles and support them in voicing their opinions. Informants believed that PPI contributors should be confident, motivated, intelligent, focussed on helping others and have relevant experience. Researchers looked for these qualities when selecting contributors, and spoke of how finding 'the right' contributor was more important than accessing 'the right' training. While informants were broadly receptive to PPI training for researchers, they expressed considerable reluctance to training PPI contributors. Providers of training will need to address these reservations. Our

  1. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eccard da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1 the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2 the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1 the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP and 2 Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC. Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011. Type 2 diabetes (26.0% and breast cancer (20.5%-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1 a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2 good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3 a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  2. Implementing a Parental Involvement Program to Improve Parents' Engagement in Their Children's Learning: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Saoussen S.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, the traditional thinking about education and school role in the USA has shifted to view schools as non-isolated entities from the larger society where schooling should be re-energized with help from the society, which includes student homes and communities. This mixed approach action research study evolves around improving…

  3. Breaking ground in cross-cultural research on the fear of being laughted at (gelotophobia): A multi-national study involving 73 countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Proyer, R.T.; Ruch, W.; Ali, N.S.; Al-Olimat, H. S.; Amemiya, T.; Adal, T.A.; Ansari, S. A.; Arhar, Š.; Asem, G.; Baudin, N.; Bawab, S.; Bergen, D.; Brdar, I.; Brites, R.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Carrell, A.; Dios, H.C.; Celik, M.; Ceschi, G.; Chang, K.; Cheryomukhin, A.; Chik, M.P.Y.; Chlopicki, W.; Cranney, J.; Dahourou, D.; Doosje, S.; Dore, M.; El-Arousy, N.; Ficková, E.; Führ, M.; Gallivan, J.; Geling, H.; Germikova, L.; Goh, A.; Gonzáles, R.D.; Ho, S.K.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jaime, B.; Hertzberg Kaare, B.; Kamble, S.; Kazarian, S.; Kerkkänen, P.; Klementová, M.; Kobozeva, I.M.; Kovjanic, S.; Kumaraswamy, N.; Lampert, M.; Liao, Ch.; Levesque, M.; Loizou, L.; Loving, R.D.; Lyttle, J.; Machline, V.C.; McGoldrick, S.; McRorie, M.; Min, L.; Mottus, R.; Munyae, M.; Navia, C.E.; Nkhalamba, M.; Pedrini, P.P.; Petkova, M.; Platt, T.; Popa, D-E.; Radomska, A.; Rashid, T.; Rawlings, D.; Rubio, V.J.; Samson, A.C.; Sarid, O.; Shams, S.; Sisokohm, S.; Smári, J.; Sneddon, I.; Snikhovska, I.; Stephanenko, E.A.; Stokenberga, L.; Stuer, B.; Tanoto, Y.S.R.; Tapia, L.; Taylor, J.; Thibault, P.; Thompson, A.; Thőrn, H.; Toyota, H.; Ujlaky, J.; Vanno, V.; van der Westhuizen, B.; Wijayathilake, D.; Wong, P.S.O.; Wycoff, E.B.; Yeun, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1/2 (2009), s. 253-279 ISSN 0933-1719 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : cross -cultural comparisons * gelotophobia * humor * multi-national study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.771, year: 2009

  4. Involving stakeholders in policy research should not imply that they control the problem definition: lessons from a case study on new analgesics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Hartman, M.; van der Wilt, G.J.; Grin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Insurance Board (HCIB) commissions research to guide their policy recommendations. However, the studies conducted do not always yield relevant information. This may result from differences in problem definitions held by the HCIB and target populations. To compensate these

  5. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Ferguson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.

  6. Committees for Ethics in Research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossne, William Saad; Vieira, Sonia; De Freitas, Corina Bontempo Duca

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil since October 1996 there have been guidelines for research involving human subjects. Now human subjects know when their treatment is part of research. Deceit is no longer tolerated. But is not enough to say we offer an explanation to the potential subject and we offer a choice before he or she is confronted with an informed consent form. As in all professional activity, scientific investigation needs social controls. In Brazil, the ultimate responsibility of an investigation lies on the investigator, but in every institution where research is carried out there is a Committee for Ethics in Research. All Committees are subordinated to the National Commission of Ethics in Research, which is submitted to the Brazilian Institute of Health. During 2005 around 17,000 protocols involving 700,000 human subjects were revised by 475 Committees distributed all over the country. Approximately 7,000 people are now working in these Committees.

  7. Involving disabled children and young people as partners in research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S; Boddy, K; Briscoe, S; Morris, C

    2015-07-01

    Children and young people can be valuable partners in research, giving their unique perspectives on what and how research should be done. However, disabled children are less commonly involved in research than their non-disabled peers. This review investigated how disabled children have been involved as research partners; specifically how they have been recruited, the practicalities and challenges of involvement and how these have been overcome, and impacts of involvement for research, and disabled children and young people. The INVOLVE definition of involvement and the Equality and Human Rights Commission definition of disability were used. Relevant bibliographic databases were searched. Websites were searched for grey literature. Included studies had involved disabled children and young people aged 5-25 years in any study design. Reviews, guidelines, reports and other documents from the grey literature were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-two papers were included: seven reviews, eight original research papers, three reports, three guidelines and one webpage. Nine examples of involvement were identified. Recommendations included developing effective communication techniques, using flexible methods that can be adapted to needs and preferences, and ensuring that sufficient support and funding is available for researchers undertaking involvement. Positive impacts of involvement for disabled children included increased confidence, self-esteem and independence. Positive impacts for research were identified. Involving disabled children in research can present challenges; many of these can be overcome with sufficient time, planning and resources. More needs to be done to find ways to involve those with non-verbal communication. Generally, few details were reported about disabled children and young people's involvement in studies, and the quality of evidence was low. Although a range of positive impacts were identified, the majority of these were authors' opinions rather

  8. Alzheimer Europe's position on involving people with dementia in research through PPI (patient and public involvement)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gove, Dianne; Diaz-Ponce, Ana; Georges, Jean

    2018-01-01

    This paper reflects Alzheimer Europe's position on PPI (patient and public involvement) in the context of dementia research and highlights some of the challenges and potential risks and benefits associated with such meaningful involvement. The paper was drafted by Alzheimer Europe in collaboration...... with members of INTERDEM and the European Working Group of People with Dementia. It has been formally adopted by the Board of Alzheimer Europe and endorsed by the Board of INTERDEM and by the JPND working group 'Dementia Outcome Measures - Charting New Territory'. Alzheimer Europe is keen to promote...

  9. The benefits of patient involvement for translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Garcia, Elisa; van der Laan, A.L.; van der Burg, Simone; Boenink, Marianne

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement (‘translation’) of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  10. The Benefits of Patient Involvement for Translational Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, L. van der; Garcia, E.; Laan, A.L. van der; Burg, S. van der; Boenink, M.

    2017-01-01

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement ('translation') of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  11. Student involvement and research for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear engineering is one of the modern and rapidly advancing technologies. Those already involved in it are continually updating their knowledge to keep abreast of the developments. Of course the sound basic principles of engineering still apply but the scene of application can be transformed in a few years. In fact, because of this, many engineers from more traditional industries often express the view that presently the total range of nuclear engineering is research and development. How can students be trained for such a rapidly advancing technology. Is not the answer early involvement. Effective early involvement for students can only come about by the close co-operation and involvement of the staff of universities and industry. The theme is developed. (author)

  12. Involving Children in the Design and Development of Research Instruments and Data Collection Procedures: A Case Study in Primary Schools in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Kellie; McElearney, Aisling; Scott, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Children's right to participate as enshrined in Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is increasingly evident in the rhetoric of policy documents as well as in practice and research with children and young people. Children's participation in research is being facilitated in a range of creative ways, including as…

  13. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  14. Participatory action research: involving students in parent education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome

    2014-01-01

    Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulating hematology/oncology research involving human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2002-12-01

    The conduct of hematology/oncology research, particularly clinical trials involving human participants, is an extensively regulated enterprise. Professionals in the specialty of hematology/oncology have important stakes in the success of biomedical research endeavors. Knowledge about and compliance strategies regarding the pertinent regulatory parameters are essential for avoiding negative legal repercussions for involved professionals. At the same time, there is a need to be aware of and actively resist the danger that strong [legal] protectionism might inadvertently result in undermining physician investigators' sense of personal moral responsibility in the conduct of human experiments. For all the limitations of that virtue in the protection of human subjects, it is surely not one that we would want medical scientists to be without [47]. Members of the potential participant pool, financial sponsors, and the general public must be convinced that everyone involved in the research enterprise is committed to operating within acceptable legal and ethical boundaries if the atmosphere of confidence and trust that is indispensable to the continued process and progress of investigation aimed at extending and improving quality of life for all of us in the future is to continue and flourish [48].

  16. Strategies for involving undergraduates in mentored research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Early engagement in research can transform the undergraduate experience and has a positive effect on minority student recruitment to graduate school. Multiple strategies used to involve undergraduates in research at a large R1 university are presented. During my first four years as an assistant professor, my lab has hosted 14 undergraduates, 9 of them women and 4 of them Hispanic. Institutional support has been critical for undergraduate student involvement. UW supports a research program for incoming underrepresented students. An advantage of this program is very early research participation, with the opportunity for long-term training. One disadvantage is that many first year students have not yet identified their interests. The Biology major also requires students to complete an independent project, which culminates in a research symposium. Competitive research fellowships and grants are available for students to conduct work under faculty mentorship. We have been successful at keeping students on even when their majors are very different from our research discipline, mainly by providing flexibility and a welcoming lab environment. This mentoring culture is strongly fostered by graduate student interest and involvement with all undergraduates as well as active mentor training. By offering multiple pathways for involvement, we can accommodate students' changing schedules and priorities as well as changing lab needs. Students can volunteer, receive course credit, conduct an independent project or honors thesis, contribute to an existing project, do lab work or write a literature review, work with one mentor or on multiple projects. We often provide employment over the summer and subsequent semesters for continuing students. Some will increase their commitment over time and work more closely with me. Others reduce down to a few hours a week as they gain experience elsewhere. Most students stay multiple semesters and multiple years because they 'enjoy being in the

  17. INVOLVING CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS IN RESEARCH DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Suzannah

    2016-09-01

    Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, states that children should be involved in decisions that directly affect them.1 Research involving children should ensure that the opinions and assistance of children and young people is sought at the beginning of the project as their perspectives may influence all aspects of the research design. To describe the challenges recruiting paediatric patients and members of the public to consult on the design of a research project. Posters were put up around the Children's Hospital including pharmacy to recruit paediatric patients and parents to review a research proposal involving children with long-term conditions. There were two responses to the poster, a father and his 15 year old daughter, and a father with a 2 year old child. The father of the 15 year old attended the initial planning meeting, unfortunately the 15 year old and the father of the 2 year old were unable to attend on the day although both agreed to participate in the project. The meeting gave the opportunity to explain the research proposal and answer questions. It was established that the lay team would review the lay summary, participant information leaflet (PIL), and questionnaires that would be sent to the participants. It was arranged that all further contact would be via email due to travel constraints.Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research requires the individuals to be reimbursed for their time. The National Institute for Health Research rate is £18.75 per hour. The lay team members were informed of this and were reimbursed for attending the planning meeting. The use of posters to recruit PPI into the research design had limited success. Since recruitment, the Children's Hospital has launched a youth partnership which may be able to assist in recruitment of lay team members in the future.The logistics of how to pay the lay team members needed to be resolved before their recruitment to ensure timely payment. A form has been

  18. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    of the effects of different actions and interventions on their health, including those implying contact with health care services. We see their research as primarily carried out in order to make better decisions for themselves, but they can offer to contribute the results to the wider population. We see...... at the point of decision need, when motivation is highest. Some basic distinctions, such as those between science and non-science, research and practice, community and individual, and lay and professional become somewhat blurred and may need to be rethought in light of this approach....... to increased user involvement, though somewhat more aligned with the former. METHODS: Our online decision support tools, delivered directly to the person in the community and openly accessible, are to be seen as research resources. They will take the form of interactive decision aids for a variety of specific...

  19. Research on the Learning Effects of Multimedia Assisted Instruction on Mandarin Vocabulary for Vietnamese Students: A Preliminary Study Involving E-Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yuan; Chung, Wan-Lin

    2011-01-01

    As Mandarin gains popularity in the whole world, Mandarin education becomes valued by the countries all over the world. The United Nations classifies Mandarin as one of the six major languages, and the number of people who learn Mandarin in the whole world grows with each passing day as the mainland China market grows. This study discusses the…

  20. People involved in radiation research and protection - an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The lives of selected people involved in radiation research are covered in two parts: 1. history of radiation and radioactivity; and 2. historical aspects of radiation and radiation protection in Western Australia. History of radiation/radioactivity: The background of some of the key people involved in early radiation research is discussed. These include Rontgen and Becqucrel who undertook early research into X-rays and radioactivity respectively. As well as the radiation hazards which early radiation scientists faced, there were also social pressures, as exemplified by the life of women such as Marie Curie, particularly after the death of her husband Pierre. Despite this being the time of the so-called 'beautiful years' in Europe, where there was a friendly exchange of ideas between scientists from various countries, there were also protracted disagreements. Some of the scientific findings of the Curies' daughter (Irene Joliot-Curie) and husband (Frederic Joliot-Curie) were vigorously disputed by Lisa Meitner (and colleague Otto Hahn) in Vienna. The 'beautiful years' came to an end when politics intruded and scientists such as Lisa Meitner had to flee from persecution. The splitting of the atom and realisation (by Leo Szilard) that a chain reaction was possible, led to political barriers being erected around scientists. With Europe poised for war, the implication of this science for warfare application was cause for concern among many of the normally free thinking and co-operative scientists. Secrecy now prevailed.

  1. Purchase Involvement of New Car Buyers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Abramson; Peggy D. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    The purchase of a new automobile is often cited as the quintessence of a high involvement purchase decision; the financial risks and personal relevance of the purchase dictate that car buyers put forth much effort before making a decision. In this research such efforts as dealers shopped, brands shopped, and information sources used are studied in a large sample of new car buyers in West Virginia. The purchase behavior of respondents in this study seems more like low-involvement than high inv...

  2. Methods for Involving Older People in Health Research-A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Imke; Gerhardus, Ansgar

    2017-11-29

    Demographic change has increased the need for research on healthcare for older people. Recently there has been a growing awareness that research might benefit from actively involving patients and the public in study design and conduct. Besides empowering patients and democratizing research, involvement enhances the quality of research and the development of equitable healthcare solutions. Little is known about how to involve older people. This review aims to support scientists intending to involve older people in health research by systematically identifying and describing studies involving older people and analyzing associated facilitators and challenges. Old people were operationalized as people living with old-age-related conditions. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Cochrane library for the period 2007 to July 2017 and also manually searched reference lists of the nine retrieved articles and other relevant sources. While involvement of older people in research is feasible, specific challenges related to this group need be taken into account. Strategies to enhance effective involvement comprise a thoughtful choice of location, use of visualization and accessible communication, building good relationships and flexible approaches. Further research is needed on the involvement of people in care homes or with vision, hearing or mobility limitations.

  3. Involving Research Stakeholders in Developing Policy on Sharing Public Health Research Data in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy

    2015-01-01

    Increased global sharing of public health research data has potential to advance scientific progress but may present challenges to the interests of research stakeholders, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. Policies for data sharing should be responsive to public views, but there is little evidence of the systematic study of these from low-income countries. This qualitative study explored views on fair data-sharing processes among 60 stakeholders in Kenya with varying research experience, using a deliberative approach. Stakeholders’ attitudes were informed by perceptions of benefit and concerns for research data sharing, including risks of stigmatization, loss of privacy, and undermining scientific careers and validity, reported in detail elsewhere. In this article, we discuss institutional trust-building processes seen as central to perceptions of fairness in sharing research data in this setting, including forms of community involvement, individual prior awareness and agreement to data sharing, independence and accountability of governance mechanisms, and operating under a national framework. PMID:26297748

  4. Research Involving Health Providers and Managers: Ethical Issues Faced by Researchers Conducting Diverse Health Policy and Systems Research in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Nyikuri, Mary Muyoka; Waweru, Evelyn Wanjiku; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews. Many of the ethical dilemmas researchers faced only emerged over the course of the fieldwork, or on completion, and were related to interactions and relationships between individuals operating at different levels or positions in health/research systems. The dilemmas reveal significant ethical challenges for these forms of HPSR, and show that potential 'solutions' to dilemmas often lead to new issues and complications. Our experiences support the value of research ethics frameworks, and suggest that these can be enriched by incorporating careful consideration of context embedded social relations into research planning and conduct. Many of these essential relational elements of ethical practice, and of producing quality data, are given stronger emphasis in social science research ethics than in epidemiological, clinical or biomedical research ethics, and are particularly relevant where health systems are understood as social and political constructs. We conclude with practical and research implications. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Consumer and community involvement in health and medical research: evaluation by online survey of Australian training workshops for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Anne; Alpers, Kirsten; Heyworth, Jane; Phuong, Cindy; Hanley, Bec

    2016-01-01

    In Australia, since 2009, the Consumer and Community Involvement Program (formerly the Consumer and Community Participation Program) has developed and run workshops to help people working in health and medical research involve more consumers (patients) and community members (the public) in their research. In 2012, workshop attendees were invited to do an online survey to find out the effect, if any, that attending a workshop had on their awareness of and attitudes to consumer and community involvement. They were also asked about changes in their behaviour when it came to the involvement of consumers and the community in their work. The study found that, for people who answered the survey, more than double the number found consumer and community involvement very relevant after attending a workshop, compared with the number who thought that before attending one. Also, amongst those who answered the survey, 94 % thought that the workshop increased their understanding about involvement. Background There is limited evidence of the benefits of providing training workshops for researchers on how to involve consumers (patients) and the community (public) in health and medical research. Australian training workshops were evaluated to contribute to the evidence base. The key objective was to evaluate the impact of the workshops in increasing awareness of consumer and community involvement; changing attitudes to future implementation of involvement activities and influencing behaviour in the methods of involvement used. A secondary objective was to use a formal evaluation survey to build on the anecdotal feedback received from researchers about changes in awareness, attitudes and behaviours. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, online survey of researchers, students, clinicians, administrators and members of non-government organisations who attended Consumer and Community Involvement Program training workshops between 2009 and 2012 to ascertain changes to awareness

  6. Research Attitudes and Involvement among Medical Students and Students of Allied Health Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Catherine R.

    1994-01-01

    Medicine has a long research tradition, whereas allied health areas have only recently become involved in research. A questionnaire study was conducted to investigate the attitudes to research of a total of 314 students of medicine, dentistry, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and nursing courses on the city campuses of two South Australian…

  7. Ethical issues when involving people newly diagnosed with dementia in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Suzanne; Kydd, Angela

    2015-03-01

    To discuss the methodological and ethical review challenges encountered by researchers who want to enable people with dementia to be involved in research. There has been increasing recognition of the importance of involving people with dementia in research. However, an argument has centred on the protection of these vulnerable clients versus their freedom to be involved as participants in research. People with dementia do have the right to have their experiences explored. Involving this client group in research is essential to gain a true understanding of their needs. The lead author's experience of conducting a study in which people newly diagnosed with dementia were recruited as research participants. An interpretive phenomenological approach was adopted during this qualitative study, with data collected by means of one to one interviews with people newly diagnosed with dementia. This study was completed within the set timeframe, but a large part of the work was spent gaining ethical approval. This meant that the timeframe of the study period was reduced and as a result, it was only possible to recruit three participants. However, people with dementia are perhaps one of the most vulnerable client groups and it is only right that they should not be subjected to harm. Ethical review is an important part of research. Meeting the ethical requirements of research involving people with dementia requires time and careful preparation to ensure that researchers safeguard the interests of this vulnerable client group, while also allowing the participants the opportunity to exercise their autonomy to their fullest potential. Conducting research that involves people with dementia may be time consuming, but it is only fair that this client group are afforded the freedom to be involved in research. This small time-limited study points to the need for larger pilot studies to hear from individuals what needs they have following a diagnosis of dementia.

  8. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  9. Ethical issues in Alzheimer's disease research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dena S

    2017-12-01

    As we aggressively pursue research to cure and prevent Alzheimer's disease, we encounter important ethical challenges. None of these challenges, if handled thoughtfully, would pose insurmountable barriers to research. But if they are ignored, they could slow the research process, alienate potential study subjects and do damage to research recruits and others. These challenges are (1) the necessity of very large cohorts of research subjects, recruited for lengthy studies, probably ending only in the subjects' death; (2) the creation of cohorts of 'study ready' volunteers, many of whom will be competent to consent at the beginning of the process, but move into cognitive impairment later; (3) reliance on adaptive trial design, creating challenges for informed consent, equipoise and justice; (4) the use of biomarkers and predictive tests that describe risk rather than certainty, and that can threaten participants' welfare if the information is obtained by insurance companies or long-term care providers; (5) the use of study partners that creates unique risks of harm to the relationship of subject and study partner. We need greater attention, at all levels, to these complex ethical issues. Work on these issues should be included in research plans, from the federal to the local, and should be supported through NIH in the same way that it supported work on the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Conflicts of interest in research involving human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Dirceu; Diniz, Nilza Maria

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts of interest are inherent to the majority of relationships among individuals and of these with companies and institutions and, certainly, research involving human beings is no exception. In relation to clinical research, the main focus of this manuscript, conflicts of interest occur at different levels and usually permeate among them: In the pharmaceutical industry in their decisions to invest to develop new products, especially vaccines and drugs, and also in relation to marketing of these products; Among the investigators the conflicts may be related to the financial gains to participate in pharma sponsored trials, or to the expected academic career boost attained with the publication of the results of the trials and also to personal interests such as the financial support for trips to international conferences. Often the participation of host country investigators is restricted to performing phase III or IV protocols developed abroad, many times with low scientific relevance, and even lower relevance to public health; Universities or research institutes themselves also have conflicts of interest, as the sponsored projects may help increase their budgets, both directly (taxes) and indirectly (e.g., improvement of physical infrastructure of laboratories or out patient clinics); For the trial volunteers in developing countries, and Brazil is no exception despite free and universal access to its health system, participation in clinical trials is many times seen as, and can really be, an unique opportunity of receiving better health care, better treatment by the health professionals, easier access to costly lab exams and also to receiving certain medications which would otherwise be difficult to have access to. In order to handle these conflicts of interest, Brazil has a well-established and respected legal support and ethical normatization. The latter is represented by Resolution 196/96 of the Brazilian National Research Ethics Committee (CONEP). This

  11. Pediatric oncologists' attitudes towards involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.C. de; Wit, J.M.; Engberts, D.P.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various regulations and guidelines stipulate the importance of involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation. Several studies have shown that in the context of pediatric oncology this involvement is difficult to achieve due to emotional stress, the complexity

  12. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, J.E.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products

  13. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  14. Co-researching with people with learning disabilities: an experience of involvement in qualitative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Butler, Gary

    2010-06-01

    People with learning disabilities have been included in research as co-researchers since the 1990s. However, there is limited literature about the processes of involving people with learning disabilities in the more intellectual and analytical stages of the research process. To examine the potential contribution of people with learning disabilities to data analysis in qualitative research. This article is a reflection on one research experience. The two authors include one researcher with and one without learning disabilities. They each describe their experience and understanding of user involvement in analysing the data of an ethnographic study of people with learning disabilities who had cancer. The researcher with learning disabilities was given extensive vignettes and extracts from the research field notes, and was supported to extract themes, which were cross-compared with the analysis of other members of the research team. The researcher with learning disabilities coped well with the emotive content of the data and with the additional support provided, he was able to extract themes that added validity to the overall analysis. His contribution complemented those of the other members of the research team. There were unexpected benefits, in particular, in terms of a more reciprocal and supportive relationship between the two researchers. It is possible and valuable to extend involvement to data analysis, but to avoid tokenism and maintain academic rigour, there must be a clear rationale for such involvement. Extra support, time and costs must be planned for.

  15. 76 FR 5735 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research with pesticides, drawn..., which suggest ethical considerations relevant to evaluation of human studies. Third, Petitioners argued... Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY...

  16. STUDY OF CARDIAC INVOLVEMENT IN DIPHTHERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Raju Gundam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diphtheria still endemic in many developing countries and is responsible for high case fatality. Myocardial involvement is a serious complication of diphtheria and diphtheria myocarditis frequently complicated by arrhythmias causes sudden death if not managed properly. So, early and adequate administration of Anti-Diphtheritic Serum (ADS and frequent monitoring particularly 24 hrs. ECG monitoring is helpful to detect any serious cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS A prospective study on patients who were culture positive diagnosed on the basis of WHO definition were treated and analysed in respect to homographic details, immunisation strategy, and clinical features with particular attention to myocarditis. RESULTS In the study, common age group affected by diphtheria was 5 to 10 years. Incidence of myocarditis more in same age group. Out of 64 patients with myocarditis, 23 patients died. CONCLUSION Incidence of diphtheria has increased in the recent years. Commonly effected age group is 5 to 10 years and most of them are presented with asymptomatic myocarditis. Symptomatic diphtheritic myocarditis has high mortality rate even with aggressive management. Patient who presented with either LBBB alone are with combination of other conduction of abnormalities has high mortality rate.

  17. The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rick; Marshall, David W

    2003-06-01

    The construct of involvement has been found to influence brand loyalty, product information search processing, responses to advertising communications, diffusion of innovations, and ultimately, product choice decisions. Traditionally, involvement has been defined as being a characteristic of either a product or of an individual. In the present research, we make an assumption that an individual's 'food involvement' is a somewhat stable characteristic and we hypothesized that involvement with foods would vary between individuals, that individuals who are more highly involved with food would be better able to discriminate between a set of food samples than would less food involved individuals, and that this discrimination would operate both in affective and perceptive relative judgments. Using standard scale construction techniques, we developed a measure of the characteristic of food involvement, based on activities relating to food acquisition, preparation, cooking, eating and disposal. After several iterations, a final 12-item measure was found to have good test-retest reliability and internal consistency within two subscales. A behavioral validation study demonstrated that measures of food involvement were associated with discrimination and hedonic ratings for a range of foods in a laboratory setting. These findings suggest that food involvement, as measured by the Food Involvement Scale, may be an important mediator to consider when undertaking research with food and food habits.

  18. Pediatric oncologists' attitudes towards involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Martine C; Wit, Jan M; Engberts, Dirk P; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Leeuwen, Evert

    2010-07-15

    Various regulations and guidelines stipulate the importance of involving adolescents in decision-making concerning research participation. Several studies have shown that in the context of pediatric oncology this involvement is difficult to achieve due to emotional stress, the complexity of research protocols and limited time. Still, up to 80% of adolescents with cancer enter onto a trial during their illness. The aim of this study was to determine clinicians' views and attitudes towards enrolling adolescents in research, considering the difficulties surrounding their involvement in decision-making. A qualitative multicenter study was performed, using in-depth semi-structured interviews on the informed consent process with 15 pediatric hemato-oncologists. Four central themes emerged that characterize clinicians' attitudes towards involving adolescents in the decision-making process: (1) clinicians regard most adolescents as not capable of participating meaningfully in discussions regarding research; (2) clinicians do not always provide adolescents with all information; (3) proxy consent from parents is obtained and is deemed sufficient; (4) clinician-investigator integrity: clinicians judge research protocols as not being harmful and even in the best interest of the adolescent. Clinicians justify not involving adolescents in research discussions by referring to best interest arguments (adolescents' incompetence, proxy consent, and investigator integrity), although this is not in line with legal regulations and ethical guidelines.

  19. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. Methods: This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013. The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The partic...

  20. How embedded is public involvement in mainstream health research in England a decade after policy implementation? A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patricia; Mathie, Elspeth; Poland, Fiona; Keenan, Julia; Howe, Amanda; Munday, Diane; Kendall, Sally; Cowe, Marion; Staniszewska, Sophie; Goodman, Claire

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To explore how embedded patient and public involvement is within mainstream health research following two decades of policy-driven work to underpin health research with patient and public involvement in England. Methods Realist evaluation using Normalization Process Theory as a programme theory to understand what enabled patient and public involvement to be embedded as normal practice. Data were collected through a national scoping and survey, and qualitative methods to track patient and public involvement processes and impact over time within 22 nationally funded research projects. Results In research studies that were able to create reciprocal working relationships and to embed patient and public involvement this was contingent on: the purpose of patient and public involvement being clear; public contributors reflecting research end-beneficiaries; researchers understanding the value of patient and public involvement; patient and public involvement opportunities being provided throughout the research and ongoing evaluation of patient and public involvement. Key contested areas included: whether to measure patient and public involvement impact; seeking public contributors to maintain a balance between being research-aware and an outsider standpoint seen as 'authentically' lay; scaling-up patient and public involvement embedded within a research infrastructure rather than risk token presence and whether patient and public involvement can have a place within basic science. Conclusions While patient and public involvement can be well-integrated within all types of research, policy makers should take account of tensions that must be navigated in balancing moral and methodological imperatives.

  1. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-09-20

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process.

  2. A clash of paradigms? Western and indigenous views on health research involving Aboriginal peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Theresa Diane

    2014-07-01

    To explore the issues of data management and data ownership with regard to health research conducted in aboriginal or indigenous populations in Canada. Research with aboriginal communities in Canada has often been conducted by researchers who had little or no understanding of the community in which the research was taking place. This led to 'helicopter' research, which benefitted the researcher but not the community. National aboriginal leadership developed the ownership, control, access, and possession (OCAP) principles, which outline how to manage research data regarding aboriginal people and to counteract disrespectful methodologies. However, these principles present their own set of challenges to those who would conduct research with aboriginal populations. Documents from the Assembly of First Nations, the Government of Canada, Aboriginal writers and researchers, and Nursing theorists and researchers. This is a methodology paper that reviews the issues of data ownership when conducting research with Aboriginal populations. The authors explore indigenous and Western views of knowledge development, outline and discuss the OCAP principles, and present the Canadian Institute of Health Research's guidelines for health research involving aboriginal people as a guide for those who want to carry out ethical and culturally competent research, do no harm and produce research that can benefit aboriginal peoples. There are special considerations associated with conducting research with Aboriginal populations. The Assembly of First Nations wants researchers to use the Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP) principles with First Nations data. These principles are restrictive and need to be discussed with stakeholders before research is undertaken. In Canada, it is imperative that researchers use the Canadian Institute of Health Research Guidelines for Health Research Involving Aboriginal People to ensure culturally sensitive and ethical conduct during the course of

  3. The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Forchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group. Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

  4. Procedures Involved in Radioecological Studies with Marine Zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Small, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    Various procedures in marine radio ecological experiments with zooplankton are considered in the light of the possibility of establishing reference methods for marine radiobiological studies. Methods for collection, handling and maintenance prior to and during experiments are suggested for various types of zooplankton. The importance of physiological and physicochemical parameters are discussed in the context of the experimental design with the aim of achieving comparable results among workers involved in this field of research. (author)

  5. The emotional involvement in the workplace: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lucia-Casademunt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In a multitude of studies, it is verified that the generation of positive attitudes for employees such as job satisfaction or job involvement, have a positive influence on productivity levels of companies. The current investigation focus on the identification of employee-profile -who is emotionally involved with their work activity- through the use of a set of individual, job related and attitudinal factors.Design/methodology: A review of the literature about the main factors that affect the job involvement particularly on its emotional dimension has been completed. For its measurement at the empirical level, various items related to psychological well being of employees included in the IV European Working Conditions Survey-2010 are used. Moreover, those items are identified in Job Involvement Questionnaire (Lodahl & Kejner, 1965. Since then, an empirical and multidimensional study is carried out by applying a logistic regression model on the sample of 11,149 employees obtained with European survey cited previously.Findings: The logistic regression model identifies the factors, which are directly related to emotional involvement at the workplace. Ultimately, is raised a definitive model that define the European employee-profile -who is emotionally involved at the workplace-: a rather aged person who has been working at his/her present place of employment for several years in a medium-sized company where possibly there exist a good working relationship between workers and their superiors –social support-. These employees are “white-collar” workers, have career advancement opportunities in the organizational hierarchy. They perform variety, flexible and complex tasks, which leads to satisfaction in terms of pay and working conditions.Research limitations/implications: Emotional involvement has been measured through self-awareness and, therefore, the corresponding bias in the key variable must be assumed. In addition, the casual

  6. Involving the public in mental health and learning disability research: Can we, should we, do we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C; Holt, J

    2017-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK health policy is clear that researchers should involve the public throughout the research process. The public, including patients, carers and/or local citizens can bring a different and valuable perspective to the research process and improve the quality of research undertaken. Conducting health research is demanding with tight deadlines and scarce resources. This can make involving the public in research very challenging. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first time the attitudes of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services towards PPI have been investigated. The principles of service user involvement in mental health and learning disability services may support PPI in research as a tool of collaboration and empowerment. This article extends our understanding of the cultural and attitudinal barriers to implementing PPI guidelines in mental health and learning disability services. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Researchers in mental health and learning disability services need to champion, share and publish effective involvement work. Structural barriers to PPI work should be addressed locally and successful strategies shared nationally and internationally. Where PPI guidelines are being developed, attention needs to be paid to cultural factors in the research community to win "hearts and minds" and support the effective integration of PPI across the whole research process. Introduction Patient and public involvement (PPI) is integral to UK health research guidance; however, implementation is inconsistent. There is little research into the attitudes of NHS health researchers towards PPI. Aim This study explored the attitude of researchers working in mental health and learning disability services in the UK towards PPI in health research. Method Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight researchers. A

  7. Children's Decision-Making Involvement About Research Participation: Associations With Perceived Fairness and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Feudtner, Chris; Jawad, Abbas F

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the associations of children's involvement in decisions about research participation with their perceptions of the decision-making process and self-efficacy. Participants were children (ages 8-17) who enrolled in research studies in the prior 2 months. Children completed a questionnaire that yielded three decision-making involvement subscales: Researcher Engages Child, Researcher Supports Autonomy, and Child Participates. Children reported on fairness of the decision-making process and health-related decision self-efficacy. After adjusting for age, higher scores on Researcher Engages Child were associated with greater self-efficacy, and higher scores on Researcher Supports Autonomy were associated with greater perceived fairness. These data underscore the potential importance of researcher-child interactions about research participation when assent is sought, including proactively involving children in the decision by asking for their opinions and communicating their central role in the decision, which are likely to be more meaningful to children than receiving information or signing a form.

  8. Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists

  9. Farming Systems Involving Fruit Crops Production And Research In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research interventions to expand the scope of the farmers have shown that greater efficiency of land utilization is exhibited. New areas of research for the evaluation, as well as suggests consideration for intercropping with fruit trees are suggested. The current challenges to fruit production were also identified, while the ...

  10. A comparative study of Swedish generation Y decision-making style between high involvement and low involvement products.

    OpenAIRE

    Pakdeejirakul, Warangkhana; Agosi, Micheal

    2013-01-01

    Title A comparative study of Swedish generation Y decision-making style between high involvement and low involvement products. Research questions  How does product involvement influence consumer decision-making styles in Generation Y of Swedish nationals for the two selected products?  To what level does the model proposed by Sproles and Kendall in 1986 now apply to the modern-day Generation Y in Sweden as they decide on both of the selected products? Purpose The purpose of this research unde...

  11. Data collection using open access technology in multicentre operational research involving patient interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewade, H D; Chadha, S S; Gupta, V; Tripathy, J P; Satyanarayana, S; Sagili, K; Mohanty, S; Bera, O P; Pandey, P; Rajeswaran, P; Jayaraman, G; Santhappan, A; Bajpai, U N; Mamatha, A M; Maiser, R; Naqvi, A J; Pandurangan, S; Nath, S; Ghule, V H; Das, A; Prasad, B M; Biswas, M; Singh, G; Mallick, G; Jeyakumar Jaisingh, A J; Rao, R; Kumar, A M V

    2017-03-21

    Conducting multicentre operational research is challenging due to issues related to the logistics of travel, training, supervision, monitoring and troubleshooting support. This is even more burdensome in resource-constrained settings and if the research includes patient interviews. In this article, we describe an innovative model that uses open access tools such as Dropbox, TeamViewer and CamScanner for efficient, quality-assured data collection in an ongoing multicentre operational research study involving record review and patient interviews. The tools used for data collection have been shared for adaptation and use by other researchers.

  12. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino involvement in clinical research opportunities: qualitative findings from Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollin, Lisa X; Harrigan, Rosanne C; Calderón, José L; Perez, John; Easa, David

    2005-01-01

    Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community.

  13. Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, Diana Schack

    Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives......Involving people with early-stage dementia in qualitative research about their lifeworld perspectives...

  14. Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

  15. A Typology of Management Studies Involving Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J Adler

    1983-01-01

    As a methodological review, this paper delineates 6 approaches to researching cross-cultural management issues: parochial, ethnocentric, polycentric, comparative, geocentric, and synergistic. For each approach, assumptions are discussed concerning the similarity and difference across cultures and the extent to which management phenomena are or are not universal. The primary types of management questions which can be addressed using each approach are clarified. Main methodological issues which...

  16. Parental decision making involvement and decisional conflict: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Laura; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Saarimaki, Anton; Lawson, Margaret L

    2017-06-13

    Decisional conflict is a state of uncertainty about the best treatment option among competing alternatives and is common among adult patients who are inadequately involved in the health decision making process. In pediatrics, research shows that many parents are insufficiently involved in decisions about their child's health. However, little is known about parents' experience of decisional conflict. We explored parents' perceived decision making involvement and its association with parents' decisional conflict. We conducted a descriptive survey study in a pediatric tertiary care hospital. Our survey was guided by validated decisional conflict screening items (i.e., the SURE test). We administered the survey to eligible parents after an ambulatory care or emergency department consultation for their child. Four hundred twenty-nine respondents were included in the analysis. Forty-eight percent of parents reported not being offered treatment options and 23% screened positive for decisional conflict. Parents who reported being offered options experienced less decisional conflict than parents who reported not being offered options (5% vs. 42%, p conflict after their clinical consultation. Involving parents in the decision making process might reduce their risk of decisional conflict. Evidence based interventions that support parent decision making involvement, such as shared decision making, should be evaluated and implemented in pediatrics as a strategy to reduce parents' decisional conflict.

  17. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  18. Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Ford

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b youth-researcher partnerships, and (c youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a being useful by helping elders and (b being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.

  19. Clinical research involving minors in international and serbian regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planojević, Nina; Zivojinović, Dragica

    2013-07-01

    Participation in clinical trials can be useful for the health of a person, in who it is conducted, but it does not have to be - it can even be harmful. Therefore, primary motive to accept such risk is humanity and human wish to contribute to the progress of medicine; this is expressed by personal consent. The consent, however, can be an expression of personal humanity, and for this, it is not logical that someone can give consent on behalf of someone else, as it is done by a legally authorized representative on behalf of a minor. Therefore, authors raise 3 questions: What are the reasons to consider representative's consent acceptable? How should a model of regulations look like in order to provide the most complete possible protection to a minor? Is actual regulation of minors' position within international and Serbian law, analyzed here by authors for their specific solutions, acceptable? Representative's consent is acceptable only for therapeutic research, because these can bring benefits to everyone's health, including a minor in which those are conducted - this is an acceptable (secondary) motive of participation in the research. Expression of humanity on other's behalf, typical for non-therapeutic research, is not acceptable; this makes ban of minors' participation in non-therapeutic research more appropriate regulation model. International regulations are not in accordance to results presented in the paper for allowing participation of minors both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic research. Serbian regulation is closer to the most acceptable regulation model.

  20. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-28

    Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013.The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients' privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean.

  1. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...

  2. The Significance of Benefit Perceptions for the Ethics of HIV Research Involving Adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Stuart; Groves, Allison K; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Iritani, Bonita J; Odongo, Fredrick S; Luseno, Winnie K

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of benefits is traditionally regarded as crucial to the ethical evaluation of research involving human participants. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with health and other professionals engaged with adolescents, caregivers/parents, and adolescents in Siaya County, Kenya, to solicit opinions about appropriate ways of conducting HIV research with adolescents. Our data revealed that many focus group participants have a profoundly positive conception of participation in health research, including studies conferring seemingly few benefits. In this article, we identify and analyze five different but interrelated types of benefits as perceived by Kenyan adolescent and adult stakeholders in HIV research, and discuss their ethical significance. Our findings suggest that future empirical and conceptual research should concentrate on factors that may trigger researcher obligations to improve benefit perceptions among research participants.

  3. Public involvement in the dose reconstruction study: the colorado story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Norma C.; Lockhart, Ann J.

    2000-01-01

    Public involvement was a critical component for building awareness, trust, and credibility for the dose reconstruction study for the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility in Colorado. The research team developed a process to inform, involve, and encourage public participation over the nine-year study period. Key affected and interested groups with a legitimate stake in the study were identified and invited to identify concerns and offer suggestions for the study. In many cases, the public actually provided direction for the research. Many issues were studied more in-depth as result of public concern. Proactive community outreach was undertaken; quarterly public meetings and workshops were held to inform the public about the study's progress and to hear their comments. Quarterly newsletters were mailed to stake holders. A speaker's bureau was established and more than 50 presentations were made to 1,500 community members in various civic, business, neighborhood, and technical groups. Fact sheets, citizen summaries of technical reports, technical topic papers, and a video were developed to provide a complete overview of the studies and the findings at the conclusion of the project. The video was provided to local cable television stations, and publications were taken to local libraries. A web site was developed to allow the public to readily access information and to order technical reports. Public comments on draft technical reports were solicited; questions and concerns were addressed and investigated. The staff answered citizen calls, and the research team responded in writing to more than 200 issues raised by very concerned citizens. In addition, a citizen's group was formed in 1992 to conduct an independent study of plutonium levels found in soil samples collected around Rocky Flats. Made up of homeowners, public interest groups, local health departments, interested citizens, and Health Advisory Panel members, the committee arranged for sampling and analysis of

  4. Evaluating public involvement in research design and grant development: Using a qualitative document analysis method to analyse an award scheme for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Muir, Delia; Brereton, Louise; Allmark, Christine; Barber, Rosemary; Harris, Lydia; Hodges, Brian; Khan, Samaira; Baird, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Research Design Service (RDS) for Yorkshire and Humber has been running a public involvement funding scheme since 2008. This scheme awards researchers a small amount of money to help them get involvement from patients and/or the public. Involvement activities take place at the time when researchers are planning studies, and when they are completing application forms to request funding for a proposed research project. After the public involvement activities researchers are asked to write a report for the RDS describing what they did with the public involvement funding. This study analysed those reports using an approach which included members of a public involvement panel in the data analysis process. The aim of the work was to see what the views and experiences of researchers who received funding were, and what might be learned for the future of the scheme. Twenty five reports were analysed. Four main themes were identified, these described: the added value of public involvement; aspects to consider when planning and designing public involvement; different roles of public contributors; and aspects of valuing public member contributions. The group approach to analysis was successful in enabling involvement of a variety of individuals in the process. The findings of the study provide evidence of the value of public involvement during the development of applications for research funding. The results also indicate that researchers recognise the variety in potential roles for the public in research, and acknowledge how involvement adds value to studies. Background A regional Research Design Service, funded by the National Institute for Health Research, introduced a small grant in 2008, to support public involvement (often known as patient and public involvement [PPI]) activities during the development of applications for research funding. Successful applicants are requested to submit a report detailing how the grant

  5. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Mamede de; Marcelino, Erica; Mendonça, Alexandre de

    2010-01-01

    Copyright ©2012 IOS Press All rights reserved. We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arou...

  6. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Marcelino, Erica; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arousal is supported by a number of electrophysiological studies. The evidence in favor of an increased muscle fiber resistance is not definitive, but higher or lower motor neuron excitability can occur as a consequence of a greater excitation of the descending input from the brainstem and upper motor neurons. TMS can address the influence of caffeine on the upper motor neuron. Previous studies showed that cortico-motor threshold and intracortical excitatory and inhibitory pathways are not influenced by caffeine. Nonetheless, our results indicate that cortical silent period (CSP) is reduced in resting muscles after caffeine consumption, when stimulating the motor cortex with intensities slightly above threshold. We present new data demonstrating that this effect is also observed in fatigued muscle. We conclude that CSP can be considered a surrogate marker of the effect of caffeine in the brain, in particular of its central ergogenic effect.

  7. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy: how to involve and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented study? What learning and/or changes took place? What challenges/pitfalls had to be overcome? What were the influence/consequences for the involved parts? When to use If you want to implement new services and want to involve staff and others in the process, an AR methodology is very suitable. The basic advantages of doing AR-based studies are grounded in their participatory and democratic basis and their starting point in problems experienced in practice. Limitations Some of the limitations in AR-studies are that neither of the participants in a project steering group are the only ones to decide. Furthermore, the collective process makes the decision-making procedures relatively complex.

  8. Collateral Informant Assessment in Alcohol Use Research Involving College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Brett T.; Cohn, Amy M.; Noel, Nora E.; Clifford, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between college students' self-reported alcohol use and corresponding collateral reports and identified factors that influence agreement between both sets of reports. Participants/Methods: Subject-collateral pairs (N = 300) were recruited from undergraduate psychology courses. Results: Data yielded…

  9. Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like 131 I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986

  10. Do Research Intermediaries Reduce Perceived Coercion to Enter Research Trials Among Criminally Involved Substance Abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Croft, Jason R; Arabia, Patricia L; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2011-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of including a research intermediary (RI) during the consent process in reducing participants' perceptions of coercion to enroll in a research study. Eighty-four drug court clients being recruited into an ongoing study were randomized to receive a standard informed consent process alone (standard condition) or with an RI (intermediary condition). Before obtaining consent, RIs met with clients individually to discuss remaining concerns. Findings provided preliminary evidence that RIs reduced client perceptions that their participation might influence how clinical and judicial staff view them. This suggests that using RIs may improve participant autonomy in clinical studies.

  11. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This progress report for the Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland covers the second year (June 1, 1989 to May 31, 1990) of the current three-year contract period from June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1991, funded by the Department of Energy under Contract No. AC05-85ER40216. The research program is divided into three separate tasks, as follows: the study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams; the study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse-Powered Plasma Focus; the study of Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency Linacs. This report consists of three sections in which the progress for each task is documented separately. An introduction and synopsis is presented at the beginning of the progress report for each task

  12. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  13. "…Their Opinions Mean Something": Care Staff's Attitudes to Health Research Involving People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Natalie; Durand, Marie-Anne; Mengoni, Silvana E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite experiencing health inequalities, people with intellectual disabilities are under-represented in health research. Previous research has identified barriers but has typically focused on under-recruitment to specific studies. This study aimed to explore care staff's attitudes to health research involving people with intellectual…

  14. Children's views on their involvement in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuy, Hélène; Doz, François; Blanche, Stéphane; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2008-05-01

    To examine the level of children's understanding of informed consent in clinical trials and factors that may influence these processes. Twenty nine children who were included in clinical trials for treatment of cancer or HIV, were offered the possibility to complete a semidirective interview, with parental permission. Children's understanding was measured by a score of 0-9 including items required to obtain a valid consent according to French and European legislations. Children were 8.5-18 years old (13.6 +/- 2.8 years). The higher percentage of understanding was obtained for the study objectives (n = 18, 62%), the risks (n = 17, 58%), the potential self-benefits (n = 18, 62%) and the potential benefits to other children (n = 17, 58%). The lower percentage of understanding was obtained for the procedures (n = 5, 17%), the possibility of alternative treatments (n = 9, 31%), the duration of participation (n = 6, 21%), their right to withdraw (n = 6, 21%), and the voluntary participation (n = 6, 21%). Sixteen children (55%) thought that the given information was adequate. Understanding was significantly correlated with child's age (r = 0.65; P = 0.0001) and the mean score was higher in patients over 14 years old compared to patients under the age of 14 (4.4 +/- 2.4, n = 14 vs. 2.6 +/- 2.6, n = 15, P consent was sought some time after the diagnosis (>7 days) rather than at the same time (consent forms. Understanding is related to age and timing of informed consent. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Status, challenges and facilitators of consumer involvement in Australian health and medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis Afaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergent international practice of involving consumers in health research is driven, in part, by the growing share of health research that can only be applied in and emerge from knowledge that is shaped by human values and societal contexts. This is the first investigation of its kind to identify the current prevalence, challenges, enabling factors and range of approaches to consumer involvement in health and medical research in Australia. Methods A nation-wide survey of research funding organisations and organisations that conduct research was performed during 2008-2009. Results Marked variation in consumer involvement experience and perceptions exists between research funders and researchers. Research funders were over eight times more likely than organisations conducting research to involve consumers in identifying research needs and prioritising research topics. Across both groups, practical and time constraints were reported as key challenges to involving consumers, while guidelines on consumer involvement and evidence of effect were the most important potential enablers. More than a third of research organisations indicated that when consumer involvement was a condition of research funding, it was an important facilitator of involvement. Conclusion It is no longer simply enough to keep society informed of important scientific breakthroughs. If Australian health research is to take into account important social contexts and consequences, it must involve consumers. A set of minimum consumer involvement standards and associated guidelines, that are agreed and routinely adopted, could ensure that consumers and the Australian community they represent, are given an opportunity to shed light on experiences and local circumstance, and express views and concerns relevant to health research.

  16. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  17. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  18. Patient involvement in research programming and implementation: a responsive evaluation of the Dialogue Model for research agenda setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abma, T.A.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; Visse, M.; Elberse, J.E.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Dialogue Model for research agenda-setting, involving multiple stakeholders including patients, was developed and validated in the Netherlands. However, there is little insight into whether and how patient involvement is sustained during the programming and implementation of research

  19. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  20. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  1. Research studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The IUE research studies comprises 118 separate research programs involving observations, data analysis, and research conducted of the IUE satellite and the NASA Astrophysics Data Program. Herein are presented 92 programs. For each program there is a title, program ID, name of the investigator, statement of work, summary of results, and list of publications.

  2. Involving mental health service users in suicide-related research: a qualitative inquiry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, David; Procter, Nicholas; Fassett, Denise; Handley, Christine

    2016-03-01

    To describe the research model developed and successfully deployed as part of a multi-method qualitative study investigating suicidal service-users' experiences of mental health nursing care. Quality mental health care is essential to limiting the occurrence and burden of suicide, however there is a lack of relevant research informing practice in this context. Research utilising first-person accounts of suicidality is of particular importance to expanding the existing evidence base. However, conducting ethical research to support this imperative is challenging. The model discussed here illustrates specific and more generally applicable principles for qualitative research regarding sensitive topics and involving potentially vulnerable service-users. Researching into mental health service users with first-person experience of suicidality requires stakeholder and institutional support, researcher competency, and participant recruitment, consent, confidentiality, support and protection. Research with service users into their experiences of sensitive issues such as suicidality can result in rich and valuable data, and may also provide positive experiences of collaboration and inclusivity. If challenges are not met, objectification and marginalisation of service-users may be reinforced, and limitations in the evidence base and service provision may be perpetuated.

  3. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  4. E-Learning: A Means to Increase Learner Involvement in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Marie; Mason, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a method for increasing the involvement of marketing fourth year learners in academic research, by encouraging greater participation in, and commitment to, their research project in the Applied Marketing IV subject. It is assumed that greater involvement will result in a greater pass rate. The main reasons for this lack of…

  5. Pharmacists' views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carol; Brillant, Martha; Krass, Ines

    2007-01-01

    In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted. Three themes emerged around pharmacists' attitudes towards research: pharmacists' perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists' motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists' desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists' mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff), and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested. Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research projects.

  6. Pharmacists’ views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armour C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. Objectives: To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. Methods: A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted.Results: Three themes emerged around pharmacists’ attitudes towards research: pharmacists’ perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists’ motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists’ desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists’ mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff, and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested.Conclusions: Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research

  7. 75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research for pesticides, based... Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification to... protection of human subjects of research that apply to third parties who conduct or support research for...

  8. Power to the people: To what extent has public involvement in applied health research achieved this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement is required for applied health research funded in the UK. One of the largest funders, the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), makes it clear that it values the knowledge of patients and the public. As a result, there are now many resources to make sure that the public voice is included in decision-making about research. However, there is concern that the public voice still has limited impact on research decision-making. This article asks to what extent has power shifted from the scientific research community to the public? It looks at how much power and impact patients and members of the public have about research by asking: How do the public contribute to deciding which research areas and which research projects should be funded? How do they influence how the research is carried out? The article argues that there is evidence that the public voice is present in research decision-making. However, there is less evidence of a change in the power dynamic between the scientific research community and the public. The public involved in research are not always equal partners. The scientific research community still has the loudest voice and patients and the public do not always feel sufficiently empowered to challenge it. Public involvement in applied health research is a pre-requisite for funding from many funding bodies. In particular the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) in the UK, clearly states that it values lay knowledge and there is an expectation that members of the public will participate as research partners in research. As a result a large public involvement infrastructure has emerged to facilitate this. However, there is concern that despite the flurry of activity in promoting public involvement, lay knowledge is marginalised and has limited impact on research decision-making. This article asks to what extent has power shifted from the scientific research community to the public? It discusses the meaning of power and

  9. Involving users with learning difficulties in health improvement: lessons from inclusive learning disability research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Jan

    2004-03-01

    In this paper the author considers the lessons to be drawn from what is termed "inclusive" learning disability research for user involvement around health improvement. Inclusive learning disability research refers to research where people with learning difficulties (intellectual disability) are involved as active participants, as opposed to passive subjects. There is by now a considerable body of such research, developed over the past 25 years. From the review, the author draws attention to areas which can inform practice in involvement of users in a way that adds value.

  10. Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Farisco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Research involving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs deserves special ethical and legal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concerns about the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respecting their individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, research is an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients with DOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses on informed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from an ethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the light of the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to better assess the issue of informed consent. The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicative patients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies through video-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form has been elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project "Review of the nosography of vegetative states: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma or vegetative state" developed at the Italian National Institute of Health. Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework of the form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevant example of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studies through video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article has been sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU no. 536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001

  11. Involving older people in research: practical considerations when using the authenticity criteria in constructivist inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christine Brown; Clissett, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this paper is to identify practical suggestions that could enable other researchers to consider how quality may be evidenced using constructivist principles including the perspectives of older people and their caregivers. Background Constructivism suggests that reality is part of a social construction, which holds different meanings for each person, in which people are active agents, making autonomous decisions. This approach to research has been identified as suitable for health and social care professionals because these underpinning principles reflect the values of these professions, facilitating the involvement of users and carers. The authenticity criteria have been developed to reflect these philosophical principles but have been criticized for their inaccessible language. To incorporate user and carer perspectives, the criteria have been revised into a more accessible model matrix known as the AldreVast Sjuharad criteria. Discussion This paper reports on two constructivist studies that explored relationships between older people, families and staff in different settings – the community and care homes. Examples from both settings demonstrate how the perspectives of users and carers were incorporated throughout the research process. Following the AldreVast Sjuharad model matrix, practical guidance is provided on how the quality of constructivist research may be implemented in nursing research. Conclusions The different settings in this paper influenced how the AldreVast Sjuharad model matrix was applied. Further work is needed in exploring how the perspective of users and carers may be incorporated into the quality process of constructivist research. PMID:21073505

  12. Public and patient involvement in quantitative health research: A statistical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Ailish

    2018-06-19

    The majority of studies included in recent reviews of impact for public and patient involvement (PPI) in health research had a qualitative design. PPI in solely quantitative designs is underexplored, particularly its impact on statistical analysis. Statisticians in practice have a long history of working in both consultative (indirect) and collaborative (direct) roles in health research, yet their perspective on PPI in quantitative health research has never been explicitly examined. To explore the potential and challenges of PPI from a statistical perspective at distinct stages of quantitative research, that is sampling, measurement and statistical analysis, distinguishing between indirect and direct PPI. Statistical analysis is underpinned by having a representative sample, and a collaborative or direct approach to PPI may help achieve that by supporting access to and increasing participation of under-represented groups in the population. Acknowledging and valuing the role of lay knowledge of the context in statistical analysis and in deciding what variables to measure may support collective learning and advance scientific understanding, as evidenced by the use of participatory modelling in other disciplines. A recurring issue for quantitative researchers, which reflects quantitative sampling methods, is the selection and required number of PPI contributors, and this requires further methodological development. Direct approaches to PPI in quantitative health research may potentially increase its impact, but the facilitation and partnership skills required may require further training for all stakeholders, including statisticians. © 2018 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Correction of refractive errors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jude F; Boisvert, Chantal J; Reuter, Jon D; Reynolds, John H; Leblanc, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    Macaques are the most common animal model for studies in vision research, and due to their high value as research subjects, often continue to participate in studies well into old age. As is true in humans, visual acuity in macaques is susceptible to refractive errors. Here we report a case study in which an aged macaque demonstrated clear impairment in visual acuity according to performance on a demanding behavioral task. Refraction demonstrated bilateral myopia that significantly affected behavioral and visual tasks. Using corrective lenses, we were able to restore visual acuity. After correction of myopia, the macaque's performance on behavioral tasks was comparable to that of a healthy control. We screened 20 other male macaques to assess the incidence of refractive errors and ocular pathologies in a larger population. Hyperopia was the most frequent ametropia but was mild in all cases. A second macaque had mild myopia and astigmatism in one eye. There were no other pathologies observed on ocular examination. We developed a simple behavioral task that visual research laboratories could use to test visual acuity in macaques. The test was reliable and easily learned by the animals in 1 d. This case study stresses the importance of screening macaques involved in visual science for refractive errors and ocular pathologies to ensure the quality of research; we also provide simple methodology for screening visual acuity in these animals.

  14. What Researchers Should Know and be Able to do When Contemplating Involvement in Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, R. W.

    2004-12-01

    At some point in their careers, many researchers are motivated to share what they have learned with a wider audience. As their studies mature, and national awareness for more effective integration of research and education intensifies, researchers are increasingly directing efforts toward informal and pre-college educational sectors. Each initiative comes with good intentions, but many fall short of intended benefit. Quality education and outreach programs develop from the same precepts that shape research programs of high professional standing. A researcher is most likely to make useful contributions when they are willing and able to implement familiar research principles to broader educational endeavors. As with research endeavors, principles of significance, literacy, design, feasibility, analysis and dissemination need to be regarded as essential indicators of education program quality. It is helpful to provide researchers who are contemplating more active educational involvement with more than casual understanding of the purposes underlying their pending contributions. Such understanding is premised on the tenet that education and research are always in the public service and therefore inextricably bound at all levels. Both research and education have, as their ultimate goal, enhanced scientific literacy of the citizenry. By example, it can be shown that the best-supported programs, within government and academia, recognize that the way they translate knowledge and make it available to scientific organizations and the public is critical to their intrinsic societal value and level of support. As education conjures up a host of operational meanings arising from one's own values and experiences, the knowledge researchers bring to pre-college and informal educational settings is often based on personal experience rather than on education research, practice and policy. Researchers may believe that because they spent 13 years in school, an additional 4 years at a

  15. Librarian involvement in a nutrition undergraduate research course: preparing nutrition students for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan C; Penumetcha, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Given the foundational importance of literature searching skills to later stages of research and, ultimately, evidence-based practice, the authors wanted to assess a unique strategy for teaching such skills. This pilot study describes the results of an undergraduate nutrition research course in which a librarian lead several class sessions. The goal of this study was to assess students' perceptions, attitudes and use of research literature and resources before and after a course partially taught by a librarian. Twenty-seven students enrolled in an undergraduate Introduction to Research course at Georgia State University were given pre- and post-test questionnaires at the beginning and end of a course that included three librarian-led class sessions. Most of the results indicate that the repeated involvement of a librarian enriched this particular undergraduate research course. By the end of the course, students were more comfortable in libraries and with using library resources; they used the campus library more frequently; they were more confident in their ability to find high-quality information on nutrition-related topics and identify strengths and weaknesses of different information sources; and they felt they gained skills that will help them achieve their educational and career goals.

  16. Tea, talk and technology: patient and public involvement to improve connected health 'wearables' research in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Lamiece; Swarbrick, Caroline; Sanders, Caroline; Parker, Angela; Machin, Matt; Tully, Mary P; Ainsworth, John

    2017-01-01

    There are a growing number of mobile phones, watches and electronic devices which can be worn on the body to track aspects of health and well-being, such as daily steps, sleep and exercise. Dementia researchers think that these devices could potentially be used as part of future research projects, for example to help spot changes in daily activity that may signal the early symptoms of dementia. We asked a range of older people, including people living with dementia and their carers, to participate in interactive discussions about how future participants might find using these devices as part of research projects. We also invited volunteers to borrow a range of devices to test at home, giving them further insights. Discussions revealed that people were generally supportive of this type of research, provided they gave informed consent and that devices were discreet, comfortable and easy to use. They also valued technical support and regular feedback on study progress to encourage ongoing participation. These findings were used to develop a pool of devices for researchers, with computer software and written guidance to help plan, design and support studies. Our work shows that when given the right opportunities, people who are affected by dementia can provide valuable insights that can enhance the design, delivery and quality of future research. Background Increasingly, researchers are recognising the potential for connected health devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, to generate high resolution data about patterns of daily activity and health outcomes. One aim of the Dementias Platform UK (DPUK) project is to provide researchers with a secure means to collect, collate and link data generated by such devices, thereby accelerating this type of research in the field of dementia. We aimed to involve members of the public in discussions about the acceptability and feasibility of different devices and research designs to inform the development of a device pool

  17. Consumer and community involvement in health and medical research: evaluation by online survey of Australian training workshops for researchers

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Anne; Alpers, Kirsten; Heyworth, Jane; Phuong, Cindy; Hanley, Bec

    2016-01-01

    Plain English Summary In Australia, since 2009, the Consumer and Community Involvement Program (formerly the Consumer and Community Participation Program) has developed and run workshops to help people working in health and medical research involve more consumers (patients) and community members (the public) in their research. In 2012, workshop attendees were invited to do an online survey to find out the effect, if any, that attending a workshop had on their awareness of and attitudes to con...

  18. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... involving intentional exposure of children or of pregnant or nursing women, unless relying on the data is crucial to a decision that would impose a more stringent regulatory restriction that would improve... itself to conduct or support any research involving intentional exposure of pregnant or nursing women or...

  19. Facilitating the Involvement of People with Aphasia in Stroke Research by Developing Communicatively Accessible Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Gill; Cruice, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    People with aphasia can be marginalized by a communicatively inaccessible society. Compounding this problem, routinized exclusion from stroke research leads to bias in the evidence base and subsequent inequalities in service provision. Within the United Kingdom, the Clinical Research Network of the National Institute of Health identified this…

  20. Prognostic significance of the initial cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) involvement of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated without cranial irradiation: results of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Children Leukemia Group study 58881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, Nicolas; Suciu, Stefan; Rialland, Xavier; Millot, Frédéric; Benoit, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Ferster, Alice; Robert, Alain; Lutz, Patrick; Nelken, Brigitte; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Norton, Lucilia; Bertrand, Yves; Otten, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of the initial cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) involvement of children with ALL enrolled from 1989 to 1996 in the EORTC 58881 trial. Patients (2025) were categorised according to initial central nervous system (CNS) status: CNS-1 (CNS negative, n=1866), CNS-2 (treatment were each related to a lower CNS relapse risk. The presence of initial CNS involvement has no prognostic significance in EORTC 58881. Intensification of CNS-directed chemotherapy, without CNS radiation, is an effective treatment of initial meningeal leukaemic involvement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  2. Learning to work together - lessons from a reflective analysis of a research project on public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A; Mathie, E; Munday, D; Cowe, M; Goodman, C; Keenan, J; Kendall, S; Poland, F; Staniszewska, S; Wilson, P

    2017-01-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is very important, and funders and the NHS all expect this to happen. What this means in practice, and how to make it really successful, is therefore an important research question. This article analyses the experience of a research team using PPI, and makes recommendations on strengthening PPI in research. There were different PPI roles in our study - some people were part of the research team: some were on the advisory group; and there were patient groups who gave specific feedback on how to make research work better for their needs. We used minutes, other written documents, and structured individual and group reflections to learn from our own experiences over time. The main findings were:- for researchers and those in a PPI role to work in partnership, project structures must allow flexibility and responsiveness to different people's ideas and needs; a named link person can ensure support; PPI representatives need to feel fully included in the research; make clear what is expected for all roles; and ensure enough time and funding to allow meaningful involvement. Some roles brought more demands but also more rewards than others - highlighting that it is important that people giving up their time to help with research experience gains from doing so. Those contributing to PPI on a regular basis may want to learn new skills, rather than always doing the same things. Researchers and the public need to find ways to develop roles in PPI over time. We also found that, even for a team with expertise in PPI, there was a need both for understanding of different ways to contribute, and an evolving 'normalisation' of new ways of working together over time, which both enriched the process and the outputs. Background Patient and public involvement (PPI) is now an expectation of research funders, in the UK, but there is relatively little published literature on what this means in practice - nor is there much evaluative research

  3. Instigating involvement through consumer-based brand equity : an attitudinal study of consumer-based brand equity and consumer involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bredberg, David; Holmquist, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on links between dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, as well as links to consumer involvement, has shown that it is a significant predictor of purchase behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the affect brands have on consumer involvement. We attempt to investigate how consumer-based brand equity affects the level of consumer involvement. Based on consumer behavior theory and previous research of these areas, gathered primary data (an empirical investig...

  4. The effects of parental involvement on children's education: A study in elementary schools in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yulianti, K.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2018-01-01

    The Indonesian government through the Ministry of Education has begun to emphasize the importance of parental involvement and community participation in children's education. However, there is a lack of research on parental involvement in Indonesia. The aim of the study is to provide insights into

  5. Framing the Undergraduate Research Experience: Discovery Involvement in Retailing Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternquist, Brenda; Huddleston, Patricia; Fairhurst, Ann

    2018-01-01

    We provide an overview of ways to involve undergraduate business and retailing students in faculty research projects and discuss advantages of these student-faculty collaborations. We use Kolb's experiential learning cycle to provide a framework for creating an effective and engaging undergraduate research experience and use it to classify types…

  6. ORGANIC RESEARCH AND STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT: THE IFOAM EU REGIONAL GROUP CONTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalvez, Mr V; Schlueter, Mr M; Slabe, Ms A; Schmid, Mr O

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the concepts, criteria, procedures and some methodologies to increase stakeholders involvement and participatioin in organic research Projects in the European Union, based on the experiencie and practise of the IFOAM EU Regional Group (IFOAM-EURG), in transnational Organic research Projects, enfatising in achivements, dificulties and trends for the future

  7. The power of symbolic capital in patient and public involvement in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Louise; Boylan, Anne-Marie; Snow, Rosamund; Staniszewska, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    Policy-makers and health research funders increasingly require researchers to demonstrate that they have involved patients in the design and conduct of research. However, the extent to which patients and public have the power to get involved on an equal footing is dependent on their economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital. To explore power relations in patient and public involvement (PPI) in research, particularly how patients may wield symbolic capital to develop a more equal relationship. Narrative interviews with a maximum variation sample of 38 people involved as patients, carers or public in health research, analysed thematically. Symbolic capital may be demonstrated in a range of ways (sometimes alongside or in the absence of other forms of capital): illness experience, technical illness knowledge and the challenging outsider. Symbolic capital is unstable and dependent on others for recognition and legitimacy. Nonetheless, participants identify a gradual shift in power relations over time. Research into PPI has been conceptually and theoretically poor, limiting our understanding of its mechanisms and wider contextual elements. Our findings demonstrate the importance of reflecting on the forms of power and capital wielded by the health research community, and of acknowledging the way in which PPI is challenging the status quo. As one of the first papers to conceptualize how different forms of symbolic capital operate and their critical role in challenging the balance of power, our findings may help researchers better plan their PPI activities and reflect on their own power. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  9. Involving People with Lived Experience of Homelessness in Electronic Health Records Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Luchenski

    2017-04-01

    Using a participatory and dynamic approach to involve people with lived experience of homelessness and exclusion is an effective public engagement methodology for complex topics such as EHR research and data linkage. Information provided in the workshop was useful for interpreting findings, identifying strengths and gaps in health and social services, and developing research and practice recommendations.

  10. Undergraduate Research Involving Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in Interdisciplinary Science Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Pagano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific undergraduate research in higher education often yields positive outcomes for student and faculty member participants alike, with underrepresented students often showing even more substantial gains (academic, professional, and personal as a result of the experience. Significant success can be realized when involving deaf and hard-of-hearing (d/hh undergraduate students, who are also vastly underrepresented in the sciences, in interdisciplinary research projects. Even d/hh Associate degree level students and those in the first two years of their postsecondary careers can contribute to, and benefit from, the research process when faculty mentors properly plan/design projects. We discuss strategies, including the dissemination/communication of research results, for involving these students in research groups with different communication dynamics and share both findings of our research program and examples of successful chemical and biological research projects that have involved d/hh undergraduate students. We hope to stimulate a renewed interest in encouraging diversity and involving students with disabilities into higher education research experiences globally and across multiple scientific disciplines, thus strengthening the education and career pipeline of these students.

  11. Community perspectives on research consent involving vulnerable children in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Rachel; Kamaara, Eunice; Kamanda, Allan; Ayuku, David; Nyandiko, Winstone; Atwoli, Lukoye; Ayaya, Samuel; Gisore, Peter; Scanlon, Michael; Braitstein, Paula

    2012-10-01

    Involving vulnerable pediatric populations in international research requires culturally appropriate ethical protections. We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, to understand how a community in western Kenya viewed participation of children in health research and informed consent and assent processes. Results from 108 participants revealed generally positive attitudes towards involving vulnerable children in research, largely because they assumed children would directly benefit. Consent from parents or guardians was understood as necessary for participation while gaining child assent was not. They felt other caregivers, community leaders, and even community assemblies could participate in the consent process. Community members believed research involving orphans and street children could benefit these vulnerable populations, but would require special processes for consent.

  12. Nerve and muscle involvement in mitochondrial disorders: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Michelangelo; Piazza, Selina; Volpi, Leda; Orsucci, Daniele; Calsolaro, Valeria; Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Carlesi, Cecilia; Rocchi, Anna; Petrozzi, Lucia; Calabrese, Rosanna; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in mitochondrial disorders (MD) has been previously reported. However, the exact prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and/or myopathy in MD is still unclear. In order to evaluate the prevalence of neuropathy and myopathy in MD, we performed sensory and motor nerve conduction studies (NCS) and concentric needle electromyography (EMG) in 44 unselected MD patients. NCS were abnormal in 36.4% of cases, and were consistent with a sensori-motor axonal multineuropathy (multifocal neuropathy), mainly affecting the lower limbs. EMG evidence of myopathy was present in 54.5% of patients, again mainly affecting the lower limbs. Nerve and muscle involvement was frequently subclinical. Peripheral nerve and muscle involvement is common in MD patients. Our study supports the variability of the clinical expression of MD. Further studies are needed to better understand the molecular basis underlying the phenotypic variability among MD patients.

  13. Forced migrants involved in setting the agenda and designing research to reduce impacts of complex emergencies: combining Swarm with patient and public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Julii Suzanne; Al Assaf, Enana; Omasete, Judith; Leach, Steve; Hammer, Charlotte C; Hunter, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research. To further focus the research, two representatives of forced migrant communities were invited to join the project team as patient and public (PPI) representatives. They attended regular project meetings, insightfully contributed to and advised on practical aspects of potential research areas. The representatives identified cultural obstacles and community needs and helped choose the final research study design, which was to interview forced migrants about their strategies to build emotional resilience and prevent mental illness. The representatives also helped design recruitment documents, and undertake recruitment and interviewer training. Many events with wide-ranging negative health impacts are notable for complexity: lack of predictability, non-linear feedback mechanisms and unexpected consequences. A multi-disciplinary research team was tasked with reducing the public health impacts from complex events, but without a pre-specified topic area or research design. This report describes using patient and public involvement within an adaptable but structured development process to set research objectives and aspects of implementation. An agile adaptive development approach, sometimes described as swarm , was used to identify possible research areas. Swarm is meant to quickly identify strengths and weaknesses of any candidate project, to accelerate early failure before resources are invested. When aspects of the European migration crisis

  14. Current practice of public involvement activities in biomedical research and innovation: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Strech, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A recent report from the British Nuffield Council on Bioethics associated 'emerging biotechnologies' with a threefold challenge: 1) uncertainty about outcomes, 2) diverse public views on the values and implications attached to biotechnologies and 3) the possibility of creating radical changes regarding societal relations and practices. To address these challenges, leading international institutions stress the need for public involvement activities (PIAs). The objective of this study was to assess the state of PIA reports in the field of biomedical research. PIA reports were identified via a systematic literature search. Thematic text analysis was employed for data extraction. After filtering, 35 public consultation and 11 public participation studies were included in this review. Analysis and synthesis of all 46 PIA studies resulted in 6 distinguishable PIA objectives and 37 corresponding PIA methods. Reports of outcome translation and PIA evaluation were found in 9 and 10 studies respectively (20% and 22%). The paper presents qualitative details. The state of PIAs on biomedical research and innovation is characterized by a broad range of methods and awkward variation in the wording of objectives. Better comparability of PIAs might improve the translation of PIA findings into further policy development. PIA-specific reporting guidelines would help in this regard. The modest level of translation efforts is another pointer to the "deliberation to policy gap". The results of this review could inform the design of new PIAs and future efforts to improve PIA comparability and outcome translation.

  15. Lean Customer Involvement : A Multiple Case Study on the Effects of Kanban on Customer Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Lundheim, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Customer involvement is an important, but challenging part of software development. Delays and failures can often be attributed to a lack of customer involvement. Different development methodologies provide different strategies for customer involvement, all with their own challenges. Kanban is a new development methodology quickly gaining popularity in the software development community. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does Kanban influence customer involvement? The main prob...

  16. Partners in projects: preparing for public involvement in health and social care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jacqueline H; Pyer, Michelle; Wray, Paula; Taylor, Jane

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, several UK and, international funders of health and social care related research have adopted the policy of requiring explicit evidence of the 'public' voice in all aspects of project design. For many academic researchers engaged within research, evaluations or audit projects, this formal requirement to actively engage members of the public will present them with both benefits and challenges to securing knowledgeable, skilled, and confident lay representation onto project teams. This could potentially lead to the exploitation of those individuals who are available, appropriately informed, and adequately prepared for such activities. Currently, much of the preparation of patients or members of the public for research involvement tends to be aligned to specific projects; however, with the call for greater active and meaningful involvement of lay representatives in future national and international funding applications, there is clearly a growing need to 'train' sufficient numbers of confident and competent representatives to meet this growing demand. This paper describes the development of a specifically designed research awareness training programme and underpinning theoretical model, which has been specifically designed to support active and meaningful lay involvement in research, evaluations and audit projects. Developed over a four year period, the course is a culmination of learning extracted from a series of four completed research projects, which have incorporated an element of public and patient involvement (PPI) training in their overall design. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Private Tuition regarding Educational Attainment of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Amer Atta; Shabnam Razzaq Khan; Shehla Sheikh; Fahmida Akbar

    2014-01-01

    This research work was focused on the “comparative study of parental involvement and private tuition regarding educational attainments of students at secondary school level”. A sample of 80 students of 10th class from ten different secondary schools was taken. To analyze the results t-test was used. In this comparison it was conducted that parental involvement turn out significant effect on student educational attainments as compared to private tuition. On the bases of results researcher has ...

  18. Involving citizens in priority setting for public health research: Implementation in infection research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Timothy M; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Charani, Esmita; Husson, Fran; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Ahmad, Raheelah

    2018-02-01

    Public sources fund the majority of UK infection research, but citizens currently have no formal role in resource allocation. To explore the feasibility and willingness of citizens to engage in strategic decision making, we developed and tested a practical tool to capture public priorities for research. A scenario including six infection themes for funding was developed to assess citizen priorities for research funding. This was tested over two days at a university public festival. Votes were cast anonymously along with rationale for selection. The scenario was then implemented during a three-hour focus group exploring views on engagement in strategic decisions and in-depth evaluation of the tool. 188/491(38%) prioritized funding research into drug-resistant infections followed by emerging infections(18%). Results were similar between both days. Focus groups contained a total of 20 citizens with an equal gender split, range of ethnicities and ages ranging from 18 to >70 years. The tool was perceived as clear with participants able to make informed comparisons. Rationale for funding choices provided by voters and focus group participants are grouped into three major themes: (i) Information processing; (ii) Knowledge of the problem; (iii) Responsibility; and a unique theme within the focus groups (iv) The potential role of citizens in decision making. Divergent perceptions of relevance and confidence of "non-experts" as decision makers were expressed. Voting scenarios can be used to collect, en-masse, citizens' choices and rationale for research priorities. Ensuring adequate levels of citizen information and confidence is important to allow deployment in other formats. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Undergraduate Student Involvement in International Research - The IRES Program at MAX-lab, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, William; O'Rielly, Grant; Fissum, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Undergraduate students associated with The George Washington University and UMass Dartmouth have had the opportunity to participate in nuclear physics research as a part of the PIONS@MAXLAB Collaboration performing experiments at MAX-lab at Lund University in Sweden. This project has supported thirteen undergraduate students during 2009 - 2011. The student researchers are involved with all aspects of the experiments performed at the laboratory, from set-up to analysis and presentation at national conferences. These experiments investigate the dynamics responsible for the internal structure of the nucleon through the study of pion photoproduction off the nucleon and high-energy Compton scattering. Along with the US and Swedish project leaders, members of the collaboration (from four different countries) have contributed to the training and mentoring of these students. This program provides students with international research experiences that prepare them to operate successfully in a global environment and encourages them to stay in areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) that are crucial for our modern, technology-dependent society. We will present the history, goals and outcomes in both physics results and student success that have come from this program. This work supported by NSF OISE/IRES award 0553467.

  20. Medical staff involvement in nursing homes: development of a conceptual model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Renée; Rosenthal, Marsha; Wetle, Terrie; Tyler, Denise; Clark, Melissa; Intrator, Orna

    2014-02-01

    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure-process-outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

  1. Applied Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Ronald J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the feasibility of reusing major components of a software system that had been used to control the operations of a spacecraft launched in the 1980s. The study was done in the context of a ground data processing system that was to be rehosted from a large mainframe to an inexpensive workstation. The study concluded that a systematic approach using inexpensive tools could aid in the reengineering process by identifying a set of certified reusable components. The study also developed procedures for determining duplicate versions of software, which were created because of inadequate naming conventions. Such procedures reduced reengineering costs by approximately 19.4 percent.

  2. Do Public Involvement Activities in Biomedical Research and Innovation Recruit Representatively? A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Bossert, Sabine; Strech, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement activities (PIAs) may contribute to the governance of ethically challenging biomedical research and innovation by informing, consulting with and engaging the public in developments and decision-making processes. For PIAs to capture a population's preferences (e.g. on issues in whole genome sequencing, biobanks or genome editing), a central methodological requirement is to involve a sufficiently representative subgroup of the general public. While the existing literature focusses on theoretical and normative aspects of 'representation', this study assesses empirically how such considerations are implemented in practice. It evaluates how PIA reports describe representation objectives, the recruitment process and levels of representation achieved. PIA reports were included from a systematic literature search if they directly reported a PIA conducted in a relevant discipline such as genomics, biobanks, biotechnology or others. PIA reports were analyzed with thematic text analysis. The text analysis was guided by an assessment matrix based on PIA-specific guidelines and frameworks. We included 46 relevant reports, most focusing on issues in genomics. 27 reports (59%) explicitly described representation objectives, though mostly without adjusting eligibility criteria and recruiting methods to the specific objective. 11 reports (24%) explicitly reported to have achieved the intended representation; the rest either reported failure or were silent on this issue. Representation of study samples in PIAs in biomedical research and innovation is currently not reported systematically. Improved reporting on representation would not only improve the validity and value of PIAs, but could also contribute to PIA results being used more often in relevant policy and decision-making processes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The current structure of key actors involved in research on land and soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escadafal, Richard; Barbero, Celia; Exbrayat, Williams; Marques, Maria Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; El Haddadi, Anass; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    Land and soil conservation topics, the final mandate of the United Convention to Combat desertification in drylands, have been diagnosed as still suffering from a lack of guidance. On the contrary, climate change and biodiversity issues -the other two big subjects of the Rio Conventions- seem to progress and may benefit from the advice of international panels. Arguably the weakness of policy measures and hence the application of scientific knowledge by land users and stakeholders could be the expression of an inadequate research organization and a lack of ability to channel their findings. In order to better understand the size, breadth and depth of the scientific communities involved in providing advice to this convention and to other bodies, this study explores the corpus of international publications dealing with land and/or with soils. A database of several thousands records including a significant part of the literature published so far was performed using the Web of Science and other socio-economic databases such as FRANCIS and CAIRN. We extracted hidden information using bibliometric methods and data mining applied to these scientific publications to map the key actors (laboratories, teams, institutions) involved in research on land and on soils. Several filters were applied to the databases in combination with the word "desertification". The further use of Tetralogie software merges databases, analyses similarities and differences between keywords, disciplines, authors and regions and identifies obvious clusters. Assessing their commonalities and differences, the visualisation of links and gaps between scientists, organisations, policymakers and other stakeholders is possible. The interpretation of the 'clouds' of disciplines, keywords, and techniques will enhance the understanding of interconnections between them; ultimately this will allow diagnosing some of their strengths and weaknesses. This may help explain why land and soil degradation remains a

  4. Involvement of External Stakeholders in Local Health Policymaking Process: A Case Study from Odense Municipality, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Leena Eklund; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Winblad, Malin; Aro, Arja R.

    2017-01-01

    Collaboration between research and policy is an essential element for knowledge-based public health. However, only half of the Danish municipalities have experience with collaborating with researchers or other stakeholders. Through content analysis of interviews and policy documents the study explores the involvement of external stakeholders in…

  5. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  6. Newspapers in Science Education: A Study Involving Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-San; Wang, Yun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning performance of sixth grade elementary school students using newspapers in science teaching. A quasi-experimental design with a single group was used in this study. Thirty-three sixth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The research instruments consisted of three…

  7. The Investigation of Research-Based Home Parental Involvement Practices, Parental Style, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Myron Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of home parental involvement practices, parental style and student achievement. Dimensions of parental involvement practices are parental instruction, parental reinforcement, parental modeling, and parental encouragement. Dimensions of parental style are authoritarian, permissive, and…

  8. Ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical

  9. Patient and public involvement in primary care research - an example of ensuring its sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Clare; Carter, Pam; Rhodes, Carol; Taylor, Robert; Beech, Roger; Dziedzic, Krysia; Blackburn, Steven; Hughes, Rhian; Ong, Bie Nio

    2016-01-01

    The international literature on patient and public involvement (PPI) in research covers a wide range of issues, including active lay involvement throughout the research cycle; roles that patients/public can play; assessing impact of PPI and recommendations for good PPI practice. One area of investigation that is less developed is the sustainability and impact of PPI beyond involvement in time-limited research projects. This paper focuses on the issues of sustainability, the importance of institutional leadership and the creation of a robust infrastructure in order to achieve long-term and wide-ranging PPI in research strategy and programmes. We use the case of a Primary Care Research Centre to provide a historical account of the evolution of PPI in the Centre and identified a number of key conceptual issues regarding infrastructure, resource allocation, working methods, roles and relationships. The paper concludes about the more general applicability of the Centre's model for the long-term sustainability of PPI in research.

  10. Involving burn survivors in agenda setting on burn research: an added value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, J.E.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Van Rensen, A.J.M.L.; De Haan, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim: The role of burn survivors in burn research is usually restricted to being objects of study and beneficiaries of research results, while decision-making on research is traditionally the domain of a small group of experts, mainly scientists. In this article we compare the research

  11. Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Melissa C; Carpenter, Calvin B; Colby, Lesley A

    2017-06-01

    Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take appropriate steps to mitigate the risks of working with these biologic hazards. This article will review responsibilities for institutional oversight of occupational health and safety for research involving biologic hazards.

  12. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelMalik Philip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals, including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  13. Research involving subjects with Alzheimer's disease in Italy: the possible role of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteri, Corinna; Petrini, Carlo

    2015-03-04

    Alzheimer's disease is a very common, progressive and still incurable disease. Future possibilities for its cure lie in the promotion of research that will increase our knowledge of the disorder's causes and lead to the discovery of effective remedies. Such research will necessarily involve individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This raises the controversial issue of whether patients with Alzheimer's disease are competent to give their consent for research participation. We discuss the case of subjects with Alzheimer's disease who may have impaired decision-making capacity and who could be involved in research protocols, taking into consideration aspects of the Italian normative framework, which requires a court-appointed legal representative for patients who are not able to give consent and does not recognise the legal value of advance directives. We show that this normative framework risks preventing individuals with Alzheimer's disease from taking part in research and that a new policy that favours research while promoting respect for patients' well-being and rights needs to be implemented. We believe that concerns about the difficulty of obtaining fully valid consent of patients with Alzheimer's disease should not prevent them from participating in clinical trials and benefiting from scientific progress. Therefore, we argue that the requirement for patients to have a legal representative may not be the best solution in all countries and clinical situations, and suggest promoting the role of patients' family members in the decision-making process. In addition, we outline the possible role of advance directives and ethics committees.

  14. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Curtis, Andrew J; Abdelmalik, Philip

    2009-07-20

    This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic) of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association) workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals), including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  15. Relational Research and Organisation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Lone Hersted

    , analyzing organizational dialoguing, and polyphonic future-forming ways of writing up research.  Relational Research and Organisation Studies does not only present and discuss guidelines for practice at a onto-epistemological level but also presents and discusses concrete cases of research projects building...... on relational constructionist ideas. Furthermore, excerpts of data are presented and analyzed in order to explain the co-constructed processes of the inquiries more in detail. Relational Research and Organisation Studies invites the reader into the process of planning and carrying out relational constructionist......This volume lays out a variety of ways of engaging in research projects focused on exploring the everyday relational practices of organizing and leading is presented. The main focus is through elaborate examples from the author’s own research to further the understanding of how it is possible...

  16. Involving Communities in Deciding What Benefits They Receive in Multinational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David; Shah, Seema

    2015-10-01

    There is wide agreement that communities in lower-income countries should benefit when they participate in multinational research. Debate now focuses on how and to what extent these communities should benefit. This debate has identified compelling reasons to reject the claim that whatever benefits a community agrees to accept are necessarily fair. Yet, those who conduct clinical research may conclude from this rejection that there is no reason to involve communities in the process of deciding how they benefit. Against this possibility, the present manuscript argues that involving host communities in this process helps to promote four important goals: (1) protecting host communities, (2) respecting host communities, (3) promoting transparency, and (4) enhancing social value. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Inc. 2015.

  17. Involving healthcare professionals and family carers in setting research priorities for end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffin, Janet; Spence, Michael; Spencer, Rebecca; Mellor, Peter; Grande, Gunn

    2017-02-02

    It is important to ensure regional variances are considered when setting future end-of-life research priorities, given the differing demographics and service provision. This project sought to identify end-of-life research priorities within Greater Manchester (United Kingdom). Following an initial scoping exercise, six topics within the 10 national priorities outlined by The Palliative and end-of-life care Priority Setting Partnership were selected for exploration. A workshop involving 32 healthcare professionals and a consultation process with 26 family carers was conducted. Healthcare professionals and carers selected and discussed the topics important to them. The topics selected most frequently by both healthcare professionals and carers were 'Access to 24 hour care', 'Planning end-of-life care in advance' and 'Staff and carer education'. Healthcare professionals also developed research questions for their topics of choice which were refined to incorporate carers' views. These questions are an important starting point for future end-of-life research within Greater Manchester.

  18. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  19. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  20. Factors Associated with Involvement in Bullying: A Study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Romera

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available School bullying is one of the main problems affecting the quality of peer relationships in schools and in general the coexistence. At European level, there are scientific findings that indicate its nature, characteristics and factors related to its involvement. However, in poor and developing countries, where the problem is more serious, there is a high degree of awareness on this matter. The present study aimed to identify what factors may be influencing the occurrence of bullying in a representative sample of primary schools in the Nicaraguan capital. For this propose, 3042 students from Managua and its metropolitan area were explored with instruments comparable to those used in Europe. A multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that being a boy, to show antisocial behaviors and attitudes and contact with drugs were the three factors most related with the role of aggressor, as well as negative relationships had a significant influence on involvement in this phenomenon, either as a victim, aggressor or victimized aggressor. Results are discussed in relation to the profiles of aggressor and victim of bullying in international studies focusing on differences in developed countries.

  1. Student Voice in High School: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    This action research study examined the effects of student voice in one high school and the self-reflection of the researcher-administrator involved in the effort. Using three cycles of action research, the researcher-administrator completed a pilot study, implemented a student voice project in one class, and developed a professional development…

  2. A study of muscle involvement in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K; Mani, Vinita E; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susrala K

    2015-01-15

    Patients with scrub typhus often complain of myalgia, but a comprehensive study on muscle dysfunction is lacking. We therefore report the clinical, electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings in patients with scrub typhus. Consecutive patients with scrub typhus were included, and their clinical and laboratory findings were noted. The patients with myalgia or weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) were considered to have muscle involvement. Electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy were done in some patients. Patients were treated with doxycycline 200mg daily for 7 days, and their clinical and biochemical outcome on discharge and one month were evaluated. 13 out of 33 (39.4%) patients had muscle involvement and their CK levels ranged between 287 and 3166 (859 ± 829) U/L. EMG revealed short duration polyphasic potentials, and muscle histopathology revealed evidence of vasculitis. There were significant correlations between severity of weakness and CK levels (r = -0.6; p scrub typhus. Although muscle histopathology showed evidence of vasculitis, patients responded to doxycycline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Promoting the inclusion of Afghan women and men in research: reflections from research and community partners involved in implementing a 'proof of concept' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Elisha; Yelland, Jane; Szwarc, Josef; Casey, Sue; Chesters, Donna; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Wahidi, Sayed; Fouladi, Fatema; Brown, Stephanie

    2015-01-31

    With mounting evidence that poor maternal and child health outcomes are related to the social determinants of health, researchers need to engage with vulnerable and isolated communities to gather the evidence that is essential to determine appropriate solutions. Conventional research methods may not ensure the degree and quality of participation that is necessary for meaningful study findings. Participatory methods provide reciprocal opportunities for often excluded communities to both take part in, and guide the conduct of research. The Having a baby in a new country research project was undertaken to provide evidence about how women and men of refugee background experience health services at the time of having a baby. This two year, multifaceted proof of concept study comprised: 1) an organisational partnership to oversee the project; 2) a community engagement framework including: female and male Afghan community researchers, community and sector stakeholder advisory groups and community consultation and engagement. Inclusive research strategies that address power imbalances in research, and diversity of and within communities, are necessary to obtain the evidence required to address health inequalities in vulnerable populations. Such an approach involves mindfully adapting research processes to ensure that studies have regard for the advice of community members about the issues that affect them. Researchers have much to gain by committing time and resources to engaging communities in reciprocal ways in research processes.

  4. Canadian governance of health research involving human subjects: is anybody minding the store?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M

    2001-01-01

    From an ethical perspective, good governance involves the translation of collective moral intentions into effective and accountable institutional actions. With respect to the use of human subjects in Canadian health research, I contend that there have been many good intentions but very little in the way of appropriate governance arrangements. Hence, the question, "who minds the store?" is especially acute with respect to the protection of vulnerable individuals and groups that are typically recruited as subjects for health research in Canada. Beyond diagnosing failures in governance and their causes, I offer suggestions for significant reforms, including evidence-based ethics assessment, independent oversight, and greater participation of research subjects in governance. I will close with some more general reflections on ethics, law, and governance.

  5. Chelation studies involving decontamination of light lanthanides by polyaminopolycarboxylic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis constitutes chelation studies involving decontamination of light lanthanides, cobalt , and uranium with 2,2-bis-acryloyliminomethylene- acid (BAETA) using the spectrophotometric method. the work carried out aimed to clear up the effectiveness of BAETA as a decontaminating agent for radioactive nuclides from human body . the thesis includes a general introduction , outlines the aim of work and contains three main chapters . the results of the work are discussed at the end of the thesis. the first chapter deals with a comprehensive survey of the relevant literature. this includes the metabolism and toxicity of cerium, uranium, cobalt and Ln +3 elements, general methodologies of internal decontamination, choice and effectiveness of chelating agents

  6. A comparative study of contemporary user involvement within healthcare systems across England, Poland and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichon, Mateusz; Kavcic, Matic; Masterson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how healthcare-users' engagement is perceived, how it occurs and how these perceptions differ between three European countries: England, Poland and Slovenia, using the concepts of voice, choice and coproduction. This comparative, qualitative study is based on a review of legal documents, academic literature and semi-structured interviews conducted in October and November 2011. A research sample consisted of 21 interviewees representing various stakeholders including healthcare-users, doctors and managers. Primary and secondary data were analysed using theoretical thematic analysis. Emerging themes were identified from the interviews and related to the indicators describing healthcare-users' involvement in the voice, choice and coproduction model. Results of the comparative qualitative research suggest that the healthcare-users' influence is strongly grounded in England where the healthcare system and professionals are prepared to include healthcare-users in the decision-making process. In Slovenia, cultural development of healthcare-users' involvement seems to proceed the institutional development. In Poland, institutions are ready to involve healthcare-users in decision-making process although the cultural desirability of involving users among doctors and patients is lacking. The notion of user involvement is increasingly gaining importance and research attention, yet there is still little known about the way cultural, political, historical differences between various European countries influence it. This paper explores this little known area using the original approach of user involvement (Dent et al., 2011) with input from various stakeholders including patients, healthcare representatives and academics.

  7. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted. PMID:28207882

  8. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted.

  9. Involvement and emancipation of the worker. Action research in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    The present action research article is linked to an ergonomics project in a university hospital. The author's proposal is to focus action on the effective worker involvement required for the creation of spaces/mechanisms within organizations where people can enhance cooperation and deliberation on matters relating to work. For this purpose, a committee was introduced to assist in finding problems and solutions directly in work situations, so that workers could experience relative autonomy allowing them to develop procedures and choose tools appropriate to their own real needs. Based on this organizational implementation and on subsequent interviews, the practical results are analyzed and related to employee involvement. One can conclude that workers in all areas of the organization can be active elements for improving working conditions and productivity in companies.

  10. Parental E-nvolvement: A Phenomenological Research on Electronic Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat; Konca, Ahmet Sami; Özer, Niyazi; Acar, Feride

    2016-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored parental e-nvolvement (or electronic parental involvement), defined as "parental efforts to plan, engage in, support, monitor and/or assess the learning experiences of their children either at home or at school predominantly using technological devices and media." Data were gathered from 23…

  11. Working Memory Involvement in Stuttering: Exploring the Evidence and Research Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Several studies of utterance planning and attention processes in stuttering have raised the prospect of working memory involvement in the disorder. In this paper, potential connections between stuttering and two elements of Baddeley's [Baddeley, A. D. (2003). "Working memory: Looking back and looking forward." "Neuroscience," 4, 829-839] working…

  12. INVOLVING STUDENTS IN RESEARCH AS A FORM OF INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERING WITH MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor M. Fedoseyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: questions of integration of mathematical with engineering training in educational process of higher education institution are explored. The existing technologies of the integrated training are analyzed, and the project-oriented direction is distinguished. Research involving students as an organisational and methodical form of training bachelors of the technical speciali sations is discussed. Materials and Methods: results of article are based on researches of tendencies of development of technical and mathematical education, works on the theory and methodology of pedagogical integration, methodology of mathematics and technical science. Methods of historical and pedagogical research, analytical, a method of mathematical modeling were used. Results: the main content of the paper is to make discussion of experience in developing and using integrated educational tasks in real educational process. Discussion is based on a specific technological assignment including a number of mathematical tasks used as a subject of research for students. In the assignment a special place is allocated to the questions reflecting the interplay of a technical task with a mathematical method of research highlighting the objective significance of mathematics as a method to solve engineering problems. Discussion and Conclusions: the paper gives reasons to conditions for using research work with students as an organisational and methodical form of integrated training in mathematics. In realisation of educational technology it is logical to apply the method of projects. It is necessary to formulate a task as an engineering project: to set an engineering objective of research, to formulate specifications; to differentiate between engineering and mathematical tasks of the project, to make actual interrelations between them; the mathematical part of the project has to be a body of research; assessment of the project must be carried out not only accounting for

  13. Ethics challenges and guidance related to research involving adolescent post-abortion care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph M; Ali, Joseph; Hallez, Kristina; Kass, Nancy; Michelo, Charles; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-05-02

    An increase in post abortion care (PAC) research with adolescents, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, has brought to attention several associated research ethics challenges. In order to better understand the ethics context of PAC research with adolescents, we conducted a scoping review of published literature. Following a systematic search of PubMed, HINARI, and Google Scholar, we analysed articles meeting inclusion criteria to determine common themes across both the ethical challenges related to PAC research with adolescents and any available guidance on the identified challenges. The literature search identified an initial 3321 records of which 14 were included in analysis following screening. Several ethical challenges stem from abortion being a controversial, sensitive, and stigmatized topic in many settings. Ethical dilemmas experienced by researchers conducting adolescent PAC research included: difficulties in convincing local health providers to permit PAC research; challenges in recruiting and seeking consent due to sensitivity of the subject; effectively protecting confidentiality; managing negative effects of interventions; creating a non-prejudicial atmosphere for research; managing emotional issues among adolescents; and dealing with uncertainty regarding the role of researchers when observing unethical health care practices. Suggested strategies for addressing some of these challenges include: using several sources to recruit study participants, using research to facilitate dialogue on abortion, briefing health workers on any observed unethical practices after data collection, fostering a comprehensive understanding of contextual norms and values, selecting staff with experience working with study populations, and avoiding collection of personal identifiers. Addressing ethical challenges that researchers face when conducting PAC research with adolescents requires guidance at the individual, institutional, community, and international

  14. International Study of Chaplains' Attitudes About Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Fitchett, George; Grossoehme, Daniel H; Handzo, George; Kelly, Ewan; King, Stephen D W; Telfer, Iain; Tan, Heather; Flannelly, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    An online survey was conducted by twelve professional chaplain organizations to assess chaplains' attitudes about and involvement in research. A total of 2,092 chaplains from 23 countries responded to the survey. Over 80% thought research was definitely important and nearly 70% thought chaplains should definitely be research literate. Just over 40% said they regularly read research articles and almost 60% said they occasionally did. The respondents rated their own research literacy as 6.5 on a 0-10 scale. Significant positive inter-correlations were found among all four measures: importance of (a) research and (b) research literacy; (c) frequency of reading articles; and (d) research literacy rating. Approximately 35% were never involved, 37% had been involved, 17% were currently involved, and 11% expected to be involved in research. The last three groups were significantly more likely to think research and research literacy were important and to read research articles than chaplains who were never involved in research. Given chaplains' interest in research, actions should be undertaken to facilitate further research engagement.

  15. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  16. Priorities for methodological research on patient and public involvement in clinical trials: A modified Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget; Bagley, Heather; Gamble, Carrol; Denegri, Simon; Muir, Delia; Simon, Natalie A; Thomas, Stephen; Elliot, Jim T; Bulbeck, Helen; Crocker, Joanna C; Planner, Claire; Vale, Claire; Clarke, Mike; Sprosen, Tim; Woolfall, Kerry

    2017-12-01

    Despite increasing international interest, there is a lack of evidence about the most efficient, effective and acceptable ways to implement patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials. To identify the priorities of UK PPI stakeholders for methodological research to help resolve uncertainties about PPI in clinical trials. A modified Delphi process including a two round online survey and a stakeholder consensus meeting. In total, 237 people registered of whom 219 (92%) completed the first round. One hundred and eighty-seven of 219 (85%) completed the second; 25 stakeholders attended the consensus meeting. Round 1 of the survey comprised 36 topics; 42 topics were considered in round 2 and at the consensus meeting. Approximately 96% of meeting participants rated the top three topics as equally important. These were as follows: developing strong and productive working relationships between researchers and PPI contributors; exploring PPI practices in selecting trial outcomes of importance to patients; and a systematic review of PPI activity to improve the accessibility and usefulness of trial information (eg participant information sheets) for participants. The prioritized methodological research topics indicate important areas of uncertainty about PPI in trials. Addressing these uncertainties will be critical to enhancing PPI. Our findings should be used in the planning and funding of PPI in clinical trials to help focus research efforts and minimize waste. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Management of Parental Involvement in Multicultural Schools in South Africa: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiapama Michael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the management of parental involvement in three multicultural schools in the Umlazi District in Durban, South Africa. A literature survey resulting in a theoretical framework on parental involvement in schools, multicultural schools, and the managing of parental involvement in schools has been done. The contextual background of schools in contemporary South Africa is depicted. A qualitative research design has been used. Focus group discussions have been conducted, with a total of thirty-three principals, teachers and parents. It has found that there is a low level of meaningful contact between school and parents. Apathy exists on the side of parents, low expectations on the side of principals and teachers, and an organisational structure facilitating parent-school interaction is lacking. In managing parental involvement in multicultural schools, school managers display a lack of intercultural sensitivity.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study of Mechanisms Involved in Boiling Histotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahk, Ki Joo; Gélat, Pierre; Sinden, David; Dhar, Dipok Kumar; Saffari, Nader

    2017-12-01

    The aim of boiling histotripsy is to mechanically fractionate tissue as an alternative to thermal ablation for therapeutic applications. In general, the shape of a lesion produced by boiling histotripsy is tadpole like, consisting of a head and a tail. Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of boiling histotripsy for fractionating solid tumors, the exact mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are not yet well understood, particularly the interaction of a boiling vapor bubble with incoming incident shockwaves. To investigate the mechanisms involved in boiling histotripsy, a high-speed camera with a passive cavitation detection system was used to observe the dynamics of bubbles produced in optically transparent tissue-mimicking gel phantoms exposed to the field of a 2.0-MHz high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer. We observed that boiling bubbles were generated in a localized heated region and cavitation clouds were subsequently induced ahead of the expanding bubble. This process was repeated with HIFU pulses and eventually resulted in a tadpole-shaped lesion. A simplified numerical model describing the scattering of the incident ultrasound wave by a vapor bubble was developed to help interpret the experimental observations. Together with the numerical results, these observations suggest that the overall size of a lesion induced by boiling histotripsy is dependent on the sizes of (i) the heated region at the HIFU focus and (ii) the backscattered acoustic field by the original vapor bubble. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Kenneth M; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-08

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N(2) to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  20. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  1. Fathers' Perceived Reasons for Their Underrepresentation in Child Health Research and Strategies to Increase Their Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Charles, Jo N; Khandpur, Neha; Nelson, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Examine fathers' perceived reasons for their lack of inclusion in pediatric research and strategies to increase their participation. Description We conducted expert interviews with researchers and practitioners (N = 13) working with fathers to inform the development of an online survey. The survey-which measured fathers' perceived reasons for their underrepresentation in pediatric research, recommended recruitment venues, and research personnel and study characteristics valued by fathers-was distributed online and in-person to fathers. Assessment Respondents included 303 fathers. Over 80 % of respondents reported that fathers are underrepresented in pediatric research because they have not been asked to participate. Frequently recommended recruitment venues included community sports events (52 %), social service programs (48 %) and the internet (60 %). Compared with white fathers, more non-white fathers recommended public transit (19 % vs. 10 %, p = .02), playgrounds (16 % vs. 6 %, p = .007) and barber shops (34 % vs. 14 %, p research may increase if researchers explicitly invite father to participate, target father-focused recruitment venues, clearly communicate the benefits of the research for fathers and their families and adopt streamlined study procedures.

  2. Prospective studies of HTR fuel cycles involving plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Greneche, D.; Carre, F.; Damian, F.; Doriath, J.Y.

    2002-01-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled reactors (HTRs) are able to accommodate a wide variety of mixtures of fissile and fertile materials without any significant modification of the core design. This flexibility is due to an uncoupling between the parameters of cooling geometry, and the parameters which characterize neutronic optimisation (moderation ratio or heavy nuclide concentration and distribution). Among other advantageous features, an HTR core has a better neutron economy than a LWR because there is much less parasitic capture in the moderator (capture cross section of graphite is 100 times less than the one of water) and in internal structures. Moreover, thanks to the high resistance of the coated particles, HTR fuels are able to reach very high burn-ups, far beyond the possibilities offered by other fuels (except the special case of molten salt reactors). These features make HTRs especially interesting for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and stabilizing the plutonium inventory. A large number of fuel cycle studies are already available today, on 3 main categories of fuel cycles involving HTRs : i) High enriched uranium cycle, based on thorium utilization as a fertile material and HEU as a fissile material; ii) Low enriched uranium cycle, where only LEU is used (from 5% to 12%); iii) Plutonium cycle based on the utilization of plutonium only as a fissile material, with (or without) fertile materials. Plutonium consumption at high burnups in HTRs has already been tested with encouraging results under the DRAGON project and at Peach Bottom. To maximize plutonium consumption, recent core studies have also been performed on plutonium HTR cores, with special emphasis on weapon-grade plutonium consumption. In the following, we complete the picture by a core study for a HTR burning reactor-grade plutonium. Limits in burnup due to core neutronics are investigated for this type of fuel. With these limits in mind, we study in some detail the Pu cycle in the special case of a

  3. Reliability studies in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Tob Rodrigues de

    2013-01-01

    Fault trees and event trees are widely used in industry to model and to evaluate the reliability of safety systems. Detailed analyzes in nuclear installations require the combination of these two techniques. This study uses the methods of FT (Fault Tree) and ET (Event Tree) to accomplish the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) in research reactors. According to IAEA (lnternational Atomic Energy Agency), the PSA is divided into Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. At the Level 1, conceptually, the security systems perform to prevent the occurrence of accidents, At the Level 2, once accidents happened, this Level seeks to minimize consequences, known as stage management of accident, and at Level 3 accident impacts are determined. This study focuses on analyzing the Level 1, and searching through the acquisition of knowledge, the consolidation of methodologies for future reliability studies. The Greek Research Reactor, GRR-1, is a case example. The LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) was chosen as the initiating event and from it, using ET, possible accidental sequences were developed, which could lead damage to the core. Moreover, for each of affected systems, probabilities of each event top of FT were developed and evaluated in possible accidental sequences. Also, the estimates of importance measures for basic events are presented in this work. The studies of this research were conducted using a commercial computational tool SAPHIRE. Additionally, achieved results thus were considered satisfactory for the performance or the failure of analyzed systems. (author)

  4. Strategies to enhance participant recruitment and retention in research involving a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment and retention strategies were 1) based on a philosophy of mutually beneficial engagement in the research process, 2) culturally appropriate, 3) tailored to the unique needs of partnering agencies, and 4) developed and refined in a cyclical and iterative process. Sponsoring organizations are interested in cost-effective recruitment and retention strategies, particularly relating to culturally and ethnically diverse groups. These approaches may result in enhanced subject recruitment and retention, concomitant containment of study costs, and timely accomplishment of study aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies to enhance patient recruitment and retention in research involving patients with a first episode of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Ivana; Cheung, Amy H; Dewa, Carolyn S; Zipursky, Robert B

    2008-11-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is often the most labor-intensive and difficult component of clinical trials. Poor recruitment and retention frequently pose as a major barrier in the successful completion of clinical trials. In fact, many studies are prematurely terminated, or their findings questioned due to low recruitment and retention rates. The conduct of clinical trials involving youth with a first episode of mental illness comes with additional challenges in recruitment and retention including barriers associated with engagement and family involvement. To develop effective early interventions for first episode mental illness, it is necessary to develop strategies to enhance recruitment and retention in this patient population. This article presents the recruitment and retention challenges experienced in two clinical trials: one involving participants experiencing a first episode of depression and one involving participants experiencing a first episode psychosis. Challenges with recruitment and retention are identified and reviewed at both the patient level and clinician level. Strategies that were implemented to enhance recruitment and retention in these two studies are also discussed. Finally, ethical issues to consider when implementing these strategies are also highlighted.

  6. Online social networks for patient involvement and recruitment in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gemma Sinead

    2013-01-01

    To review current literature and discuss the potential of online social networking to engage patients and the public and recruit and retain participants in clinical research. Online social networking is becoming a large influence on people's daily lives. Clinical research faces several challenges, with an increasing need to engage with patients and the public and for studies to recruit and retain increasing numbers of participants, particularly in under-served, under-represented and hard to reach groups and communities. Searches were conducted using EMBASE, BNI, ERIC, CINAHL, PSYCHinfo online databases and Google Scholar to identify any grey or unpublished literature that may be available. Review methods This is a methodology paper. Online social networking is a successful, cost-effective and efficient method by which to target and recruit a wide range of communities, adolescents, young people and underserved populations into quantitative and qualitative research. Retention of participants in longitudinal studies could be improved using social networks such as Facebook. Evidence indicates that a mixed approach to recruitment using social networking and traditional methods is most effective. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence available, especially in dissemination of research through online social networks. Researchers should consider using online social networking as a method of engaging the public, and also for the recruitment and follow up of participants.

  7. Research priority setting for health policy and health systems strengthening in Nigeria: the policymakers and stakeholders perspective and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Oyibo, Patrick Gold; Onwe, Friday; Aulakh, Bhupinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the low and middle income countries (LMICs) facing severe resource constraint, making it impossible for adequate resources to be allocated to the health sector. Priority setting becomes imperative because it guides investments in health care, health research and respects resource constraints. The objective of this study was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of policymakers on research priority setting and to conduct a research priority setting exercise. A one-day evidence-to-policy research priority setting meeting was held. The meeting participants included senior and middle level policymakers and key decision makers/stakeholders in the health sector in Ebonyi State southeastern Nigeria. The priorities setting meeting involved a training session on priority setting process and conduction of priority setting exercise using the essential national health research (ENHR) approach. The focus was on the health systems building blocks (health workforce; health finance; leadership/governance; medical products/technology; service delivery; and health information/evidence). Of the total of 92 policymakers invited 90(97.8%) attended the meeting. It was the consensus of the policymakers that research should focus on the challenges of optimal access to health products and technology; effective health service delivery and disease control under a national emergency situation; the shortfalls in the supply of professional personnel; and the issues of governance in the health sector management. Research priority setting exercise involving policymakers is an example of demand driven strategy in the health policymaking process capable of reversing inequities and strengthening the health systems in LMICs.

  8. Radiation risk statement in the participant information for a research protocol that involves exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is required to scrutinise the protocols of clinical drug trials that recruit patients as participants. If the study involves exposing the participants to ionizing radiation the information provided to the participant should contain a radiation risk statement that is understandable by the Committee and the participant. The information that should be included in the risk statement is available from a variety of published sources and is discussed. The ARPANSA Code of Practice Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (2005) states explicitly what the responsibilities of the researcher and the HREC are. Some research protocols do not provide the information required by good radiation protection practice and explicitly called for by the Code. Nine points (including: state that ionizing radiation is involved; that the radiation is additional to standard care; the effective dose to be received; the dose compared to natural background; the dose to the most exposed organs; a statement of risk; the benefits accruing from the exposure; ask the participant about previous exposures; name a contact person from whom information may be sought) that should be considered for inclusion in the participant information are presented and discussed. An example of a radiation risk statement is provided

  9. Attitudes of nursing staff towards involvement in medical end-of-life decisions: a national survey study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.; Francke, A.L.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Bilsen, J.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nursing staff attitudes towards involvement and role in end-of-life decisions (ELD) and the relationships with sociodemographic and work-related characteristics. Methods: Survey study among nationally representative Dutch research sample consisting of care professionals.

  10. Attitudes of nursing staff towards involvement in medical end-of-life decisions: A national survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, G.; Francke, A.L.; de Veer, A.J.E.; Bilsen, J.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nursing staff attitudes towards involvement and role in end-of-life decisions (ELDs) and the relationships with sociodemographic and work-related characteristics. Methods: Survey study among nationally representative Dutch research sample consisting of care professionals.

  11. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research on support for nurses directly involved with women who chose to terminate their pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Gmeiner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses’ experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die metodologiese vraagstukke te beskryf rondom die uitvoer van kwalitatiewe navorsing waar verpleegkundiges se ervaring van hul direkte betrokkenheid by terminasie van swangerskap verken en beskryf is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  12. A Comparative Study of Involvement and Motivation among Casino Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, Bongkoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers.

  13. A Comparative Study of Involvement and Motivation among Casino Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, BongKoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. Methods The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Results Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Conclusion The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers. PMID:20046388

  14. Analysis of brand personality to involve event involvement and loyalty: A case study of Jakarta Fashion Week 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. H.; Rachmawan, Y. A.

    2018-04-01

    Fashion trend in the world changed extremely fast. Fashion has become the one of people’s lifestyle in the world. Fashion week events in several areas can be a measurement of fahion trend nowadays. There was a fashion week event in Indonesia called Jakarta Fashion Week (JFW) aims to show fashion trend to people who want to improve their fashion style. People will join some events if the event has involvement to them, hence they will come to that event again and again. Annually and continuously event is really important to create loyalty among people who are involved in it, in order to increase positive development towards the organizer in organizing the next event. Saving a huge amount from the marketing budget, and creating a higher quality event. This study aims to know the effect of 5 brand personality dimension to event involvement and loyalty in Jakarta Fashion Week (JFW). This study use quantitative confirmative method with Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis technique. The sample of this study is 150 respondents who became a participant of Jakarta Fashion Week 2017. Result show that there was significant effect of 5 brand personality dimension to 3 dimension of event involvement and loyalty. Meanwhile, there was one dimension of event involvement called personal self-expression that has not effect to loyalty.

  15. Multiple Study of Case Involving Implementation of Lean Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Venanzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show some factors that can cause companies to succeed or fail in their attempts to use lean manufacturing, by performing a multiple case study which presents two successful cases and three conditions of failure, in a survey of five large companies, all belonging to the metal-mechanical sector, located in Campinas and Sorocaba, both in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected using exploratory research between the periods of January 2013 and February 2015. The results show that successful cases of lean manufacturing implementation are the result of a more organized work environment, standardization of production and service areas, employee satisfaction, productivity results and quality of the final product. Unsuccessful deployments result from poor execution and faulty planning, that has no benefit and ultimately decrease the morale of its employees, creating more distrust and frustration directly influencing the results and productivity. In other words, lean manufacturing implementation requires hard and continuous work and these procedures should be aligned with the mission and goals of companies and mainly focus on the maintenance result by using tools to monitor and track the process systematically and also making investments to eliminate waste.

  16. Accelerator research studies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    Progress is reported in both experimental studies as well as theoretical understanding of the beam transport problem. Major highlights are: (a) the completion of the first channel section with 12 periods and two matching solenoids, (b) measurements of beam transmission and emittance in this 12-lens channel, (c) extensive analytical and numerical studies of the beam transport problem in collaboration with GSI (W. Germany), (d) detailed measurements and calculations of beam propagation through one lens with spherical aberration and space charge, and (e) completion of the emittance grids at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory. Our main objectives in Task B of our research program are: (a) study of collective acceleration of positive ions from a localized plasma source by an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB), (b) external control of the IREB beam front by a slow-wave structure to achieve higher ion energies - the Beam Front Accelerator (BFA) concept, (c) study of ion and electron acceleration and other applications of a plasma focus device, and (d) theoretical studies in support of (a) and (b). Our research in these areas has been oriented towards obtaining an improved understanding of the physical processes at work in these experiments and, subsequently, achieving improved performance for specific potential applications

  17. Insiders' Perspectives: A Children's Rights Approach to Involving Children in Advising on Adult-Initiated Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Consulting with children is widely recognised as an essential element in building understanding about children's lives. From a children's rights perspective, it is also a legal requirement on professionals working with children. However, translating the rhetoric into research and practice is still evolving. Previous studies report on working with…

  18. Evolving the multiple roles of 'patients' in health-care research: reflections after involvement in a trial of shared decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, H.; Edwards, A.; Elwyn, G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This paper offers 'consumer-led' reflections by steering group members of a patient-centred research study involving consumer advocates, patients' associations and patients, throughout the whole study, from pre- to post-study phases. ORIGINAL STUDY DESIGN: The study: 'Shared decision

  19. An experimental study of steam explosions involving CORIUM melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millington, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    An experimental programme to investigate molten fuel coolant interactions involving 0.5 kg thermite-generated CORIUM melts and water has been carried out. System pressures and initial coolant subcoolings were chosen to enhance the probability of steam explosions. Yields and efficiencies of the interactions were found to be very close to those obtained from similar experiments using molten UO 2 generated from a Uranium/Molybdenum Trioxide thermite. (author)

  20. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  1. Waste treatment and immobilization technologies involving inorganic sorbents. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1992-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) for the application of inorganic sorbents in liquid waste treatment and immobilization was initiated by the IAEA in 1992. The results of this CRP are presented in this report. Fifteen institutions from fourteen countries were involved in this programme. The framework of this CRP was: (1) to conduct fundamental studies on sorbent structure and sorption mechanism; (2) to obtain thermodynamic and kinetic data of the treatment process; (3) to define sorption mechanism of radionuclides on different soils; (4) to identify sorbents appropriate for treatment of liquid waste streams; (5) to develop standard tests to be able to compare results of different groups of investigations. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. User Involvement in In-house Developed Software : Case Study of a Nigerian Financial Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Owoseni, Adebowale; Imhanyehor, Germaine

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, researchers have argued that user friendly and result oriented systems were not necessarily products of participatory user involvement; however there is a degree of user involvement required in the development process of any Information System. The aim of this research is to discover the level of user involvement in in-house software development process in All Nigerian Bank (ANB). We use two research methods - survey and process observation. A survey was conducted for 107 end ...

  3. Taking patient and public involvement online: qualitative evaluation of an online forum for palliative care and rehabilitation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Lisa Jane; Pask, Sophie; Benalia, Hamid; Bailey, Sylvia; Sumerfield, Marion; Witt, Jana; de Wolf-Linder, Susanne; Etkind, Simon Noah; Murtagh, Fliss E M; Koffman, Jonathan; Evans, Catherine J

    2018-01-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly recognised as important in research. Most PPI takes place face-to-face, but this can be difficult for people who are unwell or have caring responsibilities. As these challenges are particularly common in palliative care and rehabilitation research, we developed an online forum for PPI: www.csipublicinvolvement.co.uk. In this study, we explored how well the online forum worked, if it is a suitable method for PPI, and how PPI members and researchers reacted to using it. We used an existing theory about online interventions to help choose the 'right' questions to ask participants. We invited PPI members and researchers who had used the online forum to participate in focus groups, and identified the most important themes discussed. Within this study, PPI members have helped with the interview questions, analysis, and write up. Overall, four PPI members and five researchers participated in the focus groups. Participants felt the online forum worked well and had multiple benefits. From the discussions, we identified four key questions to consider when developing online methods for PPI: how does the forum work, how does it engage people, how does it empower people, and what is the impact? Participants suggested the forum could be improved by being more PPI and less researcher focused. We conclude that when developing online methods of PPI, a functioning forum is not enough: it also needs to be engaging and empowering to have an impact. Future work can use these four domains when developing their own online PPI methods. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is increasingly recognised as important. Most PPI activities take place face-to-face, yet this can be difficult for people with ill health or caring responsibilities, and may exclude people from hard-to-reach populations (e.g. living in vulnerable social circumstances and/or remote geographical locations). These challenges are particularly pertinent in

  4. Positron studies in catalysis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    During the past eight months, the authors have made progress in several areas relevant to the eventual use of positron techniques in catalysis research. They have come closer to the completion of their positron microscope, and at the same time have performed several studies in their non-microscopic positron spectrometer which should ultimately be applicable to catalysis. The current status of the efforts in each of these areas is summarized in the following sections: Construction of the positron microscope (optical element construction, data collection software, and electronic sub-assemblies); Doppler broadening spectroscopy of metal silicide; Positron lifetime spectroscopy of glassy polymers; and Positron lifetime measurements of pore-sizes in zeolites

  5. Evaluating patient and public involvement in health research: from theoretical model to practical workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andy; Welsman, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing literature on evaluating aspects of patient and public involvement (PPI). We have suggested that at the core of successful PPI is the dynamic interaction of different forms of knowledge, notably lay and professional. We have developed a four-dimensional theoretical framework for understanding these interactions. We explore the practical utility of the theoretical framework as a tool for mapping and evaluating the experience of PPI in health services research. We conducted three workshops with different PPI groups in which participants were invited to map their PPI experiences on wall charts representing the four dimensions of our framework. The language used to describe the four dimensions was modified to make it more accessible to lay audiences. Participants were given sticky notes to indicate their own positions on the different dimensions and to write explanatory comments if they wished. Participants' responses were then discussed and analysed as a group. The three groups were distinctive in their mapped responses suggesting different experiences in relation to having a strong or weak voice in their organization, having few or many ways of getting involved, addressing organizational or public concerns and believing that the organization was willing to change or not. The framework has practical utility for mapping and evaluating PPI interactions and is sensitive to differences in PPI experiences within and between different organizations. The workshops enabled participants to reflect collaboratively on their experiences with a view to improving PPI experiences and planning for the future. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Study on radiosterilization of crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Sasaki, Masahiro; Kondo, Yuichi; Jo, Hisanobu; Kanbashi, Toshitaka.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolysis of bilirubin and cholic acids (cholic acid, desoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid) in hydrous pellet have been investigated with following parameters, which were hydrous content, radiation dose and the dose rate, to discuss the application of gamma -irradiation for sterilization of crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis. At 774 C/kg(3.0MR) irradiation for 5% and 10% hydrous contents pellets, the radiolysis percent of those components were less than 5%. However, the higher hydrous pellet, the radiolysis percents of those are more increase. At the same irradiated condition for 20% hydrous contents pellets, the radiolysis percents of those were 15--22%. The hydrous percent of commercial crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis are about 9%, so that the radiolysis of those components will be less than 5% on the sterilization. The radiolysis percent of bilirubin are constant to variation of radiation dose rate between 51.6--722.5C/kg.hr(0.2--2.8MR/hr). But, the values of cholic acids don't definite such as that of bilirubin, because of larger analitycal error. (author)

  7. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Today principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot waste treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200 liter concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey, in 1990. The PRESTO - II (Prediction of Radiation Effects From Shallow Trench Operations) computer code was applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is non-site specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this codes takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  8. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  9. [Conceptual and methodological issues involved in the research field of diagnostic reasoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Persia, Francisco N

    2016-05-01

    The psychopathological field is crossed by dilemmas that put in question its methodological, conceptual and philosophical filiations. Since the early works of Ey and Jaspers until recent work of Berrios it has been in question the position psychopathology has in the field of medicine in general, and in the field of psychiatry in particular, especially if it should follow the principles of natural science or if it has an autonomous position between them. This debate has led to two opposing positions facing two different models of psychopathology: the biomedical model and the socio-constructionist model. In this work it is proposed to review the scope and difficulties involved in each model following two central axes: diagnostic reasoning and mental illness conceptual problem. Later, as a synthesis of the analysis proposed they are identified central concepts of each model that could allow the development of a hybrid model in psychopathology; in between them the comprehensive framework employed in symptoms recognition and the social component that characterizes it are highlighted. As a conclusion, these concepts are proposed as central aspects for conceptual and methodological clarification of the research field of diagnostic reasoning in psychopathology.

  10. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  11. Time, science and consensus: the different times involving scientific research, political decision and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses the asymmetrical relationship between the time of scientific research and the time of the different segments interested in their results, focusing mainly on necessity to establish technical consensus about the fields of science that require rigorous investigations and texts. In the last years, civil society sectors - mainly scientific journalism, legislative power, and public opinion - has shown growing interest in participating of the decision making process that regulates science routes. In this study, we analyzed the decision making process of the Biosafety Law, as it allows research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil. The results allow us to conclude that this asymmetrical relationship between the different times (of science, scientific disclosure, public opinion, and public power contribute to the maturing of the dialog on scientific policies, as well as to the establishment of a consensus concerning science routes, which aims at the democratization of scientific work.

  12. A framework for public involvement at the design stage of NHS health and social care research: time to develop ethically conscious standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya-Wood, Raksha; Barron, Duncan S; Elliott, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Researchers who conduct studies in health and social care are encouraged to involve the public as early as possible in the process of designing their studies. Before their studies are allowed to start researchers must seek approval from a Research Ethics Committee, which will assess whether the study is going to be safe and ethical for patients or healthy volunteers to take part in. The process of ethical review does not consider how researchers work with patients and the public early on to design their studies. Furthermore, there is no requirement for researchers to seek ethical approval for public involvement. However, in our work advising researchers about public involvement we have found that the ways in which researchers involve the public in the design of their studies are sometimes unintentionally unethical, and this is the focus of our paper. We have observed ten areas where ethical issues may arise because of the actions researchers may or may not take and which might consequently have a negative impact. Therefore, we have used these observations to develop a "framework" to help researchers and the public work together at the early design stage in ways that are ethical. Our intention for the framework is to help researchers be mindful of these ten areas and how easily ethical issues can arise. The framework suggests some ways to overcome the potential issues in each of the ten areas. The ten areas are: 1) Allocating sufficient time for public involvement; 2) Avoiding tokenism; 3) Registering research design stage public involvement work with NHS Research & Development Trust Office at earliest opportunity; 4) Communicating clearly from the outset; 5) Entitling public contributors to stop their involvement for any unstated reasons; 6) Operating fairness of opportunity; 7) Differentiating qualitative research methods and public involvement activities; 8) Working sensitively; 9) Being conscious of confidentiality and 10) Valuing, acknowledging and rewarding

  13. Study on the involvement of tourism companies into CSR actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela GRIGORAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hotel companies currently adopt standards and codes of conduct that take into consideration both social and environmental results, and not only the financial ones, and which adhered to different eco certification and accreditation schemes due to the fact that the social responsibility plays an increasingly important role within their business. This paper presents a synthesis of a research carried out with the main purpose of determining the way in which four hotel units of Braşov got themselves invol

  14. Undergraduate research: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Hermannus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Hoeven, Gerrit

    This paper describes a one semester research course for undergraduates of computing programs. Students formulate a research proposal, conduct research and write a full paper. They present the results at a one-day student conference. On the one hand we offer the students a lot of structure and

  15. Extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in antimicrobial drug development research: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Bird, Emma; Gibson, Andy; Grier, Sally; Chin, Teh Li; Stoddart, Margaret; MacGowan, Alasdair

    2018-02-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) is increasingly recognized as bringing a range of benefits to clinical and health services research. Recent systematic reviews have identified and synthesized many benefits (eg higher recruitment rates) and some costs (eg extra time need). Much of the literature focuses on PPI in long-term conditions rather than more acute health care in which the majority of microbiological research is undertaken. The aim was to identify the extent, quality and impact of PPI in antimicrobial drug development research. Objectives were to identify any relevant reporting of PPI in antimicrobial research; appraise the quality of reporting on PPI using recognized PPI reporting and critical appraisal tools; and extract and synthesize data on the impact of PPI. A systematic review was undertaken with a search strategy based on four word groups (PPI, patients, antimicrobial drug development and outcomes). Eight online databases were searched. English language publication, publication between 1996 and 2016 and studies describing PPI in antimicrobial drug development research. No studies were found through online searching that met the search strategy and inclusion criteria. One relevant protocol paper with a brief mention of PPI was identified through expert recommendation. Commentary papers recommending PPI were identified through website searching and expert opinion. Despite strong policy guidance encouraging PPI at the international and national levels, and anecdotal accounts of PPI taking place, evidence for the extent, quality and impact of PPI in antimicrobial drug development research has not yet appeared in the peer-reviewed literature. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Charities' response to the European Commission call of interest for their involvement in the European Research Area

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study to investigate what could be the role of the charities concerned with scientific research in the European Research Area (ERA). The analysis particularly concentrates on UK and Italy. The questions on which the exploratory study was developed are: 1. “In what specific areas of the ERA did the European Commission (EC) for the involvement of charities? And could there be other areas in which charities might participate?” 2. “Given the role and situation of charities in UK and Italy, what role, if any, could they be willing to play in the ERA? Is it the same as the one proposed by the Commission or not?” In order to answer these questions, the following discussion will focus at first on a short overview of the charity sector, both at the general level and at the national level in UK and Italy. Then a brief presentation of the European Research Area will be given. The hypotheses of the study will then be presented, followed by a methodological section. Results wi...

  17. Critical Entanglement: Research on Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parental Involvement in Special Education 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cam

    2014-01-01

    If parental involvement in a child's education is generally viewed in positive terms, then it is important to understand what sorts of barriers might hinder it. This article reviews literature on culturally and linguistically diverse parental involvement in special education in the United States and Canada. In analyzing 20 articles published in…

  18. Evolving the multiple roles of 'patients' in health-care research: reflections after involvement in a trial of shared decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Hazel; Edwards, Adrian; Elwyn, Glyn

    2003-09-01

    This paper offers 'consumer-led' reflections by steering group members of a patient-centred research study involving consumer advocates, patients' associations and patients, throughout the whole study, from pre- to post-study phases. ORIGINAL STUDY DESIGN: The study: 'Shared decision making and risk communication in general practice' incorporated systematic reviews, psychometric evaluation of outcome measures, and quantitative, qualitative and health economic analyses of a cluster randomized trial of professional skill development, all informed by consumer and patient engagement. The work was produced by a wide collaboration led by researchers from the Department of General Practice, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, including a consumers' advisory group and a patients' association. The study participants were 20 general practitioners from Gwent, their practice staff, and almost 800 patients at these practices. Consumers and patients contributed to several stages of the research from inception and design, securing of funding, implementation of the protocol, and interpretation and dissemination of the findings. 'Patient involvement' research initiatives that include an equally wide variety of 'user' participants as 'health-professional' participants, accountable to a 'Health in Partnership' funded project, require a user-led viewpoint to be presented and disseminated. This paper presents reflections on the processes of the research, the interpretations of study findings by the involved parties, and notes how this model is fundamental to effective research in the field of patient-centred health care if future practice, policy and research are to change.

  19. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 56.110 Section 56.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  20. A systematic review of neuropsychological studies involving young binge drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbia, Carina; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Corral, Montserrat; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2018-07-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is a public health concern with serious implications for brain development. This review is the first in which neuropsychological studies of healthy young BDs are synthesized following PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a literature search in PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were screened using strict inclusion criteria. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality. Of the 27 studies included, 14 (52%) were of intermediate quality, 7 (26%) of poor quality and 6 (22%) of high quality. BD is associated with deficits in verbal memory and executive functions, principally poor inhibitory control. Tentatively, BD may be related to deficits in cognitive flexibility and monitoring of information in working memory. Further studies are needed to determine potential impairments in prospective memory and decision-making. BDs do not seem to show difficulties in planning, short-term memory, attention, processing speed or visuospatial construction. The evidence does not seem to support greater vulnerability in females. Future longitudinal studies should identify the characteristics of extreme trajectories, explore recovery deficits and design intervention programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perception of research and predictors of research career: a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acquisition of research experience by medical students is associated with good research pathway at the postgraduate level and also in the pursuit of a research career. Also, it assists the physician to make evidence based decisions in clinical practice. Objectives: Aim of study was to determine the perception of ...

  2. Gastric involvement in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Levesque, H; Ducrotté, P; Denis, P; Hellot, M F; Benichou, J; Cailleux, N; Courtois, H

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of gastric electrical activity dysfunction with cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG), disturbances of gastric emptying function using radiopaque pellets, and gastric endoscopic abnormalities in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We also investigate for an association between EGG and gastric-emptying data with clinical manifestations and esophageal motor disturbances. Fasting and postprandial gastric electrical activity was studied in 22 consecutive patients with SSc (17 with and 5 without clinical gastric manifestations) and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Gastric emptying of radiopaque pellets and gastroscopy were also performed in SSc patients. The prevalence of EGG disturbances was as high as 81.82% in SSc patients. SSc patients exhibited, compared with controls, higher median percentage of dominant frequency in bradygastria during the fasting period and lower median values for postprandial electrical power and postprandial to fasting ratio for electrical power. Gastric emptying of radiopaque pellets was delayed in 11 SSc patients, and gastroscopy demonstrated "watermelon stomach" in 3 SSc patients. No correlation was found between the severity of gastric impairment and clinical presentation, SSc duration and subsets, and esophageal manometric impairment. Our study underlines the high frequency of gastric dysfunction in SSc patients. It suggests the usefulness of EGG in SSc in noninvasively detecting disorders of gastric electrical activity at an early stage and symptomatic patients with gastroparesis (because there was a correlation between values of postprandial to fasting ratio for electrical power of watermelon stomach diagnosis should be excluded in SSc patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage or with anemia related to iron deficiency.

  3. Study of the mechanisms involved in reactive silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boinski, Frederic; Khouchaf, Lahcen; Tuilier, Marie-Helene

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure of a heterogeneous SiO 2 submitted to a depolymerisation process is studied using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Environmental SEM (ESEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). With ESEM the formation of micro domain induced by the dissolution phenomena is shown. XRD shows the formation of a halo that is associated with the formation of amorphous phase. The parameters 'position and FWHM' of the halo, enabled us to show the evolution of the disorderly phase when the reaction progresses. The hypothesis of formation of nanoparticles with different structural states was confirmed by the TEM.

  4. Study of the mechanisms involved in reactive silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boinski, Frederic [Univ Lille Nord of France, Ecole des Mines, 941, rue Charles Bourseul, BP 838, 59508 Douai (France); Khouchaf, Lahcen, E-mail: lahcenkho@live.fr [Univ Lille Nord of France, Ecole des Mines, 941, rue Charles Bourseul, BP 838, 59508 Douai (France); Tuilier, Marie-Helene [Universite de Haute-Alsace, LPMT (EA CNRS 4365), Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, F-68093 Mulhouse (France)

    2010-07-01

    The microstructure of a heterogeneous SiO{sub 2} submitted to a depolymerisation process is studied using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Environmental SEM (ESEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). With ESEM the formation of micro domain induced by the dissolution phenomena is shown. XRD shows the formation of a halo that is associated with the formation of amorphous phase. The parameters 'position and FWHM' of the halo, enabled us to show the evolution of the disorderly phase when the reaction progresses. The hypothesis of formation of nanoparticles with different structural states was confirmed by the TEM.

  5. An experimental study of steam explosions involving chemically reactive metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H.; Basu, S.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study of molten zirconium-water explosions was conducted. A 1-kg mass of zirconium melt was dropped into a column of water. Explosions took place only when an external trigger was used. In the triggered tests, the extent of oxidation of the zirconium melt was very extensive. However, the explosion energetics estimated were found to be very small compared to the potential chemical energy available from the oxidation reaction. Zirconium is of particular interest, since it is a component of the core materials of the current nuclear power reactors. This paper describes the test apparatus and summarizes the results of four tests conducted using pure zirconium melt

  6. Prospective randomized clinical studies involving reirradiation. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Guckenberger, Matthias; Grosu, Anca L.

    2016-01-01

    Reirradiation is a potentially useful option for many patients with recurrent cancer. The purpose of this study was to review all recently published randomized trials in order to identify methodological strengths and weaknesses, comment on the results, clinical implications and open questions, and give advice for the planning of future trials. Systematic review of trials published between 2000 and 2015 (databases searched were PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science). We reviewed 9 trials, most of which addressed reirradiation of head and neck tumours. The median number of patients was 69. Trial design, primary endpoint and statistical hypotheses varied widely. The results contribute mainly to decision making for reirradiation of nasopharynx cancer and bone metastases. The trials with relatively long median follow-up confirm that serious toxicity remains a concern after high cumulative total doses. Multi-institutional collaboration is encouraged to complete sufficiently large trials. Despite a paucity of large randomized studies, reirradiation has been adopted in different clinical scenarios by many institutions. Typically, the patients have been assessed by multidisciplinary tumour boards and advanced technologies are used to create highly conformal dose distributions. (orig.) [de

  7. 77 FR 54584 - Final Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... changes. Human gene transfer also raises scientific, medical, social, and ethical considerations that... currently reviewed under Section III-B-1, Experiments Involving the Cloning of Toxin Molecules with LD50 of...

  8. Involving Medical Students in Informed Consent: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Meyer, Frank; Jannasch, Olof; Arndt, Stephan; Stübs, Patrick; Bruns, Christiane J

    2015-09-01

    Studies have reported that patients often sign consent documents without understanding the content. Written paperwork, audio-visual materials, and decision aids have shown to consistently improve patients' knowledge. How informed consent should be taken is not properly taught at most universities in Germany. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated how much information about their procedure our patients retain. In particular, it should be elucidated whether an additional conversation between patients and properly prepared medical students shortly before surgery as an adjunct to informed consent can be introduced as a new teaching unit aimed to increase the understanding of surgery by patients and students. Informed consent of all patients had been previously obtained by three surgical residents 1-3 days in advance. All patients had received a copy of their consent form. The same residents developed assessment forms for thyroidectomy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, umbilical hernia repair, and Lichtenstein procedure for inguinal hernia, respectively, containing 3-4 major common complications (e.g., bile duct injury, hepatic artery injury, stone spillage, and retained stones for laparoscopic cholecystectomy) and briefed the medical students before seeing the patients. Structured one-to-one interviews between students (n = 9) and patients (n = 55) based on four different assessment forms were performed and recorded by students. Both patients and students were asked to assess the new teaching unit using a short structured questionnaire. Although 100% of patients said at the beginning of their interview to have understood and memorized the risks of their imminent procedure, 5.8% (3/55) were not even able to indicate the correct part of the body where the incision would take place. Only 18.2% (10/55) of the patients were able to mention 2 or more complications, and 45.3% (25/55) could not even recall a single one. 96.4% (53/55) of the patients and 100% (9/9) of the

  9. Prospective randomized clinical studies involving reirradiation. Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Langendijk, Johannes A. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Guckenberger, Matthias [University Hospital Zuerich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Grosu, Anca L. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Reirradiation is a potentially useful option for many patients with recurrent cancer. The purpose of this study was to review all recently published randomized trials in order to identify methodological strengths and weaknesses, comment on the results, clinical implications and open questions, and give advice for the planning of future trials. Systematic review of trials published between 2000 and 2015 (databases searched were PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science). We reviewed 9 trials, most of which addressed reirradiation of head and neck tumours. The median number of patients was 69. Trial design, primary endpoint and statistical hypotheses varied widely. The results contribute mainly to decision making for reirradiation of nasopharynx cancer and bone metastases. The trials with relatively long median follow-up confirm that serious toxicity remains a concern after high cumulative total doses. Multi-institutional collaboration is encouraged to complete sufficiently large trials. Despite a paucity of large randomized studies, reirradiation has been adopted in different clinical scenarios by many institutions. Typically, the patients have been assessed by multidisciplinary tumour boards and advanced technologies are used to create highly conformal dose distributions. (orig.) [German] Eine Rebestrahlung kann fuer viele Patienten mit rezidivierenden Malignomen eine nuetzliche Option bieten. Der Zweck dieser Studie bestand darin, alle in der juengeren Vergangenheit publizierten randomisierten Studien zu beurteilen, da deren methodische Staerken und Schwaechen, Ergebnisse und resultierende Implikationen bzw. offene Fragen die Planung kuenftiger Studien wesentlich beeinflussen koennen. Systematische Uebersicht aller zwischen 2000 und 2015 veroeffentlichten Studien (Literatursuche ueber PubMed, Scopus und Web of Science). Ausgewertet wurden 9 Studien, in die vor allem Patienten mit Kopf-Hals-Tumoren eingeschlossen waren. Im Median hatten 69 Patienten teilgenommen. Das

  10. Various aspects of lyoluminescence studies in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Lyoluminescence is the emission of light during the dissolution of irradiated organic and inorganic solids in suitable solvents. This phenomenon has attracted interdisciplinary research involving radiation physics, radiation chemistry and physical chemistry. This paper presents an overall view of the various aspects of lyoluminescence studies in the field of radiation research. (author). 14 refs

  11. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renedo, Alicia; Marston, Cicely

    2015-06-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens' actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: 'plotting', 'transient combination' and 'interconnecting'. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants' acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare.

  12. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Cicely

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens’ actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: ‘plotting’, ‘transient combination’ and ‘interconnecting’. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants’ acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare. PMID:26038612

  13. Theoretical Study of Triatomic Systems Involving Helium Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suno, H.; Hiyama, E.; Kamimura, M.

    2013-01-01

    The triatomic 4 He system and its isotopic species 4 He 2 3 He are theoretically investigated. By adopting the best empirical helium interaction potentials, we calculate the bound state energy levels as well as the rates for the three-body recombination processes: 4 He + 4 He + 4 He → 4 He 2 + 4 He and 4 He + 4 He + 3 He → 4 He 2 + 3 He. We consider not only zero total angular momentum J = 0 states, but also J > 0 states. We also extend our study to mixed helium-alkali triatomic systems, that is 4 He 2 X with X = 7 Li, 23 Na, 39 K, 85 Rb, and 133 Cs. The energy levels of all the J ≥ 0 bound states for these species are calculated as well as the rates for three-body recombination processes such as 4 He + 4 He + 7 Li → 4 He 2 + 7 Li and 4 He + 4 He + 7 Li → 4 He 7 Li + 4 He. In our calculations, the adiabatic hyperspherical representation is employed but we also obtain preliminary results using the Gaussian expansion method. (author)

  14. Case study: an ethical dilemma involving a dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Alsacia L

    2008-01-01

    Nursing often deals with ethical dilemmas in the clinical arena. A case study demonstrates an ethical dilemma faced by healthcare providers who care for and treat Jehovah's Witnesses who are placed in a critical situation due to medical life-threatening situations. A 20-year-old, pregnant, Black Hispanic female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in critical condition following a single-vehicle car accident. She exhibited signs and symptoms of internal bleeding and was advised to have a blood transfusion and emergency surgery in an attempt to save her and the fetus. She refused to accept blood or blood products and rejected the surgery as well. Her refusal was based on a fear of blood transfusion due to her belief in Bible scripture. The ethical dilemma presented is whether to respect the patient's autonomy and compromise standards of care or ignore the patient's wishes in an attempt to save her life. This paper presents the clinical case, identifies the ethical dilemma, and discusses virtue ethical theory and principles that apply to this situation.

  15. Involving patient research partners has a significant impact on outcomes research: a responsive evaluation of the international OMERACT conferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.T.; Abma, T.A.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Collins, S.; Kirwan, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the inclusion of patients as international research partners in Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) conferences and how this has influenced the scope and conduct of outcomes research in rheumatology. Design: A thematic content analysis of OMERACT internal documents,

  16. Introducing CARL - Studying Stakeholder Involvement in Decision-Making on RWM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmans, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides some background on the four following papers, drawing on the research conducted within the CARL research project. CARL is a cross-national 'social sciences research project into the effects of stakeholder involvement on decision-making in radioactive waste management'. The paper introduces the project, its aims, activities and describes the common framework used to look at each individual country

  17. Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of design science research (DSR) gained momentum as a research approach in information systems (IS), the adoption of a DSR approach in postgraduate studies became more acceptable. This paper reflects on a study to investigate how a...

  18. The multiple imputation method: a case study involving secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walani, Salimah R; Cleland, Charles M

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate with the example of a secondary data analysis study the use of the multiple imputation method to replace missing data. Most large public datasets have missing data, which need to be handled by researchers conducting secondary data analysis studies. Multiple imputation is a technique widely used to replace missing values while preserving the sample size and sampling variability of the data. The 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. The authors created a model to impute missing values using the chained equation method. They used imputation diagnostics procedures and conducted regression analysis of imputed data to determine the differences between the log hourly wages of internationally educated and US-educated registered nurses. The authors used multiple imputation procedures to replace missing values in a large dataset with 29,059 observations. Five multiple imputed datasets were created. Imputation diagnostics using time series and density plots showed that imputation was successful. The authors also present an example of the use of multiple imputed datasets to conduct regression analysis to answer a substantive research question. Multiple imputation is a powerful technique for imputing missing values in large datasets while preserving the sample size and variance of the data. Even though the chained equation method involves complex statistical computations, recent innovations in software and computation have made it possible for researchers to conduct this technique on large datasets. The authors recommend nurse researchers use multiple imputation methods for handling missing data to improve the statistical power and external validity of their studies.

  19. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-06

    Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non-sex work-involved transgender women. Scant research has investigated sex work among transgender women in the Caribbean, including Jamaica, where transgender women report pervasive violence. The study objective was to examine factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica. In 2015, we implemented a cross-sectional survey using modified peer-driven recruitment with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica, in collaboration with a local community-based AIDS service organization. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with paid sex and transactional sex. Exchanging oral, anal or vaginal sex for money only was categorized as paid sex. Exchanging sex for survival needs (food, accommodation, transportation), drugs or alcohol, or for money along with survival needs and/or drugs/alcohol, was categorized as transactional sex. Among 137 transgender women (mean age: 24.0 [SD: 4.5]), two-thirds reported living in the Kingston area. Overall, 25.2% reported being HIV-positive. Approximately half (n = 71; 51.82%) reported any sex work involvement, this included sex in exchange for: money (n = 64; 47.06%); survival needs (n = 27; 19.85%); and drugs/alcohol (n = 6; 4.41%). In multivariable analyses, paid sex and transactional sex were both associated with: intrapersonal (depression), interpersonal (lower social support, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, multiple partners/polyamory), and structural (transgender stigma, unemployment) factors. Participants reporting transactional sex also reported increased odds of incarceration perceived to be due to transgender identity, forced sex, homelessness, and lower resilience, in comparison with participants reporting

  20. The AIR's policy on research involving the irradiation of human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of the Australian Institute of Radiography with regards to the human subject irradiation is outlined. It is stated that members will not irradiate another individual, nor themselves, solely for the purposes of experimentation or research without gaining the prior approval of an institutional ethics committee. Where possible, researchers should consider the use of patient equivalent or human tissue equivalent phantoms. A short list of references has been compiled to assist members in designing research protocols which comply with the stated policy

  1. The required interactions among institutions involved with Research and Development in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, X; Medeiros, J C; Szechtman, M [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the form which CEPEL (Brazilian Federal Research Center in Electric Energy) works for the Brazilian electric system, the interaction with associates, especially with ELETROBRAS (the Federal holding company in Brazil), the modern way of CEPEL operation and interactions with clients, the partnership in Research and Development, the CEPEL philosophy of transferring technology to its clients, and the cost-benefit analysis of Research and Development activities. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: III. Involving stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Yoshida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting health research priorities is a complex and value–driven process. The introduction of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI method has made the process of setting research priorities more transparent and inclusive, but much of the process remains in the hands of funders and researchers, as described in the previous two papers in this series. However, the value systems of numerous other important stakeholders, particularly those on the receiving end of health research products, are very rarely addressed in any process of priority setting. Inclusion of a larger and more diverse group of stakeholders in the process would result in a better reflection of the system of values of the broader community, resulting in recommendations that are more legitimate and acceptable.

  3. Leashes and Lies: Navigating the Colonial Tensions of Institutional Ethics of Research Involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Stiegman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical standards of conduct in research undertaken at Canadian universities involving humans has been guided by the three federal research funding agencies through the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (or TCPS for short since 1998. The statement was revised for the first time in 2010 and is now commonly referred to as the TCPS2, which includes an entire chapter (Chapter 9 devoted to the subject of research involving First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples of Canada. While the establishment of TCPS2 is an important initial step on the long road towards decolonizing Indigenous research within the academy, our frustrations—which echo those of many colleagues struggling to do research “in a good way” (see, for example, Ball & Janyst 2008; Bull, 2008; Guta et al., 2010 within this framework—highlight the urgent work that remains to be done if university-based researchers are to be enabled by establishment channels to do “ethical” research with Aboriginal peoples. In our (and others’ experience to date, we seem to have been able to do research in a good way, despite, not because of the TCPS2 (see Castleden et al., 2012. The disconnect between the stated goals of TCPS2, and the challenges researchers face when attempting to navigate how individual, rotating members of REBs interpret the TPCS2 and operate within this framework, begs the question: Wherein lies the disconnect? A number of scholars are currently researching this divide (see for example see Guta et al. 2010; Flicker & Worthington, 2011; and Guta et al., 2013. In this editorial, we offer an anecdote to illustrate our experience regarding some of these tensions and then offer reflections about what might need to change for the next iteration of the TCPS.

  4. Involving Members of the Public in Health Economics Research: Insights from Selecting Health States for Valuation to Estimate Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY) Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Elizabeth; Boddy, Kate; Tatnell, Lynn; Hawton, Annie

    2018-04-01

    Over recent years, public involvement in health research has expanded considerably. However, public involvement in designing and conducting health economics research is seldom reported. Here we describe the development, delivery and assessment of an approach for involving people in a clearly defined piece of health economics research: selecting health states for valuation in estimating quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). This involvement formed part of a study to develop a condition-specific preference-based measure of health-related quality of life, the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-8D), and the work reported here relates to the identification of plausible, or realistic, health states for valuation. An Expert Panel of three people with multiple sclerosis (MS) was recruited from a local involvement network, and two health economists designed an interactive task that enabled the Panel to identify health states that were implausible, or unlikely to be experienced. Following some initial confusion over terminology, which was resolved by discussion with the Panel, the task worked well and can be adapted to select health states for valuation in the development of any preference-based measure. As part of the involvement process, five themes were identified by the Panel members and the researchers which summarised our experiences of public involvement in this health economics research example: proportionality, task design, prior involvement, protectiveness and partnerships. These are described in the paper, along with their practical implications for involving members of the public in health economics research. Our experience demonstrates how members of the public and health economists can work together to improve the validity of health economics research. Plain Language Summary It has become commonplace to involve members of the public in health service research. However, published reports of involving people in designing health economics research are rare. We

  5. Researching the Study Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Mark; Wainwright, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, with the focus being on how study abroad experiences affect psychological constructs as opposed to looking solely at study-abroad-related outcomes. Social learning theory is used as a possible theoretical basis for making testable hypotheses and guiding…

  6. Emergency planning and preparedness for accidents involving radioactive materials used in medicine, industry, research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Safety Series book should be considered as a technical guide aimed at the users of radioactive materials and the appropriate local and national authorities. It does not represent a single solution to the problems involved but rather draws the outlines of the plans and procedures that have to be developed in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident, should one occur. The preparation of local and national plans should follow the technical recommendations provided in this publication, with due consideration given to local factors which might vary from country to country (e.g. governmental systems, local legislation, quantities of radioactive materials involved). Several types of accidents are described, together with their possible radiological consequences. The basic principles of the protective measures that should be applied are discussed, and the principles of emergency planning and the measures needed to maintain preparedness for an operational response to an accident are outlined

  7. A Comparison of National Policies on Research Involving Human Subjects to Facilitate Review and Approval of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    torture Prohibition on slavery and forced labour Right to liberty and security Right to a fair trial No punishment without law Right to respect...NOT BE TOLERATED. IT IS BOTH A BREACH OF REGULATIONS AND UNETHICAL . UNAUTHORIZED RESEARCH MAY THEREFORE BE SUBJECT TO INVESTIGATION AND

  8. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: I. Involving funders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the World Health Organization's Department for Child and Adolescent Health and Development commissioned five large research priority setting exercises using the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. The aim was to define research priorities related to the five major causes of child deaths for the period up to the year 2015. The selected causes were childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea, birth asphyxia, neonatal infections and preterm birth/low birth weight. The criteria used for prioritization in all five exercises were the “standard” CHNRI criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, potential for mortality burden reduction and the effect on equity. Having completed the exercises, the WHO officers were left with another question: how “fundable” were the identified priorities, i.e. how attractive were they to research funders?

  9. Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, Melissa C; Carpenter, Calvin B; Colby, Lesley A

    2017-01-01

    Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant DNA technology, synthetic biology, viral vectors, and the use of genetically modified animals. This research poses a potential risk to personnel as well as the public and the environment. Institutions must have appropriate oversight and take app...

  10. Are media still the message? A comparative study of high and low involvement brands in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Neda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of media choice for branding of high and low involvement products. Given the magnitude of branding today and the complexity of the media environment, the lack of modern studies comparing different media from the consumers' perspective especially in different cultural settings, is both profound and surprising. Studies of Larkin (1978 and Stephens (1981 are not only outdated but also US-specific. Furthermore, although McLuhan (2002 has famously claimed that the medium is the message, there is no contemporary marketing study examining this claim in relation to major branding elements such as brand awareness perceived quality, brand attitude, and brand image. The study's major contribution is that it attempts to fill in this research gap by investigating if and how consumers differentiate brands, with respect to the media that they appear in. A comparison between low and high involvement brands was considered apparent for a more comprehensive research approach. This study is a deductive and a quantitative one. Sample consisted of 160 respondents in Serbia, ranging from 18 to 59 years old, and the data collection method was a self-administered e-mail questionnaire. Major findings suggest that different media indeed affect various aspects of branding, with magazines favoring most of brand image characteristics, and television favoring brand awareness. However, analysis also indicated a clustering of television, magazine, and outdoor as media with similar scores in almost every aspect. This clustering has the potential to affect both branding and media planning decisions. Internet is found to be a promising medium for the future in Serbia but not so much for the present.

  11. Cross sectional study of young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadyen, L; Hastings, G; MacKintosh, A M

    2001-03-03

    To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. North east England. Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had "opted in" to research through a postal consent procedure. There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (Pawareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required.

  12. Fathers of Children in Public Preschool Programs: A Study of School Involvement and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noggle, Amy Kappel

    2012-01-01

    In this quantitative study, I examined the involvement levels of fathers of children attending public preschool programs using the Family Involvement Questionnaire; I also examined fathers' satisfaction with school contact and involvement experiences using the Parent Satisfaction with Educational Experiences scale. Additionally, I…

  13. A Phenomenological Study of Parental Involvement and the Undergraduate College Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parents highly involved in the academic lives of their college-going children have become increasingly common and yet the effect of such involvement on students is poorly understood by student services administrators and faculty. The purpose of this study was to better define the phenomenon of parental involvement in college through an…

  14. Informed Consent and Clinical Research Involving Children and Adolescents: Implications of the Revised APA Ethics Code and HIPAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, 2 new sets of rules and regulations affecting the conduct of clinical research involving children and adolescents went into effect: the revised American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA, 2002; effective June 1, 2003) and the Privacy Rule (45 CFR Part 160 and A and E of Part…

  15. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman, or a child. 26.1203 Section 26.1203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL...

  16. 40 CFR 26.203 - Prohibition of research conducted or supported by EPA involving intentional exposure of any human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... her fetus), a nursing woman, or child. 26.203 Section 26.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of research conducted or... Involving Intentional Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.203...

  17. Perceptions of physiotherapists towards research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J; Hale, L; Mirfin-Veitch, B; Harland, T

    2016-06-01

    To explore the perceptions of physiotherapists towards the use of and participation in research. Concurrent mixed methods research, combining in-depth interviews with three questionnaires (demographics, Edmonton Research Orientation Survey, visual analogue scales for confidence and motivation to participate in research). One physiotherapy department in a rehabilitation hospital, consisting of seven specialised areas. Twenty-five subjects {four men and 21 women, mean age 38 [standard deviation (SD) 11] years} who had been registered as a physiotherapist for a mean period of 15 (SD 10) years participated in this study. They were registered with the New Zealand Board of Physiotherapy, held a current practising certificate, and were working as a physiotherapist or physiotherapy/allied health manager at the hospital. The primary outcome measure was in-depth interviews and the secondary outcome measures were the three questionnaires. Physiotherapists were generally positive towards research, but struggled with the concept of research, the available literature and the time to commit to research. Individual confidence and orientation towards research seemed to influence how these barriers were perceived. This study showed that physiotherapists struggle to implement research in their daily practice and become involved in research. Changing physiotherapists' conceptions of research, making it more accessible and providing dedicated research time could facilitate increased involvement in the physiotherapy profession. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Involving High School Students in Computational Physics University Research: Theory Calculations of Toluene Adsorbed on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Jonas; Husmark, Teodor; Mathiesen, Christoffer; Sepahvand, Benjamin; Borck, Øyvind; Gunnarsson, Linda; Lydmark, Pär; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    To increase public awareness of theoretical materials physics, a small group of high school students is invited to participate actively in a current research projects at Chalmers University of Technology. The Chalmers research group explores methods for filtrating hazardous and otherwise unwanted molecules from drinking water, for example by adsorption in active carbon filters. In this project, the students use graphene as an idealized model for active carbon, and estimate the energy of adsorption of the methylbenzene toluene on graphene with the help of the atomic-scale calculational method density functional theory. In this process the students develop an insight into applied quantum physics, a topic usually not taught at this educational level, and gain some experience with a couple of state-of-the-art calculational tools in materials research.

  19. Techniques involving extreme environment, nondestructive techniques, computer methods in metals research, and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunshah, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A number of different techniques which range over several different aspects of materials research are covered in this volume. They are concerned with property evaluation of 4 0 K and below, surface characterization, coating techniques, techniques for the fabrication of composite materials, computer methods, data evaluation and analysis, statistical design of experiments and non-destructive test techniques. Topics covered in this part include internal friction measurements; nondestructive testing techniques; statistical design of experiments and regression analysis in metallurgical research; and measurement of surfaces of engineering materials

  20. Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Evan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Qualitative interviews with street youth who inject drugs elicited descriptions of the adoption of injection as a route of administration. Interviewees were recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results 26 youth aged 16 to 26 participated in this study, including 12 females. Among study participants the first injection episode frequently featured another drug user who facilitated the initiation of injecting. Youth narratives indicate that the transition into injecting is influenced by social interactions with drug using peers and evolving perceptions of injecting, and rejecting identification as an injector was important among youth who did not continue to inject. It appears that social conventions discouraging initiating young drug users into injection exist among established injectors, although this ethic is often ignored. Conclusion The importance of social relationships with other drug users within the adoption of injection drug use highlights the potential of social interventions to prevent injection initiation. Additionally, developing strategies to engage current injectors who are likely to initiate youth into injection could also benefit prevention efforts.

  1. The Public Health Service guidelines. Governing research involving human subjects: An analysis of the policy-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.

  2. Updating AP Potential™ Expectancy Tables Involving PSAT/NMSQT® Writing. Research Notes. RN-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Camara, Wayne J.; Millsap, Roger E.; Milewski, Glenn B.

    2007-01-01

    AP Potential™ is a data-driven tool offered by the College Board that uses scores from the PSAT/NMSQT® to identify students who have the potential to succeed in Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) courses (College Board, 2007). Research showing a moderate-to-strong correlation between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores serves as the basis for this…

  3. Family members' involvement in elder care provision in nursing homes and their considerations about financial compensation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habjanič, Ana; Pajnkihar, Majda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish how family members are involved in elder care provision in nursing homes; this included research into their feelings about potentially extending their involvement to obtain financial benefits as compensation for high accommodation costs. Family members remain involved in the caring process after their relatives have been admitted to an institution. On average, accommodation costs in nursing homes in Slovenia have risen above the residents' retirement pension, and families must supplement the difference. Because of this, familial involvement should be linked to reduced accommodation costs. This research employed a non-experimental, descriptive study design through unstructured interviews. Participants included fifty family members (n=50) who visit their relatives in nursing homes. Data were collected in 2010 at five nursing homes in Slovenia and processed by means of conventional content analysis. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis, describing family involvement, were as follows: visiting and making oneself useful, delivery of items for personal use, hands-on care, physical therapy and organization of nursing home activities. Family members showed some interest in receiving financial compensation for their involvement. The proposed financial compensation may be a delicate and morally questionable matter but would involve fairness and transparency, while enabling easier organization of elder care provision. Eventually, nursing home residents' well-being could be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nursing research. Components of a clinical research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagliotti, L A

    1988-09-01

    Nursing research is the systematic collection and analysis of data about clinically important phenomena. While there are norms for conducting research and rules for using certain research procedures, the reader must always filter the research report against his or her nursing knowledge. The most common questions a reader should ask are "Does it make sense? Can I think of any other reasonable explanation for the findings? Do the findings fit what I have observed?" If the answers are reasonable, research findings from carefully conducted studies can provide a basis for making nursing decisions. One of the earliest accounts of nursing research, which indicates the power of making systematic observations, was Florence Nightingale's study. It compared deaths among soldiers in the Crimean War with deaths of soldiers in the barracks of London. Her research demonstrated that soldiers in the barracks had a much higher death rate than did the soldiers at war. On the basis of the study, sanitary conditions in the barracks were changed substantially.

  5. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Major Legacy Astronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; Alfalfa Team

    2015-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The collaborative nature of the UAT allows faculty and students from a wide ​range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to develop scholarly collaborations. Components of the program include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Alfvin et al., Martens et al., Sanders et al., this meeting). Through this model, faculty and students are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. In the 7 years of the program, 23 faculty and more than 220 undergraduate students have participated at a significant level. 40% of them have been women and members of underrepresented groups. Faculty, many of whom were new to the collaboration and had expertise in other fields, contribute their diverse sets of skills to ALFALFA ​related projects via observing, data reduction, collaborative research, and research with students. 142 undergraduate students have attended the annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 131 summer research projects and 94 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 62 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 46 have presented their results at national meetings. 93% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. Half of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been

  6. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  7. The influence of contextual factors on patient involvement during follow-up consultations after colorectal cancer surgery: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Thora G; Soelver, Lisbeth; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-11-01

    To identify the contextual factors that influence individual patient involvement during colorectal cancer surgical follow-up consultations. The healthcare system is subject to the requirement and expectation of greater involvement of patients and relatives. Increased patient involvement requires the development and implementation of new communication initiatives. Research shows that it is also necessary to consider the contextual circumstances surrounding patient involvement in specific situations. Case study of a single Danish outpatient clinic, which allows the issues and circumstances involved in an everyday situation to be captured. 12 nonparticipative observations of outpatient visits and, subsequently, seven in-depth patient interviews. Content analysis based on a dialogical, interactive framework, which underpinned the identification of current contextual factors. The results showed five contextual factors that seemed to have an impact on patient involvement. The first, 'Two dimensions of patient involvement: treatment-oriented and person-oriented' highlighted a dual interpretation of patient involvement in the consultation situation. The two dimensions seemed to be influenced by four additional factors: 'Doctors leading the agenda', 'Traditional health professional roles', 'Unclear responsibilities' and 'Guidance primarily focused on treatment'. The results showed how patient involvement in clinical practice could be understood as a two-way movement, in which patients are invited to participate in clinical practice, while health professionals are invited to participate in the patients' lives. The movement will change from situation to situation and is influenced by several contextual factors. The results can help doctors and nurses to navigate using a goal-oriented approach towards patient involvement. The study makes visible the need for research-based development of the independent role of the nursing profession in cancer care follow-up, with a view to

  8. Accelerator research studies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The major goal of this project is to study the effects that lead to emittance growth and limitation of beam current and brightness in periodic focusing systems (including linear accelerators). This problem is of great importance for all accelerator applications requiring high intensity beams with small emittance such as heavy ion fusion, spallation neutron sources and high energy physics. In the latter case, future machines must not only provide higher energies (in the range of 10 to 100 TeV), but also higher luminosities than the existing facilities. This implies considerably higher phase-space density of the particle beam produced by the injector linac, i.e., the detrimental emittance growth and concurrent beam loss observed in existing linacs must be avoided

  9. Effects of Religious Involvement on Parent-child Communication Regarding Schooling: A Study of Black Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…

  10. Community Participation in Health Systems Research: A Systematic Review Assessing the State of Research, the Nature of Interventions Involved and the Features of Engagement with Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha S; Mehra, Vrinda; Scott, Kerry; Sriram, Veena

    2015-01-01

    Community participation is a major principle of people centered health systems, with considerable research highlighting its intrinsic value and strategic importance. Existing reviews largely focus on the effectiveness of community participation with less attention to how community participation is supported in health systems intervention research. To explore the extent, nature and quality of community participation in health systems intervention research in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for peer-reviewed, English language literature published between January 2000 and May 2012 through four electronic databases. Search terms combined the concepts of community, capability/participation, health systems research and low- and middle-income countries. The initial search yielded 3,092 articles, of which 260 articles with more than nominal community participation were identified and included. We further excluded 104 articles due to lower levels of community participation across the research cycle and poor description of the process of community participation. Out of the remaining 160 articles with rich community participation, we further examined 64 articles focused on service delivery and governance within health systems research. Most articles were led by authors in high income countries and many did not consistently list critical aspects of study quality. Articles were most likely to describe community participation in health promotion interventions (78%, 202/260), even though they were less participatory than other health systems areas. Community involvement in governance and supply chain management was less common (12%, 30/260 and 9%, 24/260 respectively), but more participatory. Articles cut across all health conditions and varied by scale and duration, with those that were implemented at national scale or over more than five years being mainstreamed by government. Most articles detailed improvements in service availability, accessibility and

  11. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  12. Undergraduate research involving human subjects should not be granted ethical approval unless it is likely to be of publishable quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Cathal T; McDonald, Lisa J; McCormack, Niamh P

    2014-06-01

    Small-scale research projects involving human subjects have been identified as being effective in developing critical appraisal skills in undergraduate students. In deciding whether to grant ethical approval to such projects, university research ethics committees must weigh the benefits of the research against the risk of harm or discomfort to the participants. As the learning objectives associated with student research can be met without the need for human subjects, the benefit associated with training new healthcare professionals cannot, in itself, justify such risks. The outputs of research must be shared with the wider scientific community if it is to influence future practice. Our survey of 19 UK universities indicates that undergraduate dissertations associated with the disciplines of medicine, dentistry and pharmacy are not routinely retained in their library catalogues, thus closing a major avenue to the dissemination of their findings. If such research is unlikely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal, presented at a conference, or otherwise made available to other researchers, then the risks of harm, discomfort or inconvenience to participants are unlikely to be offset by societal benefits. Ethics committees should be satisfied that undergraduate research will be funnelled into further research that is likely to inform clinical practice before granting ethical approval.

  13. Research involving hot atoms of nucleogenic origin and its practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Wolf, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Over the years, a large body of information has amassed which has helped to clarify the authors understanding of the complex chemistry occurring within chemical systems immediately following a nuclear reaction. With the increased knowledge of how reactive nuclides generated by such processes react chemically, it became increasingly apparent that the translational or recoil energy imparted to such species was not always the driving force behind some of the unusual chemistry seen in these systems. In many instances, the state of electronic excitation was found to strongly affect their chemistry. In others, the concomitant radiation chemistry often altered initial chemical states. Even so, with just a general understanding of how these effects work in unison, it has been possible in many instances to predict radiolabel distributions and yields in molecules. This ability has had an enormous impact in other fields utilizing radiotracers in research. This presentation will highlight specific examples in basic hot atom research which have focused on these problems, and describe general applications to other disciplines using radiotracers

  14. Schematic representation of case study research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, John P; Yates, Patsy M

    2007-11-01

    The paper is a report of a study to demonstrate how the use of schematics can provide procedural clarity and promote rigour in the conduct of case study research. Case study research is a methodologically flexible approach to research design that focuses on a particular case - whether an individual, a collective or a phenomenon of interest. It is known as the 'study of the particular' for its thorough investigation of particular, real-life situations and is gaining increased attention in nursing and social research. However, the methodological flexibility it offers can leave the novice researcher uncertain of suitable procedural steps required to ensure methodological rigour. This article provides a real example of a case study research design that utilizes schematic representation drawn from a doctoral study of the integration of health promotion principles and practices into a palliative care organization. The issues discussed are: (1) the definition and application of case study research design; (2) the application of schematics in research; (3) the procedural steps and their contribution to the maintenance of rigour; and (4) the benefits and risks of schematics in case study research. The inclusion of visual representations of design with accompanying explanatory text is recommended in reporting case study research methods.

  15. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory: Involving High School Students in Astronomical Research -- A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel; Heatherly, S.; McLauglin, M.; Lorimer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Foundation funded "Pulsar Search Collaboratory” project is a collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV and West Virginia University aimed at provoking interest in Science-Technology-Engineering-Math (STEM) careers and increasing scientific and information technology literacy among high-school students within the state and region. Over the initial three-year phase of this program, 60 high-school teachers at schools throughout region and over 300 students will be involved in the search for new pulsars and transient objects by analyzing over 30 TB of data collected by the Green Bank Telescope in 2007. Although training is provided to teachers and student leaders via a summer workshop, additional students may join the program, learning from their peers how to conduct the data analysis. We are now in the second year of the PSC and we present a progress report from the first year of the PSC. We will summarize our approaches to implementing this challenging project, including the use of online tools to communicate with and sustain interest among the student teams, and the development of a unique graphical database through which students access and analyze pulsar plots. We will present the student results including one astronomical discovery as well as statistics on the plots that students have analyzed, including distribution among schools, number of known pulsars found, and RFI detection. Finally we will present evaluation results and lessons learned from the first year of the PSC. These include results from pre/post testing of teachers and students that show changes in student interest in STEM careers resulting from the PSC, and statistics on student participation.

  16. A research perspective on stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management State of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaston Meskens; Erik Laes; Gilbert Eggermont

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Our modern society is increasingly faced with challenges and problems that cannot be solved by a purely technical, political or social approach. Radioactive waste disposal site selection and management can be characterised as one of these challenges that require a trans-disciplinary approach, integrating social, philosophical and ethical aspects in a 'technical' practice. Along the spirit of this trans-disciplinary approach, and in order to ensure the necessary public support for a policy decision regarding this practice, stakeholder involvement is more and more seen as a necessary policy element in the decision making process. The aim is to achieve the broad involvement of individuals from civil society, with significant representation from local communities, elected representatives and NGO's, as well as scientists from outside radioactive waste management organisations, together with established players in the field, such as the implementers of radioactive waste management, public authorities, experts and waste producers. Several initiatives regarding stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management have been taken already in Europe, as well in the research era as in 'the real world'. The presentation will give a state of the art by examining some representative examples on both national and European level. The focus will be on the main social, philosophical and ethical aspects of the problem at stake, seen through a trans-disciplinary research lens. The presentation will conclude with some ideas that could inspire as well theoretical researchers as stakeholders-in-the-field. (authors)

  17. Development and testing of a medline search filter for identifying patient and public involvement in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Morwenna; Bethel, Alison; Boddy, Kate

    2017-06-01

    Research involving the public as partners often proves difficult to locate due to the variations in terms used to describe public involvement, and inability of medical databases to index this concept effectively. To design a search filter to identify literature where patient and public involvement (PPI) was used in health research. A reference standard of 172 PPI papers was formed. The references were divided into a development set and a test set. Search terms were identified from common words, phrases and synonyms in the development set. These terms were combined as a search strategy for medline via OvidSP, which was then tested for sensitivity against the test set. The resultant search filter was then assessed for sensitivity, specificity and precision using a previously published systematic review. The search filter was found to be highly sensitive 98.5% in initial testing. When tested against results generated by a 'real-life' systematic review, the filter had a specificity of 81%. However, sensitivity dropped to 58%. Adjustments to the population group of terms increased the sensitivity to 73%. The PPI filter designed for medline via OvidSP could aid information specialists and researchers trying to find literature specific to PPI. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  18. A Research Perspective on Stakeholder Involvement in Radioactive Waste Management - State of the Art and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, Gaston; Laes, Erik; Eggermont, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Our modern society is increasingly faced with challenges and problems that cannot be solved by a purely technical, political or social approach. Radioactive waste disposal site selection and management can be characterised as one of these challenges that require a transdisciplinary approach, integrating social, philosophical and ethical aspects in a 'technical' practice. Along the spirit of this transdisciplinary approach, and in order to ensure the necessary public support for a policy decision regarding this practice, stakeholder involvement is more and more seen as a necessary policy element in the decision making process. The aim is to achieve the broad involvement of individuals from civil society, with significant representation from local communities, elected representatives and NGO's, as well as scientists from outside radioactive waste management organisations, together with established players in the field, such as the implementers of radioactive waste management, public authorities, experts and waste producers. Several initiatives regarding stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management have been taken already in Europe, as well in the research era as in 'the real world'. The presentation will give a state of the art by examining some representative examples on both national and European level. The focus will be on the main social, philosophical and ethical aspects of the problem at stake, seen through a transdisciplinary research lens. The presentation will conclude with some ideas that could inspire as well theoretical researchers as stakeholders-in-the-field (Full text of contribution)

  19. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  20. THE ROLE OF SUPERVISOR SUPPORT İN RELATIONS BETWEEN EMOTIONALLABOR AND JOB INVOLVEMENT: A RESEARCH ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTAFFAIRS PERSONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asena ALTIN GÜLOVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the increasingly momentous topics in organisation studies is emotional labor. The direction towards which emotional labor affects the job involvement of service workers has also been studied and stated that this direction might change based on the choice of labor behaviour. The concept of "supervisor support" refers to the close, intimate and understanding attitude of the superior to the subordinates. As a result of the study conducted on student affairs office employees of three state universities in the Aegean Region (n=127 a positive significant relationship among three emotional labor behaviour and job involvement was discerned and an increase in parallel with supervisory support was displayed.

  1. Research network involving retired experts as a means to keep alive relevant knowledge - The case of IPEN in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, A.C.O.; Imakuma, K.; Reis, J.S.B. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: On one hand, by appraising the drivers that influence energy policies worldwide, one come to the conclusion that the prospects for a revival nuclear power deployment have never been so clearly designed. On the other hand, looking to what has been the situation over the last twenty years, it is evident that, should the revival come to strength in the next five to ten years, one will run into knowledge shortage problems of many kinds. This feeling, which is the tip of an iceberg, has been constantly alerted by almost everyone studying the scenario and these concerns, thanks to the proactive and catalytic role of the IAEA, gave rise to the growing field of nuclear knowledge management - NKM. Despite the repeated recommendations of IAEA, the Brazilian nuclear area as a whole is not making coordinated efforts in this concern. Reasons are many, but probably the root cause resides in the fact that the country does not have a nuclear program or a clear policy concerning the role of nuclear in the Brazilian electricity generation matrix. There are, however, some isolated initiatives in some institutions concerning mapping, diagnostic and preservation of critical nuclear knowledge. This work has studied a social network - SN that has emerged naturally and that is helping to transfer and keep alive the knowledge of retired experts at IPEN. Enabling and driving factors that have strongly contributed to the network formation and its sustainability can be summarized as: 1) The fact that Human resources of IPEN belong to a special career of science and technology for which to have master and doctor degrees represent significant salary increases. 2) The location of IPEN, sited in the campus of the country's leading university, Sao Paulo University - USP and the special institutional arrangement under which it functions as the nuclear technology unit of this university. Researchers of IPEN, with doctor degree and teaching abilities, can become also professors of graduate

  2. Unveiling Research Agendas: a study of the influences on research problem selection among academic researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, M.; Sutz, J.

    2016-07-01

    Research problem selection is central to the dynamics of scientific knowledge production. Research agendas result from the selection of research problems and the formulation of individual and/or collective academic strategies to address them. But, why researchers study what they study? This paper presents incipient research focused on the way different factors influence the construction of academic research agendas. It takes a researcher-oriented approach relying on opinions and perspectives of a wide range of researchers in all fields of knowledge. The empirical work is carried out in Uruguay, a country in the periphery of mainstream science, whose academic community struggles in search of a balance between the requirements of the world community of scholars and the demands from different national stakeholders. The methodology and research results from this study may be relevant to other countries, at different peripheries. Further, understanding the interplay of influences that shape research agendas is an important tool for policy analysis and planning everywhere. (Author)

  3. From the best results of medical research to therapy involving the context of an individual patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation is the process of identifying specific factors of a patient’s life situation, which is focused on individualised care. In the light of reference books, contextualisation is an integral part of therapy with an active participation of the patient and/or his/her carers. Among many factors that constitute the functioning of a person, family and socio-material situation, access to professional health care, and the ability to exercise self-care are major contextual factors of the patient’s health situation. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the fact that the limiting oneself exclusively to algorithms as procedures based on the best evidence (best evidence medical research – BEMR may raise the specific danger of underestimating the variability of individual responses of the human body under the influence of factors forming a personal context. The phenomenon of contextualisation in the treatment of an individual patient is still not adequately disseminated, although it is an important element in the decision-making process, with proven impact on the efficiency and quality of care and satisfaction of a patient.

  4. A vignette study to examine health care professionals' attitudes towards patient involvement in error prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David L B; Frank, Olga; Davis, Rachel E

    2013-10-01

    Various authorities recommend the participation of patients in promoting patient safety, but little is known about health care professionals' (HCPs') attitudes towards patients' involvement in safety-related behaviours. To investigate how HCPs evaluate patients' behaviours and HCP responses to patient involvement in the behaviour, relative to different aspects of the patient, the involved HCP and the potential error. Cross-sectional fractional factorial survey with seven factors embedded in two error scenarios (missed hand hygiene, medication error). Each survey included two randomized vignettes that described the potential error, a patient's reaction to that error and the HCP response to the patient. Twelve hospitals in Switzerland. A total of 1141 HCPs (response rate 45%). Approval of patients' behaviour, HCP response to the patient, anticipated effects on the patient-HCP relationship, HCPs' support for being asked the question, affective response to the vignettes. Outcomes were measured on 7-point scales. Approval of patients' safety-related interventions was generally high and largely affected by patients' behaviour and correct identification of error. Anticipated effects on the patient-HCP relationship were much less positive, little correlated with approval of patients' behaviour and were mainly determined by the HCP response to intervening patients. HCPs expressed more favourable attitudes towards patients intervening about a medication error than about hand sanitation. This study provides the first insights into predictors of HCPs' attitudes towards patient engagement in safety. Future research is however required to assess the generalizability of the findings into practice before training can be designed to address critical issues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Investigating educational research. A study on dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcelo Marini Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief historical survey on the emergence of educational research in Brazil, namely the rise and development of Science Education research, with special focus on research developed in Education and Science Education graduate programs. It highlights the relevance of the so-called ‘state-of-the-art” studies as a category of investigation that is fundamental for analytical studies on production in a given field of research, and addresses basic procedures to be carried out in investigations of this nature. Finally, this paper presents some trends in Biology Education research in Brazil as shown in Brazilian dissertations and theses produced between 1972 and 2003.

  6. Synovial membrane involvement in osteoarthritic temporomandibular joints - A light microscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, LC; Liem, RSB; deBont, LGM

    Objective. To study the light microscopic characteristics of the synovial membrane of osteoarthritic temporomandibular joints to evaluate synovial membrane involvement in the osteoarthritic process. Study design. Synovial membrane biopsies were obtained during unilateral arthroscopy in 40 patients.

  7. Making patient and public involvement in cancer and palliative research a reality: academic support is vital for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen; Boote, Jonathan; Ardron, David; Gath, Jacqui; Green, Tracy; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2015-06-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) has become an established theme within the UK health research policy and is recognised as an essential force in the drive to improve the quality of services and research. These developments have been particularly rapid in the cancer field. This paper outlines a model of PPI in research (known as the North Trent Cancer Research Network Consumer Research Panel, NTCRN CRP; comprising 38 cancer and palliative care patients/carers) and the key benefits and challenges to effective PPI in cancer research. The PPI model has become a sustainable, inclusive and effective way of implementing PPI within the cancer context. Challenges include (1) a lack of time and funding available to support the PPI model; (2) tensions between different stakeholder groups when developing and conducting health research; (3) panel members finding it difficult to effectively integrate into research meetings when their role and contribution is not made clear at the outset or when unfamiliar language and jargon are used and not explained; (4) some professionals remain unclear about the role and practical implications of PPI in research. However, notwithstanding its financial and organisational challenges, the way that the NTCRN CRP is supported has provided a solid base for it to flourish. PPI provides considerable opportunities for patients and the public to work collaboratively with professionals to influence the cancer research agenda, with the contribution of PPI to the research process being integral to the entire process from the outset, rather than appended to it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Involving Children with ADHD and Their Parents in Research in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Mohaned

    2014-01-01

    ADHD is the term that has been afforded to those children who seem to have problems in the areas of Attention and Hyperactivity. This paper offers a number of different considerations surrounding the formation and development of the socio-political context of studies in the Educational domain. This paper also centres on local, national,…

  9. Research-oriented training for Italian teachers involved in the European MOSEM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.; Viola, R.

    2011-01-01

    A study on the specific knots of electromagnetic induction and superconductivity for in-service teachers has been carried out within the PCK theoretical framework (Shulman L. S., Educ. Res., 15 (1986) 4). The main knots listed in the literature were the object of an analysis in terms of teachers' pedagogic behaviour in planning intervention work to overcome the learning problems and organizing class activities.

  10. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product.

  11. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44 - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchaefer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. FMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product.

  12. The Greater Involvement of People Living with AIDS principle: theory versus practice in Ontario's HIV/AIDS community-based research sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, R; Wilson, M G; Flicker, S; Guta, A; Bereket, T; McKay, C; van der Meulen, A; Cleverly, S; Dickie, M; Globerman, J; Rourke, S B

    2008-07-01

    Drawing on the Greater Involvement of People with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) principle, the HIV/AIDS movement began to "democratize" research in Canada in the mid-1990s. To date, there is little evidence about the success of the community-based research (CBR) movement in relation to the implementation of GIPA. We draw on findings from a larger study examining barriers and facilitating factors in relation to HIV-related CBR in Ontario, Canada. An online survey was completed by 39 senior managers in Ontario AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Twenty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were then conducted to further explore the survey findings. Survey respondents reported that, compared to researchers and frontline service providers, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) tended to be the least involved in all stages (input, process and outcome) of CBR projects. AIDS service organizations with a mandate that included serving rural and urban communities reported even lower levels of PLWHA involvement in CBR. Qualitative data reveal complex barriers that make meaningful PLWHA engagement in CBR difficult, including: HIV-related stigma; health-related challenges; "credentialism"; lack of capacity to engage in research; other issues taking priority; and mistrust of researchers. Facilitating factors included valuing lived experience; training and mentoring opportunities; financial compensation; trust building; and accommodating PLWHA's needs. While there is strong support for the GIPA principles in theory, practice lags far behind.

  13. It's not just 'What' you do, it's also the 'Way' that you do it: Patient and Public Involvement in the Development of Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonport, Tracey J; Nicholls, Wendy; Johnston, Lynne H; Gutteridge, Robin; Watt, Angela

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a reflective account of Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in the development of obesity and binge eating research. We established Patient Advisory Groups (PAGs) at two English regional National Health Service (NHS) weight management services. PPI was evaluated as follows: (i) PAG members completed a Post Participation Evaluation Questionnaire, (ii) PAG meetings captured group discussion on PPI involvement, (iii) practitioner and researchers produced written reflections on PPI and (iv) sources one to three were consolidated during reflections that took place via e-mail and telephone correspondence between researchers and practitioners, culminating in a summary SKYPE meeting between one practitioner and one researcher involved in the PAGs. Results in the form of reflections suggest guidelines on undertaking PPI were helpful with regard 'what to do', but less helpful on 'how'. For example, suggestions for the management of interpersonal factors such as eliciting self-disclosure and managing power differentials are insufficiently addressed in existing guidelines. The present case study illustrated how interpersonal considerations can help or hinder the optimal use of PPI. Recommendations for practitioners and researchers planning PPI are offered.

  14. Student Involvement in Wellness Policies: A Study of Pennsylvania Local Education Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main…

  15. Expanding the Reach of Physics-Engaging Students in Interdisciplinary Research Involving complex, real-world situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bililign, Solomon

    2014-03-01

    Physics plays a very important role in most interdisciplinary efforts and can provide a solid foundation for students. Retention of students in STEM areas can be facilitated by enhanced interdisciplinary education and research since students are strongly attracted to research with societal relevance and show increasing enthusiasm about problems that have practical consequences. One such area of research is a collaborative Earth System Science. The Earth System is dynamic and complex. It is comprised of diverse components that interact. By providing students the opportunities to work in interdisciplinary groups on a problem that reflects a complex, real-world situation they can see the linkages between components of the Earth system that encompass climate and all its components (weather precipitation, temperature, etc.) and technology development and deployment of sensors and sensor networks and social impacts. By involving students in the creation of their own personalized professional development plan, students are more focused and engaged and are more likely to remain in the program.

  16. Substance Use among Adolescents Involved in Bullying: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Tornero, Bernardita; Valenzuela, Daniela; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Salmivalli, Christina; Valenzuela, Eduardo; Araya, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Being involved in bullying as a victim or perpetrator could have deleterious health consequences. Even though there is some evidence that bullies and victims of bullying have a higher risk for drug use, less is known about bystanders. The aim of this research was to study the association between bullying experience (as victims, bullies, or bystanders) and substance use. We gathered complete information from a nationally representative sample of 36,687 students (51.4% female) attending 756 schools in Chile. We used a self-reported questionnaire which was developed based on similar instruments used elsewhere. This questionnaire was piloted and presented to an expert panel for approval. We used multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for several variables at the individual (e.g., school membership, parental monitoring) and school levels (e.g., school type, school denomination). This study shows that bullies and bully-victims have a high risk for cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use than bystanders. This is one of the few studies exploring the association between witnessing bullying and substance use. These findings add new insights to the study of the co-occurrence of bullying and substance use. Other factors, such as higher academic performance, stronger school membership, and better parental monitoring reduced the risk of any substance use, while the experience of domestic violence and the perception of social disorganization in the neighborhood, increased the risk. These findings may help the design of preventive interventions.

  17. Substance Use among Adolescents Involved in Bullying: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gaete

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Being involved in bullying as a victim or perpetrator could have deleterious health consequences. Even though there is some evidence that bullies and victims of bullying have a higher risk for drug use, less is known about bystanders. The aim of this research was to study the association between bullying experience (as victims, bullies, or bystanders and substance use. We gathered complete information from a nationally representative sample of 36,687 students (51.4% female attending 756 schools in Chile. We used a self-reported questionnaire which was developed based on similar instruments used elsewhere. This questionnaire was piloted and presented to an expert panel for approval. We used multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for several variables at the individual (e.g., school membership, parental monitoring and school levels (e.g., school type, school denomination. This study shows that bullies and bully-victims have a high risk for cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use than bystanders. This is one of the few studies exploring the association between witnessing bullying and substance use. These findings add new insights to the study of the co-occurrence of bullying and substance use. Other factors, such as higher academic performance, stronger school membership, and better parental monitoring reduced the risk of any substance use, while the experience of domestic violence and the perception of social disorganization in the neighborhood, increased the risk. These findings may help the design of preventive interventions.

  18. International Research Study of Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Harland, C.; Callender, G.; Harland, C.; Nassimbeni, G.; Schneller, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we examine the specific issue of public procurement, its importance to local, regional, national, and international economies as evidenced in a unique international comparative research study – the International Research Study of Public Procurement (IRSPP). First the public

  19. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Chad E.; Lyons Brian; Hannon James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Complex training (CT) involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the...

  20. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  1. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  2. Research Approaches in the Study of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite development of secular ideas and concepts in the Western world, we can observe increasing interest in the study of religion. However, this popularity of the study of religion and different research approaches has caused that in some sense scholars that were studying religion came to a dead point. Here I show that the most optimal research approach in the study of religion is pluralistic, integral paradigm which connects old traditional methods with naturalistic, cognitive and sometimes experimental approach.

  3. Factors influencing first-time fathers' involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth: A correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Weilin Lynn; He, Hong-Gu; Chua, Ying Jie; Wang, Wenru; Shorey, Shefaly

    2018-03-20

    To examine factors influencing first-time fathers' involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth in Singapore. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational study was conducted in a public tertiary hospital in Singapore. A total of 182 first-time fathers whose wives were hospitalized at four obstetric wards were recruited from November 2015 to January 2016. Data were collected by three newly developed and validated instruments, namely Father's Involvement in Pregnancy and Childbirth, Father's Informational and Sources of Support, and Father's Attitude Towards Involvement in Pregnancy and Childbirth, as well as the 16-item Couple Satisfaction Index and Family of Origin Questionnaire. The participants were generally involved in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth, with 35.2% being highly involved. There was no significant difference in fathers' levels of involvement between or among any sociodemographic subgroups. Significant Spearman's correlations were found between fathers' levels of involvement and levels of informational support as well as fathers' attitudes towards involvement. However, the logistic regression showed the level of informational support was the only significant factor that influenced first-time fathers' high levels of involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth. The study revealed the importance of providing sufficient informational support to first-time fathers so that they can be highly involved in their wife's pregnancy and childbirth. Future studies can develop technology-based intervention programmes to improve fathers' involvement in their wife's pregnancy and childbirth. Healthcare professionals should examine and improve the existing informational support for first-time fathers and ensure its relevance and convenient access. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  5. Ethical issues in research involving minority populations: the process and outcomes of protocol review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve “extra-vulnerable” participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively. Methods The study data were extracted from proposals and amendments submitted to the FTM-EC during the period October 2009 – September 2012, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The main issues for clarification/revision were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results 373 proposals were submitted; 44 studies involved minority groups with 21 extra-vulnerable minorities. All clinical and 2/3 of non-clinical studies submitted for initial review underwent full-board review. For combined clinical and non-clinical study submissions, 92.1% were referred back to the investigators and approved after clarification/revision, while 2.7% were deferred due to major/critical changes, and 2.1% not approved due to substantial violations of ethical principles. The main issues needing clarification/revision differed between all studies and those involving minorities: participant information sheet (62.2% vs. 86.4%), informed consent/assent form (51.2% vs. 86.4%), and research methodology (80.7% vs. 84.1%), respectively. The main ethical issues arising during the meetings, regarding studies involving minorities, included ensuring no exploitation, coercion, or pressure on the minority to participate; methodology not affecting their legal status; considering ethnicity and cultural structure; and providing appropriate compensation. Conclusion Delays in the approval or non

  6. Clinical Research Informatics: Supporting the Research Study Lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S B

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: The primary goal of this review is to summarize significant developments in the field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the years 2015-2016. The secondary goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of CRI as a field, through the development of a strategy for searching and classifying CRI publications. Methods: A search strategy was developed to query the PubMed database, using medical subject headings to both select and exclude articles, and filtering publications by date and other characteristics. A manual review classified publications using stages in the "research study lifecycle", with key stages that include study definition, participant enrollment, data management, data analysis, and results dissemination. Results: The search strategy generated 510 publications. The manual classification identified 125 publications as relevant to CRI, which were classified into seven different stages of the research lifecycle, and one additional class that pertained to multiple stages, referring to general infrastructure or standards. Important cross-cutting themes included new applications of electronic media (Internet, social media, mobile devices), standardization of data and procedures, and increased automation through the use of data mining and big data methods. Conclusions: The review revealed increased interest and support for CRI in large-scale projects across institutions, regionally, nationally, and internationally. A search strategy based on medical subject headings can find many relevant papers, but a large number of non-relevant papers need to be detected using text words which pertain to closely related fields such as computational statistics and clinical informatics. The research lifecycle was useful as a classification scheme by highlighting the relevance to the users of clinical research informatics solutions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  7. A critical analysis of the implementation of service user involvement in primary care research and health service development using normalization process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Edel; McEvoy, Rachel; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Okonkwo, Ekaterina; Rooney, Michelle; Dowrick, Chris; Rogers, Anne; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-06-01

    There have been recent important advances in conceptualizing and operationalizing involvement in health research and health-care service development. However, problems persist in the field that impact on the scope for meaningful involvement to become a routine - normalized - way of working in primary care. In this review, we focus on current practice to critically interrogate factors known to be relevant for normalization - definition, enrolment, enactment and appraisal. Ours was a multidisciplinary, interagency team, with community representation. We searched EBSCO host for papers from 2007 to 2011 and engaged in an iterative, reflexive approach to sampling, appraising and analysing the literature following the principles of a critical interpretive synthesis approach and using Normalization Process Theory. Twenty-six papers were chosen from 289 papers, as a purposeful sample of work that is reported as service user involvement in the field. Few papers provided a clear working definition of service user involvement. The dominant identified rationale for enrolling service users in primary care projects was linked with policy imperatives for co-governance and emancipatory ideals. The majority of methodologies employed were standard health services research methods that do not qualify as research with service users. This indicates a lack of congruence between the stated aims and methods. Most studies only reported positive outcomes, raising questions about the balance or completeness of the published appraisals. To improve normalization of meaningful involvement in primary care, it is necessary to encourage explicit reporting of definitions, methodological innovation to enhance co-governance and dissemination of research processes and findings. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new...... agenda for research on Europe. The crisis gripping the EU in the 21st century is not just an economic crisis, it is a crisis of belief in the EU. Research on the EU is deeply implicated in this crisis, not least because of the questions it does not ask, but also because of the pereceived weakness...... of demonstrating the methods and evidence used. A new agenda for research on Europe needs to acknowledge these weaknesses of the past and move beyond dichotomies towards greater awareness and openesss of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods....

  9. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  10. Patient Involvement in Patient Safety: A Qualitative Study of Nursing Staff and Patient Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrea C; Macdonald, Marilyn

    2017-06-01

    The risk associated with receiving health care has called for an increased focus on the role of patients in helping to improve safety. Recent research has highlighted that patient involvement in patient safety practices may be influenced by patient perceptions of patient safety practices and the perceptions of their health care providers. The objective of this research was to describe patient involvement in patient safety practices by exploring patient and nursing staff perceptions of safety. Qualitative focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of nursing staff and patients who had previously completed a patient safety survey in 2 tertiary hospital sites in Eastern Canada. Six focus groups (June 2011 to January 2012) were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) wanting control, (2) feeling connected, (3) encountering roadblocks, and (4) sharing responsibility for safety. Both patient and nursing staff participants highlighted the importance of building a personal connection as a precursor to ensuring that patients are involved in their care and safety. However, perceptions of provider stress and nursing staff workload often reduced the ability of the nursing staff and patient participants to connect with one another and promote involvement. Current strategies aimed at increasing patient awareness of patient safety may not be enough. The findings suggest that providing the context for interaction to occur between nursing staff and patients as well as targeted interventions aimed at increasing patient control may be needed to ensure patient involvement in patient safety.

  11. Predictors of activity involvement in dementia care homes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Dieneke; de Lange, Jacomine; Willemse, Bernadette; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2017-08-04

    Despite the finding that involvement in activities is one of the most important needs of residents with dementia living in care homes, care facilities struggle to fulfill this need. Over the years, various factors are suggested which may contribute to or disable activity provision in dementia care homes. These include limited financial resources, task oriented staff and disease-related characteristics of residents. This study aims to further clarify which of these factors predict higher activity involvement. Data were derived from the second measurement (2011) of the Living Arrangements for people with Dementia study. One thousand two hundred eighteen people residing in 139 dementia care homes were involved. Forty predictors of higher involvement were studied. Multilevel backward regression analyses were performed. The most important predictors of higher involvement were: absence of agitation, less ADL dependency, and a higher cognitive status of the residents, higher staff educational level, lower experienced job demands by care staff and a smaller number of residents living in the dementia care wards of a facility. More social supervisor support as perceived by staff was found to predict less activity involvement. To increase the activity involvement of care home residents with dementia it seems vital to: 1) reduce staff's experienced job demands; 2) elevate their overall educational level; 3) train staff to provide suitable activities, taking account of the behavior and preserved capabilities of residents; and 4) foster transition towards small-scale care. In order to achieve these aims, care organizations might need to evaluate the use of their financial means.

  12. Opportunities for involving men and families in chronic disease management: a qualitative study from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Meredith P; Castro, Maricruz; Peña, Liz; López Hernández, Sergio Hernán; Arreola Camacho, Gabriel; Ramírez-Zea, Manuel; Martínez, Homero

    2015-10-05

    A healthy lifestyle intervention was implemented in primary care health centers in urban parts of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico with an aim of reducing cardiovascular disease risk for patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. During implementation, research questions emerged. Considerably fewer men participated in the intervention than women, and an opportunity was identified to increase the reach of activities aimed at improving disease self-management through strategies involving family members. A qualitative study was conducted to identify strategies to involve men and engage family members in disease management and risk reduction. Nine men with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes with limited to no participation in disease self-management and health promotion activities, six families in which at least one family member had a diagnosis of one or both conditions, and nine health care providers from four different government health centers were recruited for the study. Participants took part in semi-structured interviews. During interviews with families, genograms and eco-maps were used to diagram family composition and structure, and capture the nature of patients' relationships to the extended family and community resources. Transcripts were coded and a general inductive analytic approach was used to identify themes related to men's limited participation in health promotion activities, family support and barriers to disease management, and health care providers' recommendations. Participants reported barriers to men's participation in chronic disease management and healthy lifestyle education activities that can be grouped into two categories: internal and external factors. Internal factors are those for which they are able to make the decision on their own and external factors are those that are not related solely to their decision to take part or not. Four primary aspects were identified related to families' relationships with disease: different

  13. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  14. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  15. Political Socialization Research and Canadian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, George S.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a review of the burgeoning field of Canadian political socialization research as it applies to children and youth, and considers some implications of recent findings for the Canadian studies curriculum. (Editor)

  16. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  17. Public education and enforcement research study (PEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) established the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) to test the effectiveness of various education and enforcement (E&E) techniques to i...

  18. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  19. Recommendations for the Involvement of Patient Research Partners (PRP) in OMERACT Working Groups. A Report from the OMERACT 2014 Working Group on PRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; de Wit, Maarten; Bingham, Clifton O; Kirwan, John R; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn M; Montie, Pam; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Patient participation in research is increasing; however, practical guidelines to enhance this participation are lacking. Specifically within the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) organization, although patients have participated in OMERACT meetings since 2002, consensus about the procedures for involving patients in working groups has not been formalized. The objective is to develop a set of recommendations regarding patient research partner (PRP) involvement in research working groups. We conducted a systematic literature review on recommendations/guidelines of PRP involvement in research; elaborated a structured consensus process involving multiple participants to develop a set of recommendations; and sought endorsement of recommendations by OMERACT. In the 18 articles included in the literature review, there was general agreement on the broad concepts for recommendations covering PRP involvement in research although they were heterogeneous in detail. Most considered PRP involvement in all phases of research with early engagement, training, and support important, but details on the content were scarce. This review informed a larger consensus-building process regarding PRP inclusion in OMERACT research. Three overarching principles and 8 recommendations were developed, discussed, and refined at OMERACT 2014. The guiding principles were endorsed during the OMERACT plenary session. These recommendations for PRP involvement in OMERACT research reinforce the importance of patient participation throughout the research process as integral members. Although the applicability of the recommendations in other research contexts should be assessed, the generalizability is expected to be high. Future research should evaluate their implementation and their effect on outcome development.

  20. Rigour in qualitative case-study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy

    2013-03-01

    To provide examples of a qualitative multiple case study to illustrate the specific strategies that can be used to ensure the credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability of a study. There is increasing recognition of the valuable contribution qualitative research can make to nursing knowledge. However, it is important that the research is conducted in a rigorous manner and that this is demonstrated in the final research report. A multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Multiple sources of evidence were collected: semi-structured interviews (n=58), non-participant observations at five sites and documentary sources. Strategies to ensure the rigour of this research were prolonged engagement and persistent observation, triangulation, peer debriefing, member checking, audit trail, reflexivity, and thick descriptions. Practical examples of how these strategies can be implemented are provided to guide researchers interested in conducting rigorous case study research. While the flexible nature of qualitative research should be embraced, strategies to ensure rigour must be in place.

  1. Sense and readability: participant information sheets for research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Liam; Wykes, Til

    2016-02-01

    Informed consent in research is partly achieved through the use of information sheets. There is a perception however that these information sheets are long and complex. The recommended reading level for patient information is grade 6, or 11-12 years old. To investigate whether the readability of participant information sheets has changed over time, whether particular study characteristics are related to poorer readability and whether readability and other study characteristics are related to successful study recruitment. Method: We obtained 522 information sheets from the UK National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network: Mental Health portfolio database and study principal investigators. Readability was assessed with the Flesch reading index and the Grade level test. Information sheets increased in length over the study period. The mean grade level across all information sheets was 9.8, or 15-16 years old. A high level of patient involvement was associated with more recruitment success and studies involving pharmaceutical or device interventions were the least successful. The complexity of information sheets had little bearing on successful recruitment. Information sheets are far more complex than the recommended reading level of grade 6 for patient information. The disparity may be exacerbated by an increasing focus on legal content. Researchers would benefit from clear guidance from ethics committees on writing succinctly and accessibly and how to balance the competing legal issues with the ability of participants to understand what a study entails. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  2. Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Pushan R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor

  3. Participatory Research as One Piece of the Puzzle: A Systematic Review of Consumer Involvement in Design of Technology-Based Youth Mental Health and Well-Being Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel A; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Objective To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Methods Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. Results A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable

  4. Service user involvement in mental health system strengthening in a rural African setting: qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Background It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Methods Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with pur...

  5. Attitudes, involvement and consumer behaviour : a longitudinal study in fast moving consumer goods markets

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, David

    1994-01-01

    An empirical study is reported which attempts to validate two key theoretical consequences of consumer involvement: differences in brand buying behaviour and differences in the type of decision processing undertaken. A literature review is provided which traces the history of involvement and identifies a suitable contemporary framework. Work on brand loyalty and attitude modelling is also reviewed and suitable frameworks identified. A pilot stage is reported which show...

  6. Ocean energy researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on ocean energy systems. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  7. Hemispheric involvement in the processing of Chinese idioms: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Ping; Fang, Xiaoping; Shu, Hua; Liu, Youyi; Chen, Lang

    2016-07-01

    Although the left hemisphere is believed to handle major language functions, the role of the right hemisphere in language comprehension remains controversial. Recently researchers have investigated hemispheric language processing with figurative language materials (e.g., metaphors, jokes, and idioms). The current study capitalizes on the pervasiveness and distinct features of Chinese idioms to examine the brain mechanism of figurative language processing. Native Chinese speakers performed a non-semantic task while reading opaque idioms, transparent idioms, and non-idiomatic literal phrases. Whole-brain analyses indicated strong activations for all three conditions in an overlapping brain network that includes the bilateral inferior/middle frontal gyrus and the temporo-parietal and occipital-temporal regions. The two idiom conditions elicited additional activations in the right superior parietal lobule and right precuneus. Item-based modulation analyses further demonstrated that activation amplitudes in the right angular gyrus, right superior parietal lobule and right precuneus, as well as left inferior temporo-occipital cortex, are negatively correlated with the semantic transparency of the idioms. These results suggest that both hemispheres are involved in idiom processing but they play different roles. Implications of the findings are discussed in light of theories of figurative language processing and hemispheric functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomics and structure/function studies of Rhabdoviridae proteins involved in replication and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenberg, R; Delmas, O; Morin, B; Graham, S C; De Lamballerie, X; Laubert, C; Coutard, B; Grimes, J M; Neyts, J; Owens, R J; Brandt, B W; Gorbalenya, A; Tucker, P; Stuart, D I; Canard, B; Bourhy, H

    2010-08-01

    Some mammalian rhabdoviruses may infect humans, and also infect invertebrates, dogs, and bats, which may act as vectors transmitting viruses among different host species. The VIZIER programme, an EU-funded FP6 program, has characterized viruses that belong to the Vesiculovirus, Ephemerovirus and Lyssavirus genera of the Rhabdoviridae family to perform ground-breaking research on the identification of potential new drug targets against these RNA viruses through comprehensive structural characterization of the replicative machinery. The contribution of VIZIER programme was of several orders. First, it contributed substantially to research aimed at understanding the origin, evolution and diversity of rhabdoviruses. This diversity was then used to obtain further structural information on the proteins involved in replication. Two strategies were used to produce recombinant proteins by expression of both full length or domain constructs in either E. coli or insect cells, using the baculovirus system. In both cases, parallel cloning and expression screening at small-scale of multiple constructs based on different viruses including the addition of fusion tags, was key to the rapid generation of expression data. As a result, some progress has been made in the VIZIER programme towards dissecting the multi-functional L protein into components suitable for structural and functional studies. However, the phosphoprotein polymerase co-factor and the structural matrix protein, which play a number of roles during viral replication and drives viral assembly, have both proved much more amenable to structural biology. Applying the multi-construct/multi-virus approach central to protein production processes in VIZIER has yielded new structural information which may ultimately be exploitable in the derivation of novel ways of intervening in viral replication. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Study of Factors Related to Dissertation Progress among Doctoral Candidates: Focus on Students' Research Self-Efficacy as a Result of Their Research Training and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Forooz; Rakow, Ernest A.; Ethington, Corinna

    This study examined relationships among doctoral candidates' background characteristics, research preparation, research environment, research involvement, student-advisor relationship, research self-efficacy, and dissertation progress. The study focused on differences in research self-efficacy and dissertation progress among students from the…

  11. "Do-It-Ourselves Science": Case Studies of Volunteer-Initiated Citizen Science Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Bracey, G.; Gay, P. L.

    2009-05-01

    Galaxy Zoo is a citizen science website in which members of the public volunteer to classify galaxies, thereby helping astronomers conduct publishable research into galaxy morphologies and environments. Although the site was originally created to answer a few specific questions, some members of the community - both scientists and volunteers - have spontaneously developed an interest in a wider variety of questions. Volunteers have pursued answers to these questions with guidance from professional astronomers; in completing these projects, volunteers have independently used some of the same data viewing and analysis tools that professional astronomers use, and have even developed their own online tools. They have created their own research questions and their own plans for data analysis, and are planning to write scientific papers with the results to be submitted to peer-reviewed scientific journals. Volunteers have identified a number of such projects. These volunteer-initiated projects have extended the scientific reach of Galaxy Zoo, while also giving volunteers first-hand experience with the process of science. We are interested in the process by which volunteers become interested in volunteer-initiated projects, and what tasks they participate in, both initially and as their involvement increases. What motivates a volunteer to become involved in a volunteer-initiated project? How does his or her motivation change with further involvement? We are conducting a program of qualitative education research into these questions, using as data sources the posts that volunteers have made to the Galaxy Zoo forum and transcripts of interviews with volunteers.

  12. Poultry studies and anthropological research strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Poultry are not simply birds; they are also a human creation, a social and cultural practice. The human element is the justification for an anthropology of poultry. Such an anthropology combines the objective research strategies familiar to the natural sciences with what is often called 'subjective' or qualitative research. In the study of poultry management, it is important that both research strategies focus on differences and variation. The subjective approach is particularly useful in identifying and understanding how the motivations and strategies of local actors are dependent on the social positions, which they occupy in their specific societies. (author)

  13. Indtroduction To Research Methodologies In Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bahasa merupakan bidang yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar di Fakultas Sastra. Artikel ini mencoba menggambarkan berbagai metodologi riset dalam bidang bahasa dengan cara yang sederhana. Metodologi riset ini mencakup experimental research, quasi experimental research, etnografi, dan studi kasus. Artikel ini juga membahas konsep metode riset kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Masalah validitas dan keabsahan sebuah laporan riset dibahas secara singkat.

  14. Reasons for family involvement in elective surgical decision-making in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Ling; Huang, Chuen-Teng; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2017-07-01

    To inquire into the reasons for family involvement in adult patients' surgical decision-making processes from the point of view of the patients' family. Making a patient the centre of medical decision-making is essential for respecting individual's autonomy. However, in a Chinese society, family members are often deeply involved in a patient's medical decision-making. Although family involvement has long been viewed as an aspect of the Chinese culture, empirical evidence of the reasons for family involvement in medical decision-making has been lacking. A qualitative study. In order to record and examine reasons for family involvement in adult patients' surgical decision-making, 12 different family members of 12 elective surgery patients were interviewed for collecting and analysing data. Three major reasons for family involvement emerged from the data analyses: (1) to share responsibility; (2) to ensure the correctness of medical information; and (3) to safeguard the patient's well-being. These findings also reveal that culture is not the only reason for family involvement. Making decision to undergo a surgery is a tough and stressful process for a patient. Family may provide the patient with timely psychological support to assist the patient to communicate with his or her physician(s) and other medical personnel to ensure their rights. It is also found that due to the imbalanced doctor-patient power relationship, a patient may be unable, unwilling to, or even dare not, tell the whole truth about his or her illness or feelings to the medical personnel. Thus, a patient would expect his or her family to undertake such a mission during the informed consent and decision-making processes. The results of this study may provide medical professionals with relevant insights into family involvement in adult patients' surgical decision-making. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  16. Managing Supplier Involvement in New Product Development: A Multiple-Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E.A. van Echtelt (Ferrie); J.Y.F. Wynstra (Finn); A.J. van Weele (Arjan); G.M. Duysters (Geert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractExisting studies of supplier involvement in new product development have mainly focused on project-related short-term processes and success-factors. This study validates and extends an existing exploratory framework, which comprises both long-term strategic processes and short-term

  17. Managing supplier involvement in new product development : a multiple-case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echtelt, van F.E.A.; Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Weele, van A.J.; Duysters, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Existing studies of supplier involvement in new product development have mainly focused on project-related short-term processes and success factors. This study validates and extends an existing exploratory framework, which comprises both long-term strategic processes and short-term operational

  18. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  19. A rural community's involvement in the design and usability testing of a computer-based informed consent process for the Personalized Medicine Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnke, Andrea N; Plasek, Joseph M; Hoffman, David G; Partridge, Nathan S; Foth, Wendy S; Waudby, Carol J; Rasmussen, Luke V; McManus, Valerie D; McCarty, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Many informed consent studies demonstrate that research subjects poorly retain and understand information in written consent documents. Previous research in multimedia consent is mixed in terms of success for improving participants' understanding, satisfaction, and retention. This failure may be due to a lack of a community-centered design approach to building the interventions. The goal of this study was to gather information from the community to determine the best way to undertake the consent process. Community perceptions regarding different computer-based consenting approaches were evaluated, and a computer-based consent was developed and tested. A second goal was to evaluate whether participants make truly informed decisions to participate in research. Simulations of an informed consent process were videotaped to document the process. Focus groups were conducted to determine community attitudes towards a computer-based informed consent process. Hybrid focus groups were conducted to determine the most acceptable hardware device. Usability testing was conducted on a computer-based consent prototype using a touch-screen kiosk. Based on feedback, a computer-based consent was developed. Representative study participants were able to easily complete the consent, and all were able to correctly answer the comprehension check questions. Community involvement in developing a computer-based consent proved valuable for a population-based genetic study. These findings may translate to other types of informed consents, including those for trials involving treatment of genetic disorders. A computer-based consent may serve to better communicate consistent, clear, accurate, and complete information regarding the risks and benefits of study participation. Additional analysis is necessary to measure the level of comprehension of the check-question answers by larger numbers of participants. The next step will involve contacting participants to measure whether understanding of

  20. Applying the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) approach to a large pragmatic study involving safety net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coury, Jennifer; Schneider, Jennifer L; Rivelli, Jennifer S; Petrik, Amanda F; Seibel, Evelyn; D'Agostini, Brieshon; Taplin, Stephen H; Green, Beverly B; Coronado, Gloria D

    2017-06-19

    The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle is a commonly used improvement process in health care settings, although its documented use in pragmatic clinical research is rare. A recent pragmatic clinical research study, called the Strategies and Opportunities to STOP Colon Cancer in Priority Populations (STOP CRC), used this process to optimize the research implementation of an automated colon cancer screening outreach program in intervention clinics. We describe the process of using this PDSA approach, the selection of PDSA topics by clinic leaders, and project leaders' reactions to using PDSA in pragmatic research. STOP CRC is a cluster-randomized pragmatic study that aims to test the effectiveness of a direct-mail fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) program involving eight Federally Qualified Health Centers in Oregon and California. We and a practice improvement specialist trained in the PDSA process delivered structured presentations to leaders of these centers; the presentations addressed how to apply the PDSA process to improve implementation of a mailed outreach program offering colorectal cancer screening through FIT tests. Center leaders submitted PDSA plans and delivered reports via webinar at quarterly meetings of the project's advisory board. Project staff conducted one-on-one, 45-min interviews with project leads from each health center to assess the reaction to and value of the PDSA process in supporting the implementation of STOP CRC. Clinic-selected PDSA activities included refining the intervention staffing model, improving outreach materials, and changing workflow steps. Common benefits of using PDSA cycles in pragmatic research were that it provided a structure for staff to focus on improving the program and it allowed staff to test the change they wanted to see. A commonly reported challenge was measuring the success of the PDSA process with the available electronic medical record tools. Understanding how the PDSA process can be applied to pragmatic

  1. Patient engagement with research: European population register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKevitt, Christopher; Fudge, Nina; Crichton, Siobhan; Bejot, Yannick; Daubail, Benoît; Di Carlo, Antonio; Fearon, Patricia; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter; Sheldenkar, Anita; Newbound, Sophie; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-12-01

    Lay involvement in implementation of research evidence into practice may include using research findings to guide individual care, as well as involvement in research processes and policy development. Little is known about the conditions required for such involvement. To assess stroke survivors' research awareness, use of research evidence in their own care and readiness to be involved in research processes. Cross sectional survey of stroke survivors participating in population-based stroke registers in six European centres. The response rate was 74% (481/647). Reasons for participation in register research included responding to clinician request (56%) and to 'give something back' (19%); however, 20% were unaware that they were participating in a stroke register. Research awareness was generally low: 57% did not know the purpose of the register they had been recruited to; 73% reported not having received results from the register they took part in; 60% did not know about any research on stroke care. Few participants (7.6%) used research evidence during their consultations with a doctor. The 34% of participants who were interested in being involved in research were younger, more highly educated and already research aware. Across Europe, stroke survivors already participating in research appear ill informed about stroke research. Researchers, healthcare professionals and patient associations need to improve how research results are communicated to patient populations and research participants, and to raise awareness of the relationship between research evidence and increased quality of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stakeholder involvement in other sectors. High Voltage Electricity Transmission. Case study: CO_2 capture and storage. Common misconceptions on stakeholder involvement - Reviewing deployment of RES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolsink, Maarten; Komendantova, Nadejda; Kalaydjian, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Komendantova of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis pointed out that at higher levels of involvement several different ways can be found to share power. These include distributing responsibilities for planning and decision making (partnership) or allocating a majority of seats on review committees to citizen representatives (citizen control). Alongside choosing the right level of involvement, the approach must be tailored to the setting. Ms Komendantova presented the BESTGRID research project in the European Union, which tested and studied alternative approaches to stakeholder engagement in trans-border high-voltage transmission line projects. Different methods may be needed for engaging specific sets of people, according to such factors as age, technological familiarity, geographic situation and possibly national culture. Mr Kalaydjian pointed to the research project SiteChar-CO2, juxtaposing the reasoning of stakeholders in different locations (in Poland and in Scotland) who held different levels of knowledge of carbon capture and storage technology, and who varied in their proximity to the proposed pilot sites. Their views on economics, risks, etc. in each case also had distinct implications in terms of expected actions by national actors or by local site operators. Stakeholder concerns can be mapped into several main areas, which were echoed by the various studies presented in Session 7. Mr Wolsink insisted on the issue of perceived need for the project, and stakeholders' demand to choose among real options. He described a failed wind power development in the early 2000's which excluded local stakeholders with knowledge and interests in the proposed locations, considered only a narrow set of alternatives without meaningful distinctions between them, and utilised a technocratic decision process that selected an implementation with significant opposition when other locations would have been generally acceptable to stakeholders. BESTGRID found that areas

  3. A review of the issues and challenges involved in using participant-produced photographs in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Claire; Griffiths, Frances; Dunn, Janet

    2015-07-01

    To discuss the issues and challenges that may occur when using participant-produced photographs in nursing research. The place of visual representation in society is increasingly being recognized and there is a growing discussion on the advantages of implementing visual methods, such as photography, in health and illness research. Integrating photographs has much potential for both nurse researchers and participants but it remains a novel method of gathering qualitative data and many aspects have had little consideration in the nursing and medical literature. This paper presents a discussion of some of the issues that may arise when using photographs as data. It draws on examples of the insights and experiences we had when we asked study participants to produce photographs to complement their interviews designed to explore their experience of living after cancer. Discussion paper This paper is based on our own experiences and supported by literature and theory. Disseminating this research has prompted much interest from nurses and clinical staff. This paper should highlight some of the factors that may need to be addressed before employing such a novel method, thus ensuring the research process is positive and the outcome relevant for all parties. Examples are used here to illustrate practical, ethical and philosophical issues around the research plan, creating and interpreting photographic data, confidentiality and copyright and analysing and disseminating photographs produced for research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Whistleblowing: An integrative literature review of data-based studies involving nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Hickman, Louise D; Hutchinson, Marie; Andrew, Sharon; Smith, James; Potgieter, Ingrid; Cleary, Michelle; Peters, Kath

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To summarise and critique the research literature about whistleblowing and nurses. Whistleblowing is identified as a crucial issue in maintenance of healthcare standards and nurses are frequently involved in whistleblowing events. Despite the importance of this issue, to our knowledge an evaluation of this body of the data-based literature has not been undertaken. An integrative literature review approach was used to summarise and critique the research literature. A comprehensive search of five databases including Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and Health Science: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Google, were searched using terms including: 'Whistleblow*,' 'nurs*.' In addition, relevant journals were examined, as well as reference lists of retrieved papers. Papers published during the years 2007-2013 were selected for inclusion. Fifteen papers were identified, capturing data from nurses in seven countries. The findings in this review demonstrate a growing body of research for the nursing profession at large to engage and respond appropriately to issues involving suboptimal patient care or organisational wrongdoing. Nursing plays a key role in maintaining practice standards and in reporting care that is unacceptable although the repercussions to nurses who raise concerns are insupportable. Overall, whistleblowing and how it influences the individual, their family, work colleagues, nursing practice and policy overall, requires further national and international research attention.

  5. Involving fathers in teaching youth about farm tractor seatbelt safety--a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida Amirali; Stoneman, Zolinda; Rains, Glen

    2014-03-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injury and deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Farm machinery, especially tractors, is the most common cause of casualties to youth. A Roll-Over Protection Structure (ROPS) along with a fastened seatbelt can prevent almost all injuries and fatalities from tractor overturns. Despite this knowledge, the use of seatbelts by farmers on ROPS tractors remains low. This study treats farm safety as a family issue and builds on the central role of parents as teachers and role models of farm safety for youth. This research study used a longitudinal, repeated-measures, randomized-control design in which youth 10-19 years of age were randomly assigned to either of two intervention groups (parent-led group and staff-led group) or the control group. Fathers in the parent-led group were less likely to operate ROPS tractors without a seatbelt compared with other groups. They were more likely to have communicated with youth about the importance of wearing seatbelts on ROPS tractors. Consequently, youth in the parent-led group were less likely to operate a ROPS tractor without a seatbelt than the control group at post-test. This randomized control trial supports the effectiveness of a home-based, father-led farm safety intervention as a promising strategy for reducing youth as well as father-unsafe behaviors (related to tractor seatbelts) on the farm. This intervention appealed to fathers' strong motivation to practice tractor safety for the sake of their youth. Involving fathers helped change both father as well as youth unsafe tractor-seatbelt behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of covariances involved in the k0 method of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanderlei

    2011-01-01

    This work aimed the development of a methodology for the treatment of uncertainty in the k 0 Method for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), comprehensively and accurately, by applying the covariance analysis methodology. All parameters involved in determining the concentration of a given element were analyzed with criteria in order to establish the correlations among them. Also established were the possible correlations between the concentrations of different elements for the same sample and for different samples. This procedure generated a large number of correlations that have been rigorously addressed. Data for analysis were obtained experimentally by means of irradiations performed at 24A irradiation position, near the core of the IEA-R1 research reactor, located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The parameters α and f, characterizing the neutron field were determined by applying several methods from the literature. A detailed statistical treatment was applied to each measurement, verifying the various uncertainties and partial correlations. In order to deepen the study, targets of 64 Zn and 68 Zn were chosen, for which the nuclear parameters k 0 and Q 0 showed discrepancies in the literature in order to determine them experimentally. For 64 Zn, the values for these parameters resulted 5.63(8) x 10 -3 and 1.69(6), respectively. For 68 Zn they resulted 4.00(6) x 10 -4 and 2.34(4), respectively. These values were compared with data from the literature. The Monte Carlo method was applied at various stages of study, to allow accurate determination of some parameters needed for the complete data analysis. (author)

  7. Pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without extrapulmonary involvement: a cross-sectional and observational study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Tao, Ru-Jia; Zou, Dan-Feng; Li, Man-Hui; Xu, Xin; Cao, Wei-Jun

    2018-02-16

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterised by the formation of granulomas within various organs, mainly the lungs. Several studies from different countries have been undertaken to investigate sarcoidosis with extrapulmonary involvement except from China. The objective of this study is to investigate a comparative clinical analysis in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without extrapulmonary involvement from China. Data from inpatients diagnosed with sarcoidosis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrospectively collected and analysed. Six hundred and thirty-six patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were included in the study, including 378 isolated pulmonary sarcoidosis and 258 pulmonary sarcoidosis plus extrapulmonary involvement. Two hundred and fifty-eight (40.6%) patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis had extrapulmonary involvement. Extrapulmonary localisations were detected mostly in extrathoracic lymph nodes (n=147) and skin (n=86). Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis plus extrapulmonary involvement and patients with isolated pulmonary sarcoidosis for fatigue (16.6%vs8.3%, PSACE) levels (79.0±46.9 IU/L vs 69.7±38.7 IU/L, PSACE levels and more deteriorating HRCT findings, to which clinicians should pay attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Kearns, Lisa S; Clarke, Linda; Dick, Jonathan; Hill, Catherine L; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-01-01

    Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) and Research Governance Offices (RGOs) across Australia. In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a "National Ethics Application Form" and three a "Low Negligible Risk" form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22) and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days). We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently.

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on adolescents' smoking involvement: a multi-informant twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seglem, Karoline Brobakke; Waaktaar, Trine; Ask, Helga; Torgersen, Svenn

    2015-03-01

    Studying monozygotic and dizygotic adolescent twin pairs of both sexes reared together, the present study examined the extent to which the variance in smoking involvement is attributable to genetic and environmental effects, and to what extent there are sex differences in the etiology. Questionnaire data on how often the adolescent had ever smoked tobacco was collected from a population-based twin sample consisting of seven national birth cohorts (ages 12-18), their mothers, and their fathers (N = 1,394 families). The data was analyzed with multivariate genetic modeling, using a multi-informant design. The etiological structure of smoking involvement was best represented in an ACE common pathway model, with smoking defined as a latent factor loading onto all three informants' reports. Estimates could be set equal across sexes. Results showed that adolescent lifetime smoking involvement was moderately heritable (37 %). The largest influence was from the shared environment (56 %), while environmental effects unique to each twin had minimal influence (7 %).

  10. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (a) theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (b) one cannot generalize from a single case, therefore, the single-case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (c) the case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  11. The Study of Male Involvement in Prenatal Care in Shahroud and Sabzevar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Male involvement like women empowerment and maternal health is one of the main strategies in achieving millennium development goals. To prepare the theoretical grounds necessary for male involvement, this descriptive study specifically aims to understand the prevalence and the forms of male involvement in maternal health. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study. Subjects consisted of women hospitalized for delivery in Shahrood and Sabsevar hospitals, Iran. Inclusion criteria were alive and healthy fetus. Exclusion criteria were illegal pregnancy. The questionnaires were completed by 507 women and 420 husbands. Data were analyzed using t-test, Pearson correlation and descriptive tests.Results: 17% of men didn’t attend at the time of woman’s admission at the hospital. Low level of husband’s companionship to health centers, low male involvement in household tasks and receiving low health recommendation by husbands were reported by 25%, 33% and 61% of the women, respectively. 77% of men had a low level of knowledge concerning pregnancy complications; however, 93% of them were aware of their wives’ problems in pregnancy. Conclusion: The observed awareness of men of their wives’ problems in pregnancy and their companionship in receiving prenatal care indicates their high level of interest in pregnancy health; however, their low level of knowledge concerning pregnancy problems, women’s physical and psychological needs is an important barrier to male involvement in maternal health. Designing and providing reproductive health education programs for men seems to be necessary.

  12. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  13. A Preliminary Exploration of Operating Models of Second Cycle/Research Led Open Education Involving Industry Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from five Swedish universities were interviewed about open second cycle education. Research groups and scientists collaborate closely with industry, and the selection of scientists for the study was made in relation to an interest in developing technology-enhanced open education, indicated by applications for funding from the Knowledge…

  14. Community-Involved Learning to Expand Possibilities for Vulnerable Children: A Critical Communicative, Sen's Capability, and Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on a case study of vulnerable children in Korea, used a mixed methods transformative approach to explore strategies to support and help disadvantaged children. The methodological approach includes three phases: a mixed methods contextual analysis, a qualitative dominant analysis based on Sen's capability approach and critical…

  15. Campus Community Involvement in an Experimental Food Research Project Increases Students' Motivation and Improves Perceived Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K.; Bianco-Simeral, S.

    2009-01-01

    Although the effects of pedagogical strategies using collaborative learning on students' perceived learning outcomes have been studied, little has been examined about possible benefits and challenges in collaborating with the campus community in a food science research project conducted by nutrition majors. We examined the effects of involving…

  16. Increasing Public Access to Scientific Research through Stakeholder Involvement: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D. E.; Ruple, D.; Graham, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) has the potential to have a myriad of deleterious effects on coastal ecology and human infrastructure. Stakeholders, including managers of coastal resources, must be aware of potential consequences of SLR and adjust their plans accordingly to protect and preserve the resources under their care. Members of the public, particularly those who live or work in coastal areas, should also be informed about the results of scientific research on the effects of SLR. However, research results are frequently published in venues or formats to which resource managers and the broader public have limited access. It is imperative for scientists to move beyond traditional publication venues in order to more effectively disseminate the results of their research (Dennison, W. 2007, Estu. Coast. Shelf Sci. 77, 185). One potentially effective way to advance public access to research is to incorporate stakeholder involvement into the research project process in order to target study objectives and tailor communication products toward stakeholder needs (Lemos, M. & Morehouse, B. 2005, Glob. Env. Chg. 15, 57). However, it is important to manage communication and clarify participant expectations during this type of research (Gawith, M. et al. 2009, Glob. Env. Chg. 19, 113). This presentation describes the process being undertaken by an ongoing 5-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM), to improve accessibility and utility of scientific research results through stakeholder engagement. The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing the ecological risks from SLR along the Mississippi, Alabama and Florida Panhandle coasts, coastal habitats, and floodplains. It has incorporated stakeholder involvement throughout the research process so as to better target and tailor the emerging research products to meet resource managers' needs, as well as to facilitate eventual public dissemination of results. An

  17. American Indian Studies. Library Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University doing library research in topics related to American Indian Studies begins by noting that information on North American Indians can be found in a variety of subject disciplines including history, anthropology, education, sociology, health care, law, business, and politics. The…

  18. The Evolution of Family Studies Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Beth C.; Lloyd, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    This review of methodological, theoretical, and topical trends in family studies research covers changes in definitions of family and in marriage, parent-child relationships, and family social ecology. Issues discussed include marital satisfaction, violence, social construction of gender, family-work relationship, parenting roles, socialization,…

  19. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  20. Local Skills Case Study. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anne; Hogarth, Terence; Thom, Graham; MacLeod, Katie; Warhurst, Chris; Willis, Robert; Mackay, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This study, jointly conducted by the University of Warwick Institute for Employment Research (IER) and SQW Ltd., discusses the UK Government's intention to accelerate the process of ceding more responsibility for delivering a range of services to the local level. The logic is that local actors are better placed to identify local priorities. This…

  1. Exploring the characteristics, global distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants: a literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Kamel, Mariam; Jin, Yanling; Xu, Michael Kuan; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Samaan, Zainab; Levine, Mitchell Ah; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-01-01

    Article retraction is a measure taken by journals or authors where there is evidence of research misconduct or error, redundancy, plagiarism or unethical research. Recently, the retraction of scientific publications has been on the rise. In this survey, we aimed to describe the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. We searched retracted articles on the PubMed database and Retraction Watch website from 1980 to February 2016. The primary outcomes were the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. The secondary outcomes included how article retractions were handled by journals and how to improve the journal practices toward article retractions. We included 1,339 retracted articles. Most retracted articles had six authors or fewer. Article retraction was most common in the USA (26%), Japan (11%) and Germany (10%). The main reasons for article retraction were misconduct (51%, n = 685) and error (14%, n = 193). There were 66% (n = 889) of retracted articles having male senior or corresponding authors. Of the articles retracted after August 2010, 63% (n = 567) retractions were reported on Retraction Watch. Large discrepancies were observed in the ways that different journals handled article retractions. For instance, articles were completely withdrawn from some journals, while in others, articles were still available with no indication of retraction. Likewise, some retraction notices included a detailed account of the events that led to article retraction, while others only consisted of a statement indicating the article retraction. The characteristics, geographic distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants were examined in this survey. More efforts are needed to improve the consistency and transparency of journal practices toward article retractions.

  2. Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

  3. Department Involvement in Instructional Materials Development for ODL Study at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai; Mutambanengwe, Betty

    2015-01-01

    The teaching and designing of modules at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the principal responsibility of a single body of teaching staff, although some authors and content reviewers could be sourced from elsewhere if they are not available in ZOU. This survey, through a case study, examines the involvement of lecturers and staff in the…

  4. The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2011-01-01

    Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....

  5. Governing integration through sports. A case study of civil society involvement in welfare policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Michelsen la Cour, Annette

    2012-01-01

    governing techniques of the welfare state. To do so, a case study approach is applied. First of all, the article will describe the ways in which the issues of enhancing ethnic integration through sports is represented (thought of as a problem) by the involved public authorities and non-state actors using...

  6. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  7. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia involving with mediastinal lymph nodes: radiologic study of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo Garcia, A.; Gordillo Gutierrez, I.; Guembe Urtiaga, P.

    1994-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an uncommon disorder in our setting. Chest x-ray is essential to diagnosis. To date, we have found only three reported cases in which mediastinal lymph nodes were involved. We present three additional cases with standard thoracic study. (Author)

  8. Study on the decommissioning of research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Doo Hwan; Jun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Lee, Tae Yung; Kwon, Sang Woon; Lee, Jong Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Currently, KAERI operates TRIGA Mark-II and TRIGA Mark-III research reactors as a general purpose research and training facility. As these are, however, situated at Seoul office site of KAERI which is scheduled to be transferred to KEPCO as well as 30 MW HANARO research reactor which is expected to reach the first criticality in 1995 is under construction at head site of KAERI, decommissioning of TRIGA reactors has become an important topic. The objective of this study is to prepare and present TRIGA facility decontamination and decommissioning plan. Estimation of the radioactive inventory in TRIGA research reactor was carried out by the use of computational method. In addition, summarized in particular were the methodologies associated with decontamination, segmenting processes for activated metallic components, disposition of wastes. Particular consideration in this study was focused available technology applicable to decommissioning of TRIGA research reactor. State-of-the-art summaries of the available technology for decommissioning presented here will serve a useful document for preparations for decommissioning in the future. 6 figs, 41 tabs, 30 refs. (Author).

  9. Integrated Food studies education and research:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Weinreich; Hansen, Stine Rosenlund

    2018-01-01

    The research group Foodscapes Innovation and Networks has addressed integrated food studies issues in re-search and education since 2010. Based on experiences in the group, this paper aims at discussing the chal-lenges, learning outcomes and potentials for pushing an integrated thinking into rese......The research group Foodscapes Innovation and Networks has addressed integrated food studies issues in re-search and education since 2010. Based on experiences in the group, this paper aims at discussing the chal-lenges, learning outcomes and potentials for pushing an integrated thinking...... into research and education. It also addresses the challenges in integration when the methodological approaches and theoretical frameworks chosen are ontologically and epistemologically different. A discussion of the limitations of integration is thus also part of the paper. The conceptual framework...... of ontonorms (Mol, 2013) is suggested as a common point of departure for a further development of integration. This is suggested relevant due to the fact that it forces different traditions to reflect their own value-related basis and discuss implications of this approach in a broader sense. The common values...

  10. Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Claire

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public involvement in research on sensitive subjects, such as death and dying, can help to ensure that questions are framed to reflect the interests of their peers, develop a shared understanding of issues raised, and moderate the often unequal power relationship between researcher and participant. This paper describes the contribution and impact of older members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg to a study on living and dying in care homes. Methods A longitudinal study, with a mixed method approach, its aims were to capture key experiences, events and change over one year, of older people resident in participating care homes in the East of England. Residents were interviewed up to three times and their case notes were reviewed four times over the year. Interviews were semi structured, and recorded. Four members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg contributed to preliminary discussions about the research and three were involved with many of the subsequent stages of the research process including the facilitation of discussion groups with residents. Results There were three areas where the involvement of the Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg positively influenced the study process. These were recruitment, governance and safeguarding, and in collaboration with the residents in the care homes, the discussion and interpretation of emergent findings. PIRg members were of similar age to the residents and their involvement provided different and often more reflective insights of the significance of the findings for the participants. There were examples where decision making about the range of PIRg participation was not always negotiable, and this raised issues about power relationships within the team. Nevertheless, PIRg members expressed personal benefit and satisfaction through participating in the research and a commitment to continue to support research with this older age group. Conclusions

  11. CT and pathologic studies in detecting hepatic involvement of malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Atsushi; Niibe, Hideo; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the value of CT in detecting lymphomatous involvement of the liver, 57 autopsied cases (48 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 9 of Hodgkin's disease) were analyzed in detail. Additionally, 90 recent cases of abdominal CT with liver study in the initial staging were reviewed and 6 cases in which the liver had been examined within 2 weeks before autopsy were compared for macroscopic and pathologic findings. The following results were obtained. 1) Autopsy findings in 57 cases of malignant lymphoma. (1) Hepatic involvement was demonstrated in 56% of the patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and in 67% of those with Hodgkin's disease. (2) Of these patients with hepatic involvement, intrahepatic nodular lesions over 1.0cm in diameter were macroscopically identified in 22% of the cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 33% of those with Hodgkin's disease. (3) Lymphomatous involvements were seen in many organs in the cases of hepatic involvement. 2) CT examinations of 90 cases for the initial staging showed no significant abnormality in the liver or spleen. 3) Of the 6 cases in which the liver was examined by CT within about 2 weeks before autopsy, lymphomatous involvemet was pathologically diagnosed in 5. Of these, only one having multiple nodules larger than the tip of a thumb was correctly diagnosed by CT. 4) Hepatic involvement of lymphoma was thought to be the end stage, and minimal or early disease was detected in the region of Glisson's capsule. The above findings indicate that early hepatic involvement is not likely to be detected by CT at the present time. (author)

  12. Means-end chains for low involvement products: A study of Danish consumers' cognitions regarding different applications of vegetable oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Grunert, Klaus G.

    value maps', which are normally used for analysing laddering data, have been criticised for being questionable representations of raw data. 3. This paper reports on a study in which laddering was used to measure means-end chains for a low involvement product (vegetable oil), explicitly controlling....... 2. Some of the critique relates to the use of laddering with low involvement products, neglect of the situational factor when making laddering interviews, and the lack of a link from means-ends chains to constructs which are closer to the actual behaviour of consumers. Furthermore 'hierarchical...... for the situation. Also, a possible way of linking means-ends data to overall product perceptions and alternat the 'hierarchical value map' analysis are presented. 4. The study presented is part of the Danish research project Rape seed oil for human consumption. Although modern Danish rape seed oil has nutritional...

  13. Using peer-mediated instruction to support communication involving a student with autism during mathematics activities: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paulo; Alant, Erna

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an A-B singled subject design to explore the extent to which a peer-mediated intervention supported a first-grade student with autism's usage both in purpose and frequency of a speech-generating device (SGD) during mathematics activities. The intervention involved teaching a peer without a disability to encourage the student with autism to use the SGD during partnered mathematics activities. Our analysis involved visual and descriptive examination of trends and patterns over time, and comparison of means between and within phases. We found during the course of this study that (1) the student with autism's level of overall communication, which included the relevancy of these communicative behaviors, increased; (2) the student with autism's level of spontaneous communication acts increased; and (3) the peer became more independent with supporting the student with autism's communication. Implications for future research and practice are provided.

  14. Public and patient involvement in needs assessment and social innovation: a people-centred approach to care and research for congenital disorders of glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Cláudia; Dos Reis, Vanessa; Silva, Susana; Videira, Paula A; Morava, Eva; Jaeken, Jaak

    2017-09-26

    Public and patient involvement in the design of people-centred care and research is vital for communities whose needs are underserved, as are people with rare diseases. Innovations devised collectively by patients, caregivers, professionals and other members of the public can foster transformative change toward more responsive services and research. However, attempts to involve lay and professional stakeholders in devising community-framed strategies to address the unmet needs of rare diseases are lacking. In this study, we engaged with the community of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) to assess its needs and elicit social innovations to promote people-centred care and research. Drawing on a qualitative study, we conducted three think tanks in France with a total of 48 participants, including patients/family members (n = 18), health care professionals (n = 7), researchers (n = 7) and people combining several of these roles (n = 16). Participants came from 20 countries across five continents. They were selected from the registry of the Second World Conference on CDG through heterogeneity and simple random sampling. Inductive and deductive approaches were employed to conduct interpretational analysis using open, axial and selective coding, and the constant-comparison method to facilitate the emergence of categories and core themes. The CDG community has unmet needs for information, quality health care, psychosocial support and representation in decision-making concerned with care and research. According to participants, these needs can be addressed through a range of social innovations, including peer-support communities, web-based information resources and a CDG expertise platform. This is one of the few studies to engage lay and professional experts in needs assessment and innovation for CDG at a global level. Implementing the innovations proposed by the CDG community is likely to have ethical, legal and social implications associated with the

  15. The Role of Involvement as a Moderating Variable in a Country of Origin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindang Matoati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect that the country of design and the country of manufacture has on the perceived quality of a product, and the role of involvement as a moderating variable. The conceptual framework has been tested using laboratory experiments that included a 2x2x2 between the subject’s factorial designs. Data have been collected using a randomization method to reduce any bias in the group’s variations. This data were analyzed using a one-way and two-way ANOVA. The results indicate that there is no difference between the high and low points of a product’s perceived quality, based on its country of design. Conversely, a favorable country of manufacture results in a higher perceived quality for its products, than for those of a lower scoring country of manufacture. Furthermore, consumers’ involvement, as a moderating variable, limits the strength of the country of design and the perceived quality’s relationship as this relationship is found to be stronger in circumstances where the consumers’ involvement is greater than in the less involved group’s condition. However, consumers’ involvement does not have any role as a moderating variable in the relationship between the country of manufacture and the perceived quality.

  16. A study for the KAERI research tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.; Hwang, Y. S.; Park, H. S.; Park, S. K.; Park, B. Y.; Bang, K. S.; Kuh, J. H.; Kang, K. H

    1997-12-01

    Major goal of the R and D on the KAERI Research Tunnel in 1997 are 1) concept development of the KAERI research tunnel and its major units 2) computer simulation of facilities 3) study on thermo-hydro mechanical coupling in the vicinity of a waste repository 4) effect of excavated distrubed zone. In addition supplementary site investigation to understand the distribution of stresses in the site was done along with long term monitoring of the water table. (author). 44 refs., 16 tabs., 36 figs

  17. A Case Study of Ethnic Minorities as Tourism Entrepreneurs: Their Involvement in Sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Miral

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most tourism activities excluding the e-tourism activities as matter of their nature (service taker and provider take place face to face between people. In addition tourism activities encourage bonding people both for tourists and the tourism services providers. Tourism creates cohesion for many different cultural groups. One of the cities in Turkey, Izmir is a good example with including too many culturally oriented groups such as Levantines, Greek, Jewish, rarely Armenians. In this paper there are two research questions are hold; how is being the other (ethnic minority as tourism entrepreneurs in tourism industry in Izmir and their involvement in sustainable tourism development is investigated and if tourism activities help connecting different cultural groups together and closer is investigated. So regarding these research questions, the research methodology in this paper is qualitative. For that reason, semi structured interview technique is applied to people are belong to different cultural groups and identities whom entrepreneurs in tourism industry. Semi structured interview technique is a commonly used an interview method depending on providing deep understanding of participants` perceptions, thoughts and behaviors. In general, understanding of the other brings feeling respect to others` cultural beliefs and lifestyle and this will make peace and harmony to where they live together. As a result, with the light of these research questions being the other entrepreneurship in sustainable tourism development in Izmir is evaluated. Furthermore, in this research is tried to indicate the advantageous and disadvantageous and importance of different cultural groups for sustainable tourism development

  18. Renal and perirenal space involvement in acute pancreatitis: An MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing Hui, E-mail: lixinghui1005@126.com [Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000 (China); Zhang, Xiao Ming, E-mail: cjr.zhxm@vip.163.com [Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000 (China); Ji, Yi Fan, E-mail: 526504036@qq.com [Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000 (China); Jing, Zong Lin, E-mail: jzl325@163.com [Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000 (China); Huang, Xiao Hua, E-mail: nc_hxh1966@yahoo.com.cn [Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000 (China); Yang, Lin, E-mail: linyangmd@163.com [Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000 (China); Zhai, Zhao Hua, E-mail: zhaizhaohuada@163.com [Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: To study the prevalence and characteristics of renal and perirenal space involvement and its relation to the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) using MRI. Methods: 115 patients with AP who underwent MRI with the clinical kidney function test were retrospectively analyzed in this study. MRI sequences included conventional and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequences. The renal and perirenal space involvement in AP was noted on MRI. The renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on DWI was measured for each kidney. The severity of AP on MRI was graded using MR severity index (MRSI). The relationships among the renal and perirenal space involvement on MRI, the renal ADC, MRSI and the results of the kidney function test were analyzed. Results: In the 115 patients with AP, the renal and perirenal space abnormalities detected included renal parenchymal abnormalities (0.8%), abnormalities of the renal collecting system (2.6%), renal vascular abnormalities (1.7%), thickened renal fascia (99%), perirenal stranding (62%) and perirenal fluid collection (40%). The prevalence of perirenal space abnormalities was correlated with the severity of AP based on MRSI (P < 0.05). The renal ADC values were lower in patients with abnormal kidney function than in those without kidney injury (P < 0.05). The prevalence of kidney function abnormalities was 9.4%, 32% and 100% in mild, moderate, and severe AP cases, respectively (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Perirenal space involvement is much more than renal parenchymal involvement in AP. The prevalence of perirenal space involvement in AP on MRI has a positive correlation with the severity of AP according to MRSI.

  19. Renal and perirenal space involvement in acute pancreatitis: An MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xing Hui; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Ji, Yi Fan; Jing, Zong Lin; Huang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Lin; Zhai, Zhao Hua

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the prevalence and characteristics of renal and perirenal space involvement and its relation to the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) using MRI. Methods: 115 patients with AP who underwent MRI with the clinical kidney function test were retrospectively analyzed in this study. MRI sequences included conventional and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequences. The renal and perirenal space involvement in AP was noted on MRI. The renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on DWI was measured for each kidney. The severity of AP on MRI was graded using MR severity index (MRSI). The relationships among the renal and perirenal space involvement on MRI, the renal ADC, MRSI and the results of the kidney function test were analyzed. Results: In the 115 patients with AP, the renal and perirenal space abnormalities detected included renal parenchymal abnormalities (0.8%), abnormalities of the renal collecting system (2.6%), renal vascular abnormalities (1.7%), thickened renal fascia (99%), perirenal stranding (62%) and perirenal fluid collection (40%). The prevalence of perirenal space abnormalities was correlated with the severity of AP based on MRSI (P < 0.05). The renal ADC values were lower in patients with abnormal kidney function than in those without kidney injury (P < 0.05). The prevalence of kidney function abnormalities was 9.4%, 32% and 100% in mild, moderate, and severe AP cases, respectively (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Perirenal space involvement is much more than renal parenchymal involvement in AP. The prevalence of perirenal space involvement in AP on MRI has a positive correlation with the severity of AP according to MRSI.

  20. Human needs as predictors for organizational commitment and job involvement: An exploratory empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yang-Kyu; Lee, Chul-in; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    While the literature on the determinants of organizational commitment (OC) and job involvement (JI) is vast, little has been studied about the impact of human needs. In search for the institutional stars, this study examines whether human needs can serve a predictor for both high OC and high JI. Exploratory empirical results based on quantile regressions suggest that the needs for achievement, belonging, and power are more important than others in predicting OC and JI. In addition, the basic ...

  1. Involving parents in cognitive-behavioral therapy for child anxiety problems: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddaway, Andy P; Wood, Alex M; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This case study examines how parents can be incorporated into all aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety problems. This is an important issue, because although there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for incorporating parents into treatment, evidence from randomized controlled trials has so far been inconclusive about whether outcomes are improved by involving parents. This case study describes the clinical benefits of a balanced focus on parent and child f...

  2. Involving migrants in the development of guidelines for communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations: a participatory learning and action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; MacFarlane, Anne; de Brún, Tomas; Okonkwo, Ekaterina; Bonsenge Bokanga, Jean Samuel; Manuela De Almeida Silva, Maria; Ogbebor, Florence; Mierzejewska, Aga; Nnadi, Lovina; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris

    2015-09-21

    The aim of this research was to involve migrants and other key stakeholders in a participatory dialogue to develop a guideline for enhancing communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations. In this paper, we focus on findings about the use of formal versus informal interpreters because dialogues about these issues emerged as central to the identification of recommendations for best practice. This qualitative case study involved a Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research methodology. The sample comprised 80 stakeholders: 51 from migrant communities; 15 general practitioners (GPs) and general practice staff; 7 established migrants as peer researchers; 5 formal, trained interpreters; and 2 service planners from the national health authority. Galway, Ireland. There was 100% consensus across stakeholder groups that while informal interpreters have uses for migrants and general practice staff, they are not considered acceptable as best practice. There was also 100% consensus that formal interpreters who are trained and working as per a professional code of practice are acceptable as best practice. Policymakers and service planners need to work in partnership with service providers and migrants to progress the implementation of professional, trained interpreters as a routine way of working in general practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. A study of Generation Z’s involvement in virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchkova E.B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study analyzes the characteristics of modern teenagers’ involvement in virtual reality (VR. It also examines various approaches to VR in Russian science. In the current study the concept of virtual reality is defined as a particular informational environment in which a person can exist and develop. It is created by a special class of technical systems, formed on the basis of computer hypertext technology, and has a number of social and psychological characteristics. We pay special attention to the significance of virtual space for generation Z (according to the William Strauss and Neil Howe generational theory. The main factor determining the unique psychological features of the generation Z is its active involvement in virtual reality from the moment of birth. Involvement in a virtual reality is measurable by a teenager’s activity on the Internet. Objective. Our study set out to determine the level of Russian generation Z’s involvement in virtual reality. Design. We analyzed the results of a survey conducted among Moscow adolescents using multivariate profiles. Two hundred fifty-four teenagers 12-14 years old were interviewed during the study. Results and conclusion. Analysis of the data revealed the following: Modern teenagers are involved in VR with varying degrees of depth; their main type of activity on the Internet is searching for educational information and news; and no significant differences by gender in the purposes of using the Internet were found. However, it was also determined that girls’ activity in VR is more related to communication and interpersonal interaction, even though it’s indirect via the Internet, while boys prefer the “gaming” possibilities of VR; that teenagers are rather critical of the information they obtain by the Internet, and that their level of trust in the online information is low. The same trend is evident in the fact that students prefer not to make new friends in virtual

  4. Researches in agri-food supply chain: A bibliometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisjam, Muhammad; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2017-11-01

    Agri-food is very important for human being. Problems in managing agri-food are very complicated. There are many entities involved in managing agri-food with conflict of interest between them makes the problems become more complicated. Using supply chain approaches in agri-food will help solving the problems. The purpose of this paper is to show that the publications in agri-food supply chain research area are still promising and to show the research trend in agri-food supply chain. The study was a bibliometric study by using some queries on the website with the largest database of peer-reviewed literature. The queries were using various categories and refinements. Firstly the study was exploring all publications in this research area in some categories and then divided the duration into 2 intervals. The last query was to know how many publications are review type publications. The results show that the number of the publications with agri-food supply chain topics are still limited, and tend to increase. It means researches in this area are still promising. The results also show the most publications are from which source title, country, and affiliation. The results also show the research trend in this research area. The quantities of review type publications in agri-food supply chain are still few. It shows the need for more review type publications in this area.

  5. Studying and researching with social media

    CERN Document Server

    Poore, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Wondering what your lecturers are looking for in a blog post? Asking yourself how that's different from writing an essay (or a wiki page)? Unsure if Twitter really can be used to build your online profile as a researcher? If you want -- or need -- to integrate social media tools into your studies and research, this practical book is your one-stop shop. Megan Poore shares the secrets of how to harness the power of social media tools to improve your academic productivity. Inside, you'll find out how to: ...write a good blog post ...contribute to a wiki ...maximise your grades when creating an audio-visual presentation ...find and share the latest research via Twitter ...keep safe online. Featuring handy illustrations and exercises, as well as guidance on broader issues such as copyright, avoiding plagiarism, and cyberbullying, you'll find out all you need to successfully use social media to support your study and research. Megan Poore is Assistant Professor in Teacher Education at the University of Canberra.

  6. South Korean Family Caregiver Involvement in Delirium Care: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Moyle, Wendy; Cooke, Marie; O'Dwyer, Siobhan

    2017-12-01

    The current study aimed to describe the effect of an educational program on RN-initiated efforts to involve family caregivers in delirium care. A descriptive qualitative study was performed. A purposive sample of 12 RNs who participated in a one group, pre-post evaluation of a delirium educational program, and a nominated sample of six family caregivers of patients who had been cared for by RNs in the program participated in individual, in-depth interviews. The qualitative findings indicated that the inclusion of a delirium brochure in ward orientation on admission, with reinforcement during shift changes, and RN-initiated engagement with family caregivers promoted family caregiver involvement in delirium prevention. Further studies in South Korea are needed to determine which family-centered nursing care interventions are culturally appropriate and most effective for RNs and family caregivers in delirium care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(12), 44-51.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without  exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  8. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  9. Prayer Healing: A Case Study Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijthoff, Dirk J; van der Kooi, Cornelis; Glas, Gerrit; Abma, Tineke A

    2017-01-01

    Context • Prayer healing is a common practice in many religious communities around the world. Even in the highly secularized Dutch society, cases of prayer healing are occasionally reported in the media, often generating public attention. There is an ongoing debate regarding whether such miraculous cures do actually occur and how to interpret them. Objective • The aim of the article was to present a research protocol for the investigation of reported cases of remarkable and/or unexplained healing after prayer. Design • The research team developed a method to perform a retrospective, case-based study of prayer healing. Reported prayer healings can be investigated systematically in accordance with a step-by-step methodology. The focus is on understanding the healing by studying it from multiple perspectives, using both medical judgment and patients' narratives collected by qualitative methods Setting • The study occurred at Vrije Universiteit (VU) and VU Medical Center (Amsterdam, Netherlands) as well as the general medical practice of the first author. Participants • Potential participants could be any individuals in the Netherlands or neighboring countries who claim to have been healed through prayer. The reports of healing came from multiple sources, including the research team's medical practices and their direct vicinities, newspaper articles, prayer healers, and medical colleagues. Outcome Measures • Medical data were obtained before and after prayer. Subsequently, a member of a research team and of a medical assessment committee made a standardized judgment that evaluated whether a cure was clinically remarkable or scientifically unexplained. The participants' experiences and insider perspectives were studied, using in-depth interviews in accordance with a qualitative research methodology, to gain insight into the perceptions and explanations of the cures that were offered by participants and by the members of the medical assessment committee. The

  10. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  11. Using sediment transport and river restoration to link research and education, and promote K-12 female involvement in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, E. M.; Bradley-Eitel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this CAREER award is to better understand and predict the mechanics of sediment transport, to link research and education through courses and shared field sites, and to increase female interest in STEM fields. To accomplish the education component of this proposal we have focused on the following three activities: 1) a Keystone course on the scientific method, 2) a Women Outside with Science (WOWS) camp and 3) a permanent field site for research and education on river processes. In the Keystone Course, students investigated the impact of roughness addition, in sediment-starved river reaches (e.g. downstream of dams), on the retention of gravel used for spawning. They developed research questions and hypotheses, designed and conducted a set of scaled laboratory flume experiments, analyzed their data and wrote a draft manuscript of their results. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive on the merits of this course, which included hands-on learning of the following: basic sediment transport and fluvial geomorphology, applied statistics, laboratory methods, and scientific writing skills. Students sometimes struggled when flume experiments did not progress as planned, and in the analysis and interpretation of complex data. Some of the students in the course have reanalyzed data, conducted additional experiments and are currently rewriting the manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Such a course fundamentally links research and teaching, and provides an introduction to research for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. We have also run one summer WOWS camp, which was a ten day camping and inquiry based research experience for 20 female junior-high and high-school students. The girls studied climate change and water related issues, worked on a restoration project on the Little Salmon River, met with a fish biologist and did fish habitat surveys and studied water quality along the North Fork of the Payette River while on a

  12. Study and Research Paths at Upper Secondary Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Britta Eyrich

    the scope of teaching at this level. With respect to mathematical modelling, links and gaps were identified between scholarly knowledge and knowledge to be taught in secondary school. It is suggested that SRP based teaching can bridge parts of the identified gaps. Finally, it is found that in order for SRP......In didactics of mathematics, researchers have for decades been interested in how to teach students to pose questions and solve problems. Several approaches rely on the idea, that students learn mathematics, when they are engaged in activities similar to research mathematicians. This PhD project...... touch upon these ideas from the perspective offered by the Anthropological Theory of Didactics (ATD ). Within ATD, teaching is proposed to be designed as Study and Research Paths (SRP). This thesis investigates how SRP's support the students' learning of mathematics in a bidisciplinary context involving...

  13. A Study of the Influence of College Students' Exercise and Leisure Motivations on the Leisure Benefits – Using Leisure Involvement as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Chiung-En Huang; Cheng-Yu Tsai; Shane-Chung Lee

    2014-01-01

    This study aim at the influence of college students’ exercise and leisure motivations on the leisure benefits while using the leisure involvement as a moderator. Whereby, the research tools used in this study included the application of leisure motivation scale, leisure involvement scale and leisure benefits scale, and a hierarchical regression analysis was performed by using a questionnaire-based survey, in which, a total of 1,500 copies of questionnaires were administered and 917 valid ques...

  14. Service user involvement in mental health system strengthening in a rural African setting: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2017-05-18

    It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected mental health service users (n = 13), caregivers (n = 10), heads of primary care facilities (n = 8) and policy makers/planners/service developers (n = 8). The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed in Amharic, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was applied. All groups of participants supported service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening. Potential benefits were identified as (i) improved appropriateness and quality of services, and (ii) greater protection against mistreatment and promotion of respect for service users. However, hardly any respondents had prior experience of service user involvement. Stigma was considered to be a pervasive barrier, operating within the health system, the local community and individuals. Competing priorities of service users included the need to obtain adequate individual care and to work for survival. Low recognition of the potential contribution of service users seemed linked to limited empowerment and mobilization of service users. Potential health system facilitators included a culture of community oversight of primary care services. All groups of respondents identified a need for awareness-raising and training to equip service users, caregivers, service providers and local community for involvement. Empowerment at the level of individual service users (information about mental health conditions, care and rights) and the group level (for advocacy and representation) were considered

  15. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County

  16. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  17. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  18. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Buarque de Gusmão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. CONCLUSIONS: The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency.

  19. Swedish pediatric diabetes teams' perception of fathers' involvement: A Grounded Theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Ase; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Borup, Ina

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how Swedish pediatric diabetes teams perceived and discussed fathers' involvement in the care of their child with type 1 diabetes. It also aimed to discuss how the teams' attitudes towards the fathers' involvement developed during the data collection process. The Constructivist Grounded Theory design was used and data were collected during three repeated focus group discussions with three Swedish pediatric diabetes teams. The core category of the teams' perception of fathers' involvement emerged as: If dad attends, we are happy - if mom doesn't, we become concerned. Initially the teams balanced their perception of fathers' involvement on the mother's role as the primary caregiver. In connection with the teams' directed attention on fathers, in the focus group discussions, the teams' awareness of the importance of fathers increased. As a consequence, the team members began to encourage fathers' engagement in their child's care. We conclude that by increasing the teams' awareness of fathers as a health resource, an active health promotion perspective could be implemented in pediatric diabetes care. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. The insula is not specifically involved in disgust processing: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienle, A; Stark, R; Walter, B; Blecker, C; Ott, U; Kirsch, P; Sammer, G; Vaitl, D

    2002-11-15

    fMRI studies have shown that the perception of facial disgust expressions specifically activates the insula. The present fMRI study investigated whether this structure is also involved in the processing of visual stimuli depicting non-mimic disgust elicitors compared to fear-inducing and neutral scenes. Twelve female subjects were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of 40 disgust-inducing, 40 fear-inducing and 40 affectively neutral pictures, shown for 1.5 s each. Afterwards, affective ratings were assessed. The disgust pictures, rated as highly repulsive, induced activation in the insula, the amygdala, the orbitofrontal and occipito-temporal cortex. Since during the fear condition the insula was also involved, our findings do not fit the idea of the insula as a specific disgust processor.

  1. Studies involving direct heating of uranium and plutonium oxides by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, G K; Malav, R K; Karande, A P; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-08-01

    Nuclear fuel fabrication and recovery of nuclear materials from scraps generated during fabrication involve heating steps like dewaxing, sintering, roasting of scraps, calcination, etc. The dielectric properties of uranium and plutonium oxides place them in the category of materials which are susceptible to absorption of microwaves. The studies were carried out to explore the microwave heating technique for these steps required in nuclear fuel fabrication and scrap recovery laboratories. (author). 1 ref.

  2. Father Identity, Involvement and Work–Family Balance: An In-depth Interview Study

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katrina; Muldoon, Orla

    2014-01-01

    Work and family roles have changed considerably in the past number of decades. Fathers are now expected to fulfil the role of 'new father' that involves actively caring and sharing in child rearing and, at the same time, maintain commitment to their occupational role. As a consequence, men are subject to the same pressure that women were when they initially entered the workplace decades ago and indeed still are today. This study aims to explore the meanings fathers attach to their life roles,...

  3. Public involvement in pharmacogenomics research: a national survey on public attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research and the willingness to donate DNA samples to a DNA bank in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eriko; Satoh, Nobunori

    2009-11-01

    To assess the attitudes of the Japanese general public towards pharmacogenomics research and a DNA bank for identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and their willingness to donate DNA samples, we conducted a national survey for 1,103 Japanese adults from the general public, not a patient population. The response rate was 36.8%. The majority of the respondents showed a positive attitude towards pharmacogenomics research (81.0%) and a DNA bank (70.4%). Considering fictitious clinical situations such as taking medications and experiencing ADRs, the willingness to donate DNA samples when experiencing ADRs (61.7%) was higher than when taking medications (45.3%). Older generations were significantly associated with a decreased willingness to donate (OR = 0.45, CI 0.28-0.72 in 50s. OR = 0.49, CI: 0.31-0.77 in 60s). Positive attitudes towards pharmacogenomics research, a DNA bank, blood/bone marrow/organ donation were significantly associated with an increased willingness. However, the respondents had the following concerns regarding a DNA bank: the confidentiality of their personal information, the manner by which research results were utilized and simply the use of their own DNA for research. In order to attain public understanding to overcome these concerns, a process of public awareness should be put into place to emphasize the beneficial aspects of identifying genomic markers associated with ADRs and to address these concerns raised in our study. Further study is needed to assess the willingness of actual patients taking medications in real situations, since the respondents in our study were from the general public, not a patient population, and their willingness was assessed on the condition of assuming that they were patients taking medications.

  4. Accelerator research studies: Progress report, Task B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main objectives in Task B of the research program are summarized as follows: (1) studies of the collective acceleration of positive ions from a localized plasma source by an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB), (2) studies of ways in which external control may be achieved over the electron beam front in order to achieve higher ion energies - the Beam Front Accelerator (BFA) concept, and (3) study of electron and ion beam generation in a new kind of compact pulsed accelerator in which energy is stored inductively and switched using a plasma focus opening switch. During the past year, substantial progress was made in each of these areas. Our exploratory research on the collective acceleration of laser-produced ions has confirmed the acceleration of C, Al, and Fe ions to peak energies in excess of 10 MeV/amu. In addition, studies of the relation between collective ion acceleration and electron beam propagation in vacuum have shed new light on the experimental processes that lead to energy transfer from electrons to ions. Meanwhile, extensive progress has been made in our attempts to use analytical theory and numerical simulation to model ion acceleration in these systems. Our resultant improved understanding of the processes that limit the peak ion energy has had a profound impact on our plans for further research in this area. Studies of the Compact Pulsed Accelerator have included both ion and electron beam extraction from the device. Its potential to reduce the volume of pulse power sources by an order of magnitude has already been demonstrated, and plans are currently underway to scale the experiment up to voltages in the 1 MV range

  5. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  6. Radiological research in Europe: a bibliometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mela, G.S.; Martinoli, C.; Poggi, E.; Derchi, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    . Although not flawless, and often criticized for a variety of reasons, citation analysis is a commonly used technique in this field, is a frequent means to ''weight'' the scientific production of researchers and is one of the criteria used to assign research grants. Our study shows that European radiology is growing and its production is increasing over time, thus indicating strong commitment to research from European radiologists; however, European radiological research has not yet reached leadership in the literature, and mean indexes addressing the level of resources allocated to research are lower in Europe than in the U.S. This latter point has notable exceptions, but indicates inadequacy of funding, at least in some nations, and in Europe as a whole. The development of research programs within the framework of the European Union specifically aimed to radiology could lead to further advancement of our discipline. (orig.)

  7. Program for transfer research and impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, J. J.; Freeman, J. E.; Hartley, J. M.; Kottenstette, J. P.; Staskin, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities conducted under the Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies (TRIS) during 1972 included: (1) preparation of 10,196 TSP requests for TRIS application analysis; (2) interviews with over 500 individuals concerning the technical, economic, and social impacts of NASA-generated technology; (3) preparation of 38 new technology transfer example files and 101 new transfer cases; and (4) maintenance of a technology transfer library containing more than 2,900 titles. Six different modes of technology utilization are used to illustrate the pervasiveness of the transfer and diffusion of aerospace innovations. These modes also provide a basis for distinguishing the unique characteristics of the NASA Technology Utilization Program. An examination is reported of the ways in which NASA-generated technology is contributing to beneficial social change in five major areas of human concern: health, environment, safety, transportation, and communication.

  8. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  9. The Benefits and Challenges of Involving Adolescents in Medical Education: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine A; Eady, Kaylee

    2018-05-30

    To explore the potential benefits and challenges of involving adolescents in the education of medical students and residents from the perspectives of adolescents who are hospitalized with chronic health conditions. We conducted qualitative interviews with adolescents at a Canadian pediatric hospital. Eligible participants were those between 13-18 years of age, with chronic health conditions lasting more than three months who were feeling well enough to participate in an interview. We used conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Sixteen adolescents participated in the study. In terms of benefits, the participants described how involving adolescents in the education of medical students and residents would improve patient-physician interactions, increase patients' confidence and self-worth, encourage patients to self-reflect and gain knowledge about their health conditions and themselves, as well as enable patients to socialize with other patients. When asked about the challenges, the participants discussed how it might be difficult to include diverse patient perspectives, manage adolescents' negativity, and ensure that learners are non-judgmental towards adolescents and take them seriously. While many of the reported benefits and challenges correspond with those featured in the literature on adult patient involvement in medical education, our findings underscore the distinctive benefits and challenges that medical educators may experience in designing and implementing educational initiatives that involve adolescents. Through the future design and implementation of educational initiatives, it is important to further explore the benefits and challenges of such adolescent involvement, as we know that adolescents can be valuable contributors to medical education. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The normal transverse mesocolon and involvement of the mesocolon in acute pancreatitis: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiao Xiao; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Chen, Tian Wu; Huang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Lin; Tang, Wei; Xiao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    To study the MRI findings of the normal transverse mesocolon and the involvement of the mesocolon in acute pancreatitis (AP) as well as the relationship between the involvement of the mesocolon and the severity of AP. Forty patients without pancreatic disorders were retrospectively analyzed to observe the normal transverse mesocolon using MRI; 210 patients with AP confirmed by clinical and laboratory tests were retrospectively analyzed using MRI to observe transverse-mesocolon involvement (TMI). The severity of TMI was recorded as zero points (no abnormalities and transverse-mesocolon vessel involvement), one point (linear and patchy signal in the transverse mesocolon) or two points (transverse-mesocolon effusion). The AP severity was graded by the MRI severity index (MRSI) and the Acute Physiology And Chronic Healthy Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system. The correlations of TMI with MRSI and APACHE-II were analyzed. In a normal transverse mesocolon, the display rates of the middle colic artery, the middle colic vein and the gastrocolic trunk on MRI were 95.0%, 82.5% and 100.0%, respectively. Of the 210 patients with AP, 130 patients (61.9%) had TMI. According to the TMI grading, 40%, 39% and 20% of the patients were graded at zero, one and two points, respectively. TMI was strongly correlated with the MRSI score (r = 0.759, P = 0.000) and the APACHE-II score (r = 0.384, P = 0.000). MRI could be used to visualize transverse-mesocolon involvement. The severity of TMI could reflect that of AP in the clinical setting and imaging. TMI might be a supplementary indicator of the severity of AP.

  11. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice ePotvin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two (22 scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective.

  12. Involving International Student Teams in GPS and GRS Surveys to Study Cryospheric Change in Greenland and the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, U. C.; Mayer, H.

    2009-12-01

    In the course of research programs to develop a methodology for the study of microtopography of ice and snow surfaces, we placed a strong emphasis on the involvement of students. This project provided the opportunity to engage students in every step from building the instrument through development of the data processing, the actual field measurements, processing of the resultant data, their evaluation and interpretation to the final publication in scientific journals. The development of the Glacier Roughness Sensor (GRS) incorporating Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and the fieldwork on the Greenland Inland Ice were particularly fascinating and instructive for students. In a related snow-hydrological research project on Niwot Ridge in the Colorado Front Range, we involved students in two season-long measurement campaigns in a high alpine environment. Students from the Universität Trier, Germany, and the University of Colorado Boulder participated in this project to learn about the value of international collaboration in science. Funding was provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Antarctic and Arctic Program) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Hydrological Sciences Program). Students participated in preparatory classes and field camps, selected their own research projects and received university credit towards their degrees in geography or environmental sciences. All student participants in the MICROTOP projects have gone on to higher university education and become professionally exceptionally successful. Students setting up camp on the Greenland Ice Sheet during expedition MICROTOP 99.

  13. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative…

  14. Reviewing the Effect of Religion, Materialism and Demographic Features of the Consumer on Mental Involvement in Fashion Clothing (Case Study: Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Alhosseini Almodarresi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors that are necessary to facilitate the consumer’s daily life with high mental involvement, fashion clothing is an important and significant factor for many consumers. According to the importance of the subject, this research reviewed the effect of religion, materialism and demographic features of the consumer on mental involvement in fashion clothing among citizens of Yazd. Confirmatory factor analysis method has been applied in analytical statistics of this research to determine the role and position of each one of the research elements by using Amos software. Correlation test has been used in order to review the relations between fashion clothing involvement and its dimensions, and linear regression test in order to determine the effect manner of involvement in fashion clothing and mental knowledge on confidence in fashion decision making. The statistical population includes all the individuals above 20 years old in Yazd City; the sample size was calculated 99 individuals by using Cochran formula. The research results showed that religion and materialism have significant effect on mental involvement in fashion clothing and involvement has a positive and significant effect on fashion decision making confidence. Furthermore, mental involvements in fashion clothing and mental knowledge have a positive and significant effect on fashion decision making confidence and it was specified in the reviewing of the relation between demographic factors (sex, age,… and the studied variables that the correlation between them was not significant even in the confidence level of 95 percent.

  15. Non-invasive Drosophila ECG recording by using eutectic gallium-indium alloy electrode: a feasible tool for future research on the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac arrhythmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hung Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drosophila heart tube is a feasible model for cardiac physiological research. However, obtaining Drosophila electrocardiograms (ECGs is difficult, due to the weak signals and limited contact area to apply electrodes. This paper presents a non-invasive Gallium-Indium (GaIn based recording system for Drosophila ECG measurement, providing the heart rate and heartbeat features to be observed. This novel, high-signal-quality system prolongs the recording time of insect ECGs, and provides a feasible platform for research on the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this study, two types of electrode, tungsten needle probes and GaIn electrodes, were used respectively to noiselessly conduct invasive and noninvasive ECG recordings of Drosophila. To further analyze electrode properties, circuit models were established and simulated. By using electromagnetic shielded heart signal acquiring system, consisted of analog amplification and digital filtering, the ECG signals of three phenotypes that have different heart functions were recorded without dissection. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The ECG waveforms of different phenotypes of Drosophila recorded invasively and repeatedly with n value (n>5 performed obvious difference in heart rate. In long period ECG recordings, non-invasive method implemented by GaIn electrodes acts relatively stable in both amplitude and period. To analyze GaIn electrode, the correctness of GaIn electrode model established by this paper was validated, presenting accuracy, stability, and reliability. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive ECG recording by GaIn electrodes was presented for recording Drosophila pupae ECG signals within a limited contact area and signal strength. Thus, the observation of ECG changes in normal and SERCA-depleted Drosophila over an extended period is feasible. This method prolongs insect survival time while conserving major ECG features, and provides a platform for

  16. Peer Assisted Study Sessions for Research Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Anne; Camer, Danielle; Stamenkovic, Alexander; Zaccagnini, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Research training should facilitate effective researcher role development. While researcher roles require the performance of specialised knowledge and skill, they also require development of personal research identities within social contexts. Interaction with research peers can provide opportunities for reflective role development. Ad-hoc…

  17. STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AT NATIONAL LEVEL: A STUDY FROM IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Shahmoradi, Safoura; Majdzadeh, Reza; Doaee, Shila; Bazyar, Mohammad; Souresrafil, Aghdas; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the opinions of stakeholders on their roles in health technology assessment (HTA) in Iran and to determine the barriers and facilitators existing in the organizations to help increase their involvement in the HTA program. The study was conducted in two stages, semi-structured interviews, and "policy dialogue" with stakeholders. The data were analyzed through the framework approach. The interviews were held with ten stakeholder representatives from various organizations. In addition, Twenty-one representatives participated in the policy dialogue. Based on the findings, all the stakeholder organizations considered themselves as interest groups in all the stages of the HTA process; however, their tendencies and methods of involvement differed from one another. According to the participants, the most important issue to be considered in the context of HTA was that the structures, stages, and procedures of the HTA process must be made transparent. Stakeholder involvement in the HTA program cannot readily take place. Various stakeholders have different interests, responsibilities, infrastructures, and barriers. If a program does not meet these considerations, its chances of succeeding will substantially decrease. Therefore, to prevent overlooking the needs and expectations of stakeholders from the HTA process, it is essential to create opportunities in which their thoughts and ideas are taken into account.

  18. An Exploratory Study to Measure Excessive Involvement in Multitasking Interaction with Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This study developed a scale measuring excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices. An online questionnaire was designed and surveyed in a sample of 380 respondents. The sample was split into two groups for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. A four-factor structure was identified with an acceptable goodness of fit. The first two factors, "Obsession and neglect" and "Problematic control," described the obsessive feelings, neglect behaviors, and behavior control problems accompanied by excessive multitasking interaction with smart devices. The latter two factors, "Multitasking preference" and "Polychronic orientation," referred to multitaskers' preference of engaging in multiple media use or interaction tasks rather than a single task from the time orientation perspective. The four-factor structure indicates that excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices shares some similarities with other behavioral addiction types, but demonstrates uniqueness compared with excessive engagement in single media use.

  19. Culture Studies in the Field of International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Verner; Li, Xin; Jakobsen, Michael

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of culture studies within the field of international business research, and to examine how two main paradigms – essentialism and social constructivism – relate to the discourse in this field. We analyze the main points of the two...... in this paper. Practical implications: We encourage practitioners to learn how to switch, both sequentially and spatially, between the two paradigms of culture (fundamentally incommensurable though they are). This involves taking a “both/or” approach to the two paradigms. Originality/Value: We show...

  20. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth De Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently

  1. A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happé, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896

  2. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior

  3. In situ stress determination research study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, W.G.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate and implement rock stress determination instruments and techniques developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) at its Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for use in jointed rock and to continue the development of analytical and interpretation methods for stress determination results including effects of scale, structure and anisotropy. Testing and evaluation of the instruments and methods developed at URL need to be done in a similar rock type prior to underground access at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

  4. Preventing Juvenile Justice Involvement for Young Women: An Introduction to an Evaluation of the PACE Center for Girls. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millenky, Megan; Mage, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in the juvenile justice system has tremendous costs for the individuals within it, as well as for society. Such involvement may damage a child's relationships with friends and family, negatively affect mental health, and interrupt the academic progress and work experience that should accumulate during adolescence. On the societal…

  5. The impact of stakeholder involvement in hospital policy decision-making: a study of the hospital's business processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, Simon; Van Hecke, Ann; Hellings, Johan; De Bodt, Griet; Eeckloo, Kristof

    2017-02-01

    In many health care systems, strategies are currently deployed to engage patients and other stakeholders in decisions affecting hospital services. In this paper, a model for stakeholder involvement is presented and evaluated in three Flemish hospitals. In the model, a stakeholder committee advises the hospital's board of directors on themes of strategic importance. To study the internal hospital's decision processes in order to identify the impact of a stakeholder involvement committee on strategic themes in the hospital decision processes. A retrospective analysis of the decision processes was conducted in three hospitals that implemented a stakeholder committee. The analysis consisted of process and outcome evaluation. Fifteen themes were discussed in the stakeholder committees, whereof 11 resulted in a considerable change. None of these were on a strategic level. The theoretical model was not applied as initially developed, but was altered by each hospital. Consequentially, the decision processes differed between the hospitals. Despite alternation of the model, the stakeholder committee showed a meaningful impact in all hospitals on the operational level. As a result of the differences in decision processes, three factors could be identified as facilitators for success: (1) a close interaction with the board of executives, (2) the inclusion of themes with a more practical and patient-oriented nature, and (3) the elaboration of decisions on lower echelons of the organization. To effectively influence the organization's public accountability, hospitals should involve stakeholders in the decision-making process of the organization. The model of a stakeholder committee was not applied as initially developed and did not affect the strategic decision-making processes in the involved hospitals. Results show only impact at the operational level in the participating hospitals. More research is needed connecting stakeholder involvement with hospital governance.

  6. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

  7. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Coggon, David; Moretto, Angelo; Westerholm, Peter; Wilks, Martin F; Colosio, Claudio

    2010-08-18

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

  8. Public involvement and risk communiction for the Rocky Flats health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoda, S.M.; Lockhart, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, the State of Colorado and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into an Agreement in Principle that provides funding for state studies and monitoring of the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant. The Colorado Department of Health initiated a two-phase study to identify releases of radioactive and other contaminants from the year 1952, when Rocky Flats opened, through 1989, and to estimate the potential offsite exposures and health effects. Because one of the main goals for the study is to answer citizen questions about past operations and impacts from the Rocky Flats Plant, the Department of Health designed an open study process featuring a multi-faceted program for public involvement and two-way communication. To provide independent scientific oversight and increase public accountability, Governor Roy Romer appointed a 12-member Health Advisory Panel that includes local and national technical experts and community members. This paper describes the study process and the public involvement and risk communication program designed to address citizen concerns, foster understanding and build credibility

  9. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  10. Implementation and assessment of a yeast orphan gene research project: involving undergraduates in authentic research experiences and progressing our understanding of uncharacterized open reading frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany V; Schultheis, Patrick J; Strome, Erin D

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic organism to be sequenced; however, little progress has been made in recent years in furthering our understanding of all open reading frames (ORFs). From October 2012 to May 2015 the number of verified ORFs had only risen from 75.31% to 78%, while the number of uncharacterized ORFs had decreased from 12.8% to 11% (representing > 700 genes still left in this category; http://www.yeastgenome.org/genomesnapshot). Course-based research has been shown to increase student learning while providing experience with real scientific investigation; however, implementation in large, multi-section courses presents many challenges. This study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of incorporating authentic research into a core genetics course, with multiple instructors, to increase student learning and progress our understanding of uncharacterized ORFs. We generated a module-based annotation toolkit and utilized easily accessible bioinformatics tools to predict gene function for uncharacterized ORFs within the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). Students were each assigned an uncharacterized ORF, which they annotated using contemporary comparative genomics methodologies, including multiple sequence alignment, conserved domain identification, signal peptide prediction and cellular localization algorithms. Student learning outcomes were measured by quizzes, project reports and presentations, as well as a post-project questionnaire. Our results indicate that the authentic research experience had positive impacts on students' perception of their learning and their confidence to conduct future research. Furthermore, we believe that creation of an online repository and adoption and/or adaptation of this project across multiple researchers and institutions could speed the process of gene function prediction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Anthropogenic versus natural processes and pollution in Padana Valley in last years involving new communication/policy strategies and ethical issues in research evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Vaccaro, Carmela; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Smart grids-Smat cities "fashion" requires management plans of highly urbanized areas located over the Padanian floodplain, which are prone to diffuse pollution of both lands and urban sectors, mostly after the disasters caused by tremendous alluvial rains in January 2014, when shallow aquifers and agricultural matters could have increase pollution over wide territory. Moreover the urban expansion has affected areas previously used for industrial activity and in some cases such for landfills. When the loss of memory of previous activity prevails after urbanization, with health issues, ethical questions are inevitable, accompanied by social conflicts and economic impacts. The alluvial plains of active tectonic areas - as the Padania Valley - in additions to widespread "anthropogenic pollution" is suffering from widespread "natural pollution" of deep fluid sources - mainly methane - corresponding to areas prone to uprising gaseous brines, along faults. Some of them were partially activated during the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence. This noteworthy seismic sequence engaged discussion about the possible role of gas storages and hydrocarbons production or the simple/exploring drilling activity to trigger typical tectonic seismicity. The paper deepen this troubled communication strategy, their gaps and peculiar geopolicy case histories, to avoid the same strategy, in the future. On the other hand, gas burst or brine-gas-contamination in shallow aquifers, soils and indoor, should be studied by simple and cheap methods, by deepening stratigraphic gaps for the tectonics effects on sedimentation: natural processes should be recalled prior to recall anthropogenic causes, if any. Policy should be more responsible in state clearly the role of research in study infrastructures/processes, also when engaged by private companies, for sites selected by ministries mostly to star research: relevant gaps involves serious confusion in the public as regards responsibility and an exact

  12. Assessment of anxiety in adolescents involved in a study abroad program: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitblat, Yulia; Cleminson, Ryan; Kavin, Aaron; Schonberger, Edan; Shterenshis, Michael

    2017-11-23

    Objective The aim of the study was to measure the effects on levels of anxiety in healthy teenagers caused by a temporary change of country and school during a study abroad program. Methods In a prospective study we gathered the data from six anxiety level related tests on high school participants in a study abroad program (age 15-17, n = 364, M 172, F 192). These volunteer participants were divided into two separate groups: with self-reported elevated levels of anxiety (n = 111; YES-group) and with self-reported normal levels of anxiety (n = 253; NO-group). Two control groups of schoolchildren drawn from two local schools were used for comparison (n = 100 each). Three tests were subjective, i.e. self-fill-out tests. The next three tests were objective psychological or neurophysiological tests designed to estimate reflex control, concentration and a feeling for the passage of time. Results The initial mean anxiety level score among the 364 participants was 41.5 ± 16.7 (min 16, max 80) on 5-110 scale. For the YES-group the score was 56.5 ± 15.9, and for the NO-group the score was 34.7 ± 17.4 (p = 0.05). The retesting after they had been in the same place for 7 weeks revealed that the mean anxiety level score of the participants decreased to 37.4 ± 16.9 (min 15, max 72). For the YES-group the score significantly decreased to 39.3 ± 15.5, and for the NO-group the score slightly elevated to 36.7 ± 16.4 producing similar results for both groups (p = 0.81). Conclusion A temporary change of country and school at first results in a rise in anxiety levels in about one third of participants. However, after an extended stay it falls to normal levels.

  13. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Chad E.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Complex training (CT involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the inclusion of a power exercise instead of a strength exercise as the first exercise in CT would produce differences in lower body power. Methods. Thirty-six recreationally-trained men and women aged 20 to 29 years attending a college physical education course were randomly assigned to one of three groups: squat and countermovement squat jumps (SSJ, kettlebell swings and countermovement squat jumps (KSJ, and a control (CON. Training involving CT lasted 6 weeks. All participants were pre- and posttested for vertical jump performance in order to assess lower body power. Results. Vertical jump scores improved for all groups (p < 0.01. The results also indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between group scores across time (p = 0.215. The statistical power for this analysis was low (0.312, most likely due to the small sample size. However, the results did reveal a trend suggesting that the training improvements were greater for both the SSJ and KSJ groups compared with the CON (by 171% and 107%, respectively although significance was not reached. Conclusions. Due to the observed trend, a replication of this study with a greater number of participants over a longer period of time is warranted.

  14. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merini, Luciano J.; Bobillo, Cecilia; Cuadrado, Virginia; Corach, Daniel; Giulietti, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg -1 of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P 450 or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P 450 . Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  15. Phytoremediation potential of the novel atrazine tolerant Lolium multiflorum and studies on the mechanisms involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merini, Luciano J. [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bobillo, Cecilia [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Cuadrado, Virginia [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corach, Daniel [Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, BS As (Argentina); Giulietti, Ana M., E-mail: agiule@ffyb.uba.a [Catedra de Microbiologia Industrial y Biotecnologia, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    Atrazine impact on human health and the environment have been extensively studied. Phytoremediation emerged as a low cost, environmental friendly biotechnological solution for atrazine pollution in soil and water. In vitro atrazine tolerance assays were performed and Lolium multiflorum was found as a novel tolerant species, able to germinate and grow in the presence of 1 mg kg{sup -1} of the herbicide. L. multiflorum presented 20% higher atrazine removal capacity than the natural attenuation, with high initial degradation rate in microcosms. The mechanisms involved in atrazine tolerance such as mutation in psbA gene, enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450} or chemical hydrolysis through benzoxazinones were evaluated. It was demonstrated that atrazine tolerance is conferred by enhanced enzymatic detoxification via P{sub 450}. Due to its atrazine degradation capacity in soil and its agronomical properties, L. multiflorum is a candidate for designing phytoremediation strategies for atrazine contaminated agricultural soils, especially those involving run-off avoiding. - Finding of a novel atrazine-tolerant species, as a potential candidate for phytoremediating herbicide-contaminated agriculture soils and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in tolerance.

  16. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  17. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management – tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vitale

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1 the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2 the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  18. Involving children and young people in clinical research through the forum of a European Young Persons' Advisory Group: needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Segolene; Malik, Salma; Preston, Jenny; Escalera, Begonya Nafria; Dicks, Pamela; Touil, Nathalie; Mardirossian, Sandrine; Claverol-Torres, Joana; Kassaï, Behrouz

    2018-02-19

    Children and young people are seen as fundamental to the design and delivery of clinical research as active and reflective participants. In Europe, involvement of children and young people in clinical research is promoted extensively in order to engage young people in research as partners and to give them a voice to raise their own issues or opinions and for their involvement in planning and decision making in addition to learning research skills. Children and young people can be trained in clinical research through participation in young person advisory groups (YPAGs). Members of YPAGs assist other children and young people to learn about clinical research and share their experience and point of view with researchers, thereby possibly influencing all phases of research including the development and prioritization of research questions, design and methods, recruitment plans, and strategies for results dissemination. In the long term, the expansion of YPAGs in Europe will serve as a driving force for refining pediatric clinical research. It will help in a better definition of research projects according to the patients' needs. Furthermore, direct engagement of children and young people in research will be favorable to both researchers and young people. © 2018 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. Neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors in autism: association study of 37 genes suggests involvement of DDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Claudio; Hervás, Amaia; Balmaña, Noemí; Salgado, Marta; Maristany, Marta; Vilella, Elisabet; Aguilera, Francisco; Orejuela, Carmen; Cuscó, Ivon; Gallastegui, Fátima; Pérez-Jurado, Luis Alberto; Caballero-Andaluz, Rafaela; Diego-Otero, Yolanda de; Guzmán-Alvarez, Guadalupe; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Ribasés, Marta; Bayés, Mònica; Cormand, Bru

    2013-09-01

    Neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors can be considered strong candidates for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in neurotransmission, brain maturation and cortical organization, while neurotrophic factors (NTFs) participate in neurodevelopment, neuronal survival and synapses formation. We aimed to test the contribution of these candidate pathways to autism through a case-control association study of genes selected both for their role in central nervous system functions and for pathophysiological evidences. The study sample consisted of 326 unrelated autistic patients and 350 gender-matched controls from Spain. We genotyped 369 tagSNPs to perform a case-control association study of 37 candidate genes. A significant association was obtained between the DDC gene and autism in the single-marker analysis (rs6592961, P = 0.00047). Haplotype-based analysis pinpointed a four-marker combination in this gene associated with the disorder (rs2329340C-rs2044859T-rs6592961A-rs11761683T, P = 4.988e-05). No significant results were obtained for the remaining genes after applying multiple testing corrections. However, the rs167771 marker in DRD3, associated with ASD in a previous study, displayed a nominal association in our analysis (P = 0.023). Our data suggest that common allelic variants in the DDC gene may be involved in autism susceptibility.

  20. Cardio-pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis: A study at a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetakiran Arakkal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In our patients, pulmonary involvement was more common than cardiac involvement. Interstitial lung disease and cardiac involvement were more commonly seen in diffuse systemic sclerosis whereas pulmonary hypertension was more frequent in limited systemic sclerosis. Hence, it is important to screen the patients for cardiopulmonary involvement for early diagnosis and treatment and a better prognostic outcome.

  1. Guiding curriculum development of a national research training program in thrombosis medicine: A needs assessment involving faculty and trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeith, Leslie; Carrier, Marc; Shivakumar, Sudeep; Langlois, Nicole; Le Gal, Gregoire; Harris, Ilene; Gonsalves, Carol

    2018-02-01

    Several barriers exist for training and retention of clinician scientists, including difficulty in navigating research-related tasks in the workplace and insufficient mentorship. Our aim was to identify what core research knowledge and skills are important for the success of clinician scientists in thrombosis research, and trainees' perceived confidence in those skills, in order to develop a targeted educational intervention. A pre-tested online survey was administered to trainees and research faculty of the Canadian thrombosis research network, CanVECTOR, between September 2016 and June 2017. The importance (research faculty) and confidence (trainees) of 45 research knowledge/skills were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. The survey response rate was 49% (28/57) for research faculty and 100% (10/10) for trainees. All research faculty rated developing a good research question, grant writing and writing strategies for successful publication as 'very' or 'extremely' important for trainees to learn to better transition in becoming independent researchers. Other important areas included practical aspects of research. A qualitative thematic analysis of open text responses identified 'time management' and 'leadership and teamwork' as additional important research skills. Confidence reported for each topic varied across trainees. There were three research knowledge and/or skills that ≥75% of research faculty deemed highly important and ≥50% of trainees reported lacking confidence in: grant writing, the peer-review grant process, and knowledge translation strategies. Developing a good research question, communicating research ideas and results and the practical aspects of research are important areas to focus future efforts in thrombosis research training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Central nervous system involvement in adults with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guilan; Wang, Yini; Liu, Xiaojing; Han, Yanfei; Wang, Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by proliferation and diffuse infiltration multiple organs with histiocytes, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological manifestations of HLH have been recognized in different studies with children, but they remain relatively ill-defined in adults with HLH. From March 2008 to October 2014, 289 adult patients with HLH were admitted to our center. Clinical, radiological, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) data of the patients with CNS involvement were reviewed, and a retrospective study in our single-center was carried out. CNS involvement was observed in 29 patients (10%) either in their diagnosis process or during disease course. CNS symptoms included disturbance of consciousness, cranial nerve palsies, seizures, headache, limb paralysis, irritability, meningism, and memory loss. CSF analysis was conducted in 17 patients (59%). Among them, 11 patients (65%) were reported as having abnormal CSF. Neuroradiological studies were performed in 25 patients (86%). Among the 13 cases that underwent CT scan, one patient hemorrhaged. Single or multiple hypodense foci were detected in the other 2 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were found in 15 patients, including focal lesions in cortical and adjacent subcortical regions with or without variable nodular or ring contrast-enhancement, multiple lesions in white matter, diffuse white matter signal changes, and meningeal enhancement. Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brainstem lesions were also observed. CNS involvement could also be found in adult patients with HLH, but not as frequent as it was in children. The clinical manifestations could be diversified. By carrying out rigorous CNS examinations, an early diagnosis could be made and it was of the utmost importance for the prevention of further lesions.

  3. Medical education for equity in health: a participatory action research involving persons living in poverty and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Catherine; Loignon, Christine; Grabovschi, Cristina; Bush, Paula; Lambert, Mireille; Goulet, Émilie; Boyer, Sophie; De Laat, Marianne; Fournier, Nathalie

    2016-04-12

    Improving the knowledge and competencies of healthcare professionals is crucial to better address the specific needs of persons living in poverty and avoid stigmatization. This study aimed to explore the needs and expectations of persons living in poverty and healthcare professionals in terms of medical training regarding poverty and its effects on health and healthcare. We conducted a participatory action research study using photovoice, a method using photography, together with merging of knowledge and practice, an approach promoting dialogue between different sources of knowledge. Nineteen healthcare professionals and persons from an international community organization against poverty participated in the study. The first phase included 60 meetings and group sessions to identify the perceived barriers between persons living in poverty and healthcare teams. In the second phase, sub-committees deployed action plans in academic teaching units to overcome barriers identified in the first phase. Data were analysed through thematic analysis, using NVivo, in collaboration with five non-academic co-researchers. Four themes in regard to medical training were highlighted: improving medical students' and residents' knowledge on poverty and the living conditions of persons living in poverty; improving their understanding of the reality of those people; improving their relational skills pertaining to communication and interaction with persons living in poverty; improving their awareness and capacity for self-reflection. At the end of the second phase, actions were undertaken such as improving knowledge of the living conditions of persons living in poverty by posting social assistance rates, and tailoring interventions to patients' reality by including sociodemographic information in electronic medical records. Our findings also led to a participatory research project aiming to improve the skills and competency of residents and health professionals in regard to the quality of

  4. A Case Study in Classroom Management and School Involvement: Designing an Art Room for Effective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to investigate the design of classroom environments through the lens of a uniquely selected art educator. More specifically, the purpose is to use case study methodology (Stake, 1995) to characterize the resulting instructional experiences for an art educator who had the unique opportunity to collaborate…

  5. Using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to study specific bacterial species involved in biological phosphorus removal from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel

    an enrichment of the target organisms in laboratory scale reactors under controlled conditions. We demonstrate that it is now easy and affordable to extract genomes of all the dominant organisms from reactors due to reduced micro-diversity and further use these to examine their individual gene expression...... profiles by metatranscriptomics. To demonstrate this we revisited the bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater treatment pl