WorldWideScience

Sample records for research studies examined

  1. Examining the Reproducibility of 6 Published Studies in Public Health Services and Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; B Wondmeneh, Sarah; Zhao, Yiqiang; Leider, Jonathon P

    2018-02-23

    Research replication, or repeating a study de novo, is the scientific standard for building evidence and identifying spurious results. While replication is ideal, it is often expensive and time consuming. Reproducibility, or reanalysis of data to verify published findings, is one proposed minimum alternative standard. While a lack of research reproducibility has been identified as a serious and prevalent problem in biomedical research and a few other fields, little work has been done to examine the reproducibility of public health research. We examined reproducibility in 6 studies from the public health services and systems research subfield of public health research. Following the methods described in each of the 6 papers, we computed the descriptive and inferential statistics for each study. We compared our results with the original study results and examined the percentage differences in descriptive statistics and differences in effect size, significance, and precision of inferential statistics. All project work was completed in 2017. We found consistency between original and reproduced results for each paper in at least 1 of the 4 areas examined. However, we also found some inconsistency. We identified incorrect transcription of results and omitting detail about data management and analyses as the primary contributors to the inconsistencies. Increasing reproducibility, or reanalysis of data to verify published results, can improve the quality of science. Researchers, journals, employers, and funders can all play a role in improving the reproducibility of science through several strategies including publishing data and statistical code, using guidelines to write clear and complete methods sections, conducting reproducibility reviews, and incentivizing reproducible science.

  2. A meta-study of qualitative research examining determinants of children's independent active free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homan; Tamminen, Katherine A; Clark, Alexander M; Slater, Linda; Spence, John C; Holt, Nicholas L

    2015-01-24

    To produce a meta-study by completing a systematic review of qualitative research examining determinants of independent active free play in children. Following systematic electronic and manual searches and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 studies were retained and subjected to meta-method, meta-theory, and meta-data analyses, followed by a final meta-synthesis. Identified determinants of independent active free play were child characteristics (age, competence, and gender), parental restrictions (safety concerns and surveillance), neighborhood and physical environment (fewer children to play with, differences in preferences for play spaces between parents and children, accessibility and proximity, and maintenance), societal changes (reduced sense of community, good parenting ideal, changing roles of parents, privatization of playtime and play spaces), and policy issues (need to give children voice). An ecological model depicting these factors, and the relationships therein, was created. This comprehensive meta-study helps establish a knowledge base for children's independent active free play research by synthesizing a previously fragmented set of studies. Parents' perceived safety concerns are the primary barrier to children's active free play. These safety concerns are moderated by child-level factors (age, competence, gender) and broader social issues. Interventions should focus on community-level solutions that include children's perspectives. From a methods perspective, the reviewed studies used a range of data collection techniques, but methodological details were often inadequately reported. The theoretical sophistication of research in this area could be improved. To this end, the synthesis reported in this study provides a framework for guiding future research.

  3. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  4. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia MacNeill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants’ experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Methods Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants’ relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. Conclusion These

  5. Shedding light on research participation effects in behaviour change trials: a qualitative study examining research participant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Virginia; Foley, Marian; Quirk, Alan; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-01-29

    The sequence of events in a behaviour change trial involves interactions between research participants and the trial process. Taking part in such a study has the potential to influence the behaviour of the participant, and if it does, this can engender bias in trial outcomes. Since participants' experience has received scant attention, the aim of this study is thus to generate hypotheses about which aspects of the conduct of behaviour change trials might matter most to participants, and thus have potential to alter subsequent behaviours and bias trial outcomes Twenty participants were opportunistically screened for a health compromising behaviour (unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking or alcohol consumption) and recruited if eligible. Semi structured face to face interviews were conducted, after going through the usual processes involved in trial recruitment, baseline assessment and randomisation. Participants were given information on the contents of an intervention or control condition in a behaviour change trial, which was not actually implemented. Three months later they returned to reflect on these experiences and whether they had any effect on their behaviour during the intervening period. Data from the latter interview were analysed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The early processes of trial participation raised awareness of unhealthy behaviours, although most reported having had only fleeting intentions to change their behaviour as a result of taking part in this study, in the absence of interventions. However, careful examination of the accounts revealed evidence of subtle research participation effects, which varied according to the health behaviour, and its perceived social acceptability. Participants' relationships with the research study were viewed as somewhat important in stimulating thinking about whether and how to make lifestyle changes. These participants described no dramatic impacts attributable to taking part in

  6. An examination of the research priorities for a hospice service in New Zealand: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Kay; Walton, Jo; Nelson, Katherine; Knox, Rhondda

    2016-06-01

    Palliative care research is relatively diverse and prioritizing research in this field is dependent on multiple factors such as complex ethical decisions in designing and conducting the research; access to participants who may be deemed "vulnerable" and an increasingly medically focused approach to care. The aim of this study was to inform organizational decision-making and policy development regarding future research priorities for a hospice service in New Zealand. A modified three-round Delphi technique was employed. Participants were drawn from one dedicated specialist palliative care service that delivers care in the community, day-care, hospice inpatient, aged residential care, and acute hospital palliative care service. A purposive sample included palliative care staff (n = 10, 18, 9, for rounds 1-3, respectively) volunteers (n = 10, 12, 11); and patients and family carers (n = 6, 8, for rounds 1 and 2). Patients and family carers were not involved in the third round. At final ranking of six research themes encompassing 23 research topics were identified by staff and volunteers. These were: symptom management; aged care; education; community; patient and family; and bereavement support and young people. Patients and family carers agreed on four themes, made up of 10 research topics. These were: decision-making, bereavement and loss, symptom management; and recognition of need and response of service. The study generated a rich set of research themes and specific research topics. The perspectives of staff and volunteers are significantly different from those of patients and family members, in spite of the recognition by all concerned that palliative care services work within a philosophy of patient-centered care. Open discussion of ideas has the potential to engage both staff and patients and carers in quality improvement initiatives, and to reinforce the value of research for patient care.

  7. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs Through Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (2005) by looking at the teacher's (a) attitude towards implementing STL modules, (b) perceived subjective norms, and (c) behavioural control regarding the new teaching approach. After an introductory year, when teachers familiarised themselves with the new approach, a collaborative action research project was initiated in the second year of the study, helping teachers to minimise or overcome initially perceived constraints when implementing STL modules in their classroom. The processes of teacher change and the course of the project were investigated by teacher interviews, teacher informal commentaries, and meeting records. The formation of positive beliefs towards a STL approach increased continuously, although its extent and character varied depending on the teacher. The close cooperation, in the format of collaborative action research and especially through teacher group reflections and perceived collegial support, did support teacher professional development including change in their beliefs towards the new teaching approach. Additionally, positive feedback gained from other teachers through running a two-day in-service course in year three helped to strengthen all five teachers' existing beliefs towards the new approach. The current research demonstrated that perceived constraints, where identified, can be meaningfully addressed by teachers, through undertaking collaborative action research.

  8. A Systematic Review of Research Studies Examining Telehealth Privacy and Security Practices Used By Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J.M. Watzlaf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic review was to systematically review papers in the United States that examine current practices in privacy and security when telehealth technologies are used by healthcare providers. A literature search was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P. PubMed, CINAHL and INSPEC from 2003 – 2016 were searched and returned 25,404 papers (after duplications were removed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly followed to examine title, abstract, and full text for 21 published papers which reported on privacy and security practices used by healthcare providers using telehealth.  Data on confidentiality, integrity, privacy, informed consent, access control, availability, retention, encryption, and authentication were all searched and retrieved from the papers examined. Papers were selected by two independent reviewers, first per inclusion/exclusion criteria and, where there was disagreement, a third reviewer was consulted. The percentage of agreement and Cohen’s kappa was 99.04% and 0.7331 respectively. The papers reviewed ranged from 2004 to 2016 and included several types of telehealth specialties. Sixty-seven percent were policy type studies, and 14 percent were survey/interview studies. There were no randomized controlled trials. Based upon the results, we conclude that it is necessary to have more studies with specific information about the use of privacy and security practices when using telehealth technologies as well as studies that examine patient and provider preferences on how data is kept private and secure during and after telehealth sessions. Keywords: Computer security, Health personnel, Privacy, Systematic review, Telehealth

  9. Examining Pediatric Cases From the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Ureteroscopy Global Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Selcuk; Basiri, Abbas; Varshney, Anil Kumar; Aridogan, Ibrahim Atilla; Miura, Hiroyasu; White, Mark; Kilinc, Mehmet; de la Rosette, Jean

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of ureteroscopy (URS) in children treated in several hospitals participating in the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study, and to present the overall results of pediatric URS compared with adults. The CROES Study collected data on consecutive patients treated with URS for urolithiasis at each participating center over a 1-year period. The collected prospective global database includes data for 11,885 patients who received URS at 114 centers in 32 countries. Of these URS-treated patients, 192 were ≤18 years old. Of the 114 centers participating in the study, 42% had conducted pediatric URS. Among the pediatric cases, 7 were infants, 53 were small children, 59 were school-aged children, and 73 were adolescents. A considerable number (37%) of the pediatric cases had previously undergone URS treatment. No differences in the surgical outcomes of the adults and children were reported. The URS-treated children had a greater number of positive preoperative urine cultures when compared with adult cases treated. A semirigid scope was used in the vast majority of pediatric cases (85%). According to the present data, within the group of URS-treated children, the younger the child, the more readmissions occurred. URS is as efficient and safe in children as it is in adults. The data suggest that readmissions among URS-treated children are associated with age, with the likelihood of readmissions greater among younger age groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining Exposure Assessment in Shift Work Research: A Study on Depression Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amy L; Franche, Renée-Louise; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2018-02-13

    Coarse exposure assessment and assignment is a common issue facing epidemiological studies of shift work. Such measures ignore a number of exposure characteristics that may impact on health, increasing the likelihood of biased effect estimates and masked exposure-response relationships. To demonstrate the impacts of exposure assessment precision in shift work research, this study investigated relationships between work schedule and depression in a large survey of Canadian nurses. The Canadian 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses provided the analytic sample (n = 11450). Relationships between work schedule and depression were assessed using logistic regression models with high, moderate, and low-precision exposure groupings. The high-precision grouping described shift timing and rotation frequency, the moderate-precision grouping described shift timing, and the low-precision grouping described the presence/absence of shift work. Final model estimates were adjusted for the potential confounding effects of demographic and work variables, and bootstrap weights were used to generate sampling variances that accounted for the survey sample design. The high-precision exposure grouping model showed the strongest relationships between work schedule and depression, with increased odds ratios [ORs] for rapidly rotating (OR = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-2.51) and undefined rotating (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 0.92-3.02) shift workers, and a decreased OR for depression in slow rotating (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.57-1.08) shift workers. For the low- and moderate-precision exposure grouping models, weak relationships were observed for all work schedule categories (OR range 0.95 to 0.99). Findings from this study support the need to consider and collect the data required for precise and conceptually driven exposure assessment and assignment in future studies of shift work and health. Further research into the effects of shift rotation frequency on depression is

  11. A qualitative study examining methods of accessing and identifying research relevant to clinical practice among rehabilitation clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Drasti; Koehmstedt, Christine; Jones, Rebecca; Coffey, Nathan T; Cai, Xinsheng; Garfinkel, Steven; Shaewitz, Dahlia M; Weinstein, Ali A

    2017-01-01

    Research examining the utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP) specifically among rehabilitation clinicians is limited. The objective of this study was to examine how various rehabilitative clinicians including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, and physiatrists are gaining access to literature and whether they are able to implement the available research into practice. A total of 21 total clinicians were interviewed via telephone. Using NVivo, a qualitative analysis of the responses was performed. There were similarities found with respect to the information-seeking behaviors and translation of research across the different clinician types. Lack of time was reported to be a barrier for both access to literature and implementation of research across all clinician types. The majority of clinicians who reported having difficulty with utilizing the published literature indicated that the literature was not applicable to their practice, the research was not specific enough to be put into practice, or the research found was too outdated to be relevant. In addition, having a supportive work environment aided in the search and utilization of research through providing resources central to assisting clinicians in gaining access to health information. Our study identified several barriers that affect EBP for rehabilitation clinicians. The findings suggest the need for researchers to ensure that their work is applicable and specific to clinical practice for implementation to occur.

  12. A qualitative study examining methods of accessing and identifying research relevant to clinical practice among rehabilitation clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drasti Patel,1 Christine Koehmstedt,1 Rebecca Jones,1 Nathan T Coffey,1 Xinsheng Cai,2 Steven Garfinkel,2 Dahlia M Shaewitz,2 Ali A Weinstein1 1Center for Study of Chronic Illness and Disability, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, 2American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC, USA Purpose: Research examining the utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP specifically among rehabilitation clinicians is limited. The objective of this study was to examine how various rehabilitative clinicians including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, and physiatrists are gaining access to literature and whether they are able to implement the available research into practice.Methods: A total of 21 total clinicians were interviewed via telephone. Using NVivo, a qualitative analysis of the responses was performed.Results: There were similarities found with respect to the information-seeking behaviors and translation of research across the different clinician types. Lack of time was reported to be a barrier for both access to literature and implementation of research across all clinician types. The majority of clinicians who reported having difficulty with utilizing the published literature indicated that the literature was not applicable to their practice, the research was not specific enough to be put into practice, or the research found was too outdated to be relevant. In addition, having a supportive work environment aided in the search and utilization of research through providing resources central to assisting clinicians in gaining access to health information.Conclusion: Our study identified several barriers that affect EBP for rehabilitation clinicians. The findings suggest the need for researchers to ensure that their work is applicable and specific to clinical practice for implementation to occur. Keywords: health information, information behavior, knowledge utilization

  13. Diagnostic strategies using physical examination are minimally useful in defining carpal tunnel syndrome in population-based research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, A; Dale, A-M; Franzblau, A; Coomes, J; Evanoff, B

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the utility of physical examination manoeuvres in the prediction of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a population-based research study. We studied a cohort of 1108 newly employed workers in several industries. Each worker completed a symptom questionnaire, a structured physical examination and nerve conduction study. For each hand, our CTS case definition required both median nerve conduction abnormality and symptoms classified as "classic" or "probable" on a hand diagram. We calculated the positive predictive values and likelihood ratios for physical examination manoeuvres in subjects with and without symptoms. The prevalence of CTS in our cohort was 1.2% for the right hand and 1.0% for the left hand. The likelihood ratios of a positive test for physical provocative tests ranged from 2.0 to 3.3, and those of a negative test from 0.3 to 0.9. The post-test probability of positive testing was study found that physical examination, alone or in combination with symptoms, was not predictive of CTS in a working population. We suggest using specific symptoms as a first-level screening tool, and nerve conduction study as a confirmatory test, as a case definition strategy in research settings.

  14. Using death certificates and medical examiner records for adolescent occupational fatality surveillance and research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Runyan, Carol W; Radisch, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Death certificates and medical examiner records have been useful yet imperfect data sources for work-related fatality research and surveillance among adult workers. It is unclear whether this holds for work-related fatalities among adolescent workers who suffer unique detection challenges in part because they are not often thought of as workers. This study investigated the utility of using these data sources for surveillance and research pertaining to adolescent work-related fatalities. Using the state of North Carolina as a case study, we analyzed data from the death certificates and medical examiner records of all work-related fatalities data among 11- to 17-year-olds between 1990-2008 (N = 31). We compared data sources on case identification, of completeness, and consistency information. Variables examined included those on the injury (e.g., means), occurrence (e.g., place), demographics, and employment (e.g., occupation). Medical examiner records (90%) were more likely than death certificates (71%) to identify adolescent work-related fatalities. Data completeness was generally high yet varied between sources. The most marked difference being that in medical examiner records, type of business/industry and occupation were complete in 72 and 67% of cases, respectively, while on the death certificates these fields were complete in 90 and 97% of cases, respectively. Taking the two sources together, each field was complete in upward of 94% of cases. Although completeness was high, data were not always of good quality and sometimes conflicted across sources. In many cases, the decedent's occupation was misclassified as "student" and their employer as "school" on the death certificate. Even though each source has its weaknesses, medical examiner records and death certificates, especially when used together, can be useful for conducting surveillance and research on adolescent work-related fatalities. However, extra care is needed by data recorders to ensure that

  15. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  16. Photovoice and Youth Empowerment in Environmental Justice Research: A Pilot Study Examining Woodsmoke Pollution in a Pacific Northwest Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickle, Mattie B; Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Woodsmoke pollution is an environmental justice issue for youth living in certain Pacific Northwest cities. Participatory methods such as Citizen Science and Photovoice are effective ways to involve youth in environmental justice research. Little is understood about how youth may be empowered to address woodsmoke issues in their communities. We examined youth empowerment in a citizen science study on woodsmoke, using Photovoice methodology. Ten diverse youth collected and analyzed indoor air samples and photos, then presented their findings to the community and policy makers. Entrance and exit surveys revealed an increased sense of empowerment to take action on woodsmoke pollution. Youth also expressed increased optimism and a resolve to become scientists to combat environmental injustices.

  17. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  18. Studies and research concerning BNFP: evaluation of spent-fuel-examination techniques for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Gray, J.H.; Rogell, M.L.

    1982-09-01

    A study was made of various examinations which could be remotely performed on a production basis with spent fuel at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These techniques could form an integral portion of fuel disassembly and canning operations. Their benefits accrue to either improved fuel storage, reprocessing, or both. In conjunctoin with these studies, evaluations have been made of the operational impact of receiving failed or canned fuel at the BNFP

  19. Multilevel modeling and panel data analysis in educational research (Case study: National examination data senior high school in West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulvia, Pepi; Kurnia, Anang; Soleh, Agus M.

    2017-03-01

    Individual and environment are a hierarchical structure consist of units grouped at different levels. Hierarchical data structures are analyzed based on several levels, with the lowest level nested in the highest level. This modeling is commonly call multilevel modeling. Multilevel modeling is widely used in education research, for example, the average score of National Examination (UN). While in Indonesia UN for high school student is divided into natural science and social science. The purpose of this research is to develop multilevel and panel data modeling using linear mixed model on educational data. The first step is data exploration and identification relationships between independent and dependent variable by checking correlation coefficient and variance inflation factor (VIF). Furthermore, we use a simple model approach with highest level of the hierarchy (level-2) is regency/city while school is the lowest of hierarchy (level-1). The best model was determined by comparing goodness-of-fit and checking assumption from residual plots and predictions for each model. Our finding that for natural science and social science, the regression with random effects of regency/city and fixed effects of the time i.e multilevel model has better performance than the linear mixed model in explaining the variability of the dependent variable, which is the average scores of UN.

  20. The Effectiveness of Business Codes: A Critical Examination of Existing Studies and the Development of an Integrated Research Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptein, S.P.; Schwartz, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBusiness codes are a widely used management instrument. Research into the effectiveness of business codes has, however, produced conflicting results. The main reasons for the divergent findings are: varying definitions of key terms; deficiencies in the empirical data and methodologies used; and a lack of theory. In this paper, we propose an integrated research model and suggest directions for future research.

  1. Examining Gender Bias in Studies of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Crowden, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the presence of a gender bias in studies of innovation. Using the Innovation Systems Research Network (ISRN) and its interview guide as a case study, this research project examines how accurately and completely such innovation studies present gender differences in the innovation process.

  2. The Effectiveness of Business Codes: A Critical Examination of Existing Studies and the Development of an Integrated Research Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel); M.S. Schwartz (Mark)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBusiness codes are a widely used management instrument. Research into the effectiveness of business codes has, however, produced conflicting results. The main reasons for the divergent findings are: varying definitions of key terms; deficiencies in the empirical data and methodologies

  3. The effectiveness of business codes: a critical examination of existing studies and the development of an integrated research model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel); M.S. Schwartz (Mark)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBusiness codes are a widely used management instrument. Research into the effectiveness of business codes has, however, produced conflicting results. The main reasons for the divergent findings are: varying definitions of key terms; deficiencies in the empirical data and methodologies

  4. A Comparative Study of Activity-Based Costing vs. Current Pricing System for Pathology Examinations at Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver YARIKKAYA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide real cost data for pathology examinations by using activity-based costing method, in order to provide means to departments, health administrators and the social security institution to achieve improvements in financial planning, quality and cost control. Material and Method: The cost of the histopathological examinations, which were accepted by the Department of Pathology at Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital during August 2014, was calculated using the activity-based costing method. The costs were compared with the amounts specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff and the conventional volume-based costing. Results: Most pathology examinations listed within a given band in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff show variations in unit costs. The study found that the costs of 77.4% of the examinations were higher than the prices listed in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff. Conclusion: The pathology examination tariffs specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification do not reflect the real costs of the examinations. The costs that are calculated using the activity-based costing system may vary according to the service types and levels of health care institutions. However, the main parameters of the method used in the study reflect the necessity of a more accurate banding of pathology examinations. The banding specified by the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff needs to be revised to reflect the real costs in Turkey.

  5. A Comparative Study of Activity-Based Costing vs. Current Pricing System for Pathology Examinations at Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarikkaya, Enver; Özekinci, Selver; Sargan, Aytül; Durmuş, Şenay Erdoğan; Yildiz, Fetin Rüştü

    2017-01-01

    To provide real cost data for pathology examinations by using activity-based costing method, in order to provide means to departments, health administrators and the social security institution to achieve improvements in financial planning, quality and cost control. The cost of the histopathological examinations, which were accepted by the Department of Pathology at Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital during August 2014, was calculated using the activity-based costing method. The costs were compared with the amounts specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff and the conventional volume-based costing. Most pathology examinations listed within a given band in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff show variations in unit costs. The study found that the costs of 77.4% of the examinations were higher than the prices listed in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff. The pathology examination tariffs specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification do not reflect the real costs of the examinations. The costs that are calculated using the activity-based costing system may vary according to the service types and levels of health care institutions. However, the main parameters of the method used in the study reflect the necessity of a more accurate banding of pathology examinations. The banding specified by the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff needs to be revised to reflect the real costs in Turkey.

  6. Using Action Research Projects to Examine Teacher Technology Integration Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the technology integration practices of teachers involved in a statewide initiative via one cycle of action research. It differs from other studies of teacher technology integration practices because it simultaneously involved and provided direct benefits to teachers and researchers. The study used thematic analysis to provide…

  7. Clinical Orofacial Examination in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: International Consensus-based Recommendations for Monitoring Patients in Clinical Practice and Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Twilt, Marinka; Spiegel, Lynn; Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Koos, Bernd; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Küseler, Annelise; Cron, Randy Q; Abramowicz, Shelly; Verna, Carlalberta; Peltomäki, Timo; Alstergren, Per; Petty, Ross; Ringold, Sarah; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Saurenmann, Rotraud K; Herlin, Troels

    2017-03-01

    To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains and items to be included in the recommendations. Phase 3: A systematic literature review was performed to assess the evidence supporting the consensus-based recommendations. Phase 4: An independent group of orofacial and JIA experts were invited to assess the content validity of the task force's recommendations. Five recommendations were developed to assess the following 5 domains: medical history, orofacial symptoms, muscle and temporomandibular joint function, orofacial function, and dentofacial growth. After application of data search criteria, 56 articles were included in the systematic review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized data collection for future studies. The task force has formulated a future research program based on the proposed recommendations.

  8. From patient care to research: a validation study examining the factors contributing to data quality in a primary care electronic medical record database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Nathan; Halas, Gayle; Peeler, William; Casaclang, Natalie; Williamson, Tyler; Katz, Alan

    2015-02-05

    Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) are increasingly used in the provision of primary care and have been compiled into databases which can be utilized for surveillance, research and informing practice. The primary purpose of these records is for the provision of individual patient care; validation and examination of underlying limitations is crucial for use for research and data quality improvement. This study examines and describes the validity of chronic disease case definition algorithms and factors affecting data quality in a primary care EMR database. A retrospective chart audit of an age stratified random sample was used to validate and examine diagnostic algorithms applied to EMR data from the Manitoba Primary Care Research Network (MaPCReN), part of the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN). The presence of diabetes, hypertension, depression, osteoarthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was determined by review of the medical record and compared to algorithm identified cases to identify discrepancies and describe the underlying contributing factors. The algorithm for diabetes had high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) with all scores being over 90%. Specificities of the algorithms were greater than 90% for all conditions except for hypertension at 79.2%. The largest deficits in algorithm performance included poor PPV for COPD at 36.7% and limited sensitivity for COPD, depression and osteoarthritis at 72.0%, 73.3% and 63.2% respectively. Main sources of discrepancy included missing coding, alternative coding, inappropriate diagnosis detection based on medications used for alternate indications, inappropriate exclusion due to comorbidity and loss of data. Comparison to medical chart review shows that at MaPCReN the CPCSSN case finding algorithms are valid with a few limitations. This study provides the basis for the validated data to be utilized for research and informs users of its

  9. Researchers, other experts examine climate engineering issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of deliberately engineering Earth's climate--and the social, economic, political, and ethical issues raised by such projects--were explored by two panels at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), held in late February in San Francisco. These projects include dispersal of sulfate particles in the stratosphere to reflect sunlight, fertilizing the southern oceans with iron to stimulate phytoplankton growth, and injecting ethane or propane into the stratosphere over Antarctica to counteract ozone-depleting chemical reactions. The feasibility of such projects was the focus of the first panel. Joyce E. Penner, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, describes studies of natural and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols that suggest that these chemical species reduce the solar flux reaching the Earth's surface. The research indicates it might be possible to counteract greenhouse warming, at least in part, by injecting sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere. Should such an approach be used to counteract greenhouse warming? Should any climate engineering project be considered? These sorts of questions were the focus of the second panel

  10. Evaluating the impact of method bias in health behaviour research: a meta-analytic examination of studies utilising the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Sharma, Rajeev

    2017-12-01

    The methods employed to measure behaviour in research testing the theories of reasoned action/planned behaviour (TRA/TPB) within the context of health behaviours have the potential to significantly bias findings. One bias yet to be examined in that literature is that due to common method variance (CMV). CMV introduces a variance in scores attributable to the method used to measure a construct, rather than the construct it represents. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of method bias on the associations of health behaviours with TRA/TPB variables. Data were sourced from four meta-analyses (177 studies). The method used to measure behaviour for each effect size was coded for susceptibility to bias. The moderating impact of method type was assessed using meta-regression. Method type significantly moderated the associations of intentions, attitudes and social norms with behaviour, but not that between perceived behavioural control and behaviour. The magnitude of the moderating effect of method type appeared consistent between cross-sectional and prospective studies, but varied across behaviours. The current findings strongly suggest that method bias significantly inflates associations in TRA/TPB research, and poses a potentially serious validity threat to the cumulative findings reported in that field.

  11. Contribution to the study and realization of a gamma scanning examination method for irradiation devices analysis in a research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Francois.

    1979-01-01

    To meet the requirements of the experimenters in research nuclear reactors, a fast quantitative, non destructive method of irradiation devices examination was conceived and applied in the CEN.G SILOE reactor as far back as 1972. The object is the analysis of the fuel sample evolution and the continuous study of the possible coolant contamination. This report describes and justifies the choices taken for the measurements installation conception (two dimensional scanning bench, collimation, detector, automatic operation), and explains the analysis and calibration methods, the work on the whole being adjusted to obtain absolute results (present atomic concentrations). Different results interpretations are presented which concern the axial and radial fission products migration in the fuel, their release in case of cladding rupture, and the fission power measurement [fr

  12. International Development Research Centre - Special Examination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    OAG-BVG

    2008-03-27

    Mar 27, 2008 ... The government's attention to these matters is needed. .... that they can identify problems and make decisions that promote ... Canadian resources for research for development by creating, .... effect on the Centre's mandate and strategic objectives. ...... between fresh perspectives and corporate memory.

  13. Fundamental elements in examining a child’s right to education: A study of home education research and regulation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda JACKSON

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Home education provides valuable educational and developmental opportunities for children. An examination of Australia’s research indicates many best educational practices, including more informed mediation, contextualised learning, and opportunities to exercise autonomy. Key features include learning embedded in communities and program modification in response to students’ needs. Current state and territory legal requirements are examined within the context of this research and Australia’s obligations to international human rights treaties. All jurisdictions accept home education as one way to meet compulsory education requirements. The extent to which respective laws then reflect understanding of home education research and practice varies. Most jurisdictions allow for a varietyof educational approaches. Some oversight regulation could however be modified to reflect a better understanding of home education. Consultation with home educators and reference to research would assist the development of more uniform legislation and policy across Australia, and enable better regulatory practice.

  14. Studies on the health effects of a-bomb radiation exposure appeared in health examinations of adult survivors by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    2006-01-01

    The Research Foundation has conducted the health examinations in the title since 1958, based on which studies of a cohort type have been performed, and their results at present are summarized in this paper. Subjects have included a cohort of about 120000 cases in total. They have been those 4993 initial cases (the center group) exposed to estimated radiation doses of 4 -6 Gy within the distance of 2 km from the hypocenter and with acute exposure symptoms either in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, and 19961 cases (exposed ones within 2 km from the hypocenter but without the symptoms, exposed residents in the city 3 km far from the hypocenter, or ones absent in the city at explosion) matched to the above center group in the city, age and sex. Lower statures and weights are noted in some of the center group who were in growing ages at exposure. Increases of prevalence or incidence rate are suggested in malignant tumors, diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid, uterine myoma, chronic liver diseases, cataract, circulatory diseases, abnormal hemoglobin value, and psychological states. Relative risk at 1 Gy for incidence of non-cancer diseases is calculated and presented. Results are not always consistent with those of such population exposed to <6 Gy as that of Chernobyl Accident, of radiation technologist and of people accidentally exposed to environmental radiation. The Foundation is to continue the study and more profound results of radiation effects are expected to be obtainable. (T.I)

  15. Equity in Whom Gets Studied: A Systematic Review Examining Geographical Region, Gender, Commodity, and Employment Context in Research of Low Back Disorders in Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Catherine; Khan, Muhammad Idress; Adebayo, Olugbenga; Boden, Catherine; Bath, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    Farmers are at high risk of having low back disorders (LBDs). Agriculture employs half the global workforce, but it is unclear whether all farming populations are represented equitably in the LBD literature. This systematic review quantifies the number and quality of research studies by geographical region, agricultural commodity, and farmer characteristics. MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and Embase databases were searched using conceptual groups of search terms: "farming" and "LBD." Screening and extraction were performed by two researchers in parallel, then reconciled through discussion. Extracted study characteristics included location of study; commodity produced; worker sex, ethnicity, and migration status; type of employment; and study quality. These were compared with agricultural employment statistics from the International Labour Organization and World Bank. From 125 articles, roughly half (67) did not specify the employment context of the participants in terms of migration status or subsistence versus commercial farming. Although in many regions worldwide women make up the bulk of the workforce, only a minority of low back disorder studies focus on women. Despite the predominance of the agricultural workforce in developing nations, 91% of included studies were conducted in developed nations. There was no significant difference in study quality by geographic region. The nature of the world's agricultural workforce is poorly represented by the literature when it comes to LBD research. If developing nations, female sex, and migrant work are related to increased vulnerability, then these groups need more representation to achieve equitable occupational health study.

  16. Examining Evident Interdisciplinarity Among Prides of Lion Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Montgomery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lions (Panthera leo have experienced dramatic population declines in recent decades and today, inhabit just a fraction of their historic range. The reasons behind these declines are many, but conflict with humans, principally motivated by lion depredation of livestock, is among the most influential. Recent calls within the scientific community have identified that wicked problems like these should be addressed using interdisciplinary approaches. Here we examined the extent to which human-lion conflict research has been interdisciplinary. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and uncovered 88 papers, published between 1990 and 2015, that assessed human-lion interaction and the ecology of lions exposed to anthropogenic disturbance. While human-lion conflict research experienced near-exponential growth (y = 8E-194e0.222x, R2 = 0.76 across this time period, the number of co-authors engaged in this research changed very little (x = 3.28, se = 0.19. Moreover, co-authors of this research tended to be affiliated with units from just three highly-related STEM disciplines (biology, wildlife management, and environmental science. Comparatively, co-authors affiliated with units in the humanities and social sciences occurred in <4% of all papers examined. Our analysis also presents a novel framework that positions human-lion conflict research as having not two dimensions, as has been commonly conceptualized, but five dimensions. These dimensions include not only the human and the lion dimensions, but also the livestock, wild prey, and environmental dimensions. None of the papers that we evaluated concurrently studied all five of these dimensions to determine their impact on human-lion conflict. Furthermore, despite the fact that human-lion conflict research was primarily developed by co-authors from STEM disciplines, the most common dimension evaluated was the human dimension which requires social science and humanities expertise. Our analysis

  17. Naloxone and the Inner City Youth Experience (NICYE): a community-based participatory research study examining young people's perceptions of the BC take home naloxone program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Keren; Durante, S Elise; Pellatt, Katrina; Richardson, Chris G; Mathias, Steve; Buxton, Jane A

    2017-06-07

    Take home naloxone (THN) programs reduce mortality by training bystanders to respond to opioid overdoses. Clinical observation by the health care team at the Inner City Youth (ICY) program indicated that young adults appeared to enthusiastically participate in the THN program and developed improved relationships with staff after THN training. However, we found a dearth of literature exploring the experiences of young adults with THN programs. This study set out to address this gap and identify suggestions from the young adults for program improvement. The primary research question was "How do street-involved young people experience the THN Program in Vancouver, BC?" The study was undertaken at the ICY Program. Two peer researchers with lived experience of THN were recruited from ICY and were involved in all phases of the study. The peer researchers and a graduate student facilitated two focus groups and five individual interviews with ICY program participants using a semi-structured interview guide. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. The cut-up-and-put-in-folders approach was used to identify emerging themes. The themes that emerged were perceptions of risk, altruism, strengthening relationship with staff, access to training, empowerment, and confidence in ability to respond, and suggestions for youth-friendly training. These themes were then situated within the framework of the health belief model to provide additional context. Participants viewed themselves as vulnerable to overdose and spoke of the importance of expanding access to THN training. Following training, participants reported an increase in internal locus of control, an improved sense of safety among the community of people who use drugs, improved self-esteem, and strengthened relationships with ICY staff. Overall, participants found THN training engaging, which appeared to enhance participation in other ICY programming. Young people perceived THN training as a positive experience that

  18. Research program plan. Non-destructive examination. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscara, J.

    1985-07-01

    Nondestructive examination/evaluation (NDE) of nuclear reactor components is required during fabrication, before service, and at regularly scheduled shutdowns for periodic inservice inspection (ISI). Any flaws produced during fabrication should be detected by the fabrication and preservice baseline examinations and components containing rejectable flaws should be repaired before the reactor enters service. The purpose of ISI is to ensure that any flaws which develop during service can be detected and evaluated and that unacceptable components are repaired or replaced to maintain safety, as well as to identify possible generic-type defects that may be present or developing in the remainder of the system or other similar systems so that timely corrective actions can be taken. The major thrusts of the research in ultrasonic testing for ISI are (1) to define the influence of inspection variables and procedures on inspection reliability and to determine the impact of inspection unreliability on system safety and (2) to study and evaluate improved techniques for reliable and accurate flaw detection and characterization. This research, therefore, has direct impact on evaluations of and improvements in reactor safety

  19. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  20. A Practical Examination of Two Diverse Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript examines the practical differences between quantitative and qualitative inquiry by comparing the differences between one article from each paradigm. Quantitative research differs greatly from qualitative inquiry in purpose, assumptions, methodology, and representation. While quantitative research has been the dominant paradigm for…

  1. Eddy current examination of the nuclear fuel elements with aluminum 1100-F cladding of IPR-R1 research reactor: An initial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Roger F. da; Silva Júnior, Silvério F. da; Frade, Rangel T.; Rodrigues, Juliano S.

    2017-01-01

    Tubes of aluminum 1100-F as well as tubes of AISI 304 stainless steel are used as cladding of the fuel elements of TRIGA IPR-R1 nuclear research reactor. Usually, these tubes are inspected by means of visual test and sipping test. The visual test allows the detection of changes occurred at the external fuel elements surface, such as those promoted by corrosion processes. However, this test method cannot be used for detection of internal discontinuities at the tube walls. Sipping test allows the detection of fuel elements whose cladding has failed, but it is not able to determine the place where the discontinuity is located. On the other hand, eddy current testing, an electromagnetic nondestructive test method, allows the detection of discontinuities and monitoring their growth. In previous works, the application of eddy current testing to evaluate the AISI 304 cladding fuel elements of TRIGA IPR-R1 was studied. In this paper, it is proposed an initial study about the use of eddy current testing for detection and characterization of discontinuities in the aluminum 1100-F fuel elements cladding. The study includes the development of probes and the design and manufacture of reference standards. (author)

  2. Eddy current examination of the nuclear fuel elements with aluminum 1100-F cladding of IPR-R1 research reactor: An initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Roger F. da; Silva Júnior, Silvério F. da; Frade, Rangel T. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rodrigues, Juliano S., E-mail: rfs@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvasf@cdtn.br, E-mail: rtf@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Tubes of aluminum 1100-F as well as tubes of AISI 304 stainless steel are used as cladding of the fuel elements of TRIGA IPR-R1 nuclear research reactor. Usually, these tubes are inspected by means of visual test and sipping test. The visual test allows the detection of changes occurred at the external fuel elements surface, such as those promoted by corrosion processes. However, this test method cannot be used for detection of internal discontinuities at the tube walls. Sipping test allows the detection of fuel elements whose cladding has failed, but it is not able to determine the place where the discontinuity is located. On the other hand, eddy current testing, an electromagnetic nondestructive test method, allows the detection of discontinuities and monitoring their growth. In previous works, the application of eddy current testing to evaluate the AISI 304 cladding fuel elements of TRIGA IPR-R1 was studied. In this paper, it is proposed an initial study about the use of eddy current testing for detection and characterization of discontinuities in the aluminum 1100-F fuel elements cladding. The study includes the development of probes and the design and manufacture of reference standards. (author)

  3. [Pilot study of domain-specific terminology adaptation for morphological analysis: research on unknown terms in national examination documents of radiological technologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shintarou; Nishimoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2008-07-20

    Although large medical texts are stored in electronic format, they are seldom reused because of the difficulty of processing narrative texts by computer. Morphological analysis is a key technology for extracting medical terms correctly and automatically. This process parses a sentence into its smallest unit, the morpheme. Phrases consisting of two or more technical terms, however, cause morphological analysis software to fail in parsing the sentence and output unprocessed terms as "unknown words." The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of unknown words in medical narrative text processing. The results of parsing the text with additional dictionaries were compared with the analysis of the number of unknown words in the national examination for radiologists. The ratio of unknown words was reduced 1.0% to 0.36% by adding terminologies of radiological technology, MeSH, and ICD-10 labels. The terminology of radiological technology was the most effective resource, being reduced by 0.62%. This result clearly showed the necessity of additional dictionary selection and trends in unknown words. The potential for this investigation is to make available a large body of clinical information that would otherwise be inaccessible for applications other than manual health care review by personnel.

  4. Is Qualitative Research Second Class Science? A Quantitative Longitudinal Examination of Qualitative Research in Medical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E.; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, Pqualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitative research, as expressed by the

  5. Examining Research Questions on Germination from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 31 pre-service science teachers. Participants were asked to develop various research questions on germination. The study aims to examine research questions on the subject germination from the perspective of scientific creativity. The research questions were examined using the fluency, science…

  6. Study text and sets of questions for the training and examination of selected personnel of nuclear research facilities. Issue 2. Experimental teaching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhans, J.; Hejzlar, R.; Hermansky, B.

    2004-01-01

    The VR-1 teaching reactor is described, 14 experimental exercises are given (e.g. Starting up and running the VR-1 reactor; Neutron detection and detectors; Measuring delayed neutrons ; Reactivity measurement; Control rod calibration; ...) and practical training at the existing Czech research reactors (LVR-15; LR-0; VR-1) is briefly highlighted. (P.A.)

  7. A Critical Examination of My Qualitative Research Efforts in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Uzuner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available . Today, it is known and widely accepted that researchers must know the research paradigms and develop skills and non-dogmatic attitudes for conducting and evaluating studies in any methodology. Quantitative research methodology is more common while qualitative research is relatively new in Turkey. Researchers who have not developed sufficient knowledge and experiences in qualitative study would create nonevidence based and non-ethical research projects. This creates threats to the research community. In order to improve and be competent in any methodology, it is important to review and critically analyze the completed dissertations, thesis and the journal articles emerged from those research efforts. In this effort self-reflection of one’s own research effort is essential. In this paper as an experienced researcher the author shares her experiences in supervising theses and dissertations and conducting her own research projects in qualitative research methodology in the last 20 years in Turkey. In the light of the literature considering various aspects she discusses advantages and disadvantages conducting qualitative studies in Turkey. Considering the disadvantages, the author came up with the idea of keeping thinking positively, acting modestly, being patient, learning how to deal with the authority, learning how to deal with the exploiters, working hard, never giving up, focusing on the target, being assertive when necessary, and so keeping going in the scientific way.

  8. A scientometric examination of the water quality research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishy, P; Saroja, Renuka

    2018-03-16

    Water quality has emerged as a fast-developing research area. Regular assessment of research activity is necessary for the successful R&D promotion. Water quality research work carried out in different countries increased over the years, and the USA ranked first in productivity while India stands in the seventh position in quantity and occupies the ninth position in quality of the research output. India observes a steady growth in the water quality research. Four thousand six hundred sixteen articles from India assessed from the aspect of citations received distributions of source countries, institutes, journals, impact factor, words in the title, author keywords. The qualitative and quantitative analysis identifies the contributions of the major institutions involved in research. Much of the country's water quality research is carried out by universities, public research institutions and science councils, whereas the contribution from Ministry of water resources not so significant. A considerable portion of Indian research is communicated through foreign journals, and the most active one is Environmental Monitoring and Assessment journal. Twenty-one percent of work is reported in journals published from India and around 7% ages in open access journals. The study highlights that international collaborative research resulted in high-quality papers. The authors meticulously analyse the published research works to gain a deeper understanding of focus areas through word cluster analyses on title words and keywords. When many papers deal with 'contamination', 'assessment' and 'treatment', enough studies done on 'water quality index', 'toxicity', considerable work is carried out in environmental, agricultural, industrial and health problems related to water quality. This detailed scientometric study from 1,09,766 research works from SCI-E during 1986-2015 plots the trends and identifies research hotspots for the benefit to scientists in the subject area. This study

  9. Research on nondestructive examination methods for CANDU fuel channel inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, M.; Petriu, F.; Toma, V.; Revenco, V.; Calinescu, A.; Ciocan, R.; Iordache, C.; Popescu, L.; Mihalache, M.; Murgescu, C.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of the 1994 edition of CAN/CSA-N285.4 Periodic Inspection Standard, which address all known and postulated degradation mechanisms and introduce material surveillance demands, involve a growing need for improved nondestructive examination (NDE) methods and technologies. In order to have a proper technical support in its decisions concerning fuel channel inspections at Cernavoda NPP, the Romanian Power Authority (RENEL) initiated a Research Program regarding the nondestructive characterization of the fuel channels structural integrity. The paper presents the most significant results obtained on this Research Program: the ENDUS experimental system for Laboratory simulation of the fuel channel inspection, ultrasonic Rayleigh-Lamb waves technique for pressure tubes examination, phase analysis technique for near-surface flaws, influence of the metallurgical state of the pressure tube material on the eddy current defectoscopic signals, characterization of plastic deformation and fracture of zirconium alloys by acoustic emission. (author)

  10. An Examination of the Role of Perceptions in Neighborhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating research demonstrates that both archival indicators and residents' self-reports of neighborhood conditions are useful predictors of a variety of physical health, mental health, substance use, criminal, and educational outcomes. Although studies have shown these two types of measures are often related, no research has systematically…

  11. Introductory Graduate Research Courses: An Examination of the Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundfrom, Daniel J.; Shaw, Dale G.; Thomas, Ann; Young, Suzanne; Moore, Alan D.

    This study addresses the question, "What should graduate students know about research and statistics after completing an initial course?" Individuals who teach such courses at various Carnegie classifications of institutions were surveyed about the specific characteristics of an introductory graduate research course at their own institutions to…

  12. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MESSING

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study Jason HOWARTH John MESSING Irfan ALTAS Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga-AUSTRALIA ABSTRACT This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master’s degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU. The Industry Master’s degree is an academic program for students currently employed in the IT industry. Using Internet Based Testing (IBT, these students are examined in test centres throughout the world. This offers many benefits. For example, students have the freedom of sitting exams at any time during a designated interval. Computer-based testing also provides instructors with valuable feedback through test statistics and student comments. In this paper, we document CSU’s use of the IBT system, including how tests are built and delivered, and how both human and statistical feedback is used to evaluate and enhance the testing process.

  13. Systemic accident analysis: examining the gap between research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    The systems approach is arguably the dominant concept within accident analysis research. Viewing accidents as a result of uncontrolled system interactions, it forms the theoretical basis of various systemic accident analysis (SAA) models and methods. Despite the proposed benefits of SAA, such as an improved description of accident causation, evidence within the scientific literature suggests that these techniques are not being used in practice and that a research-practice gap exists. The aim of this study was to explore the issues stemming from research and practice which could hinder the awareness, adoption and usage of SAA. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 safety experts from ten countries and a variety of industries, including rail, aviation and maritime. This study suggests that the research-practice gap should be closed and efforts to bridge the gap should focus on ensuring that systemic methods meet the needs of practitioners and improving the communication of SAA research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Research Proposal to Examine Entrepreneurship in Family Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Durán-Encalada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on existing theoretical and empirical studies in the areas of family business and entrepreneurship. It uses Dubin´s theory building framework to propose a model for conducting research of family businesses and its linkage to entrepreneurial activities in Mexico. This works starts by describing the concepts of family business and explains the importance that these definitions can have on the variables to be included in the research. After that, the paper explains how the concept of “familiness” relates to the essence definition of family business. Using the resource-based view (RBV, agency theory, and social capital theories we describe how social capital resources are the basis for building firm capabilities and competitive advantages that influence firm’s performances. Based on this perspective, a theoretical model, laws of interaction, a set of propositions and suggestions for further research are provided.

  15. Examining mathematics attitude in a TIMSS 2003 pilot research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadijević Đorđe M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the data on test reliability, the psychometric features of the TIMSS variables are not officially available. It is therefore not clear whether the TIMSS findings capture real educational trends. Being concerned with mathematics attitude, the aim of this research was to determine the psychometric values of a mathematics attitude scale derived from a student questionnaire, and, if these are appropriate, to examine the relation of mathematics attitude to gender and mathematics achievement, and search for gender differences in the applied mathematics attitude indicators. By using a sample of 89 seventh-grade students involved in a TIMSS 2003 pilot research, it revealed the following findings: (a the representativity reliability, homogeneity and validity of the applied attitude scale were acceptable, (b attitude to mathematics was related to mathematics achievement, (c gender differences in mathematics attitude were not found and (d gender differences in the applied indicators were only present for the statement "I need to do well in mathematics to get into the faculty of my choice" where males expressed a higher agreement than females.

  16. Examining the Relationship between the Research Training Environment, Course Experiences, and Graduate Students’ Research Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Chesnut

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between graduate students’ research training environment, course experience, and research self-efficacy beliefs. The findings of the descriptive and regression analyses suggest that graduate students’ (n = 161 general research, quantitative, and qualitative research self-efficacy beliefs varied and that these beliefs were related to different aspects of the research training environment and course experiences, including their own personal research experiences. While course experience variables were significant predictors of quantitative and qualitative research self-efficacy, they were not predictive of general research methods self-efficacy. Also, while mentorship was a significant predictor of general research methods self-efficacy, it was not a significant predictor of quantitative and qualitative research self-efficacy. The implications of this study for research and graduate education are discussed.

  17. American Presidents and Their Attitudes, Beliefs, and Actions Surrounding Education and Multiculturalism. A Series of Research Studies in Educational Policy. Sixth Installment: Examining Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and William Jefferson Clinton. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, H. Prentice; Orvosh-Kamenski, Heidi; Kamenski, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the recent presidencies of Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and William Jefferson Clinton and is the sixth installment in a series that examines how presidents, through their office of power, have impacted U.S. citizens by their actions and policies. By viewing the presidents through a multicultural lense we can more…

  18. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  19. Human research ethics committees: examining their roles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn; Rosenthal, Doreen; Bolitho, Annie

    2012-07-01

    Considerable time and resources are invested in the ethics review process. We present qualitative data on how human research ethics committee members and health researchers perceive the role and function of the committee. The findings are based on interviews with 34 Australian ethics committee members and 54 health researchers. Although all participants agreed that the primary role of the ethics committee was to protect participants, there was disagreement regarding the additional roles undertaken by committees. Of particular concern were the perceptions from some ethics committee members and researchers that ethics committees were working to protect the institution's interests, as well as being overprotective toward research participants. This has the potential to lead to poor relations and mistrust between ethics committees and researchers.

  20. CERN and ESA examine future fundamental physics research in space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    A special workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space and related topics will be held at CERN in Geneva from 5 to 7 April 2000. Remarkable advances in technology and progress made in reliability and cost effectiveness of European space missions in recent years have opened up exciting new directions for such research. The workshop provides a forum for sharing expertise gained in high energy physics research with colleagues working in research in space.

  1. A scientometric examination of the performance of water research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Regular assessment of the state of water research and development (R&D) in South Africa is a necessary ... require intelligent allocation of resources, which presupposes ..... search strategy identifying keywords in the titles (TTL) of .... POURIS A (2008) Energy & fuels research in South Africa: A compara-.

  2. Examining the Academic/Practitioner Divide in Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, Paul R.; Brennan, Ross; Gill, Mark; Mortimore, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to comment on the differences in perceptions that exist between academic and professional marketing researchers, as creators of new marketing knowledge, and explore how academics and practitioners can work together better on areas of mutual interest or separately on areas where their interests do not coincide. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is via two focus groups, one with researchers in marketing from universities and one ...

  3. Healthcare market research examined. Relevant, rigorous and highly regulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Douglas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentences of the article. The full text is freely available upon registration]Market research is invariably confused with marketing – but, in fact, the two disciplines are very different. Put in its simplest terms, marketing is about promotion whilst market research is about understanding. Accordingly, data collected for market research purposes are used in a completely different way to that gathered for marketing, with research practices heavily regulated to ensure high ethical standards.Let’s begin with a definition of what, exactly, market research is. According to the ICC/ESOMAR International Code 2007 (a definition also adopted by the European Pharmaceutical Market Research Association, it is: «the systematic gathering and interpretation of information about individuals or organisations using the statistical and analytical methods and techniques of the applied social sciences to gain insight or support decision-making. The identity of respondents will not be revealed to the user of the information without explicit consent and no sales approach will be made to them as a direct result of their having provided information».

  4. Redox Biology Final Examination 2016 | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous registrants have requested a certificate upon completion of the Redox Biology (RB) course. In order to obtain a certificate, you must answer 8 of the 12 questions below correctly. In the final examination, 1 question is derived from each of the 1-hour lectures. It is highly recommended that you have a copy of each PowerPoint presentation prior to taking the

  5. Time series analysis for psychological research: examining and forecasting change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, Andrew T; Tay, Louis; Wang, Wei; Huang, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research has increasingly recognized the importance of integrating temporal dynamics into its theories, and innovations in longitudinal designs and analyses have allowed such theories to be formalized and tested. However, psychological researchers may be relatively unequipped to analyze such data, given its many characteristics and the general complexities involved in longitudinal modeling. The current paper introduces time series analysis to psychological research, an analytic domain that has been essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of variables across many diverse fields. First, the characteristics of time series data are discussed. Second, different time series modeling techniques are surveyed that can address various topics of interest to psychological researchers, including describing the pattern of change in a variable, modeling seasonal effects, assessing the immediate and long-term impact of a salient event, and forecasting future values. To illustrate these methods, an illustrative example based on online job search behavior is used throughout the paper, and a software tutorial in R for these analyses is provided in the Supplementary Materials.

  6. Time series analysis for psychological research: examining and forecasting change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, Andrew T.; Tay, Louis; Wang, Wei; Huang, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research has increasingly recognized the importance of integrating temporal dynamics into its theories, and innovations in longitudinal designs and analyses have allowed such theories to be formalized and tested. However, psychological researchers may be relatively unequipped to analyze such data, given its many characteristics and the general complexities involved in longitudinal modeling. The current paper introduces time series analysis to psychological research, an analytic domain that has been essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of variables across many diverse fields. First, the characteristics of time series data are discussed. Second, different time series modeling techniques are surveyed that can address various topics of interest to psychological researchers, including describing the pattern of change in a variable, modeling seasonal effects, assessing the immediate and long-term impact of a salient event, and forecasting future values. To illustrate these methods, an illustrative example based on online job search behavior is used throughout the paper, and a software tutorial in R for these analyses is provided in the Supplementary Materials. PMID:26106341

  7. Managing Conflict in Teams and Examining Hiring Assumptions. Research Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1996-01-01

    Research shows that well-managed conflicts can enrich a group, if good (cognitive) conflict is encouraged and bad (affective) conflict is discouraged. A model developed to understand how disabled people are treated at work suggests that there is a need to change beliefs about, as well as behavior towards, disabled people. Implications for camp are…

  8. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This progress report for the Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland covers the second year (June 1, 1989 to May 31, 1990) of the current three-year contract period from June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1991, funded by the Department of Energy under Contract No. AC05-85ER40216. The research program is divided into three separate tasks, as follows: the study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams; the study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse-Powered Plasma Focus; the study of Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency Linacs. This report consists of three sections in which the progress for each task is documented separately. An introduction and synopsis is presented at the beginning of the progress report for each task

  9. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  10. The Expanding Digital Media Landscape of Qualitative and Decolonizing Research: Examining Collaborative Podcasting as a Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Day

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of the twenty-first century has transformed our ability to create, modify, store, and share digital media and, in so doing, has presented new possibilities for how social science research can be conducted and mobilized. This paper introduces the use of collaborative podcasting as a research method of critical inquiry and knowledge mobilization. Using a case study, we describe the methodological process that our transdisciplinary team engaged in to create the Water Dialogues podcast, a collaborative initiative stemming from a larger research project examining approaches to implementing Indigenous and Western knowledge in water research and management. We situate collaborative podcasting within an expanding field of collaborative and participatory media practice in social research, and consider how the method may align with and support research within a decolonizing agenda.

  11. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  12. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  13. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  14. An examination of the interrater reliability between practitioners and researchers on the static-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Stephen P; Calkins, Cynthia; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have validated the psychometric properties of the Static-99, the most widely used measure of sexual offender recidivism risk. However much of this research relied on instrument coding completed by well-trained researchers. This study is the first to examine the interrater reliability (IRR) of the Static-99 between practitioners in the field and researchers. Using archival data from a sample of 1,973 formerly incarcerated sex offenders, field raters' scores on the Static-99 were compared with those of researchers. Overall, clinicians and researchers had excellent IRR on Static-99 total scores, with IRR coefficients ranging from "substantial" to "outstanding" for the individual 10 items of the scale. The most common causes of discrepancies were coding manual errors, followed by item subjectivity, inaccurate item scoring, and calculation errors. These results offer important data with regard to the frequency and perceived nature of scoring errors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. A Qualitative Study Examining the Exclusive Use of Primary Literature in a Special Topics Biology Course: Improving Conceptions about the Nature of Science and Boosting Confidence in Approaching Original Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. Elijah; Wiles, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of six students enrolled in a special topics biology class that exclusively used primary literature as course material. Nature of science (NOS) conceptions have been linked to students' attitudes toward scientific subjects, but there has been little research specifically exploring the effects of…

  16. Research and examinations at the Tono Mines. Fiscal year's programs (Heisei 12 fiscal year). Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This program showed details on the research and examination program of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute to be carried out at the Tono Mines in the Heisei 12 fiscal year, according to the 'Fundamental program on research and examinations at the Tono Mines' established on October, 1998. And, this program is carried out under an aim at understanding of transfer and delay performance of materials in deposit rocks with uranium and geological features such as fault, and at development of technology and apparatus for general investigation and evaluation of geological environment, as a stratum science research. Here were described on research and examination of mechanical stability on the rock board, research and examination of geological environment around a tunnel, research and examination of material transfer in the rock board, and research and examination of the Tsukiyoshi stratum abstractly before 1999 and in details at 2000 fiscal years. (G.K.)

  17. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V Olijnyk

    Full Text Available This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures; some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state, while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation. Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology

  18. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, Nicholas V

    2018-01-01

    This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC) research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index) are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator) has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures); some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state), while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation). Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology policy researchers

  19. Measurement Invariance in Mentoring Research: A Cross-Cultural Examination across Taiwan and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changya; Pellegrini, Ekin K.; Scandura, Terri A.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace mentoring in the international context is an emerging research area with significant potential for global integration. However, although measurement equivalence is a prerequisite for examining cross-cultural differences, this assumption has yet to be examined in mentoring research. This study contributes to the mentoring literature by…

  20. Learning and Study Strategies Inventory subtests and factors as predictors of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Part 1 examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Christine M; Dalton, Leanne; Tepe, Rodger E

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to extend research on the relationship between chiropractic students' learning and study strategies and national board examination performance. Sixty-nine first trimester chiropractic students self-administered the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). Linear trends tests (for continuous variables) and Mantel-Haenszel trend tests (for categorical variables) were utilized to determine if the 10 LASSI subtests and 3 factors predicted low, medium and high levels of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) Part 1 scores. Multiple regression was performed to predict overall mean NBCE examination scores using the 3 LASSI factors as predictor variables. Four LASSI subtests (Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, Test Strategies) and one factor (Goal Orientation) were significantly associated with NBCE examination levels. One factor (Goal Orientation) was a significant predictor of overall mean NBCE examination performance. Learning and study strategies are predictive of NBCE Part 1 examination performance in chiropractic students. The current study found LASSI subtests Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, and Test Strategies, and the Goal-Orientation factor to be significant predictors of NBCE scores. The LASSI may be useful to educators in preparing students for academic success. Further research is warranted to explore the effects of learning and study strategies training on GPA and NBCE performance.

  1. What do human factors and ergonomics professionals value in research publications? Re-examining the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Williamson, Ann; Shorrock, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    The research-practice gap is of concern in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E) as there is a belief that HF/E research may not be making an impact on practice in the 'real world'. A potential issue is what researchers and practitioners perceive as important in HF/E journal articles as a primary means of conveying research findings to practitioners. This study examined the characteristics that make scientific journal articles appeal to HF/E researchers and practitioners using a web-based survey. HF/E researchers and practitioners were more similar than expected in judgements of important attributes and the selection of articles. Both practitioners and researchers considered practical significance to be more important than theoretical significance, in direct contrast to professionals from a related discipline--psychology. Well-written articles were appreciated across disciplines. The results signal a strong interest in practical applications in HF/E, but a relative lack of focus on development of theories that should be the basis for practical applications.

  2. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

  3. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  4. International Research Study of Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Harland, C.; Callender, G.; Harland, C.; Nassimbeni, G.; Schneller, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we examine the specific issue of public procurement, its importance to local, regional, national, and international economies as evidenced in a unique international comparative research study – the International Research Study of Public Procurement (IRSPP). First the public

  5. A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, R. Todd

    2007-12-01

    Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and others. Chapter 2 describes a qualitative research project in which participants in an NSF GK-12 fellowship program were studied using informal observations, focus groups, personal interviews, and journals to identify and characterize the cultural factors that influenced the relationships between the educators and researchers. These factors were organized into ten critical axes encompassing a range of attitudes, behaviors, or values defined by two stereotypical extremes. These axes were: (1) Task Dictates Context vs. Context Dictates Task; (2) Introspection vs. Extroversion; (3) Internal vs. External Source of Success; (4) Prior Planning vs. Implementation Flexibility; (5) Flexible vs. Rigid Time Sense; (6) Focused Time vs. Multi-tasking; (7) Specific Details vs. General Ideas; (8) Critical Feedback vs. Encouragement; (9) Short Procedural vs. Long Content Repetition; and (10) Methods vs. Outcomes are Well Defined. Another ten important stereotypical characteristics, which did not fit the structure of an axis, were identified and characterized. The educator stereotypes were: (1) Rapport/Empathy; (2) Like Kids; (3) People Management; (4) Communication Skills; and (5) Entertaining. The researcher stereotypes were: (1) Community Collaboration; (2) Focus Intensity; (3) Persistent; (4) Pattern Seekers; and (5) Curiosity/Skeptical. Chapter 3 summarizes the research presented in chapter 2 into a practical guide for participants and administrators of educator-researcher partnerships

  6. Connections, Productivity and Funding: An Examination of Factors Influencing Scientists' Perspectives on the Market Orientation of Academic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Emily Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines scientists' perceptions of the environment in which they do their work. Specifically, this study examines how academic and professional factors such as research productivity, funding levels for science, connections to industry, type of academic appointment, and funding sources influence scientists' perceptions of the…

  7. Too Much Emphasis on Research? An Empirical Examination of the Relationship between Research and Teaching in Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Hee-Je; Kim, Do Han

    2015-01-01

    While the public is concerned that emphasizing research performance among university faculty results in inadequate attention to undergraduate teaching, research on the relationship between research and teaching in higher education has failed to confirm or deny the validity of this concern. To empirically test this popular concern, we examined how…

  8. Study on Accuracy of Judgments by Chinese Fingerprint Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of fingerprint evidence depends on the judgments of fingerprint examiners. This study assessed the accuracy of different judgments made by fingerprint examiners following the Analysis, Comparison, and Evaluation (ACE process. Each examiner was given five marks for analysis, comparison, and evaluation. We compared the experts′ judgments against the ground truth and used an annotation platform to evaluate how Chinese fingerprint examiners document their comparisons during the identification process. The results showed that different examiners demonstrated different accuracy of judgments and different mechanisms to reach them.

  9. Applied Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Ronald J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the feasibility of reusing major components of a software system that had been used to control the operations of a spacecraft launched in the 1980s. The study was done in the context of a ground data processing system that was to be rehosted from a large mainframe to an inexpensive workstation. The study concluded that a systematic approach using inexpensive tools could aid in the reengineering process by identifying a set of certified reusable components. The study also developed procedures for determining duplicate versions of software, which were created because of inadequate naming conventions. Such procedures reduced reengineering costs by approximately 19.4 percent.

  10. Examining the use of health systems and policy research in the health policymaking process in Israel: views of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Lavis, John N; Shemer, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    All too often, health policy and management decisions are made without making use of or consulting with the best available research evidence, which can lead to ineffective and inefficient health systems. One of the main actors that can ensure the use of evidence to inform policymaking is researchers. The objective of this study is to explore Israeli health systems and policy researchers' views and perceptions regarding the role of health systems and policy research (HSPR) in health policymaking and the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence in the policymaking process. A survey of researchers who have conducted HSPR in Israel was developed. The survey consisted of a demographics section and closed questions, which focused on support both within the researchers' organisations and the broader environment for KTE activities, perceptions on the policymaking process, and the potential influencing factors on the process. The survey was sent to all health systems and policy researchers in Israel from academic institutions, hospital settings, government agencies, the four health insurance funds, and research institutes (n = 107). All responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. For close-ended questions about level of agreement we combined together the two highest categories (agree or strongly agree) for analysis. Thirty-seven respondents participated in the survey. While many respondents felt that the use of HSPR may help raise awareness on policy issues, the majority of respondents felt that the actual use of HSPR was hindered for many reasons. While facilitators do exist to support the use of research evidence in policymaking, numerous barriers hinder the process such as challenges in government/provider relations, policymakers lacking the expertise for acquiring, assessing, and applying HSPR and priorities in the health system drawing attention away from HSPR. Furthermore, it is perceived by a majority of respondents that the health insurance funds

  11. Transformational change in healthcare: an examination of four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Kate; Jamieson, Maggie; Davey, Rachel; Butler, Colin D

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical, transformational change of our health and care systems. This will be a difficult and complex task. In this article, we examine case studies in which transformational change has been achieved, and seek to learn from these experiences. Methods We used the case study method to investigate examples of transformational change in healthcare. The case studies were identified from preliminary doctoral research into the transition towards future sustainable health and social care systems. Evidence was collected from multiple sources, key features of each case study were displayed in a matrix and thematic analysis was conducted. The results are presented in narrative form. Results Four case studies were selected: two from the US, one from Australia and one from the UK. The notable features are discussed for each case study. There were many common factors: a well communicated vision, innovative redesign, extensive consultation and engagement with staff and patients, performance management, automated information management and high-quality leadership. Conclusions Although there were some notable differences between the case studies, overall the characteristics of success were similar and collectively provide a blueprint for transformational change in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical redesign of our systems in order to meet the challenges of modern society. What does this paper add? There are some remarkable examples of transformational change in healthcare. The key factors in success are similar across the case studies. What are the implications for practitioners? Collectively, these key factors can guide future attempts at transformational change in healthcare.

  12. Examination of Student Outcomes in Play Therapy: A Qualitative Case Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman Taylor, Dalena L.; Blount, Ashley J.; Bloom, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    Outcome research examining the effectiveness of teaching methods in counselor education is sparse. The researchers conducted a qualitative investigation utilizing an instrumental case study to examine the influence of a constructivist-developmental format on a play therapy counseling course in a large CACREP accredited university in the…

  13. Videoconference-based mini mental state examination: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpano, Francesca; Pirrotta, Fabio; Bonanno, Lilla; Marino, Silvia; Marra, Angela; Bramanti, Placido; Lanzafame, Pietro

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a prime criterion of good practice to document cognitive deficits in a rapidly aging population. Telecommunication technologies may overcome limitations related to test administration. We compared performance of the Italian videoconference-based version of the Mini Mental State Examination (VMMSE) with performance of the standard MMSE administered face-to-face (F2F), to validate the Italian version of the 28-item VMMSE. To validate the Italian version of the VMMSE, we compared its performance with standard F2F. The sample (n=342) was administered three VMMSEs within 6 weeks after F2F testing. We identified the optimal cutoff through the receiver operating characteristic curve, as well as the VMMSE consistency through inter- and intrarater reliability (Inter/RR and Intra/RR) analysis. We found high levels of sensitivity and specificity for the optimal VMMSE cutoff identification and an accuracy of 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.94-0.98). Intra/RR and inter/RR were highly significant. This study demonstrates that VMMSE is a valid instrument in clinical and research screening and monitoring of subjects affected by cognitive disorders. This study shows a significant correlation between videoconference assessment and the F2F one, providing an important impetus to expand studies and the knowledge about the usefulness of tele-assistance services. Our findings have important implications for both longitudinal assistance and clinical care of demented patients.

  14. Young women describe the ideal first pelvic examination: Qualitative research using semistructured interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyens, Anne; Dejeanne, Mélanie; Fabre, Elise; Rouge-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Oustric, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    To explore representations of the first pelvic examination (PE) among adolescents who had not yet had this examination and to identify their criteria for a positive experience of it. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Midi-Pyrénées and Auvergne in France. Adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who had never had a PE. Participants were recruited through snowball sampling and targeted sampling until data saturation was reached. Maximum variation was sought in the profiles of the study participants. Open-ended questions dealt with the interviewee's sources of information, knowledge of the PE, criteria for a positive PE experience, and representations of the PE itself. Verbatim transcripts were immediately subjected to longitudinal analysis with the context (researchers' notes) and key themes of the interview. Cross-sectional analysis was then performed. Many adolescents lack knowledge about the PE and believe that it is mandatory. According to study participants, the ideal PE would take place when they felt ready. They would be given adequate information in advance and the option of being accompanied by a friend or family member. They described the ideal examining room as warm, comfortable, and reassuring. The quality of their relationship with the examining physician would also affect their acceptance of this examination. An information session before the consultation for the PE would make it possible to reduce the patient's apprehension, improve her level of knowledge, and set the right tone for the upcoming PE, both for her and for the physician. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  15. Defining features of the practice of global health research: an examination of 14 global health research teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper strives to develop a pragmatic view of the scope of practice and core characteristics of global health research (GHR by examining the activities of 14 Canadian-funded global health teams that were in the process of implementing research programs. Methods: Information was collected by a reflective exploration of team proposals and progress reports, a content analysis of the outputs from an all-team meeting and review of the literature. Results: Teams adopted equity-centered, problem-focused, systems-based approaches intended to find upstream determinants that could make people more resilient to social and ecological factors impacting their health. Long-term visions and time frames were needed to develop and solidify fully functional interdisciplinary, multinational, multicultural partnerships. The implementation of research into practice was a motivating factor for all teams, but to do this, they recognized the need for evidence-based advice on how to best do this. Traditional measures of biomedical research excellence were necessary but not sufficient to encompass views of excellence of team-based interdisciplinary research, which includes features like originality, coherence and cumulative contributions to fields of study, acceptance by peers and success in translating research into gains in health status. An innovative and nuanced approached to GHR ethics was needed to deal with some unique ethical issues because the needs for GHR were not adequately addressed by institutional biomedical research ethics boards. Core competencies for GHR researchers were a blend of those needed for health promotion, population health, international development, sustainable development, and systems science. Discussion: Developing acceptable and meaningful ways to evaluate the short-term contributions for GHR and forecast its long-term impacts is a strategic priority needed to defend decisions being made in GHR development. Planning and

  16. Postgraduate research methodological flaws detected at final examination stage: Who is to blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aceme Nyika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of globalisation, most universities are intensifying efforts to improve their overall performance in order to attract students and enhance chances of securing competitive funding from various sources. As part of these efforts, universities are striving to ensure that their postgraduate programmes meet nationally and internationally acceptable standards. Research projects conducted by students form a critical component of most postgraduate programmes and universities have put in place procedures meant to ensure that postgraduate research meets acceptable minimum standards. The procedures include setting minimum entry educational qualifications, supervision by qualified members of university academic staff, institutional evaluation of research proposals before the proposed research is embarked on, submission of progress reports by postgraduate students during the course of their programmes, and final examination of students theses, dissertations or research reports by internal as well as external examiners. In some instances, the examiners recommend outright rejection of the student's write-up if they consider the methodology used to be inappropriate to answer research questions of the project conducted. The implications of research methodological shortcomings which are identified at the final examination stage, even if the research proposals were evaluated and approved by appropriate university structures before commencement of the research projects, are discussed. As postgraduate programmes are meant to nurture a competent and resourceful workforce and future researchers, universities need to pay attention to the issue of research methodology and internal evaluation systems in order to minimise chances of compromising the quality of their postgraduate degree programmes.

  17. Breast self-examination pamphlets: a content analysis grounded in fear appeal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, K N; Mattson, M

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we used the topic of breast self-examination (BSE) to illustrate how content analysis of promotional texts (already in existence, in the process of being created, or both) can provide supplementary data to that derived from audience analysis. Specifically, we used content analysis to isolate messages in BSE pamphlets that are consistent with the variables of severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self-efficacy, identified by existing fear appeal research and supported by other persuasion research as critical to the construction of effective health promotion messages. We then used statistical analyses to describe the relation among these 4 message variables. Our findings suggested that BSE pamphlets contain an unbalanced proportion of threat to efficacy arguments. Additionally, the efficacy messages were substantively weak. We contrasted these messages against the relatively strong mammography arguments contained in these pamphlets. We then provided recommendations for formulating stronger persuasive arguments in BSE promotional materials.

  18. Sampling challenges in a study examining refugee resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl Mr; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-03-15

    As almost half of all refugees currently under United Nations protection are from Afghanistan or Iraq and significant numbers have already been resettled outside the region of origin, it is likely that future research will examine their resettlement needs. A number of methodological challenges confront researchers working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups; however, few detailed articles are available to inform other studies. The aim of this paper is to outline challenges with sampling and recruitment of socially invisible refugee groups, describing the method adopted for a mixed methods exploratory study assessing mental health, subjective wellbeing and resettlement perspectives of Afghan and Kurdish refugees living in New Zealand and Australia. Sampling strategies used in previous studies with similar refugee groups were considered before determining the approach to recruitment A snowball approach was adopted for the study, with multiple entry points into the communities being used to choose as wide a range of people as possible to provide further contacts and reduce selection bias. Census data was used to assess the representativeness of the sample. A sample of 193 former refugee participants was recruited in Christchurch (n = 98) and Perth (n = 95), 47% were of Afghan and 53% Kurdish ethnicity. A good gender balance (males 52%, females 48%) was achieved overall, mainly as a result of the sampling method used. Differences in the demographic composition of groups in each location were observed, especially in relation to the length of time spent in a refugee situation and time since arrival, reflecting variations in national humanitarian quota intakes. Although some measures were problematic, Census data comparison to assess reasonable representativeness of the study sample was generally reassuring. Snowball sampling, with multiple initiation points to reduce selection bias, was necessary to locate and identify participants, provide reassurance and

  19. Sampling challenges in a study examining refugee resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sandra C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As almost half of all refugees currently under United Nations protection are from Afghanistan or Iraq and significant numbers have already been resettled outside the region of origin, it is likely that future research will examine their resettlement needs. A number of methodological challenges confront researchers working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups; however, few detailed articles are available to inform other studies. The aim of this paper is to outline challenges with sampling and recruitment of socially invisible refugee groups, describing the method adopted for a mixed methods exploratory study assessing mental health, subjective wellbeing and resettlement perspectives of Afghan and Kurdish refugees living in New Zealand and Australia. Sampling strategies used in previous studies with similar refugee groups were considered before determining the approach to recruitment Methods A snowball approach was adopted for the study, with multiple entry points into the communities being used to choose as wide a range of people as possible to provide further contacts and reduce selection bias. Census data was used to assess the representativeness of the sample. Results A sample of 193 former refugee participants was recruited in Christchurch (n = 98 and Perth (n = 95, 47% were of Afghan and 53% Kurdish ethnicity. A good gender balance (males 52%, females 48% was achieved overall, mainly as a result of the sampling method used. Differences in the demographic composition of groups in each location were observed, especially in relation to the length of time spent in a refugee situation and time since arrival, reflecting variations in national humanitarian quota intakes. Although some measures were problematic, Census data comparison to assess reasonable representativeness of the study sample was generally reassuring. Conclusions Snowball sampling, with multiple initiation points to reduce selection bias, was

  20. Using Educational Design Research Methods to Examine the Affordances of Online Games for Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrasidas, Charalambos; Solomou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the affordances and opportunities from using online games in teacher professional development. Following an educational design research approach, we developed an environment to provide opportunities for in-service teachers to engage in-game-based activities. Our work presented in this manuscript was of…

  1. Instruction texts and problems for the training and examination of selected personnel at research nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, K.; Fleischhans, J.; Hejzlar, R.

    1994-01-01

    The publication comprises 6 separate brochures: (1) Selected chapters in reactor theory; (2) Experimental education methods; (3) Research and experimental reactors; (4.1) Technical description of the LVR-15 reactor; (4.2) Technical description of the LR-0 reactor; (4.3) Technical description of the VR-1 reactor; (5) Research reactor safety and operation; and (6) Database of problems for qualification examinations. Brochure No. 4 consists of 3 separate parts. The publication is intended for the training and examination of the following research reactor staff: reactor operator, shift engineer, control physicist, and start-up group head. (J.B.)

  2. Review by a local medical research ethics committee of the conduct of approved research projects, by examination of patients' case notes, consent forms, and research records and by interview.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, T.; Moore, E. J.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor the conduct of medical research projects that have already been approved by the local medical research ethics committee. DESIGN: Follow up study of ethically approved studies (randomly selected from all the studies approved in the previous year) by examination of patients' case notes, consent forms, and research records and by interview of the researchers at their workplace. SETTING: Tayside, Scotland (mixed rural and urban population). SUBJECTS: 30 research projects app...

  3. Relational Research and Organisation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Larsen, Mette Vinther; Hansen, Lone Hersted

    , analyzing organizational dialoguing, and polyphonic future-forming ways of writing up research.  Relational Research and Organisation Studies does not only present and discuss guidelines for practice at a onto-epistemological level but also presents and discusses concrete cases of research projects building...... on relational constructionist ideas. Furthermore, excerpts of data are presented and analyzed in order to explain the co-constructed processes of the inquiries more in detail. Relational Research and Organisation Studies invites the reader into the process of planning and carrying out relational constructionist......This volume lays out a variety of ways of engaging in research projects focused on exploring the everyday relational practices of organizing and leading is presented. The main focus is through elaborate examples from the author’s own research to further the understanding of how it is possible...

  4. The study on quality control of bedside CR examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xufeng; Luo Xiaomei; Xu Qiaolan; Wu Tengfang; Wen Xingwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the quality controll of bedside CR examination and improves the imaging quality. Methods: X-ray examination with CR system were performed on 3,300 patients. All CR cassettes were encoded. The imaging plate and cassettes were cleaned regularly. Results: With and without quality control, the percentage of first-rate film was 58.2% and 51%, the second-rate film was 40% and 45.5%, the third-rate film was 1.3% and 2%, respectively. Corxespondingly, the ratio of re-examination decreased from 1.5% to 0.5% after quality control, and imaging quality was stable. Conclusion: The quality control of bedside CR examination can improve the image quality as well as lighten the labor of radiographers. (authors)

  5. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  6. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  7. An Examination of Incentive Strategies to Increase Participation in Outcomes Research for an Adolescent Inpatient Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Carolyn; Madan, Alok; Long, Tessa A; Sharp, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Tracking adolescent outcomes after inpatient hospitalization is important in informing clinical care for this age group, as inpatient care is one of the most expensive treatment modalities. This study examined 4 incentive strategies used to maintain adolescent participation in follow-up research (at 6, 12, and 18 mo) after their discharge from the hospital (N=267). A generalized estimation equation approach was taken to investigate whether different incentive strategies predicted adolescent completion of the follow-up assessments at each time point. Findings demonstrate that implementation of social worker contact significantly differed from other incentive strategies in increasing adolescent completion of follow-up assessments (Z=2.51, P=0.012) over the 3 time points, even when controlling for age and sex. Although these findings ultimately need to be confirmed through a randomized controlled study of incentive strategies, they provide preliminary support for the notion that relational incentives, such as maintaining contact with a member of the clinical team at the hospital, may be particularly important in promoting adolescent participation in outcomes research.

  8. Simulation Performance and National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses Outcomes: Field Research Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Dana E; Lane, Susan Hayes; Dawson, Tyia; Koontz, Angie

    2017-11-01

    This descriptive field study examines processes used to evaluate simulation for senior-level Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students in a capstone course, discusses challenges related to simulation evaluation, and reports the relationship between faculty evaluation of student performance and National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) first-time passing rates. Researchers applied seven terms used to rank BSN student performance (n = 41, female, ages 22-24 years) in a senior-level capstone simulation. Faculty evaluation was correlated with students' NCLEX-RN outcomes. Students evaluated as "lacking confidence" and "flawed" were less likely to pass the NCLEX-RN on the first attempt. Faculty evaluation of capstone simulation performance provided additional evidence of student preparedness for practice in the RN role, as evidenced by the relationship between the faculty assessment and NCLEX-RN success. Simulation has been broadly accepted as a powerful educational tool that may also contribute to verification of student achievement of program outcomes and readiness for the RN role.

  9. Top tips for PhD thesis examination: nurse clinicians, researchers and novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Hunt, Glenn E

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, there are very few guidelines in the literature to assist novice nurse PhD examiners. In this paper, we aim to provide information to nurses, researchers or early career academics who have little experience in assessing a university thesis. The article provides background information about recent changes in the university sector; overviews some research on experienced examiners views; presents factors that differentiate between high and low quality PhD theses; and outlines some pointers that may be useful when marking at the doctoral level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparative Study Examining Academic Cohorts with Transnational Migratory Intentions towards Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the issue of transnational academic mobility of academic staff, those choosing to migrate to higher education institutions in different countries as part of their career development, and performs a comparative study between the characteristics of academics examining Australia as a possible migratory destination with those…

  11. Outline of examination guides of water-cooled research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, F.; Kimura, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan published two examination guides of water-cooled research reactors on July 18, 1991; one is for safety design, and another is for safety evaluation. In these guides, careful consideration is taken into account on the basic safety characteristic features of research reactors in order to be reasonable regulative requirements. This paper describes the fundamental philosophy and outline of the guides. (author)

  12. NRX and NRU reactor research facilities and irradiation and examination charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-08-01

    This report details the irradiation and examination charges on the NRX and NRU reactors at the Chalk River Nuclear Labs. It describes the NRX and NRU research facilities available to external users. It describes the various experimental holes and loops available for research. It also outlines the method used to calculate the facilities charges and the procedure for applying to use the facilities as well as the billing procedures.

  13.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

    by the health care system offering it. By prenatal examinations the pregnant women want to be giving the choice of future management should there be something wrong with their child. Conclusions:Participation in prenatal examinations is not based on a thorough knowledge of pros and contra of the screening tests......  Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...

  14. Study of skin markers for magnetic resonance imaging examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Umezaki, Yoshie; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2013-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), skin markers are used as a landmark in order to make plans for examinations. However, there isn't a lot of research about the material and shape of skin markers. The skin marker's essential elements are safety, good cost performance, high signal intensity for T 1 weighted image (T 1 WI) and T 2 weighted image (T 2 WI), and durable. In order to get a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of T 1 WI and T 2 WI, baby oil, salad oil and olive oil were chosen, because these materials were easy to obtain and safe for the skin. The SNR of baby oil was the best. Baby oil was injected into the infusion tube, and the tube was solvent welded and cut by a heat sealer. In order to make ring shaped skin markers, both ends of the tube were stuck with adhesive tape. Three different diameters of markers were made (3, 5, 10 cmφ). Ring shaped skin markers were put on to surround the examination area, therefore, the edge of the examination area could be seen at every cross section. Using baby oil in the ring shaped infusion tube is simple, easy, and a highly useful skin marker. (author)

  15. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  16. Ocean energy researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on ocean energy systems. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  17. Education Research: Bias and poor interrater reliability in evaluating the neurology clinical skills examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, L A.; London, Z; Neel, R; Brock, C; Kissela, B M.; Schultz, L; Gelb, D J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) has recently replaced the traditional, centralized oral examination with the locally administered Neurology Clinical Skills Examination (NEX). The ABPN postulated the experience with the NEX would be similar to the Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise, a reliable and valid assessment tool. The reliability and validity of the NEX has not been established. Methods: NEX encounters were videotaped at 4 neurology programs. Local faculty and ABPN examiners graded the encounters using 2 different evaluation forms: an ABPN form and one with a contracted rating scale. Some NEX encounters were purposely failed by residents. Cohen’s kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for local vs ABPN examiners. Results: Ninety-eight videotaped NEX encounters of 32 residents were evaluated by 20 local faculty evaluators and 18 ABPN examiners. The interrater reliability for a determination of pass vs fail for each encounter was poor (kappa 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.53). ICC between local faculty and ABPN examiners for each performance rating on the ABPN NEX form was poor to moderate (ICC range 0.14-0.44), and did not improve with the contracted rating form (ICC range 0.09-0.36). ABPN examiners were more likely than local examiners to fail residents. Conclusions: There is poor interrater reliability between local faculty and American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examiners. A bias was detected for favorable assessment locally, which is concerning for the validity of the examination. Further study is needed to assess whether training can improve interrater reliability and offset bias. GLOSSARY ABIM = American Board of Internal Medicine; ABPN = American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology; CI = confidence interval; HFH = Henry Ford Hospital; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficients; IM = internal medicine; mini-CEX = Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise; NEX = Neurology Clinical

  18. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (a) theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (b) one cannot generalize from a single case, therefore, the single-case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (c) the case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  19. Examination of U3Si2-Al fuel elements from the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of postirradiation examination of low-enriched U 3 Si 2 fuel elements from the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are presented. The elements replaced standard high-enriched elements and were handled routinely except that the burnup of half the elements was extended beyond normal limits up to about 98% peak. The elements were manufactured by commercial fuel suppliers. The performance was completely satisfactory for all the elements

  20. Dynamics Of Human Motion The Case Study of an Examination Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjo, Samuel; Ajayi, Oluwaseyi; Fuwape, Ibiyinka; Dansu, Emmanuel

    Human behaviour is difficult to characterize and generalize due to ITS complex nature. Advances in mathematical models have enabled human systems such as love interaction, alcohol abuse, admission problem to be described using models. This study investigates one of such problems, the dynamics of human motion in an examination hall with limited computer systems such that students write their examination in batches. The examination is characterized by time (t) allocated to each students and difficulty level (dl) associated with the examination. A stochastic model based on the difficulty level of the examination was developed for the prediction of student's motion around the examination hall. A good agreement was obtained between theoretical predictions and numerical simulation. The result obtained will help in better planning of examination session to maximize available resources. Furthermore, results obtained in the research can be extended to other areas such as banking hall, customer service points where available resources will be shared amongst many users.

  1. Student Voice in High School: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    This action research study examined the effects of student voice in one high school and the self-reflection of the researcher-administrator involved in the effort. Using three cycles of action research, the researcher-administrator completed a pilot study, implemented a student voice project in one class, and developed a professional development…

  2. Available post-irradiation examination techniques at Romanian institute for nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvan, Marcel; Sorescu, Antonius; Mincu, Marin; Uta, Octavian; Dobrin, Relu

    2005-01-01

    The Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) has a set of nuclear facilities consisting of TRIGA 14 MW(th) materials testing reactor and LEPI (Romanian acronym for post-irradiation examination laboratory) which enable to investigate the behaviour of the nuclear fuel and materials under various irradiation conditions. The available techniques of post-irradiation examination (PIE) and purposes of PIE for CANDU reactor fuel are as follows. 1) Visual inspection and photography by periscope: To examine the surface condition such as deposits, corrosion etc. 2) Eddy current testing: To verify the cladding integrity. 3) Profilometry and length measurement performed both before and after irradiation: To measure the parameters which highlight the dimensional changes i.e. diameter, length, diametral and axial sheath deformation, circumferential sheath ridging height, bow and ovality. 4) Gamma scanning and Tomography: To determine the burnup, axial and radial fission products activity distribution and to check for flux peaking and loading homogeneity. 5) Puncture test: To measure the pressure, volume and composition of fission gas and the inner free volume. 6) Optical microscopy: To highlight the structural changes and hydriding, to examine the condition of the fuel-sheath interface and to measure the oxide thickness and Vickers microhardness. 7) Mass spectrometry: To measure the burnup. 8) Tensile testing: To check the mechanical properties. So far, non-destructive and destructive post-irradiation examinations have been performed on a significant number of CANDU fuel rods (about 100) manufactured by INR and irradiated to different power histories in the INR 14 MW(th) TRIGA reactor. These examinations have been performed as part of the Romanian research programme for the manufacturing, development and safety of the CANDU fuel. The paper describes the PIE techniques and some results. (Author)

  3. Unwrapping the Bundle: An Examination of Research Libraries and the "Big Deal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieb, Karla L.; Blixrud, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents and analyzes the findings of a 2012 survey of member libraries belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) about publishers' large journal bundles and compares the results to earlier surveys. The data illuminate five research questions: market penetration, journal bundle construction, collection format shifts,…

  4. Examining Student Research Choices and Processes in a Disintermediated Searching Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Hannah Gascho; Buck, Stefanie; Deitering, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Students today perform research in a disintermediated environment, which often allows them to struggle directly with the process of selecting research tools and choosing scholarly sources. The authors conducted a qualitative study with twenty students, using structured observations to ascertain the processes students use to select databases and…

  5. Action Research in a Business Classroom--Another Lens to Examine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janice Witt; Clark, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This research study looks at the implementation of an action research project within a blended learning human resource management class in employee and labor relations. The internal and external environment created conditions that converged in the Perfect Storm and resulted in an almost disastrous learning experience for faculty and students. What…

  6. Reliability studies in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Tob Rodrigues de

    2013-01-01

    Fault trees and event trees are widely used in industry to model and to evaluate the reliability of safety systems. Detailed analyzes in nuclear installations require the combination of these two techniques. This study uses the methods of FT (Fault Tree) and ET (Event Tree) to accomplish the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) in research reactors. According to IAEA (lnternational Atomic Energy Agency), the PSA is divided into Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. At the Level 1, conceptually, the security systems perform to prevent the occurrence of accidents, At the Level 2, once accidents happened, this Level seeks to minimize consequences, known as stage management of accident, and at Level 3 accident impacts are determined. This study focuses on analyzing the Level 1, and searching through the acquisition of knowledge, the consolidation of methodologies for future reliability studies. The Greek Research Reactor, GRR-1, is a case example. The LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) was chosen as the initiating event and from it, using ET, possible accidental sequences were developed, which could lead damage to the core. Moreover, for each of affected systems, probabilities of each event top of FT were developed and evaluated in possible accidental sequences. Also, the estimates of importance measures for basic events are presented in this work. The studies of this research were conducted using a commercial computational tool SAPHIRE. Additionally, achieved results thus were considered satisfactory for the performance or the failure of analyzed systems. (author)

  7. Drill-back studies examine fractured, heated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.; Myer, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of heating on the mineralogical, geochemical, and mechanical properties of rock by high-level radioactive waste, cores are being examined from holes penetrating locations where electric heaters simulated the presence of a waste canister, and from holes penetration natural hydrothermal systems. Results to date indicate the localized mobility and deposition of uranium in an open fracture in heated granitic rock, the mobility of U in a breccia zone in an active hydrothermal system in tuff, and the presence of U in relatively high concentration in fracture-lining material in tuff. Mechanical -- property studies indicate that differences in compressional- and shear-wave parameters between heated and less heated rock can be attributed to differences in the density of microcracks. Emphasis has shifted from initial studies of granitic rock at Stripa, Sweden to current investigations of welded tuff at the Nevada Test Site. 7 refs., 8 figs

  8. Maintaining students’ Speaking Fluency through Exhibition Examination in Sociolinguistic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Qhotimah Yuliatuty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using exhibition for the final project in Sociolinguistic study is really interesting for Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional students, especially for 2011 English Department students. Exhibition becomes interesting because this is the new thing to conduct the final project for English Department students’ cohort 2011 at Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional. The lecturer divides the students into pairs and each pairs should master one content or topic in Sociolinguistic study.  The students will do the exhibition about the topic that they get in a pairs. The lecturer also gives the students rubric sheet to fill by the visitors. The exhibition will make the students prepare themselves well because they will face many questions about the content which will be delivered by them. Beside, this exhibition also maintains students’ fluency in speaking English because they will explain and answer the questions from visitors with English. This paper tries to focus on how exhibition examination can maintain students’ fluency in speaking English.

  9. Learning and examination strategies: a case study of students of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning and examination strategies: a case study of students of a public university in Ghana. ... Journal of Business Research ... A focus group of three categories of Bachelor of Science Marketing students of the university who were in final year (level 400) of their programme of study were used as respondents. Each focus ...

  10. Patient dosimetry study of a paediatric CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hranitzky, C.; Stadtmann, H.

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry studies are of increasing interest in diagnostic high-dose applications such as computed tomography especially for examinations of children. A routine CT scan protocol for paediatric head and neck imaging was investigated at a new multi-detector CT scanner using LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) and a 0.125 cm 3 thimble ionization chamber. Calibrations of the detectors in terms of absorbed dose to water were carried out at the Dosimetry Laboratory Seibersdorf in standard radiation fields. The dosimetry method was validated in the spiral CT X-ray field by comparing TLD and ionization chamber measurement results in cylindrical PMMA phantoms. Absorbed dose results were within stated uncertainties. An anthropomorphic phantom representing a child of about 5 years was loaded with TLD chips at various organ and tissue positions in the head and neck region as well as at some critical organ locations. Organ dose values were calculated from TLD based average absorbed dose with about 5% total uncertainty, e.g. 22 mGy (eyes), 21 mGy (thyroid), 19 mGy (brain), 3.4 mGy (thymus), and 0.03 mGy (testes). For comparison purposes an effective dose of 1.9 mSv was estimated for the investigated paediatric CT examination based on ICRP-103 age-independent tissue-weighting factors.

  11. Accelerator research studies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    Progress is reported in both experimental studies as well as theoretical understanding of the beam transport problem. Major highlights are: (a) the completion of the first channel section with 12 periods and two matching solenoids, (b) measurements of beam transmission and emittance in this 12-lens channel, (c) extensive analytical and numerical studies of the beam transport problem in collaboration with GSI (W. Germany), (d) detailed measurements and calculations of beam propagation through one lens with spherical aberration and space charge, and (e) completion of the emittance grids at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory. Our main objectives in Task B of our research program are: (a) study of collective acceleration of positive ions from a localized plasma source by an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB), (b) external control of the IREB beam front by a slow-wave structure to achieve higher ion energies - the Beam Front Accelerator (BFA) concept, (c) study of ion and electron acceleration and other applications of a plasma focus device, and (d) theoretical studies in support of (a) and (b). Our research in these areas has been oriented towards obtaining an improved understanding of the physical processes at work in these experiments and, subsequently, achieving improved performance for specific potential applications

  12. Sedation for pediatric neuroradiological examinations. Retrospective study of 160 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shose, Yoshiteru; Oi, Shizuo

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of 160 pediatric neuroradiological examinations was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of two sedation regimens (figs. 1, 2). For CT purposes, 150 patients (fig. 3) were orally given monosodium trichlorethyl phosphate syrup (100 mg/kg, with repeat 50 mg/kg if necessary), and for cerebral angiography, 15 patients (fig. 4) were intramuscularly administered a modified D.P.T. cocktail (pentazocine, chlorpromadine, promethazine). Failure rate in the oral syrup group was 6%, and in the D.P.T. group 6.7%. Diagnostic-quality images were obtained in 99.3% and 100%, respectively, of the two groups. There were neither mortality nor significant complications (table 3). It was concluded that each method had proved acceptably safe and effective, and that measures can be taken to further decrease complications and sedation failures. (author)

  13. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  14. Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

    2003-06-01

    This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy

  15. Early studies of instant-fMRI for routine examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yuuki; Harada, Kuniaki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Akatsuka, Yoshihiro; Shinozaki, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Authors are developing a low-burden, short-time acquisition method of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 3T machine, named ''Instant-fMRI'', aiming for its application to routine examinations, of which results of early studies on identification of the language hemisphere are reported. Subjects were 10 healthy volunteers (8 males, 2 females, mean age 34.2 y, 8 right-handers) and 5 right-hander patients with brain tumor (4 males, 1 female, mean age 50 y). The machine was GE Signa HDx 3.0T ver. 14, using 8 channel head coil. For Instant-fMRI, T1-weighted imaging sequence for mapping was in fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (fSPGR) mode (scan time: 1 min 44 sec) and fMRI sequence, in GRE-EPI (scan time: 1 min), which thus required only about 3 min in total. Reference was defined to be the anterior-posterior commissure line, to which parallel sections involving centriciput and cerebellum were acquired. Rest (30 sec)-task (shiritori language game, 30 sec) cycle was to be one in instant-fMRI in contrast to three in the conventional fMRI. Volunteers received both instant-fMRI and conventional fMRI and patients, the former alone. Data were analyzed by GE Brain Wave PA. Right and left hemisphere of the left and right hander, respectively, was identified to be activated by instant-fMRI in 9 of 10 volunteers and in all patients, and by the conventional fMRI, in all volunteers. The instant-fMRI can be a useful examination of other brain functions as well as identifying the language field when acquisition parameters for desired diagnostic purpose are optimized. (T.T.)

  16. Positron studies in catalysis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    During the past eight months, the authors have made progress in several areas relevant to the eventual use of positron techniques in catalysis research. They have come closer to the completion of their positron microscope, and at the same time have performed several studies in their non-microscopic positron spectrometer which should ultimately be applicable to catalysis. The current status of the efforts in each of these areas is summarized in the following sections: Construction of the positron microscope (optical element construction, data collection software, and electronic sub-assemblies); Doppler broadening spectroscopy of metal silicide; Positron lifetime spectroscopy of glassy polymers; and Positron lifetime measurements of pore-sizes in zeolites

  17. A Research Experience for American Indian Undergraduates: Utilizing an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to Examine the Student-Mentor Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R.; McMahon, Tracey R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2017-01-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes after these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research…

  18. Examining the Inclusion of Quantitative Research in a Meta-Ethnographic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Rhae-Ann Richardson

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how one might extend meta-ethnography to quantitative research for the advancement of interpretive review methods. Using the same population of 139 studies on racial-ethnic matching as data, my investigation entailed an extended meta-ethnography (EME) and comparison of its results to a published meta-analysis (PMA). Adhering to…

  19. Collaborative Research: The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study as an Example of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormsley, Diane P.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Erin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the Alphabetic Braille Contracted Braille Study in relation to the dimensions of collaborative research: extent, intensity, substance, heterogeneity, velocity, formality, and productivity. It also discusses the dimensions of financing research and researchers' attitudes. The overall consensus is that the study would not have…

  20. Inviting parents to take part in paediatric palliative care research: A mixed-methods examination of selection bias

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Joanna C; Beecham, Emma; Kelly, Paula; Dinsdale, Andrew P; Hemsley, June; Jones, Louise; Bluebond-Langner, Myra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recruitment to paediatric palliative care research is challenging, with high rates of non-invitation of eligible families by clinicians. The impact on sample characteristics is unknown. Aim: To investigate, using mixed methods, non-invitation of eligible families and ensuing selection bias in an interview study about parents? experiences of advance care planning (ACP). Design: We examined differences between eligible families invited and not invited to participate by clinicians us...

  1. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Proksch, E.; Stolba, G.; Strigl, A.; Falta, G.; Zeger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e. fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations

  2. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsamer, G; Proksch, E; Stolba, G; Strigl, A; Falta, G; Zeger, J [Department of Chemistry, Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd., Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1985-07-01

    Austrian R and D activities in the HTR-field reach back almost to the beginning of this advanced reactor line. For more than 20 years post-irradiation examination (PIE) of HTR-fuel has been performed at the laboratories of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd. (OEFZS) (formerly OESGAE) and a high degree of qualification has been achieved in the course of that time. Most of the PIE-work has been carried out by international cooperation on contract basis with the OECD-DRAGON-project and with KFA-Juelich (FRG). There has also been some collaboration with GA (USA), Belgonucleaire and others in the past. HTR-fuel elements contain the fissile and fertile materials in form of coated particles (CPs) which are embedded in a graphite matrix. Because of this special design it has been necessary from the very beginning of the PIE work up to now to develop new methods (i.e., fuel element disintegration methods, chlorine gas leach, single particle examination techniques...) as well as to adapt and improve already existing methods (i.e. gamma spectrometry, mass-spectrometry, optical methods...). The main interests on PIE-work at Seibersdorf are concentrated on particle performance, fission product distribution and the 'free' Uranium content (contamination and broken particles) of the fuel elements (fuel spheres or cylindrical compacts). A short compilation of the applied methods and of available instrumental facilities is given as follows: deconsolidation of fuel elements; equipment for electrochemical deconsolidation; examinations and measurements of graphite and electrolyte samples; examination of coated particles; single particle examinations.

  3. Examination of "Art Literacy" Levels of Students Studying in the Education Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksoy, Aylin Mentis

    2018-01-01

    Art literacy refers to achieving artistic knowledge, evaluating this knowledge and integrating it with experiences. The aim of the study is to examine the ''art literacy'' levels of the students attending the educational faculty in terms of grade level, gender, the fact that they love art books, the fact that they love doing research in library,…

  4. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  5. Review of inservice inspection and nondestructive examination practices at DOE Category A test and research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.T.; Aldrich, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    In-service inspection (ISI) programs are used at commercial nuclear power plants for monitoring the pressure boundary integrity of various systems and components to ensure their continued safe operation. The Department of Energy (DOE) operates several test and research reactors. This report represents an evaluation of the ISI and nondestructive examination (NDE) practices at five DOE Category A (> 20 MW thermal) reactors as compared, where applicable, to the current ISI activities of commercial nuclear power facilities. The purpose of an inservice inspection (ISI) program is to establish regular surveillance of safety-related components to ensure their safe and reliable operation. The integrity of materials comprising these components is generally monitored by means of periodic nondestructive examinations (NDE), which, if appropriately performed, provide methods for identifying degradation that could render components unable to perform their intended safety functions. The reactors evaluated during this review were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Fast Flux Test Facility (liquid-metal cooled plants), the Advanced Test Reactor and the High Flux Isotopes Reactor (light-water cooled reactors), and the High Flux Beam Reactor (a heavy-water cooled facility). Although these facilities are extremely diverse in design and operation, they all have less stored energy, smaller inventories of radionuclides, and generally, more remote locations than commercial reactors. However, all DOE test and research facilities contain components similar to those of commercial reactors for which continued integrity is important to maintain plant safety. 10 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Considering New Paths for Success: An Examination of the Research and Methods on Urban School-University Partnerships Post-No Child Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph E.; Hunt, Rebecca D.; Johnson, Laura Ruth; Wickman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines urban school-university partnership research after No Child Left Behind. Central to the review is an analysis in the trend of research methods utilized across studies. It was found that many studies are single-case studies or anecdotal. There are few quantitative, sustained qualitative, or mixed-methods studies represented in…

  7. Research and development of the system for group examination of lung cancer by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    For the ultimate purpose of heavy particle therapy of lung cancer at an early stage, the system in the title with low dose radiation has been investigated by cooperation of NIRS (as a leading part) and medical/industrial facilities all over the country. The project started essentially in 1984 and has been continuing at 2003. This book described Results hitherto and Materials for application to medical care at disaster (Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster in 1995) together with reference materials. Results contain all fields of nuclear medicine and of imaging involved in examination/diagnosis of lung cancer, achieved by NIRS, by Health management center and Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University and Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association in Chiba, by the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Fac. Med., Chiba Univ., by Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, by Nippon Med. School, Arakawa-ku cancer protection center and Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences, by Hitachi health management center, by Fukui Med. College, by Hitachi Medical Corp., by NTT research laboratories, and by Toyohashi Univ. of Technology. The Materials involve Process and summary of conducting the medical care activities, Improvement of the examination automobile, Supplementary equipments and measures for legal problems, System for the medical care activities, Record of the examination automobile activities, Problems in future, and Completion of the medical activities. Reference materials are related with the Materials above. (N.I.)

  8. Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Anne E.; Rothwell, Susan L.; Olivera, Javier; Zwickl, Benjamin; Vosburg, Jarrett; Martin, Kelly Norris

    2017-12-01

    Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging). Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting), while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options). In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations) and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation). Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver's perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems graduate students

  9. Examining problem solving in physics-intensive Ph.D. research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Leak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem-solving strategies learned by physics undergraduates should prepare them for real-world contexts as they transition from students to professionals. Yet, graduate students in physics-intensive research face problems that go beyond problem sets they experienced as undergraduates and are solved by different strategies than are typically learned in undergraduate coursework. This paper expands the notion of problem solving by characterizing the breadth of problems and problem-solving processes carried out by graduate students in physics-intensive research. We conducted semi-structured interviews with ten graduate students to determine the routine, difficult, and important problems they engage in and problem-solving strategies they found useful in their research. A qualitative typological analysis resulted in the creation of a three-dimensional framework: context, activity, and feature (that made the problem challenging. Problem contexts extended beyond theory and mathematics to include interactions with lab equipment, data, software, and people. Important and difficult contexts blended social and technical skills. Routine problem activities were typically well defined (e.g., troubleshooting, while difficult and important ones were more open ended and had multiple solution paths (e.g., evaluating options. In addition to broadening our understanding of problems faced by graduate students, our findings explore problem-solving strategies (e.g., breaking down problems, evaluating options, using test cases or approximations and characteristics of successful problem solvers (e.g., initiative, persistence, and motivation. Our research provides evidence of the influence that problems students are exposed to have on the strategies they use and learn. Using this evidence, we have developed a preliminary framework for exploring problems from the solver’s perspective. This framework will be examined and refined in future work. Understanding problems

  10. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Hutchinson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling and physical activity (92 studies or sedentary behaviors (19 studies. Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14, including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste and other health behaviors ((n = 20 smoking, dietary intake, alcohol. These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.

  11. A descriptive qualitative examination of knowledge translation practice among health researchers in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M; Roche, Patricia L; Bell, Courtney P; Temple, Beverley; Wittmeier, Kristy D M

    2017-09-06

    The importance of effective translation of health research findings into action has been well recognized, but there is evidence to suggest that the practice of knowledge translation (KT) among health researchers is still evolving. Compared to research user stakeholders, researchers (knowledge producers) have been under-studied in this context. The goals of this study were to understand the experiences of health researchers in practicing KT in Manitoba, Canada, and identify their support needs to sustain and increase their participation in KT. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 researchers studying in biomedical; clinical; health systems and services; and social, cultural, environmental and population health research. Interview questions were open-ended and probed participants' understanding of KT, their experiences in practicing KT, barriers and facilitators to practicing KT, and their needs for KT practice support. KT was broadly conceptualized across participants. Participants described a range of KT practice experiences, most of which related to dissemination. Participants also expressed a number of negative emotions associated with the practice of KT. Many individual, logistical, and systemic or organizational barriers to practicing KT were identified, which included a lack of institutional support for KT in both academic and non-academic systems. Participants described the presence of good relationships with stakeholders as a critical facilitator for practicing KT. The most commonly identified needs for supporting KT practice were access to education and training, and access to resources to increase awareness and promotion of KT. While there were few major variations in response trends across most areas of health research, the responses of biomedical researchers suggested a unique KT context, reflected by distinct conceptualizations of KT (such as commercialization as a core component), experiences (including frustration and lack of

  12. Examining the link between traumatic events and delinquency among juvenile delinquent girls: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglio, Mary C.; Chronister, Krista M.; Gibson, Brandon; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have postulated associations between childhood trauma and delinquency, but few have examined the direction of these relationships prospectively and, specifically, with samples of delinquent girls. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between traumatic events and delinquency for girls in the juvenile justice system using a cross-lagged model. Developmental differences in associations as a function of high school entry status were also examined. The sample included 166 girls in the juvenile justice system who were mandated to community-based out-of-home care due to chronic delinquency. Overall, study results provide evidence that trauma and delinquency risk pathways vary according to high school entry status. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25580179

  13. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a Pedagogy to Examine Other Perspectives about Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research…

  14. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without  exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  15. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  16. Undergraduate research: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Hermannus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Hoeven, Gerrit

    This paper describes a one semester research course for undergraduates of computing programs. Students formulate a research proposal, conduct research and write a full paper. They present the results at a one-day student conference. On the one hand we offer the students a lot of structure and

  17. Study examines trends for Medicare patients at EOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Patients are more likely to be treated by 10 doctors or more. Researcher says that great intensity of care does not necessarily mean higher quality of care. Physicians must listen more carefully to wishes of patients at the end of life, researcher says.

  18. Individual air pollution monitors. 2. Examination of some nonoccupational research and regulatory uses and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.G.; Morris, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels measured at fixed monitoring stations and the actual exposure of the population is very limited. Indeed, there is rapidly growing evidence that fixed-station monitors do not provide adequate data for population exposure. This report examines available data for carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and presents a new analysis. Actual population exposure to CO appears to be consistently higher than expected from fixed-station data, while limited evidence suggests that exposures to SO/sub 2/ are lower. A reported general relationship between indoor and outdoor levels of SO/sub 2/ is not supported by the data. If air pollution represents a threat to public health, then more attention must be given to total population exposure to pollutants. A selective use of individual air pollution monitors that can be worn or carried appears to be required at some stage by any experimental design seeking to uncover the relation between air pollution exposure and health effects. Additionally, potential uses of individual monitoring in air pollution regulation are explored. Current status and research needs for individual air pollution monitors are examined and a first-order evaluation is given of the promise held by the candidate instrumentation technologies. A national program of support for the development of individual air pollution monitors is recommended.

  19. TMI-2 core-examination program: INEL facilities readiness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.B.

    1983-02-01

    This report reviews the capability and readiness of remote handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to receive, and store the TMI-2 core, and to examine and analyze TMI-2 core samples. To accomplish these objectives, the facilities must be able to receive commercial casks, unload canisters from the casks, store the canisters, open the canisters, handle the fuel debris and assemblies, and perform various examinations. The report identifies documentation, including core information, necessary to INEL before receiving the entire TMI-2 core. Also identified are prerequisites to INEL's receipt of the first canister: costs, schedules, and a preliminary project plan for the tasks

  20. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  1. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  3. Perception of research and predictors of research career: a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acquisition of research experience by medical students is associated with good research pathway at the postgraduate level and also in the pursuit of a research career. Also, it assists the physician to make evidence based decisions in clinical practice. Objectives: Aim of study was to determine the perception of ...

  4. Teacher research as self-study and collaborative activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights two insightful methods for advancing teacher research: practitioner self-study in relation to a range of texts, with which to examine one’s educational landscape; and classroom interventions conceived as a Vygotskian activity, via teacher-researcher collaboration. Both approaches allow teachers and collaborating researchers to share individual expertise across institutional boundaries and engage in creative local action.

  5. Teachers' Views about Educational Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan; Kivilcim, Zafer Savas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to examine the views of teachers' about educational research. The present research is designed as a qualitative case study. The group of this study is consisted of teachers (n = 27), working in primary, middle, and high schools in the province of Nigde in Turkey. An extensive literature review was made on…

  6. Program for transfer research and impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, J. J.; Freeman, J. E.; Hartley, J. M.; Kottenstette, J. P.; Staskin, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities conducted under the Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies (TRIS) during 1972 included: (1) preparation of 10,196 TSP requests for TRIS application analysis; (2) interviews with over 500 individuals concerning the technical, economic, and social impacts of NASA-generated technology; (3) preparation of 38 new technology transfer example files and 101 new transfer cases; and (4) maintenance of a technology transfer library containing more than 2,900 titles. Six different modes of technology utilization are used to illustrate the pervasiveness of the transfer and diffusion of aerospace innovations. These modes also provide a basis for distinguishing the unique characteristics of the NASA Technology Utilization Program. An examination is reported of the ways in which NASA-generated technology is contributing to beneficial social change in five major areas of human concern: health, environment, safety, transportation, and communication.

  7. Examining Community College Leadership Dyads: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Information technology has the potential to change community college administration procedures; merging technological knowledge and business skill; creating a need for further definition and understanding of current Chief Information Officer (CIO) position. However, the existing research on this topic focuses on the merging leadership roles and…

  8. Globalization of Stem Cell Science: An Examination of Current and Past Collaborative Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Matthews, Kirstin R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Science and engineering research has becoming an increasingly international phenomenon. Traditional bibliometric studies have not captured the evolution of collaborative partnerships between countries, particularly in emerging technologies such as stem cell science, in which an immense amount of investment has been made in the past decade. Analyzing over 2,800 articles from the top journals that include stem cell research in their publications, this study demonstrates the globalization of stem cell science. From 2000 to 2010, international collaborations increased from 20.9% to 36% of all stem cell publications analyzed. The United States remains the most prolific and the most dominant country in the field in terms of publications in high impact journals. But Asian countries, particularly China are steadily gaining ground. Exhibiting the largest relative growth, the percent of Chinese-authored stem cell papers grew more than ten-fold, while the percent of Chinese-authored international papers increased over seven times from 2000 to 2010. And while the percent of total stem cell publications exhibited modest growth for European countries, the percent of international publications increased more substantially, particularly in the United Kingdom. Overall, the data indicated that traditional networks of collaboration extant in 2000 still predominate in stem cell science. Although more nations are becoming involved in international collaborations and undertaking stem cell research, many of these efforts, with the exception of those in certain Asian countries, have yet to translate into publications in high impact journals. PMID:24069210

  9. Review by a local medical research ethics committee of the conduct of approved research projects, by examination of patients' case notes, consent forms, and research records and by interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Moore, E J; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

    1997-05-31

    To monitor the conduct of medical research projects that have already been approved by the local medical research ethics committee. Follow up study of ethically approved studies (randomly selected from all the studies approved in the previous year) by examination of patients' case notes, consent forms, and research records and by interview of the researchers at their workplace. Tayside, Scotland (mixed rural and urban population). 30 research projects approved by Tayside local medical research ethics committee. Adherence to the agreed protocol, particularly for recruitment (obtaining and recording informed consent) and for specific requirements of the ethics committee, including notification of changes to the protocol and of adverse events. In one project only oral consent had been obtained, and in a quarter of the studies one or more consent forms were incorrectly completed. Inadequate filing of case notes in five studies and of consent forms in six made them unavailable for scrutiny. Adverse events were reported, but there was a general failure to report the abandoning or non-starting of projects in two studies the investigators failed to notify a change in the responsible researcher. Monitoring of medical research by local medical research ethics committees promotes and preserves ethical standards, protects subjects and researchers, discourages fraud, and has the support of investigators. We recommend that 10% of projects should undergo on-site review, with all others monitored by questionnaire. This would require about six person hours of time and a salary bill of 120 pounds per study monitored.

  10. Examination of China’s performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China’s quantum cryptography (QC) research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001–2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China’s QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China’s performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China’s performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index) are growing. China’s H-index (a normalized indicator) has surpassed all other countries’ over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China’s main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures); some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state), while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation). Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China’s QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology

  11. Clinical research on keratoconus and subclinical keratoconus in patients with astigmatism examined by Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang An

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the keratoconus(KCNand subclinical KCN in patients with astigmatism ≥2D by Pentacam anterior segment analyzer. METHODS: Two hundred and one eyes in 107 patients with astigmatism ≥2D were included in this study. All patients underwent optometry, visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, traditional corneal topography and examination with Pentacam. Changes of several parameters were observed including K1(horizontal central curvature within the scope with diameter of 3mm, K2(vertical central curvature within the scope with diameter of 3mm; Kmax(the maximum anterior corneal refractive power, corneal astigmatism(CYL, MinPachy(the thickness at the thinnest area of cornea, index of surface variation(ISV, index of vertical asymmetry(IVA, keratoconus index(KI, height of anterior corneal surface(AEand height of posterior corneal surface(PE, etc. ROC curve was made. Cutoff value and the sensitive index of each group were compared. Mann-Whitney U test was used for analysis of several parameters obtained from Pentacam. ROC curve was analyzed to determine the best diagnosis cutoff value. RESULTS: Mean age of the study population was 25.7±6.6 years old. Kmax, IVA, KI, AE and PE of the clinical and subclinical group were significantly higher than those of the astigmatism group, while the thickness at the thinnest area of cornea in clinical and subclinical group was lower than that of the astigmatism group(PCONCLUSION: The current study shows that subjects with 2D or more of astigmatism, even some of them have normal vision, should undergo corneal topography screening. Pentacam may provide more accurate information about anterior and posterior corneal anatomy especially for the height of posterior corneal surface, which plays an important role in screening of subclinical KCN.

  12. Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of design science research (DSR) gained momentum as a research approach in information systems (IS), the adoption of a DSR approach in postgraduate studies became more acceptable. This paper reflects on a study to investigate how a...

  13. Incidents in nuclear research reactor examined by deterministic probability and probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential risks submitted by the incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, were used, the Incident Report System for Research Reactor and Research Reactor Data Base. For this type of assessment was used the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), within a confidence level of 90% and the Deterministic Probability Analysis (DPA). To obtain the results of calculations of probabilities for PSA, were used the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC - 636. The development of the calculations of probabilities for PSA was used the program Scilab version 5.1.1, free access, executable on Windows and Linux platforms. A specific program to get the results of probability was developed within the main program Scilab 5.1.1., for two distributions Fischer and Chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90%. Using the Sordi equations and Origin 6.0 program, were obtained the maximum admissible doses related to satisfy the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, and were also obtained these maximum doses graphically (figure 1) resulting from the calculations of probabilities x maximum admissible doses. It was found that the reliability of the results of probability is related to the operational experience (reactor x year and fractions) and that the larger it is, greater the confidence in the outcome. Finally, a suggested list of future work to complement this paper was gathered. (author)

  14. Willingness to Study Abroad: An Examination of Kuwaiti Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Kathawala, Yunus; Hayes, John

    2014-01-01

    International education is an increasingly important part of business programs throughout the world. This paper investigates the willingness of Kuwaiti business students to study abroad. It tests the hypotheses that student willingness to study abroad is related to a number of variables, including self-efficacy, perceived benefit of study abroad,…

  15. An Examination of Police Officers' Perceptions of Effective School Responses to Active Shooter Scenarios: A Phenomenological Narrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Florence E.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to examine police officer perceptions of effective school responses to active shooting scenarios. Creswell's (2013) six step process for analyzing and interpreting qualitative data was used to examine the interview information. The study results support the idea that changes…

  16. Examining Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Comparative Study of Turkish Private and Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels and principals'…

  17. Application of INAA to the examination of art objects. Research in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Systematic studies on art objects using instrumental neutron activation analysis and neutron autoradiography have been carried out in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in collaboration with the Faculty of Art Conservation and Restoration of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow, as well as with other Academies of Fine Arts and museums in Poland. A number of essential data on the concentration of trace elements particularly in chalk grounds and pigments (such as lead white, lead-tin yellow, smalt), Chinese porcelain, Thai ceramics, as well as in the clay fillings of sarcophagi of Egyptian mummies was accumulated. The above mentioned examination of art objects prior to their conservation helps to determine precisely the materials used in the process of creating art objects, as well as to identify the approximate place of origin of particular materials. (author)

  18. Two Studies Examining Argumentation in Asynchronous Computer Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Richard; Jones, Sarah; Doherty, John

    2008-01-01

    Asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) would seem to be an ideal medium for supporting development in student argumentation. This paper investigates this assumption through two studies. The first study compared asynchronous CMC with face-to-face discussions. The transactional and strategic level of the argumentation (i.e. measures of…

  19. A method comparison of photovoice and content analysis: research examining challenges and supports of family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Mary Ann; Garner, Shelby L

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to compare methods and thematic representations of the challenges and supports of family caregivers identified with photovoice methodology contrasted with content analysis, a more traditional qualitative approach. Results from a photovoice study utilizing a participatory action research framework was compared to an analysis of the audio-transcripts from that study utilizing content analysis methodology. Major similarities between the results are identified with some notable differences. Content analysis provides a more in-depth and abstract elucidation of the nature of the challenges and supports of the family caregiver. The comparison provides evidence to support the trustworthiness of photovoice methodology with limitations identified. The enhanced elaboration of theme and categories with content analysis may have some advantages relevant to the utilization of this knowledge by health care professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DIETFITS Study (Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) – Study Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; Robinson, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Avery, Erin; Rigdon, Joseph; Offringa, Lisa; Trepanowski, John; Hauser, Michelle; Hartle, Jennifer; Cherin, Rise; King, Abby C.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Desai, Manisha; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25 kg weight loss to ~5 kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing individual factors at baseline that help explain differential weight loss achieved by individuals assigned to the same diet, particularly a pre-determined multi-locus genotype pattern and insulin resistance status. Secondary objectives included discovery strategies for further identifying potential genetic risk scores. Exploratory objectives included investigation of an extensive set of physiological, psychosocial, dietary, and behavioral variables as moderating and/or mediating variables and/or secondary outcomes. The target population was generally healthy, free-living adults with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 (n=600). The intervention consisted of a 12-month protocol of 22 one-hour evening instructional sessions led by registered dietitians, with ~15-20 participants/class. Key objectives of dietary instruction included focusing on maximizing the dietary quality of both Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate diets (i.e., Healthy Low-Fat vs. Healthy Low-Carbohydrate), and maximally differentiating the two diets from one another. Rather than seeking to determine if one dietary approach was better than the other for the general population, this study sought to examine whether greater overall weight loss success could be achieved by matching different people to different diets. Here we present the design and methods of the study. PMID:28027950

  1. DIETFITS study (diet intervention examining the factors interacting with treatment success) - Study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael V; Robinson, Jennifer L; Kirkpatrick, Susan M; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Avery, Erin C; Rigdon, Joseph; Offringa, Lisa C; Trepanowski, John F; Hauser, Michelle E; Hartle, Jennifer C; Cherin, Rise J; King, Abby C; Ioannidis, John P A; Desai, Manisha; Gardner, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25kg weight loss to ~5kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing individual factors at baseline that help explain differential weight loss achieved by individuals assigned to the same diet, particularly a pre-determined multi-locus genotype pattern and insulin resistance status. Secondary objectives included discovery strategies for further identifying potential genetic risk scores. Exploratory objectives included investigation of an extensive set of physiological, psychosocial, dietary, and behavioral variables as moderating and/or mediating variables and/or secondary outcomes. The target population was generally healthy, free-living adults with BMI 28-40kg/m 2 (n=600). The intervention consisted of a 12-month protocol of 22 one-hour evening instructional sessions led by registered dietitians, with ~15-20 participants/class. Key objectives of dietary instruction included focusing on maximizing the dietary quality of both Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate diets (i.e., Healthy Low-Fat vs. Healthy Low-Carbohydrate), and maximally differentiating the two diets from one another. Rather than seeking to determine if one dietary approach was better than the other for the general population, this study sought to examine whether greater overall weight loss success could be achieved by matching different people to different diets. Here we present the design and methods of the study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Navigating political minefields: partnerships in organizational case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine key challenges associated with conducting politically sensitive research within a workplace setting, and to highlight strategic partnerships that can be developed to address these challenges. The author's research on employee mental health issues within a large healthcare facility serves as the foundation for identification and description of "political minefields" that investigators may encounter when conducting organizational case study research. Key methodological principles from the literature on qualitative case study research will frame discussion of how to understand and address political sensitivities in the research process. The benefits of conducting organizational case study research will be outlined, followed by discussion of methodological challenges that can emerge in negotiating entry, collecting data (gatekeepers, researcher reflexivity, participant authenticity and non-maleficence), and communicating research findings. Courage, collaboration and clear communication with stakeholders at all levels of the organization are critical to the success of workplace based case study research.

  3. Researching the Study Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Mark; Wainwright, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a paradigm for rigorous scientific assessment of study abroad programs, with the focus being on how study abroad experiences affect psychological constructs as opposed to looking solely at study-abroad-related outcomes. Social learning theory is used as a possible theoretical basis for making testable hypotheses and guiding…

  4. Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Paine, Drew; Lee, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Slides from Charlotte P. Lee's presentation at the 2015 iConference on our paper "Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle: Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups".

  5. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-08-01

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  6. A contemporary examination of workplace learning culture: an ethnomethodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M; Henderson, Amanda; Jolly, Brian; Greaves, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Creating and maintaining a sustainable workforce is currently an international concern. Extensive literature suggest that students and staff need to be 'engaged', that is they need to interact with the health team if they are to maximise learning opportunities. Despite many studies since the 1970s into what creates a 'good' learning environment, ongoing issues continue to challenge healthcare organisations and educators. A 'good' learning environment has been an intangible element for many professions as learning is hindered by the complexity of practice and by limitations on practitioners' time available to assist and guide novices. This study sought to explore the nature of the learning interactions and experiences in clinical nursing practice that enhance a 'good' workplace learning culture for both nursing students and qualified nurses. An ethnomethodology study. A range of clinical settings in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Students and registered nurses (n=95). Fieldwork observations were carried out on student nurses and registered nurses, followed by an individual interview with each participant. An iterative approach to analysis was undertaken; field notes of observations were reviewed, interviews transcribed verbatim and entered into NVivo10. Major themes were then extracted. Three central themes: learning by doing, navigating through communication, and 'entrustability', emerged providing insights into common practices potentially enhancing or detracting from learning in the workplace. Students' and registered nurses' learning is constrained by a myriad of interactions and embedded workplace practices, which can either enhance the individual's opportunities for learning or detract from the richness of affordances that healthcare workplace settings have to offer. Until the culture/or routine practices of the healthcare workplace are challenged, the trust and meaningful communication essential to learning in practice, will be achievable only

  7. A pilot study examining density of suppression measurement in strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Marianne; Newsham, David

    2015-01-01

    Establish whether the Sbisa bar, Bagolini filter (BF) bar, and neutral density filter (NDF) bar, used to measure density of suppression, are equivalent and possess test-retest reliability. Determine whether density of suppression is altered when measurement equipment/testing conditions are changed. Our pilot study had 10 subjects aged ≥18 years with childhood-onset strabismus, no ocular pathologies, and no binocular vision when manifest. Density of suppression upon repeated testing, with clinic lights on/off, and using a full/reduced intensity light source, was investigated. Results were analysed for test-retest reliability, equivalence, and changes with alteration of testing conditions. Test-retest reliability issues were present for the BF bar (median 6 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.021) and NDF bar (median 5 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.002). Density of suppression was unaffected by environmental illumination or fixation light intensity variations. Density of suppression measurements were higher when measured with the NDF bar (e.g. NDF bar = 1.5, medium suppression, vs BF bar = 6.5, light suppression). Test-retest reliability issues may be present for the two filter bars currently still under manufacture. Changes in testing conditions do not significantly affect test results, provided the same filter bar is used consistently for testing. Further studies in children with strabismus having active amblyopia treatment would be of benefit. Despite extensive use of these tests in the UK, this is to our knowledge the first study evaluating filter bar equivalence/reliability.

  8. A Call for Examining Replication and Bias in Special Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bryan G.

    2014-01-01

    Valid, scientific research is critical for ascertaining the effects of instructional techniques on learners with disabilities and for guiding effective special education practice and policy. Researchers in fields such as psychology and medicine have identified serious and widespread shortcomings in their research literatures related to replication…

  9. Examining the Use of Theory within Educational Technology and Media Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfin, Scott; Henderson, Michael; Johnson, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Academic research in the areas of educational technology and media is often portrayed to be limited in terms of its use of theory. This short paper reports on data collected from a survey of 462 "research active" academic researchers working in the broad area of educational technology and educational media. The paper explores their use…

  10. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  11. Eddy current examination of the nuclear fuel elements of IPR-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Roger F.; Frade, Rangel T.; Oliveira, Paulo F.; Silva, Marlucio A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F.

    2015-01-01

    Tubes of AISI 304 stainless steel as well as tubes of Aluminum 1100-F are used as cladding of the fuel elements of TRIGA MARK 1 nuclear research reactor. Usually, these tubes are periodically inspected by means of visual test and sipping test. The visual test allows the detection of changes occurred at the external fuel elements surface, such as those promoted by corrosion processes. However, this test method cannot be used for detection of internal discontinuities at the tube walls. Sipping test allows the detection of fuel elements in which the cladding has failed, but it is not able to determine the place where the discontinuity is located. In turn, eddy current testing, an electromagnetic nondestructive test method, allows the detection of discontinuities and monitoring their growth. In this paper, a study about the use of eddy current testing for detection and characterization of discontinuities in the fuel elements cladding is proposed. The study involves the development of probes able to operate in underwater inspections, the design and manufacture of reference standards and the development of a test methodology to perform the evaluations. (author)

  12. Eddy current examination of the nuclear fuel elements of IPR-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Roger F.; Frade, Rangel T.; Oliveira, Paulo F.; Silva, Marlucio A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F., E-mail: rfs@cdtn.br, E-mail: rtf@cdtn.br, E-mail: pfo@cdtn.br, E-mail: mas@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvasf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Tubes of AISI 304 stainless steel as well as tubes of Aluminum 1100-F are used as cladding of the fuel elements of TRIGA MARK 1 nuclear research reactor. Usually, these tubes are periodically inspected by means of visual test and sipping test. The visual test allows the detection of changes occurred at the external fuel elements surface, such as those promoted by corrosion processes. However, this test method cannot be used for detection of internal discontinuities at the tube walls. Sipping test allows the detection of fuel elements in which the cladding has failed, but it is not able to determine the place where the discontinuity is located. In turn, eddy current testing, an electromagnetic nondestructive test method, allows the detection of discontinuities and monitoring their growth. In this paper, a study about the use of eddy current testing for detection and characterization of discontinuities in the fuel elements cladding is proposed. The study involves the development of probes able to operate in underwater inspections, the design and manufacture of reference standards and the development of a test methodology to perform the evaluations. (author)

  13. Folio Assessment or External Examinations? An Investigation into Alternative Means of Assessing SCE Ordinary Grade English. Report to the Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board from the Scottish Council for Research in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ernest

    From 1974 through 1978, three methods of assessing Scottish high school students' (O level) English achievement were studied: (1) Ordinary (O level) examinations; (2) assessment of writing skills (folio assessment); and (3) criterion referenced tests developed by the Scottish Council for Research in Education (SCRE) to measure the objectives of…

  14. Inviting parents to take part in paediatric palliative care research: a mixed-methods examination of selection bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Joanna C; Beecham, Emma; Kelly, Paula; Dinsdale, Andrew P; Hemsley, June; Jones, Louise; Bluebond-Langner, Myra

    2015-03-01

    Recruitment to paediatric palliative care research is challenging, with high rates of non-invitation of eligible families by clinicians. The impact on sample characteristics is unknown. To investigate, using mixed methods, non-invitation of eligible families and ensuing selection bias in an interview study about parents' experiences of advance care planning (ACP). We examined differences between eligible families invited and not invited to participate by clinicians using (1) field notes of discussions with clinicians during the invitation phase and (2) anonymised information from the service's clinical database. Families were eligible for the ACP study if their child was receiving care from a UK-based tertiary palliative care service (Group A; N = 519) or had died 6-10 months previously having received care from the service (Group B; N = 73). Rates of non-invitation to the ACP study were high. A total of 28 (5.4%) Group A families and 21 (28.8%) Group B families (p research findings. Non-invitation and selection bias should be considered, assessed and reported in palliative care studies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Game Design and Homemade PowerPoint Games: An Examination of the Justifications and a Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research on educational games often focuses on the benefits that playing games has on student achievement. However, there is a growing body of research examining the benefits of having students design games rather than play them. Problems with game design as an instructional tool include the additional instruction on the programming language…

  16. Nursing research. Components of a clinical research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagliotti, L A

    1988-09-01

    Nursing research is the systematic collection and analysis of data about clinically important phenomena. While there are norms for conducting research and rules for using certain research procedures, the reader must always filter the research report against his or her nursing knowledge. The most common questions a reader should ask are "Does it make sense? Can I think of any other reasonable explanation for the findings? Do the findings fit what I have observed?" If the answers are reasonable, research findings from carefully conducted studies can provide a basis for making nursing decisions. One of the earliest accounts of nursing research, which indicates the power of making systematic observations, was Florence Nightingale's study. It compared deaths among soldiers in the Crimean War with deaths of soldiers in the barracks of London. Her research demonstrated that soldiers in the barracks had a much higher death rate than did the soldiers at war. On the basis of the study, sanitary conditions in the barracks were changed substantially.

  17. Examining the Impact of Organizational Strategies for Commercializing the Results of University Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Babazadeh Farakhoran; Tahereh Valizadeh; Roghaye Rezaee Giglo; Ali Sadouni; Fariba Semiyari

    2014-01-01

    King key of today world is creating value. it is a way of entering to the today working world and the main key of creation is joinery making and its values. In other words, joinery making is circle band between technology and bazaar. So paying attention to joinery making cause to do joinery making researches survey in university results and effective factors on universities. This research paid attention to the effect of organizational ways on joinery making in university researches. this rese...

  18. Rethinking Research on Teaching: Lessons Learned from an International Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Doris W.,Ed.; Anderson, Lorin W.,Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewing their "Classroom Environment Study: Teaching for Learning" and other teaching research literature, project personnel examine the limitations of the process-product paradigm typically used in research on teaching. Topics covered include a conceptual model for teaching; preservice and inservice teacher training; appropriate…

  19. Developing Online Communities for Librarian Researchers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lili; Kennedy, Marie; Brancolini, Kristine; Stephens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of online communities in connecting and supporting librarian researchers, through the analysis of member activities in the online community for academic librarians that attended the 2014 Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL). The 2014 IRDL cohort members participated in the online community via Twitter…

  20. 'Rumours' and clinical trials: a retrospective examination of a paediatric malnutrition study in Zambia, southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadi Beatrice

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many public health researchers conducting studies in resource-constrained settings have experienced negative 'rumours' about their work; in some cases they have been reported to create serious challenges and derail studies. However, what may appear superficially as 'gossip' or 'rumours' can also be regarded and understood as metaphors which represent local concerns. For researchers unaccustomed to having concerns expressed from participants in this manner, possible reactions can be to be unduly perturbed or conversely dismissive. This paper represents a retrospective examination of a malnutrition study conducted by an international team of researchers in Zambia, Southern Africa. The fears of mothers whose children were involved in the study and some of the concerns which were expressed as rumours are also presented. This paper argues that there is an underlying logic to these anxieties and to dismiss them simply as 'rumours' or 'gossip' would be to overlook the historic and socio-economic factors which have contributed to their production. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with the mothers whose children were involved in the study and with the research nurses. Twenty five face-to-face interviews and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with mothers. In addition, face-to-face interviews were conducted with research nurses participating in the trial. Results A prominent anxiety expressed as rumours by the mothers whose children were involved in the study was that recruitment into the trial was an indicator that the child was HIV-infected. Other anxieties included that the trial was a disguise for witchcraft or Satanism and that the children's body parts would be removed and sold. In addition, the liquid, milk-based food given to the children to improve their nutrition was suspected of being insufficiently nutritious, thus worsening their condition. The form which these anxieties took, such as rumours

  1. Examination of the Attitudes of Preschool Teacher Candidates and Teacher Candidates in Other Branches towards Scientific Research in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Fatma Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the attitudes of preschool teacher candidates and teacher candidates in other branches towards scientific research in terms of some variables. Survey method was used. The study group consists of 547 teacher candidates studying in education faculty of a private university in the spring term of…

  2. Examining the Impact of Chemistry Education Research Articles from 2007 through 2013 by Citation Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Lewis, Scott E.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Oueini, Razanne

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of Chemistry Education Research articles has historically centered on the impact factor of the publishing journal. With the advent of electronic journal indices, it is possible to determine the impact of individual research articles by the number of citations it has received. However, in a relatively new discipline, such as…

  3. Examining Conceptual and Operational Definitions of "First-Generation College Student" in Research on Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Karie Jo; Klonowski, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This research brief reports that students who have parents with little to no postsecondary education have an increasing presence in colleges and universities. Researchers recognize that these individuals face unique barriers in higher education programs that affect their ability to graduate. Given the wide concern about student retention,…

  4. The Distress Disclosure Index: a research review and multitrait-multimethod examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H; Hucke, Brandy E; Bradley, Allyson M; Glinski, Austin J; Malak, Brittany L

    2012-01-01

    The Distress Disclosure Index (DDI; J. H. Kahn & R. M. Hessling, 2001) is a brief self-report measure of one's tendency to disclose personally distressing information. The purpose of this article was to summarize what is known about the DDI, present new validity evidence, and make recommendations for use of the DDI. This article reviews research on the DDI from the past decade that indicates that distress disclosure is associated with well-being, professional help-seeking attitudes and intentions, and success in brief psychotherapy. On the basis of the reviewed literature, the authors report a reliability generalization study of DDI scores that strongly supports the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of DDI scores, and they review criterion-related and construct validity evidence. Next, the authors present a new multitrait-multimethod validity study of the DDI. Participants (N = 153) and peer informants (N = 153)--one per participant--completed paper-and-pencil questionnaire packets. Convergent validity of self-reported DDI scores was supported by a strong association with self-reports of emotional self-disclosure in response to a specific, unpleasant event, and self- and peer reports on the DDI were moderately correlated. DDI scores were not strongly associated with cognitive reappraisal and ambivalence over emotional expression, thus supporting discriminant validity. DDI scores were strongly associated with expressive suppression, and correlations between DDI scores and affect, depression symptoms, coping, and emotional expressivity were similar to those found with expressive suppression. The authors offer possible hypotheses explaining the overlap between distress disclosure and expressive suppression and present recommendations for future use of the DDI. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Accelerator research studies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The major goal of this project is to study the effects that lead to emittance growth and limitation of beam current and brightness in periodic focusing systems (including linear accelerators). This problem is of great importance for all accelerator applications requiring high intensity beams with small emittance such as heavy ion fusion, spallation neutron sources and high energy physics. In the latter case, future machines must not only provide higher energies (in the range of 10 to 100 TeV), but also higher luminosities than the existing facilities. This implies considerably higher phase-space density of the particle beam produced by the injector linac, i.e., the detrimental emittance growth and concurrent beam loss observed in existing linacs must be avoided

  6. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  7. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  8. Guidelines for Conducting Positivist Case Study Research in Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shanks

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The case study research approach is widely used in a number of different ways within the information systems community. This paper focuses on positivist, deductive case study research in information systems. It provides clear definitions of important concepts in positivist case study research and illustrates these with an example research study. A critical analysis of the conduct and outcomes of two recently published positivist case studies is reported. One is a multiple case study that validated concepts in a framework for viewpoint development in requirements definition. The other is a single case study that examined the role of social enablers in enterprise resource planning systems implementation. A number of guidelines for successfully undertaking positivist case study research are identified including developing a clear understanding of key concepts and assumptions within the positivist paradigm; providing clear and unambiguous definitions of the units and interactions when using any theory; carefully defining the boundary of the theory used in the case study; using hypotheses rather than propositions in the empirical testing of theory; using fuzzy or probabilistic propositions in recognising that reality can never be perfectly known; selecting case studies carefully, particularly single case studies; and recognising that generalisation from positivist, single case studies is inherently different from generalisation from single experiments. When properly undertaken, positivist, deductive case study research is a valuable research approach for information systems researchers, particularly when used within pluralist research programs that use a number of different research approaches from different paradigms.

  9. The method research of the simulator training and examination of the nuclear electricity staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fangzhi; Zhang Yuanfang

    1994-01-01

    The simulator training and examination of nuclear power plant operator are of an important guarantee for the nuclear power plant operation safety. The authors introduce various training courses which have been held in the Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Training Center of Tsinghua University since 1988, and analyze the different requirements and features for different classes such as operator candidate training course, operator retraining course and nuclear and electricity staff course. The lesson arrangement, examination method and mark standard are presented, which is carried out in the Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Training Center of Tsinghua University

  10. An examination of acquiescent response styles in cross-cultural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, R.; Fontaine, J.R.J.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; van Hemert, D.A.; Gari, A.; Mylonas, K.

    2009-01-01

    Response styles constitute a formidable challenge for cross-cultural research. In this article, three different response styles are discussed (acquiescence, extremity scoring, and social desirability). Acquiescence responding (ARS) is then integrated into a larger classical test theoretical

  11. A STUDY OF THE REQUIRED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING PROGRAM IN PUBLIC COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS HELD BY CESPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima de Souza Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With a view to standardizing the contents offered to future Accounting professionals, the Federal Accounting Council (CFC elaborated the National Proposal for Undergraduate Accountancy Program Contents. Thus, the curriculum that Higher Education Institutions (HEI adopt serves as an ally for students’ professional conquests. Stability and favorable job conditions attract many people to the dispute for a public function, with a growing Braz ilian public competitive examination market. According to the National Association for Protection and Support to Public Competitive Examinations (Anpac, between 2003 and 2009, the number of public servants in the executive power with a higher education degree in Brazil increased by 26%. The aim of this study was to confront the CFC’s suggested knowledge with the contents required during tests applied in public competitive examinations for Accountancy professionals. The intent is to identify what Public Accounting knowledge is demanded from candidates for the public career. Through a documentary research, 561 calls from public competitive examinations exclusively for Accountancy professionals were selected for the study sample. They were classified according to the proposed program contents, the test questions by the Center for Selection and Event Promotion (Cespe, between 2000 and 2009. In conclusion, the most frequent required Public Accounting areas are contents related to Public Equity and Budget. The results demonstrate that the CFC’s suggested content is in line with the knowledge required from candidates for public functions.

  12. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  13. Schematic representation of case study research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, John P; Yates, Patsy M

    2007-11-01

    The paper is a report of a study to demonstrate how the use of schematics can provide procedural clarity and promote rigour in the conduct of case study research. Case study research is a methodologically flexible approach to research design that focuses on a particular case - whether an individual, a collective or a phenomenon of interest. It is known as the 'study of the particular' for its thorough investigation of particular, real-life situations and is gaining increased attention in nursing and social research. However, the methodological flexibility it offers can leave the novice researcher uncertain of suitable procedural steps required to ensure methodological rigour. This article provides a real example of a case study research design that utilizes schematic representation drawn from a doctoral study of the integration of health promotion principles and practices into a palliative care organization. The issues discussed are: (1) the definition and application of case study research design; (2) the application of schematics in research; (3) the procedural steps and their contribution to the maintenance of rigour; and (4) the benefits and risks of schematics in case study research. The inclusion of visual representations of design with accompanying explanatory text is recommended in reporting case study research methods.

  14. Research Committee Issues Brief: Examining Communication and Interaction in Online Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Cathy; Barbour, Michael; Brown, Regina; Diamond, Daryl; Lowes, Susan; Powell, Allison; Rose, Ray; Scheick, Amy; Scribner, Donna; Van der Molen, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Online teaching is a complex professional practice. In addition to their content knowledge and pedagogical skill, online teachers must be qualified in methods of teaching the content online and have experience in online learning. This document examines some of the aspects of online teaching, specifically those related to communication and…

  15. An Examination of English Speaking Tests and Research on English Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…

  16. Examination of studies on technology-assisted collaborative learning published between 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Arnavut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is a content analysis of the articles about technology-assisted collaborative learning published in Science Direct database between the years of 2010 and 2014. Developing technology has become a topic that we encounter in every aspect of our lives. Educators deal with the contribution and integration of technology into education. Therefore, in this study it was aimed to examine how integration of collaborative learning into technology would contribute to education or it would contribute to education or not. According to the results of the studies obtained from Science Direct database, there are many research related with technology-assisted collaborative learning. However, since all of the studies did not fulfill our search criteria for content analysis, a total number of 58 articles published between the years of 2010 and 2014 were used in this study.

  17. Research studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The IUE research studies comprises 118 separate research programs involving observations, data analysis, and research conducted of the IUE satellite and the NASA Astrophysics Data Program. Herein are presented 92 programs. For each program there is a title, program ID, name of the investigator, statement of work, summary of results, and list of publications.

  18. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  19. Unveiling Research Agendas: a study of the influences on research problem selection among academic researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, M.; Sutz, J.

    2016-07-01

    Research problem selection is central to the dynamics of scientific knowledge production. Research agendas result from the selection of research problems and the formulation of individual and/or collective academic strategies to address them. But, why researchers study what they study? This paper presents incipient research focused on the way different factors influence the construction of academic research agendas. It takes a researcher-oriented approach relying on opinions and perspectives of a wide range of researchers in all fields of knowledge. The empirical work is carried out in Uruguay, a country in the periphery of mainstream science, whose academic community struggles in search of a balance between the requirements of the world community of scholars and the demands from different national stakeholders. The methodology and research results from this study may be relevant to other countries, at different peripheries. Further, understanding the interplay of influences that shape research agendas is an important tool for policy analysis and planning everywhere. (Author)

  20. Investigating educational research. A study on dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcelo Marini Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief historical survey on the emergence of educational research in Brazil, namely the rise and development of Science Education research, with special focus on research developed in Education and Science Education graduate programs. It highlights the relevance of the so-called ‘state-of-the-art” studies as a category of investigation that is fundamental for analytical studies on production in a given field of research, and addresses basic procedures to be carried out in investigations of this nature. Finally, this paper presents some trends in Biology Education research in Brazil as shown in Brazilian dissertations and theses produced between 1972 and 2003.

  1. Does the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-revised add to the Mini-Mental State Examination in established Alzheimer disease? Results from a national dementia research register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emma; Connelly, Peter J; Randall, Emma; McNeill, Catriona; Fox, Helen C; Parra, Mario A; Hudson, Justine; Whyte, Leigh-Ann; Johnstone, Jane; Gray, Sarah; Starr, John M

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate how much the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-revised (ACE-R) improves the estimate of cognitive ability from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in people with Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined itemized data in people with AD who were on the Scottish Dementia Research Interest Register drawn from eight centres across Scotland, covering 75% of the Scottish population. ACE-R items that comprise the MMSE and those that did not (non-MMSE items) were summed separately. We residualized MMSE total on non-MMSE total and vice versa to derive a measure of the variance unique to each. Five hundred and one (258 male, 243 female) participants, mean age 75.7 (range 52-94) years were on the register, of whom 329 (160 men, 169 women) had AD. Of those with AD, 309 had a mean MMSE of 20.5 and mean ACE-R of 57.5 measured with Pearson r = 0.92 between MMSE and ACE-R totals, and the regression equation ACE-R score = 3.0 × MMSE - 4.1. The unique non-MMSE items score correlated with ACE-R total r = 0.40 (16% of ACE-R variance). The ACE-R and MMSE total scores are highly correlated. In this clinical sample of people with established AD, for an MMSE score of 24, the predicted ACE-R score was 67.9 with 95% confidence intervals of 61.6-75.4. The extra non-MMSE ACE-R items improve estimates of cognitive ability by 16%. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Post-irradiation examination of HTR-fuel at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsamer, G.; Proksch, E.; Stolba, G.; Strigl, A.; Falta, G.; Zeger, J.

    1984-02-01

    This paper describes methods and measurements developed at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf for the evaluation of the irradiation performance of HTR fuel. Main interest is concentrated on particle failure rates, fission product release, burn-up and inventory measurements (solid and gaseous fission products, uranium inventory). (Author) [de

  3. A Bright Promise but a Dim Future. Researchers Examine Potential of Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Marcella R., Ed.

    Concerns about the current educational technology movement are discussed in these four papers which were presented during a seminar of 20 representatives from 10 Council for Educational Development and Research (CEDaR) member institutions. The first by Marcella Pitts and E. Joseph Schneider provides an overview of the educational technology…

  4. Searching for Music's Potential: A Critical Examination of Research on Music Therapy with Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Robert; Comer, Ronald; Heller, Wendy B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a literature review on music therapy for individuals with autism because of the frequent use of music therapy for those with autism and recent research on the musical abilities of this population. To accomplish this narrative review, articles were searched from relevant databases, reference lists from articles, and book…

  5. Examining Marijuana User and Non-User Prototypes in Formative Research for Prevention Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on research--both quantitative and qualitative--conducted to explore perceptions of prototypes of marijuana users, as well as the extent to which self-prototype congruence predicted marijuana use intention. Results of a survey of undergraduates (N = 139) showed that prototypes of users and non-users differed in terms of key attributes,…

  6. Experimental Research Examining how People can Cope with Uncertainty through Soft Haptic Sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Horen, F.; Mussweiler, T.

    2015-01-01

    Human beings are constantly surrounded by uncertainty and change. The question arises how people cope with such uncertainty. To date, most research has focused on the cognitive strategies people adopt to deal with uncertainty. However, especially when uncertainty is due to unpredictable societal

  7. A RESEARCH ON EXAMINATION OF SWIMMER CLOTHING FOR INCREASING SPORTSMAN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÖLÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present the problems of swimmers about swimming clothing in trainings or competitions and their expectations from swimming clothing for increasing their performan ce . Descriptive method was used in the research . Survey was developed as a data collection tool on clothing comfort parameters and functional design p roperties that swimming clothing should have . The universe of the r esearch is composed of male and female swimmers interested in swimming sport in T urkey, in the province of Çorum. And the sample is composed of 50 swimmers who participate in the research v oluntarily among the members of Olympic Indoor Swimming Pool serving in Çorum Provincial Directorate of Youth Services and Spor ts . The findings were analyzed in Statistics Package Program in Social Sciences (SPSS. As a result of the r esearch ; it was determined that the problems experienced with the clothing were quick deform ation, restriction of movements, and the fact that fabric texture and sewing properties discomfort the skin and expectations from clothing were durability, ease of movement , to accord with the body and easy maintenance . It is considered that r esearch results shall be a guide for research and development activities to be performed about clothing comfort on both academic and sector basis for increasing sportive performan ce in running sport and protection of sportsmen health .

  8. Examining the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Objective Performance within Higher Education: An Exploratory Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tim O.; Aikens, Shontarius D.

    2017-01-01

    While the common suggestion in leader-member exchange (LMX) research is that there is a strong relationship between LMX and performance, a closer look at these studies reveal that the performance measures in the majority of studies are primarily subjective in nature such as performance reviews. Relatively few studies examine the LMX-objective…

  9. DIETFITS Study (Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) – Study Design and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Michael; Robinson, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Avery, Erin; Rigdon, Joseph; Offringa, Lisa; Trepanowski, John; Hauser, Michelle; Hartle, Jennifer; Cherin, Rise; King, Abby C.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Desai, Manisha; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25 kg weight loss to ~5 kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing ...

  10. HIV criminal prosecutions and public health: an examination of the empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; Bryan, Alyssa; Roy, Marie

    2013-12-01

    To review the extant literature on HIV criminal laws, and to determine the impact of these laws on public health practice. The available research on this topic was obtained and reviewed. The extant literature addressed three main topics: people's awareness of HIV criminal laws; people's perceptions of HIV criminal laws; and the potential effects of HIV criminal laws on people's sexual, HIV-status disclosure and healthcare-seeking practices. Within these categories, the literature demonstrated a high level of awareness of HIV criminal laws, but a poor comprehension of these laws. For perceptions, on the whole, the quantitative research identified support for, while the qualitative literature indicated opposition to, these laws. Lastly, the behavioural effects of HIV criminal laws appear to be complex and non-linear. A review of the extant literature from a public health perspective leads to the conclusion that HIV criminal laws undermine public health.

  11. Examining Design and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Rubric Measuring Research Quality across Multiple Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilee J. Bresciani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rubric to help evaluate the quality of research projects. The rubric was applied in a competition across a variety of disciplines during a two-day research symposium at one institution in the southwest region of the United States of America. It was collaboratively designed by a faculty committee at the institution and was administered to 204 undergraduate, master, and doctoral oral presentations by approximately 167 different evaluators. No training or norming of the rubric was given to 147 of the evaluators prior to the competition. The findings of the inter-rater reliability analysis reveal substantial agreement among the judges, which contradicts literature describing the fact that formal norming must occur prior to seeing substantial levels of inter-rater reliability. By presenting the rubric along with the methodology used in its design and evaluation, it is hoped that others will find this to be a useful tool for evaluating documents and for teaching research methods.

  12. Low-enriched research reactor fuel: Post-Irradiation Examinations at SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berghe, S.; Leenaers, A.

    2007-01-01

    Generally, research and test reactors are fuelled with fuel plates instead of pins. In most cases in the past, these plates consisted of high enriched (higher than 95 percent 235 U) UAl 3 powder mixed with a pure Al matrix (called the meat) in between two aluminium alloy plates (the cladding). These plates are then assembled in fuel elements of different designs to fit the needs of the various reactors. Since the 1970's, efforts have been going on to replace the high-enriched, low-density UAl 3 fuel with high-density, low enriched ( 235 U) replacements. This search is driven by the attempt to reduce the civil use of high-enriched materials because of proliferation risks and terrorist threats. American initiatives, such as the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program have triggered the development of reliable low-enriched fuel types for these reactors, which can replace the high enriched ones without loss of performance. Most success has been obtained with U 3 Si 2 fuel, which is currently used in many research reactors in the world. However, efforts to search for a better replacement have continued and are currently directed towards the U-Mo alloy fuel (7-10 weight percent Mo)

  13. Preparing School Leaders: Action Research on the Leadership Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an action research study that examined the Leadership Study Group, one learning activity designed to build knowledge and skills for aspiring school leaders and implemented in a six-credit introductory course for school leader certification. Through analysis of a variety of qualitative data collected over nine semesters, I…

  14. Examining how youth of color engage youth participatory action research to interrogate racism in their science experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takumi C.

    While many researchers have worked to address the unequal educational outcomes between White and non-White students, there are few signs of progress for people of color seeking entry into a STEM career trajectory. Starting from high school, the number of students who persist to complete a STEM bachelor's degree and obtaining a job in science or engineering continues to indicate that people of color are underrepresented. I suggest that research must consider the role of race and racism in the education of youth of color. Especially in science education, there is very little work addressing how racism may present barriers that impede progress for students along the STEM trajectory. This study is informed by critical race theory (CRT) that posits racism is endemic in society. White privilege enables the dominant group to maintain inequitable advantages that marginalizes populations of color. CRT also puts forth that counter narratives of the marginalized groups is essential to challenge the institutionalized forms of oppression. Using CRT and youth participatory action research (YPAR), this investigation re-imagines youth as capable of transforming their own social and political condition through research and action. This project asked youth of color to interrogate their own experiences as science learners, engage in research on structural inequities of STEM trajectories, plan strategic moves to challenge power structures, and take action for social justice. The youth started by exploring the concept of race and instances where racism was found in public spaces and in their personal experiences. They examined their experiences in science as a student more generally and then for racism. Then, the focus turned to conducting research with peers, observing science classrooms in another school, and using online information to compare schools. The youth planned strategic action against the racism they found in the analysis of the data that included conference presentations

  15. Secure E-Examination Systems Compared: Case Studies from Two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Fluck

    2017-04-01

    than being adopted nationally. Within undergraduate courses, the Nigerian scenario is quite extensive; in Australia this adoption has been slower, but has penetrated a wide variety of disciplines. Recommendations for Practitioners: Assessment integrity and equipment reliability were common issues across the two case studies, although the delivery of e-examinations is different in each country. As with any procedural process, a particular solution is only as good as its weakest attribute. Technical differences highlight the link between e-examination system approaches and pedagogical implications. It is clear that social, cultural, and environmental factors affect the success of e-examinations. For example, an interrupted electrical power supply and limited technical know-how are two of the challenges affecting the conduct of e-examinations in Nigeria. In Tasmania, the challenge with the “bring your own device” (BYOD is to make the system operate on an increasing variety of user equipment, including tablets. Recommendation for Researchers: The comparisons between the two universities indicate there will be a productive convergence of the approaches in future. One key proposal, which arose from the analysis of the existing e-examination systems in Nigeria and Australia, is to design a form of “live” operating system that is deployable over the Internet. This method would use public key cryptography for lecturers to encrypt their questions online. Impact on Society\t: If institutions are to transition to e-examinations, one way of facilitating this move is by using computers to imitate other assessment techniques. However, higher order thinking is usually demonstrated through open-ended or creative tasks. In this respect the Australian system shows promise by providing the same full operating system and software application suite to all candidates, thereby supporting assessment of such creative higher order thinking. The two cases illustrate the potential tension

  16. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  17. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  18. Research Approaches in the Study of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite development of secular ideas and concepts in the Western world, we can observe increasing interest in the study of religion. However, this popularity of the study of religion and different research approaches has caused that in some sense scholars that were studying religion came to a dead point. Here I show that the most optimal research approach in the study of religion is pluralistic, integral paradigm which connects old traditional methods with naturalistic, cognitive and sometimes experimental approach.

  19. [Use of the Mini-Mental State Examination in research on the elderly in Brazil: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Denise Mendonça; Barbosa, Altemir José Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely used cognitive screening test around the world. In Brazil, different MMSE versions and many cut-off points have been used. A systematic review of papers indexed in Scielo was conducted in order to analyze use of the MMSE in Brazilian empirical studies with elderly people. To search for these texts, the complete name of the instrument and its abbreviation were used. A growth trend in the scientific production during the 1998 to 2013 period was observed. Eleven versions of the MMSE were identified and the Bertolucci et al. version was the most cited. Over half of the studies used schooling as the criteria to establish cut-off points. The studies were predominantly conducted using samples recruited from large cities in the Southeastern region and in the community. Despite the growing trend of research with the elderly using the MMSE, the psychometric properties of this scale of measurement have been the subject of little investigation. Despite the widespread use of the MMSE in Brazil, there is a lack of standardization and evidence of validity for this this scale of measurement.

  20. Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Harrison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. This evolution has resulted in a pragmatic, flexible research approach, capable of providing comprehensive in-depth understanding of a diverse range of issues across a number of disciplines. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researcher's preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches. For the researcher new to using case study, such variety can create a confusing platform for its application. In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1701195

  1. (Un)Hidden Figures: A Synthesis of Research Examining the Intersectional Experiences of Black Women and Girls in STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Danyelle T.; Freeman, Kimberley Edelin; Winston-Proctor, Cynthia E.; DeLaine, Kendra D.; McDonald Lowe, Stacey; Woodson, Kamilah M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we argue that intersectionality is a theoretical and methodological framework by which education researchers can critically examine why and how students in STEM fields who are members of intersecting marginalized groups have distinctive experiences related to their social identities, other psychological processes, and educational…

  2. Researching Holistic Democracy in Schools. A Response to "Examination of the New Tech Model as a holistic Democracy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Philip A.

    2017-01-01

    Bradley-Levine reported in her article how she created an opportunity to explore research data with the aim of examining the degree to which New Tech schools were democratic in the sense conceptualized by the notion of holistic democracy. My response is in three parts. The first sets out my understanding of the significance of the model of…

  3. Clinical Research Informatics: Supporting the Research Study Lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S B

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: The primary goal of this review is to summarize significant developments in the field of Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the years 2015-2016. The secondary goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of CRI as a field, through the development of a strategy for searching and classifying CRI publications. Methods: A search strategy was developed to query the PubMed database, using medical subject headings to both select and exclude articles, and filtering publications by date and other characteristics. A manual review classified publications using stages in the "research study lifecycle", with key stages that include study definition, participant enrollment, data management, data analysis, and results dissemination. Results: The search strategy generated 510 publications. The manual classification identified 125 publications as relevant to CRI, which were classified into seven different stages of the research lifecycle, and one additional class that pertained to multiple stages, referring to general infrastructure or standards. Important cross-cutting themes included new applications of electronic media (Internet, social media, mobile devices), standardization of data and procedures, and increased automation through the use of data mining and big data methods. Conclusions: The review revealed increased interest and support for CRI in large-scale projects across institutions, regionally, nationally, and internationally. A search strategy based on medical subject headings can find many relevant papers, but a large number of non-relevant papers need to be detected using text words which pertain to closely related fields such as computational statistics and clinical informatics. The research lifecycle was useful as a classification scheme by highlighting the relevance to the users of clinical research informatics solutions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  4. An Examination of Research Collaboration in Psychometrics Utilizing Social Network Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCrecchio, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Co-authorship networks have been studied in many fields as a way to understand collaboration patterns. However, a comprehensive exploration of the psychometrics field has not been conducted. Also, few studies on co-author networks have included longitudinal analyses as well as data on the characteristics of authors in the network. Including both…

  5. Research on Take an Examination of Oneself Potential Candidates Intend Empirical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Zhou Lin; Dong, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Through the metrological analysis to Sichuan Province of potential candidates in willingness to take the self-study exam, we find the potential candidates attendance of self-study exam mainly determined by the marital status, family supporting degree, mathematics course, English courses, and the willingness to improve academic degree. Knowing…

  6. Examining Approaches to Research on Self-Regulated Learning: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Zusho, Akane

    2015-01-01

    We provide a conceptual commentary on the articles in this special issue, first by describing the unique features of each study, focusing on what we consider to be their theoretical and methodological contributions, and then by highlighting significant crosscutting themes and future directions in the study of SRL. Specifically, we define SRL to be…

  7. Effective Counseling for Racial/Ethnic Minority Clients: Examining Changes Using a Practice Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Graceffo, James M.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that counseling decreases students' academic distress. These findings, however, are based primarily on European American students. This study explored the impact of counseling on academic distress for treatment-seeking racial/ethnic minority college students using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological…

  8. A Review of Research Methods Used to Examine Employee Assistance Program Delivery Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiernik, Rick

    1995-01-01

    This review of literature on Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) focuses on EAP delivery options. More than half of the 48 studies reviewed used a case study approach. EAPs provided by on-staff professionals were the most frequently discussed delivery option, although this is not the most dominant form of EAP provision. (SLD)

  9. Critical Research Needed to Examine the Environmental Impacts of Expanded Refrigeration on the Food System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Brent R; Miller, Shelie A

    2016-11-15

    The unbroken global refrigerated supply chain, or cold chain, is rapidly expanding in developing countries. In addition to increasing the energy intensity of the food system, the expanded cold chain may facilitate changes in the global diet, food waste patterns, food production and distribution, and shopping habits. The sustainability impacts of many of these changes chain are unknown, given the complexity of interacting social, economic, and technical factors. The current literature surrounding the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food system focuses on the direct impacts of energy use and coolant emissions, and lacks a critical evaluation of the accompanying systemic societal changes that potentially carry greater environmental impacts. This review examines the cold chain as a transformative technology, identifying key intrinsic, indirect, and external factors that will favorably, unfavorably, or ambiguously impact the environmental profile of the food system. The review identifies key interactions and feedbacks between the cold chain, food production and consumption decisions, infrastructure development, and the global environment which are largely unexamined and in need of empirical data. Viewing cold chain expansion from this broader perspective is essential to understanding the changing impacts of the food system in developing countries and may inform future sustainability planning.

  10. A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Time Constraints on Student Performance in Accounting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects, if any, of time constraints on the success of accounting students completing exams. This study examined how time allowed to take exams affected the grades on examinations in three different accounting classes. Two were sophomore classes and one was a senior accounting class. This limited pilot…

  11. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  12. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new...... agenda for research on Europe. The crisis gripping the EU in the 21st century is not just an economic crisis, it is a crisis of belief in the EU. Research on the EU is deeply implicated in this crisis, not least because of the questions it does not ask, but also because of the pereceived weakness...... of demonstrating the methods and evidence used. A new agenda for research on Europe needs to acknowledge these weaknesses of the past and move beyond dichotomies towards greater awareness and openesss of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods....

  13. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  14. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Steel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1 as well as in a large correlational data set (N = 7400; Study 2. The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People’s pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  15. Examining Procrastination Across Multiple Goal Stages: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; Svartdal, Frode; Thundiyil, Tomas; Brothen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1) as well as in a large correlational data set ( N = 7400; Study 2). The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People's pacing style reflects a hyperbolic curve, with the steepness of the curve predicted by self-reported procrastination. Procrastination is related to intention-action gaps, but not intentions. Procrastinators are susceptible to proximity of temptation and to the temporal separation between their intention and the planned act; the more distal, the greater the gap. Critical self-regulatory skills in explaining procrastination are attention control, energy regulation and automaticity, accounting for 74% of the variance. Future research using this design is recommended, as it provides an almost ideal blend of realism and detailed longitudinal assessment.

  16. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  17. Maximising the impact of qualitative research in feasibility studies for randomised controlled trials: guidance for researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O’Cathain, A.; Hoddinott, P.; Lewin, S.; Thomas, K.J.; Young, B.; Adamson, J.; Jansen, J.F.M.; Mills, N.; Moore, G.; Donovan, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility studies are increasingly undertaken in preparation for randomised controlled trials in order to explore uncertainties and enable trialists to optimise the intervention or the conduct of the trial. Qualitative research can be used to examine and address key uncertainties prior to a full

  18. Modeling and Explaining Content: Definition, Research Support, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Leslie; Sykes, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This report reviews the scholarly and research evidence supporting the construct labeled modeling and explaining content (MEC), which is measured via a performance assessment in the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. This construct involves practices at the heart of teaching that deal with how…

  19. Eliciting Student Thinking: Definition, Research Support, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Sykes, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This report describes and provides research and scholarly support for a core practice of teaching--eliciting student thinking (EST)--that is the target for a performance assessment contributing one component of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. The purpose of this report is to review the…

  20. An Examination of XMOOCs: An Embedded Single Case Study Based on Conole’s 12 Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil KOCDAR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to examine the xMOOCs offered by one of the mainstream MOOC platforms in Conole’s 12 dimensions. For this purpose, the research employed an embedded single case study using heuristic inquiry to collect data. The researchers participated in three xMOOCs and took into consideration the characteristics of these MOOCs by rating them as low, medium or high in terms of Conole’s 12 dimensions. Inter-rater reliability was 92 percent. The study showed that the openness, massiveness, diversity, use of multimedia, communication among learners, learning pathway and amount of reflection dimensions were high. The communication with instructors, degree of collaboration and autonomy dimensions were medium, and the quality assurance, certification, and formal learning dimensions were low. After explaining characteristics of xMOOCs from the perspective of open learning, the study highlighted that xMOOCs dramatically differ with regard to the implementation of the freemium business model to education and course delivery methods. It was concluded that MOOCs are not a new form of learning, but a new form of organizing learning similar to the open university movement, but which promises more flexibility and access than open universities.

  1. Examining Diversity Research Literature in School Psychology from 2004 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Stephanie; Shriberg, David; Wheeler, Anitra S.; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    One indicator of school psychology's capacity to provide culturally responsive practice is the percentage of articles in leading school psychology journals that have a "significant diversity focus." To date, there have been three published empirical studies (Brown, Shriberg, & Wang; Miranda & Gutte; Rogers Wiese) that have…

  2. Examining Gender Equity Research in Ghanaian Mines:A Meta–Analytical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kilu, Rufai Haruna; Andersson, Eira; Sanda, Mohammed-Aminu

    2014-01-01

    Gender-oriented persons constitute majority of the Ghanaian population yet underrepresented in mining exploration, underground mining and mineral processing. In Ghana, the 2010 population and housing census figures on gender participation proportion in mining stood at 0.6% for females as compared to 2.0% for males. The purpose of this study is to create understanding on the politics of employing gender oriented persons in mine work, as well as identifying the organizational and socio-cultural...

  3. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  4. Review of Factor Analytic Studies Examining Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Jill; Perry, Adrienne; Bebko, James; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2014-01-01

    Factor analytic studies have been conducted to examine the inter-relationships and degree of overlap among symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper reviewed 36 factor analytic studies that have examined ASD symptoms, using 13 different instruments. Studies were grouped into three categories: Studies with all DSM-IV symptoms, studies…

  5. Case study of information product for strategy research, planning research, and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yujun; Zou Lin; Liu Qun; Wang Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Soft science research is significant and can directly support the decision-making and development. The strategy research, planning research, and policy research each play an important role in soft science research. As the National Strategy of Informatization being implemented and advanced, some progress are made and some special information tools are produced in the process of strengthening the development research with information technologies. At first, the article introduced some cases of information products application, such as the domestic and overseas information products for energy strategy research and planning research and policy research, the governmental management information system for planning and investment, examination and approval and permission system for the planning of the land for construction, China agriculture decision support system and so on, and also gave a brief analysis on the theories and methods, main functions and application status. And then, with a analysis on the features of the works of development planning of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) development, this article gave some suggestions on how to strengthen the development of information system for the development planning of the CNNC. (authors)

  6. Political Socialization Research and Canadian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, George S.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a review of the burgeoning field of Canadian political socialization research as it applies to children and youth, and considers some implications of recent findings for the Canadian studies curriculum. (Editor)

  7. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  8. Public education and enforcement research study (PEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) established the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) to test the effectiveness of various education and enforcement (E&E) techniques to i...

  9. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  10. A synthesis of tagging studies examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matthew Drenner

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes tagging studies to highlight the current state of knowledge concerning the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in the marine environment. Scientific literature was reviewed to quantify the number and type of studies that have investigated behaviour and survival of anadromous forms of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, brown trout (Salmo trutta, steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii. We examined three categories of tags including electronic (e.g. acoustic, radio, archival, passive (e.g. external marks, Carlin, coded wire, passive integrated transponder [PIT], and biological (e.g. otolith, genetic, scale, parasites. Based on 207 papers, survival rates and behaviour in marine environments were found to be extremely variable spatially and temporally, with some of the most influential factors being temperature, population, physiological state, and fish size. Salmonids at all life stages were consistently found to swim at an average speed of approximately one body length per second, which likely corresponds with the speed at which transport costs are minimal. We found that there is relatively little research conducted on open-ocean migrating salmonids, and some species (e.g. masu [O. masou] and amago [O. rhodurus] are underrepresented in the literature. The most common forms of tagging used across life stages were various forms of external tags, coded wire tags, and acoustic tags, however, the majority of studies did not measure tagging/handling effects on the fish, tag loss/failure, or tag detection probabilities when estimating survival. Through the interdisciplinary application of existing and novel technologies, future research examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids could incorporate important drivers such as oceanography, tagging/handling effects, predation, and physiology.

  11. Rigour in qualitative case-study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy

    2013-03-01

    To provide examples of a qualitative multiple case study to illustrate the specific strategies that can be used to ensure the credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability of a study. There is increasing recognition of the valuable contribution qualitative research can make to nursing knowledge. However, it is important that the research is conducted in a rigorous manner and that this is demonstrated in the final research report. A multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Multiple sources of evidence were collected: semi-structured interviews (n=58), non-participant observations at five sites and documentary sources. Strategies to ensure the rigour of this research were prolonged engagement and persistent observation, triangulation, peer debriefing, member checking, audit trail, reflexivity, and thick descriptions. Practical examples of how these strategies can be implemented are provided to guide researchers interested in conducting rigorous case study research. While the flexible nature of qualitative research should be embraced, strategies to ensure rigour must be in place.

  12. The post-irradiated examination of CANDU type fuel irradiated in the Institute for Nuclear Research TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuturici, I.L.; Parvan, M.; Dobrin, R.; Popov, M.; Radulescu, R.; Toma, V.

    1995-01-01

    This post-irradiation examination work has been done under the Research Contract No. 7756/RB, concluded between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Institute for Nuclear Research. The paper contains a general description of the INR post-irradiation facility and methods and the relevant post-irradiation examination results obtained from an irradiated experimental CANDU type fuel element designed, manufactured and tested by INR in a power ramp test in the 100 kW Pressurised Water Irradiation Loop of the TRIGA 14 MW(th) Reactor. The irradiation experiment consisted in testing an assembly of six fuel elements, designed to reach a bumup of ∼ 200 MWh/kgU, with typical CANDU linear power and ramp rate. (author)

  13. Mixed Method Study Examines Undergraduate Student Researchers’ Knowledge and Perceptions About Scholarly Communication Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Riehle, C. F., & Hensley, M. K. (2017. What do undergraduate students know about scholarly communication?: A mixed methods study. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 17(1, 145–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pla.2017.0009 Abstract Objective – To examine undergraduate student researchers’ perception and understanding of scholarly communication practices and issues. Design – Mixed method study involving a survey and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Two major undergraduate universities in the Midwest region of the United States. Subjects – Undergraduate students who participated in or had completed undergraduate research experiences with faculty mentors. Method – The method was first approved by Institutional Review Board offices at both campuses involved in the study. Then, students received invitations to participate in a survey via email (Campus 1 = 221 students; Campus 2 = 345 students. Identical online surveys ran separately on each campus; both remained open for a period of three weeks. All respondents received a reminder email one week before the survey closed. Participants answered twelve questions related to demographics and scholarly communication practices. The survey examined knowledge and experience across five areas: the peer review process, author and publisher rights, publication and access models, impact of research, and data management. All students who completed the survey were entered in a drawing for a $50 Amazon card. The response rates were 34.8% (Campus 1 and 18.6% (Campus 2. Surveys on both campuses were administered using different software: campus 1 utilized Qualtrics survey software while campus 2 used an institution-specific survey software. Data sets were normed and merged later in the study to enable comparison and identify broad themes. Survey respondents were also invited to participate in a 15 to 20 minute follow-up interview and were compensated with a $20 Amazon gift card. The

  14. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  15. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  16. Considering the needs of English language learner populations: an examination of the population validity of reading intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brooke A; Klingner, Janette K

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes reading intervention research studies intended for use with struggling or at-risk students to determine which studies adequately address population validity, particularly in regard to the diverse reading needs of English language learners. An extensive search of the professional literature between 2001 and 2010 yielded a total of 67 reading intervention studies targeting at-risk elementary students. Findings revealed that many current research studies fail to adequately describe the sample, including the accessible and target populations, and to disaggregate their findings based on demographic characteristics. When population validity issues are not addressed, researchers cannot generalize findings to other populations of students, and it becomes unclear what intervention strategies work, especially with English language learner student populations. However, 25 studies did specifically recognize and address the needs of English language learners, indicating more researchers are taking into consideration the diverse needs of other struggling student populations. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  17. Self-Efficacy and Preparation of Scholarly Writing: Online Doctoral Coursework to Comprehensive Examination--a Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sonya C.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is seldom explicitly taught, most specifically, in academic and scholarly writing. Therefore, this mixed methods correlational phenomenology research study explored the correlation between self-efficacy perception and course room preparation for the comprehensive examination, APA standards in the course room, APA standards evaluation for…

  18. Incorporating Meaningful Gamification in a Blended Learning Research Methods Class: Examining Student Learning, Engagement, and Affective Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meng; Hew, Khe Foon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the use of meaningful gamification affects student learning, engagement, and affective outcomes in a short, 3-day blended learning research methods class using a combination of experimental and qualitative research methods. Twenty-two postgraduates were randomly split into two groups taught by the same…

  19. Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin in osteogenesis imperfecta: a novel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Wagner, Bart E; Peres, Luiz C; Sobey, Glenda J; Parker, Michael J; Dalton, Ann; Arundel, Paul; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity for fractures. It is a variable condition with a range of clinical severities. The histological and ultrastructural findings in the skin of patients with OI have not been described in detail in the previously published literature. Although protein analysis of cultured fibroblasts has historically been used in the diagnostic work-up of OI patients, other aspects of skin examination are not routinely performed as part of the diagnostic pathway in patients with OI. The aims of this study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in patients with OI. This was to identify common and distinguishing features in the numerous genetically distinct subtypes of OI and compare the findings with those in patients who did not present with fractures, and to enable the use of the results thus obtained to aid in the diagnostic work-up of patients with OI. As part of a larger research study set-up to identify clinical features and natural history in patients with atypical features of OI, skin biopsy and examination (histology and electron microscopy) were undertaken. Genetic analysis and ancillary investigations were also performed to identify similarities within this group and to differentiate this group from the 'normal' population. At the end of this study, we were able to demonstrate that the histological and electron microscopic findings on a skin biopsy may be an indicator of the likelihood of identifying a pathogenic mutation in type 1 collagen genes. This is because patients with specific findings on examination, such as elastic fibre area fraction (on histological analysis), collagen fibril diameter variability, deviation from the expected mean and collagen flowers (on electron microscopy), are more likely to be positive on genetic analyses. This has, in turn, provided more insight into the

  20. Poultry studies and anthropological research strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Poultry are not simply birds; they are also a human creation, a social and cultural practice. The human element is the justification for an anthropology of poultry. Such an anthropology combines the objective research strategies familiar to the natural sciences with what is often called 'subjective' or qualitative research. In the study of poultry management, it is important that both research strategies focus on differences and variation. The subjective approach is particularly useful in identifying and understanding how the motivations and strategies of local actors are dependent on the social positions, which they occupy in their specific societies. (author)

  1. Indtroduction To Research Methodologies In Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bahasa merupakan bidang yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar di Fakultas Sastra. Artikel ini mencoba menggambarkan berbagai metodologi riset dalam bidang bahasa dengan cara yang sederhana. Metodologi riset ini mencakup experimental research, quasi experimental research, etnografi, dan studi kasus. Artikel ini juga membahas konsep metode riset kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Masalah validitas dan keabsahan sebuah laporan riset dibahas secara singkat.

  2. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  3. Breast self-examination: do religious beliefs matter? A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Haji-Mahmoodi, Mehregan; Jarvandi, Soghra

    2003-06-01

    A descriptive study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, to investigate the beliefs of Muslim women and their practices regarding screening modalities of breast cancer. A questionnaire was specially designed and validated to collect data and was completed by 410 Muslim women. A vast majority of women (90 per cent) said that breast self-examination is not against their religious beliefs. With regard to clinical breast examination, although 58 per cent preferred to be examined by a female physician, 47 per cent said that clinical breast examination by a male physician is not against their Islamic beliefs. However, only 6 per cent of respondents performed breast self-examination on a regular basis (monthly). The study findings suggest that most Muslim women do not perceive breast self-examination as being against their Islamic beliefs and that they believe clinical breast examination by a male physician does not interfere with their religious beliefs.

  4. Examining the Efficacy of a Time Management Intervention for High School Students. Research Report. ETS RR-13-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Jeremy; Jackson, Teresa; Holtzman, Steven; Roberts, Richard D.; Mandigo, Terri

    2013-01-01

    The current paper reports the results of 2 quasiexperimental studies conducted to examine the efficacy of a new time management intervention designed for high school students. In both studies, there was no difference between the treatment and control groups in improvement in self-reported time management skills as a result of the intervention.…

  5. [Computer optical topography: a study of the repeatability of the results of human body model examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnadskiĭ, V N

    2007-01-01

    The problem of repeatability of the results of examination of a plastic human body model is considered. The model was examined in 7 positions using an optical topograph for kyphosis diagnosis. The examination was performed under television camera monitoring. It was shown that variation of the model position in the camera view affected the repeatability of the results of topographic examination, especially if the model-to-camera distance was changed. A study of the repeatability of the results of optical topographic examination can help to increase the reliability of the topographic method, which is widely used for medical screening of children and adolescents.

  6. A systematic review of dyadic studies examining relationship quality in couples facing colorectal cancer together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Karen; Acquati, Chiara; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Mark, Kristen; Wittmann, Daniela; Karam, Eli

    2018-01-01

    Despite the adverse effects that treatment for colorectal cancer can have on patients' quality of life and, in particular, their intimate relationships, very little research has been conducted on the psychosocial adjustment for both patients and their partners/spouses. The aim of this systematic review was to examine dyadic studies of adjustment in couples in which one partner has been diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Pub Med, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Social Sciences Abstracts (EBSCO), and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for studies reporting quality of life outcomes for colorectal cancer patients and their partners/spouses. Only studies that included dyads in the sample were eligible for inclusion. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate each study. A total of 277 studies were identified, of which 9 studies met the inclusion criteria (N = 388 couples). The methodological quality of the studies was high in that they used standardized instruments validated with their samples, conducted dyadic data analyses (when appropriate), and used longitudinal designs. A synthesis of the studies revealed that (1) relationship factors (eg, support, communication, dyadic coping, and relationship satisfaction) affect adjustment to cancer; (2) cancer-related distress impacts each partner's adjustment or the relationship; and (3) gender, role (patient/caregiver), and clinical characteristics (treatment, mental health) can mediate adjustment to cancer. The quality of the relationship can influence patients' and their partners' adjustment to colorectal cancer. Psychosocial interventions that address relationship issues may be beneficial to couples facing the challenges of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Using GPS technology to (re-examine operational definitions of ‘neighbourhood’ in place-based health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruff Bryan J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inconsistencies in research findings on the impact of the built environment on walking across the life course may be methodologically driven. Commonly used methods to define ‘neighbourhood’, from which built environment variables are measured, may not accurately represent the spatial extent to which the behaviour in question occurs. This paper aims to provide new methods for spatially defining ‘neighbourhood’ based on how people use their surrounding environment. Results Informed by Global Positioning Systems (GPS tracking data, several alternative neighbourhood delineation techniques were examined (i.e., variable width, convex hull and standard deviation buffers. Compared with traditionally used buffers (i.e., circular and polygon network, differences were found in built environment characteristics within the newly created ‘neighbourhoods’. Model fit statistics indicated that exposure measures derived from alternative buffering techniques provided a better fit when examining the relationship between land-use and walking for transport or leisure. Conclusions This research identifies how changes in the spatial extent from which built environment measures are derived may influence walking behaviour. Buffer size and orientation influences the relationship between built environment measures and walking for leisure in older adults. The use of GPS data proved suitable for re-examining operational definitions of neighbourhood.

  8. Fuels and materials research under the high neutron fluence using a fast reactor Joyo and post-irradiation examination facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Tomonori; Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju

    2009-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor Joyo at Oarai Research and Development Center (ORDC) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is Japan's sodium-cooled fast reactor (FR). In 2003, this reactor's upgrade to the 140MWt MK-III core was completed to increase the irradiation testing capability. The MK-III core provides the fast neutron flux of 4.0x10 15 n/cm 2 s as an irradiation test bed for improving the fuels and material of FR in Japan. Three post-irradiation examination (PIE) facilities named FMF, MMF and AGF related to Joyo are in ORDC. Irradiated subassemblies and core components are carried into the FMF (Fuel Monitoring Facility) and conducted nondestructive examinations. Each subassembly is disassembled to conduct some destructive examinations and to prepare the fuel and material samples for further detailed examinations. Fuel samples are sent to the AGF (Alpha-Gamma Facility), and material samples are sent to the MMF (Materials Monitoring Facility). These overall and elaborate data provided by PIE contribute to investigate the irradiation effect and behavior of fuels and materials. This facility complex is indispensable to promote the R and D of FR in Japan. And, the function and technology of irradiation test and PIE enable to contribute to the R and D of innovative fission or fusion reactor material which will be required to use under the high neutron exposure. (author)

  9. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  10. Motivations and reasons for women attending a Breast Self-Examination training program: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chiun-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. Results It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. Conclusions We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.

  11. Motivations and reasons for women attending a breast self-examination training program: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rea-Jeng; Huang, Lian-Hua; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng; Chung, Ue-Lin; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Bih, Herng-Dar

    2010-07-10

    Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.

  12. Examining the Correspondence between Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Cleary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four high school students received 11 weeks of a self-regulated learning (SRL intervention, called the Self-Regulation Empowerment Program (SREP, to improve their classroom-based biology exam scores, SRL, and motivated behaviors. This mixed model case study examined the correspondence between shifts in students’ strategic, regulated behaviors with their performance on classroom-based biology tests. The authors used traditional SRL assessment tools in a pretest-posttest fashion (e.g., self-report questionnaires, teaching rating scales and gathered SRL data during the intervention using field note observations and contextualized structured interviews. This multidimensional assessment approach was used to establish convergence among the assessment tools and to facilitate interpretation of trends in students’ biology test performance relative to their SRL processes. Key themes in this study included the following: (a the close correspondence between changes in students SRL, biology exam performance, and SREP attendance; (b individual variability in student performance, SRL behaviors, and beliefs in response to SREP; and (c the importance of using a multi-dimensional assessment approach in SRL intervention research. Furthermore, this study provided additional support for the potential effectiveness of SREP in academic contexts.

  13. Challenges of Critical Colleagueship: Examining and Reflecting on Mathematics Teacher Study Group Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Lorraine M.; Otten, Samuel; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines mathematics teacher collegiality by focusing on both the ways in which teachers interacted as critical colleagues in a long-term professional development project and the evolving role of the teacher-educator-researcher as the facilitator of this project. The professional development collaboration comprised two phases: one…

  14. American Indian Studies. Library Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University doing library research in topics related to American Indian Studies begins by noting that information on North American Indians can be found in a variety of subject disciplines including history, anthropology, education, sociology, health care, law, business, and politics. The…

  15. The Evolution of Family Studies Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Beth C.; Lloyd, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    This review of methodological, theoretical, and topical trends in family studies research covers changes in definitions of family and in marriage, parent-child relationships, and family social ecology. Issues discussed include marital satisfaction, violence, social construction of gender, family-work relationship, parenting roles, socialization,…

  16. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  17. Local Skills Case Study. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anne; Hogarth, Terence; Thom, Graham; MacLeod, Katie; Warhurst, Chris; Willis, Robert; Mackay, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This study, jointly conducted by the University of Warwick Institute for Employment Research (IER) and SQW Ltd., discusses the UK Government's intention to accelerate the process of ceding more responsibility for delivering a range of services to the local level. The logic is that local actors are better placed to identify local priorities. This…

  18. Synthesis of the IRSN report on the second safety re-examination of the EOLE and MINERVE research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This synthesis briefly discusses the results of the second safety re-examination of the EOLE and MINERVE research reactors which are operated by the CEA in a same building in Cadarache, and are presented in appendix. It addresses the seismic behaviour diagnosis of the EOLE and MINERVE installations, other possible external aggressions (plane crash, rising of underground water sheet, thunder, heat or cold wave, effects of wind and snow), the organisational processes, measures regarding radiation protection, the reactor operation safety, the safety of handling operations, the safety of warehousing sites, possible internal aggressions (fire, explosion), the confinement with respect to the environment

  19. Examining Sexual Dysfunction in Non‐Muscle‐Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of Cross‐Sectional Mixed‐Methods Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Kowalkowski, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Survivors' sexual symptoms may result from NMIBC, comorbidities, or both. These results inform literature and practice by raising awareness about the frequency of symptoms and the impact on NMIBC survivors' intimate relationships. Further work is needed to design symptom management education programs to dispel misinformation about contamination post‐treatment and improve quality of life. Kowalkowski MA, Chandrashekar A, Amiel GE, Lerner SP, Wittmann DA, Latini DM, and Goltz HH. Examining sexual dysfunction in non‐muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: Results of cross‐sectional mixed‐methods research. Sex Med 2014;2:141–151.

  20. Study on the decommissioning of research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Doo Hwan; Jun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Lee, Tae Yung; Kwon, Sang Woon; Lee, Jong Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Currently, KAERI operates TRIGA Mark-II and TRIGA Mark-III research reactors as a general purpose research and training facility. As these are, however, situated at Seoul office site of KAERI which is scheduled to be transferred to KEPCO as well as 30 MW HANARO research reactor which is expected to reach the first criticality in 1995 is under construction at head site of KAERI, decommissioning of TRIGA reactors has become an important topic. The objective of this study is to prepare and present TRIGA facility decontamination and decommissioning plan. Estimation of the radioactive inventory in TRIGA research reactor was carried out by the use of computational method. In addition, summarized in particular were the methodologies associated with decontamination, segmenting processes for activated metallic components, disposition of wastes. Particular consideration in this study was focused available technology applicable to decommissioning of TRIGA research reactor. State-of-the-art summaries of the available technology for decommissioning presented here will serve a useful document for preparations for decommissioning in the future. 6 figs, 41 tabs, 30 refs. (Author).

  1. Integrated Food studies education and research:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Weinreich; Hansen, Stine Rosenlund

    2018-01-01

    The research group Foodscapes Innovation and Networks has addressed integrated food studies issues in re-search and education since 2010. Based on experiences in the group, this paper aims at discussing the chal-lenges, learning outcomes and potentials for pushing an integrated thinking into rese......The research group Foodscapes Innovation and Networks has addressed integrated food studies issues in re-search and education since 2010. Based on experiences in the group, this paper aims at discussing the chal-lenges, learning outcomes and potentials for pushing an integrated thinking...... into research and education. It also addresses the challenges in integration when the methodological approaches and theoretical frameworks chosen are ontologically and epistemologically different. A discussion of the limitations of integration is thus also part of the paper. The conceptual framework...... of ontonorms (Mol, 2013) is suggested as a common point of departure for a further development of integration. This is suggested relevant due to the fact that it forces different traditions to reflect their own value-related basis and discuss implications of this approach in a broader sense. The common values...

  2. Korean Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination Using Smartphone: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Yeon; Jeon, Sung-Soo; Lee, Jin-Youn; Cho, Ah-Ra; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Stroke often leads to disability, and poststroke survivors often have limited accessibility to medical facilities. For such patients, mobile videoconferencing technology offers an opportunity to perform follow-up assessment and appropriate management of cognitive impairment. We aimed to determine the validity of the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) when administered using a smartphone. Thirty patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were included in this study (20 males, 10 females; mean age, 69.8 ± 12.9 years). Both face-to-face and remote assessments of cognitive function through MMSE-K were performed for each patient at an interval of at least 3 days. Additionally, an in-person collaborator evaluated the MMSE-K score during the remote assessment. A smartphone and a tablet were used by the patient and the examiner, respectively, and remote connection was mediated using a dedicated videoconferencing application. The MMSE-K scores obtained through face-to-face, remote, and in-person assessments were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Spearman correlation analysis. There was good agreement between face-to-face and remote assessments, as well as between remote assessment and in-person collaborator's evaluation regarding total MMSE-K score and subscores for each MMSE-K domain (orientation, memory, attention/calculation, language, and visuospatial function). Remote assessment can be a useful clinical evaluation method, and this study confirmed the validity. The smartphone represents a promising tool for the assessment of cognitive function in clinical practice, but further research into the intra- and inter-rater reliability of observations is warranted.

  3. Gender Gaps in North American Research Productivity: Examining Faculty Publication Rates in Mexico, Canada, and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Gonzalez, Laura; Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Fisher, Donald; Snee, Iain

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses gender gaps in North American research productivity, which may be influenced by personal and family variables, as well as professional and work-related variables. The study was conducted as part of the "Changing Academic Profession (CAP) International Survey", conducted in 2007-08. Using articles as indicator…

  4. Networks of trainees: examining the effects of attending an interdisciplinary research training camp on the careers of new obesity scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godley J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jenny Godley,1 Nicole M Glenn,2 Arya M Sharma,3 John C Spence4 1Department of Sociology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, 4Sedentary Living Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Students training in obesity research, prevention, and management face the challenge of developing expertise in their chosen academic field while at the same time recognizing that obesity is a complex issue that requires a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach. In appreciation of this challenge, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON has run an interdisciplinary summer training camp for graduate students, new career researchers, and clinicians for the past 8 years. This paper evaluates the effects of attending this training camp on trainees' early careers. We use social network analysis to examine the professional connections developed among trainee Canadian obesity researchers who attended this camp over its first 5 years of operation (2006–2010. We examine four relationships (knowing, contacting, and meeting each other, and working together among previous trainees. We assess the presence and diversity of these relationships among trainees across different years and disciplines and find that interdisciplinary contact and working relationships established at the training camp have been maintained over time. In addition, we evaluate the qualitative data on trainees' career trajectories and their assessments of the impact that the camp had on their careers. Many trainees report that camp attendance had a positive impact on their career development, particularly in terms of establishing contacts and professional relationships. Both the quantitative and the qualitative results demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary training and relationships for career development in the health

  5. Management of spent fuel from research and prototype power reactors and residues from post-irradiation examination of fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The safe and economic management of spent fuel is important for all countries which have nuclear research or power reactors. It involves all aspects of the handling, transportation, storage, conditioning and reprocessing or final disposal of the spent fuel. In the case of spent fuel management from power reactors the shortage of available reprocessing capacity and the rising economic interest in the direct disposal of spent fuel have led to an increasing interest in the long term storage and management of spent fuel. The IAEA has played a major role in coordinating the national activities of the Member States in this area. It was against this background that the Technical Committee Meeting on ''Safe Management of Spent Fuel From Research Reactors, Prototype Power Reactors and Fuel From Commercial Power Reactors That Has Been Subjected to PIE (Post Irradiated Examination)'' (28th November - 1st December 1988) was organised. The aims of the current meeting have been to: 1. Review the state-of-the-art in the field of management of spent fuel from research and prototype power reactors, as well as the residues from post irradiation examination of commercial power reactor fuel. The emphasis was to be on the safe handling, conditioning, transportation, storage and/or disposal of the spent fuel during operation and final decommissioning of the reactors. Information was sought on design details, including shielding, criticality and radionuclide release prevention, heat removal, automation and remote control, planning and staff training; licensing and operational practices during each of the phases of spent fuel management. 2. Identify areas where additional research and development are needed. 3. Recommend areas for future international cooperation in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. Methods One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Results Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p internal medicine clerkship. Possible causes and suggestions for improvement are discussed. PMID:24712683

  7. A study for the KAERI research tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.; Hwang, Y. S.; Park, H. S.; Park, S. K.; Park, B. Y.; Bang, K. S.; Kuh, J. H.; Kang, K. H

    1997-12-01

    Major goal of the R and D on the KAERI Research Tunnel in 1997 are 1) concept development of the KAERI research tunnel and its major units 2) computer simulation of facilities 3) study on thermo-hydro mechanical coupling in the vicinity of a waste repository 4) effect of excavated distrubed zone. In addition supplementary site investigation to understand the distribution of stresses in the site was done along with long term monitoring of the water table. (author). 44 refs., 16 tabs., 36 figs

  8. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study. Report 3. 1958-1960 cycle of examinations, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1963-10-29

    Results of 10,368 examinations of participants in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study, Hiroshima, were tabulated and discussed. About 82% of the entire sample was examined at least once during the 1958-60 cycle. Physical and laboratory findings as well as major diagnoses were considered by comparison group, age, and sex. 8 references, 7 figures, 13 tables.

  9. A Two-Study Examination of Work-Family Conflict, Production Deviance and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Merideth; Carlson, Dawn; Hunter, Emily M.; Whitten, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Building on the spillover and crossover literatures of work-family conflict and the theoretical framework of Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989) we examine the effects of conflict on production deviance. Using a two-study constructive replication and extension design, we examine how partner work-to-family conflict contributes to job…

  10. Using Geospatial Research Methods to Examine Resource Accessibility and Availability as it Relates to Community Participation of Individuals with Serious Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Snethen, Gretchen; Salzer, Mark S

    2018-03-01

    Greater community participation among individuals with serious mental illnesses is associated with better psychosocial and health outcomes. Typically, studies examining community participation have utilized self-report measures and been conducted in limited settings. The introduction of methodological advances to examining community participation of individuals with serious mental illnesses has the potential to advance the science of community mental health research and invigorate the work of community psychologists in this area. This study employed an innovative geospatial approach to examine the relationship between community participation and resource accessibility (i.e., proximity) and availability (i.e., concentration) among 294 individuals utilizing community mental health services throughout the United States. Findings suggest small but significant associations between community participation and the accessibility and availability of resources needed for participation. Furthermore, findings demonstrate the importance of car access for individuals residing in both urban and non-urban settings. The methods and results presented in this study have implications for community mental health research and services and provide an illustration of ways that geospatial methodologies can be used to investigate environmental factors that impact community inclusion and participation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  11. Participation in social forestry re-examined: a case-study from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A; Begum, S A

    1997-08-01

    Bangladesh has enthusiastically launched social forestry projects that make grandiose promises of seeking local community involvement and participation in the management of forest resources. This study examines the functioning of the Chandra Agroforestry Research and Demonstration Project to evaluate the actual extent and nature of popular participation it entails. After discussing the project and its locale, the methodology of the study is described as an analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected in the period February-August 1994. The theoretical framework was based on a modified version of Zaman's framework that uses prevalence and opportunity as the indicators of participation. Analysis of prevalence indicators reveals that professional foresters make all major decisions for the project without consulting the farmers involved. The government also has sole responsibility for monitoring and evaluating the project, and the farmers are skeptical that the government will allow them to profit from the benefits arising from the project. Analysis of opportunity indicators shows that the project is not decentralized, cooperative and collaborative linkages have not been made, project flexibility has been sacrificed to bureaucracy, and the incentives promised to the farmers have not materialized. It is concluded that the participation of local residents in the Chandra project has been insignificant but that the project has succeeded in reducing 1) the historical distrust and conflict between forestry officials and local farmers, 2) encroachment on government lands, and 3) the rate of deforestation. In addition, the project has given participating farmers a sense of security.

  12. Examining nervios among immigrant male farmworkers in the MICASA Study: sociodemographics, housing conditions and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Schenker, Marc B

    2015-02-01

    Nervios is a culturally defined condition of psychological stress with important implications for Latino health. Using epidemiological research methods, we examined the prevalence of nervios and associated risk factors, including drug and alcohol use, acculturation, and housing conditions in a population-based study of farm worker families in Mendota, CA (the MICASA Study). A household enumeration procedure was used for sampling, and 843 individuals were interviewed in 2006-2007. In this analysis, we present data on 422 men, 381 accompanied (family) males and 41 unaccompanied males. The prevalence of nervios was 22%, with no difference in prevalence by household status. Low family incomes, drug use, medium/high acculturation, and poor housing conditions were associated with increased odds of nervios. Self-reported poor/fair health, depressive symptoms, and high perceived stress were also associated with nervios. Since nervios has been shown to be a clinical indicator of psychiatric vulnerability among Latinos, this analysis furthers public health goals of reducing health disparities.

  13. Examining mortality among formerly homeless adults enrolled in Housing First: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Byrne, Thomas; Scriber, Brynn

    2015-12-04

    Adults who experience prolonged homelessness have mortality rates 3 to 4 times that of the general population. Housing First (HF) is an evidence-based practice that effectively ends chronic homelessness, yet there has been virtually no research on premature mortality among HF enrollees. In the United States, this gap in the literature exists despite research that has suggested chronically homeless adults constitute an aging cohort, with nearly half aged 50 years old or older. This observational study examined mortality among formerly homeless adults in an HF program. We examined death rates and causes of death among HF participants and assessed the timing and predictors of death among HF participants following entry into housing. We also compared mortality rates between HF participants and (a) members of the general population and (b) individuals experiencing homelessness. We supplemented these analyses with a comparison of the causes of death and characteristics of decedents in the HF program with a sample of adults identified as homeless in the same city at the time of death through a formal review process. The majority of decedents in both groups were between the ages of 45 and 64 at their time of death; the average age at death for HF participants was 57, compared to 53 for individuals in the homeless sample. Among those in the HF group, 72% died from natural causes, compared to 49% from the homeless group. This included 21% of HF participants and 7% from the homeless group who died from cancer. Among homeless adults, 40% died from an accident, which was significantly more than the 14% of HF participants who died from an accident. HIV or other infectious diseases contributed to 13% of homeless deaths compared to only 2% of HF participants. Hypothermia contributed to 6% of homeless deaths, which was not a cause of death for HF participants. Results suggest HF participants face excess mortality in comparison to members of the general population and that mortality

  14. Translation of interviews from a source language to a target language: examining issues in cross-cultural health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-05-01

    To illuminate translation practice in cross-language interview in health care research and its impact on the construction of the data. Globalisation and changing patterns of migration have created changes to the world's demography; this has presented challenges for overarching social domains, specifically, in the health sector. Providing ethno-cultural health services is a timely and central facet in an ever-increasingly diverse world. Nursing and other health sectors employ cross-language research to provide knowledge and understanding of the needs of minority groups, which underpins cultural-sensitive care services. However, when cultural and linguistic differences exist, they pose unique complexities for cross-cultural health care research; particularly in qualitative research where narrative data are central for communication as most participants prefer to tell their story in their native language. Consequently, translation is often unavoidable in order to make a respondent's narrative vivid and comprehensible, yet, there is no consensus about how researchers should address this vital issue. An integrative literature review. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant studies published before January 2014, and hand searched reference lists of studies were selected. This review of cross-language health care studies highlighted three major themes, which identify factors often reported to affect the translation and production of data in cross-language research: (1) translation style; (2) translators; and (3) trustworthiness of the data. A plan detailing the translation process and analysis of health care data must be determined from the study outset to ensure credibility is maintained. A transparent and systematic approach in reporting the translation process not only enhances the integrity of the findings but also provides overall rigour and auditability. It is important that minority groups have a voice in health care research which, if accurately

  15. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  16. Studying and researching with social media

    CERN Document Server

    Poore, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Wondering what your lecturers are looking for in a blog post? Asking yourself how that's different from writing an essay (or a wiki page)? Unsure if Twitter really can be used to build your online profile as a researcher? If you want -- or need -- to integrate social media tools into your studies and research, this practical book is your one-stop shop. Megan Poore shares the secrets of how to harness the power of social media tools to improve your academic productivity. Inside, you'll find out how to: ...write a good blog post ...contribute to a wiki ...maximise your grades when creating an audio-visual presentation ...find and share the latest research via Twitter ...keep safe online. Featuring handy illustrations and exercises, as well as guidance on broader issues such as copyright, avoiding plagiarism, and cyberbullying, you'll find out all you need to successfully use social media to support your study and research. Megan Poore is Assistant Professor in Teacher Education at the University of Canberra.

  17. Sensitivity of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III to everyday activity impairments in dementia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Challis, David

    2017-10-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most frequently used cognitive measures for dementia severity and linked to deficits in everyday functioning. Recently, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) increasingly substitute for the MMSE. However, there are no specific cutoffs in the ACE-III for mild dementia. The objectives of this exploratory study were to assess the sensitivity of each scale to everyday functioning and to examine the cutoffs between mild and moderate dementia on the ACE-III. People with mild dementia completed the MMSE, MoCA and ACE-III, whilst informal carers completed the Revised Interview for Deteriorations in Daily Living Activities for Dementia to rate their relative's initiative and performance of instrumental activities of daily living and the Katz activities of daily living scale. Data were analysed using correlation analysis, raw score comparisons, Cohen's kappa and receiver operating characteristics analysis. Thirty-three dyads completed the measures. The ACE-III was the most sensitive tool for everyday functioning performance, whilst its language subscale was specifically related to initiation of activities. The most suitable cutoff on the ACE-III between mild and moderate dementia was 61. Findings suggest the ACE-III more efficiently identifies everyday functional impairments. Further research is required to confirm these exploratory analyses of the cutoff between mild and moderate dementia on the ACE-III. Both functional impairment and stage of dementia are needed in the diagnostic process and in the clinical assessment of people with dementia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Examining the symptom of fatigue in primary care: a comparative study using electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Nicholson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The symptom of fatigue is one of the top five most frequently presented health complaints in primary care, yet it remains underexplored in the Canadian primary care context.Objective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and impact of patients presenting with fatigue in primary care, using the only known electronic database in Canada to capture patient-reported symptoms.Methods Data were extracted from the Deliver Primary Healthcare Information (DELPHI database, an electronic medical record database located in Ontario, Canada. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Primary Care, Revised Second Edition coding system. Two groups of patients (fatigue or non-fatigue symptom were followed for one year and compared. Both descriptive and multivariable analyses were conducted.Results A total of 103 fatigue symptom patients, and 103 non-fatigue symptom patients, were identified in the DELPHI database. The period prevalence of fatigue presentation was 8.2%, with the majority of patients being female and over 60 years of age. These patients experienced numerous co-occurring morbidities, in addition to the fatigue itself. During the one year follow-up period, fatigue symptom patients had significantly higher rates of subsequent visits (IRR = 1.19, p = 0.038 and investigations (IRR = 1.68, p < 0.001, and markedly high levels of referrals following their index visit.Conclusions This research used an electronic database to examine the symptom, fatigue. Using these data, fatigue symptom patients were found to have higher rates of health care utilisation, compared to non-fatigue symptom patients.

  19. Prayer Healing: A Case Study Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijthoff, Dirk J; van der Kooi, Cornelis; Glas, Gerrit; Abma, Tineke A

    2017-01-01

    Context • Prayer healing is a common practice in many religious communities around the world. Even in the highly secularized Dutch society, cases of prayer healing are occasionally reported in the media, often generating public attention. There is an ongoing debate regarding whether such miraculous cures do actually occur and how to interpret them. Objective • The aim of the article was to present a research protocol for the investigation of reported cases of remarkable and/or unexplained healing after prayer. Design • The research team developed a method to perform a retrospective, case-based study of prayer healing. Reported prayer healings can be investigated systematically in accordance with a step-by-step methodology. The focus is on understanding the healing by studying it from multiple perspectives, using both medical judgment and patients' narratives collected by qualitative methods Setting • The study occurred at Vrije Universiteit (VU) and VU Medical Center (Amsterdam, Netherlands) as well as the general medical practice of the first author. Participants • Potential participants could be any individuals in the Netherlands or neighboring countries who claim to have been healed through prayer. The reports of healing came from multiple sources, including the research team's medical practices and their direct vicinities, newspaper articles, prayer healers, and medical colleagues. Outcome Measures • Medical data were obtained before and after prayer. Subsequently, a member of a research team and of a medical assessment committee made a standardized judgment that evaluated whether a cure was clinically remarkable or scientifically unexplained. The participants' experiences and insider perspectives were studied, using in-depth interviews in accordance with a qualitative research methodology, to gain insight into the perceptions and explanations of the cures that were offered by participants and by the members of the medical assessment committee. The

  20. State Politics and Education: An Examination of Selected Multiple-State Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, Martin; Geske, Terry G.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the multiple-state case study literature, highlights some findings, discusses several methodological issues, and concludes with suggestions for possible research agendas. Urges students and researchers to be more actively critical of the assumptions and findings of these studies. (Author/IRT)

  1. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  2. A Study of Factors Related to Dissertation Progress among Doctoral Candidates: Focus on Students' Research Self-Efficacy as a Result of Their Research Training and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Forooz; Rakow, Ernest A.; Ethington, Corinna

    This study examined relationships among doctoral candidates' background characteristics, research preparation, research environment, research involvement, student-advisor relationship, research self-efficacy, and dissertation progress. The study focused on differences in research self-efficacy and dissertation progress among students from the…

  3. Research and development studies on human factors: new trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Larchier-Boulanger, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is aimed at describing where the research work on human factors undertaken at EDF stands in relation to this European trend and to define the problematics of cognitive phenomena in relation to all (non cognitive) human phenomena, on the one hand, and to individual aspects as compared to collective and organizational aspects, on the other. Some important trends in the research and development studies will thus be examined one lay one: - analysis of operators' activity; - analysis of the activity cognitive aspects; - problem of the impact of non-cognitive aspects

  4. A preliminary study of the mini-mental state examination in a Spanish child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubial-Alvarez, Sandra; Machado, María-Clara; Sintas, Elena; de Sola, Susana; Böhm, Peter; Peña-Casanova, Jordi

    2007-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is one of the most widely used screening tests for the adult population in daily neurologic practice. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination administered to Spanish children and to assess the relationship between Mini-Mental State Examination scores and the child's mental age/intelligence quotient. The study population included 181 children whose ages ranged between 4 and 12 years. The neuropsychologic battery consisted of the Mini-Mental State Examination and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Percentiles were obtained for the Mini-Mental State Examination total score according to age ranges. Performance gradually increased from 4 to 10 years of age when a plateau in the total Mini-Mental State Examination score was reached. At the age of 6 years, results exceeded 24 on average. Pairwise mean comparisons showed statistically significant differences between the age groups (P Mini-Mental State Examination score correlated significantly with the child's chronologic (r = 0.80, P mental (r = 0.76, P Mini-Mental State Examination in a Spanish child population as well as a first step for the assessment of the usefulness of this instrument as a cognitive screening tool for children's development.

  5. Study to define NDE research for inspection of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.

    1978-08-01

    After the boiling water reactor (BWR) stress corrosion cracking incidents on 4- and 10-inch stainless steel piping, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) organized a round-robin ultrasonic examination of piping removed from service (TPS-75-609). Five inspection teams participated in this program, using both a standard procedure and the individual team procedure. The original intent was to section the piping after the program to evaluate the effectiveness of state-of-the-art ultrasonics in finding stress corrosion cracking. The sectioning was delayed, however, to allow research and development (R and D) groups time to perform basic measurements aimed at determining optimum search unit and instrument characteristics for the ultrasonic examination of stainless steel piping and to study the applicability of various advanced inspection methods. This additional effort was funded as part of an EPRI technical planning study (TPS-75-620), A Study to Define NDE Research for Inspection of Stainless Steels. Inspection methods evaluated in this study included (1) processing of manual scan data using a miniature programmable calculator (Aerojet Nuclear); (2) investigation into the performance characteristics of three experimental ultrasonic transducers (Battelle-Columbus Laboratories); (3) analysis of fundamental ultrasonic response data from intergranular stress corrosion cracks in stainless steels (Southwest Research Institute); and (4) a feasibility study of advanced signal processing and pattern recognition for analyzing flaws in stainless steel piping (Ultrasonics International). The results of the studies compiled in the report have indicated the direction for future research and development and have formed the basis for the recently initiated EPRI Research Project 892, Ultrasonic System Optimization

  6. Using Matching Grants to Facilitate Corporate-University Research Linkages: A Preliminary Examination of Outcomes from One Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    A study used public finance theory to evaluate Ontario's matching grants in support of university-industry interaction, which encourage faculty to seek new research and development contracts facilitating technology transfer activities. Results suggest it may not be an effective mechanism. Conceptual and methodological obstacles to assessing these…

  7. Examining spiritual support among African American and Caucasian Alzheimer's caregivers: A risk and resilience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Spurlock, Wanda R; Brown, Sandra C; Teegen, Bettina C; Geiger, Jennifer R

    2018-05-25

    Research shows African Americans at greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the Caucasian population, suggesting African American AD caregivers are rising in numbers at a greater rate than Caucasian counterparts. Over a decade ago, an article in Geriatric Nursing revealed spiritual well-being differences among these caregiver groups. The purpose of this study was a quasi-follow-up, utilizing a larger caregiver sample to test spiritual support as a moderator via a risk-and-resilience framework. Secondary data analysis from a sample of 691 AD caregivers examined data on demographics and standardized measures of spiritual support, caregiver burden, and psychological resilience. One-third of the sample reported as African American. Resilience negatively regressed, though not significantly, on caregiving burden among both groups. Spiritual support positively, significantly impacted resilience among both groups, slightly stronger among African Americans. Spiritual support did not significantly moderate risk with either group. Implications for professional healthcare practice are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examination of the Professional Self-Esteem of Teacher Candidates Studying at a Faculty of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Neriman; Gursoy, Figen; Ceylan, Remziye; Bicakci, Mudriye Yildiz

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to determine the professional self-esteem levels of teacher candidates studying at the Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey, to examine whether certain variables create any differences in their professional self-esteem levels and to propose suggestions in accordance with the results. The study was conducted…

  9. Examining Intertextual Connections in Written Arguments: A Study of Student Writing as Social Participation and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Allison Wynhoff; VanDerHeide, Jennifer; Goff, Brenton; Dunn, Mandie B.

    2018-01-01

    Writing studies scholarship has long understood the need for context-based studies of student writing. Few studies, however, have closely examined how students use intertextual relationships in the context of learning to compose argumentative essays. Drawing on a 17-day argumentative writing unit in a ninth-grade humanities classroom, this article…

  10. Accelerator research studies: Progress report, Task B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main objectives in Task B of the research program are summarized as follows: (1) studies of the collective acceleration of positive ions from a localized plasma source by an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB), (2) studies of ways in which external control may be achieved over the electron beam front in order to achieve higher ion energies - the Beam Front Accelerator (BFA) concept, and (3) study of electron and ion beam generation in a new kind of compact pulsed accelerator in which energy is stored inductively and switched using a plasma focus opening switch. During the past year, substantial progress was made in each of these areas. Our exploratory research on the collective acceleration of laser-produced ions has confirmed the acceleration of C, Al, and Fe ions to peak energies in excess of 10 MeV/amu. In addition, studies of the relation between collective ion acceleration and electron beam propagation in vacuum have shed new light on the experimental processes that lead to energy transfer from electrons to ions. Meanwhile, extensive progress has been made in our attempts to use analytical theory and numerical simulation to model ion acceleration in these systems. Our resultant improved understanding of the processes that limit the peak ion energy has had a profound impact on our plans for further research in this area. Studies of the Compact Pulsed Accelerator have included both ion and electron beam extraction from the device. Its potential to reduce the volume of pulse power sources by an order of magnitude has already been demonstrated, and plans are currently underway to scale the experiment up to voltages in the 1 MV range

  11. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  12. Radiological research in Europe: a bibliometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mela, G.S.; Martinoli, C.; Poggi, E.; Derchi, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    . Although not flawless, and often criticized for a variety of reasons, citation analysis is a commonly used technique in this field, is a frequent means to ''weight'' the scientific production of researchers and is one of the criteria used to assign research grants. Our study shows that European radiology is growing and its production is increasing over time, thus indicating strong commitment to research from European radiologists; however, European radiological research has not yet reached leadership in the literature, and mean indexes addressing the level of resources allocated to research are lower in Europe than in the U.S. This latter point has notable exceptions, but indicates inadequacy of funding, at least in some nations, and in Europe as a whole. The development of research programs within the framework of the European Union specifically aimed to radiology could lead to further advancement of our discipline. (orig.)

  13. Research on the radiation doses to adults receiving from main types of medical X-ray CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linfeng; Wang Bin; Yao Jie; Qian Aijun; Zheng Junzheng; Zhuo Weihai; Qu Liangyong

    2013-01-01

    To study and master the doses to examinees receiving from the wide spread X-CT examinations, is a key issue for strengthening the medical radiation protection. In the studies of the medical exposure levels during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period in Shanghai, based on the brands of X-CT scanners and their distributions in different levels of hospitals, a total of 45 sets (about 30% of all) of scanners were selected for the field study. Among the 8 commonly performed examinations, the scan parameters and their relevant dosimetry information for 500 adults were collected, and their typical effective doses were estimated with the dose conversion factors. The results showed that the averages of weighted CT dose index (CTDI w ) were 55.4, 12.5 and 18.4 mGy, and the dose length products (DLP) were averaged to be 603, 294 and 415 mGy·cm, for the skull, chest and abdomen X-CT scans, respectively. The typical effective doses were estimated to be 1.4, 5.3, and 7.5 mSv for adults in the head, chest and abdomen X-CT scans, respectively. The values of CTDI w for skull scans were generally higher than those for the ear canal, eye, or sinus examinations. It is clear that the optimization between the image quality and the radiation dose should be further strengthened. Particular attentions should be paid in selecting the scanning parameters for various types of X-CT scans, and the diagnostic reference levels for X-CT examinations should be continuously improved. (authors)

  14. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  15. Rattling the Cage: Moving beyond Ethical Standards to Ethical Praxis in Self-Study Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Robyn; Gervasoni, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The ethical practice underpinning self-study research has been addressed extensively in the literature of self-study of teacher education practices. Less attention has been paid to how researchers deal with ethical tensions and dilemmas when they arise unexpectedly during self-study research. In this article, we examine how the extrapolation and…

  16. Developing the Blueprint for a General Surgery Technical Skills Certification Examination: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montbrun, Sandra; Louridas, Marisa; Szasz, Peter; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    There is a recognized need to develop high-stakes technical skills assessments for decisions of certification and resident promotion. High-stakes examinations requires a rigorous approach in accruing validity evidence throughout the developmental process. One of the first steps in development is the creation of a blueprint which outlines the potential content of examination. The purpose of this validation study was to develop an examination blueprint for a Canadian General Surgery assessment of technical skill certifying examination. A Delphi methodology was used to gain consensus amongst Canadian General Surgery program directors as to the content (tasks or procedures) that could be included in a certifying Canadian General Surgery examination. Consensus was defined a priori as a Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70. All procedures or tasks reaching a positive consensus (defined as ≥80% of program directors rated items as ≥4 on the 5-point Likert scale) were then included in the final examination blueprint. Two Delphi rounds were needed to reach consensus. Of the 17 General Surgery Program directors across the country, 14 (82.4%) and 10 (58.8%) program directors responded to the first and second round, respectively. A total of 59 items and procedures reached positive consensus and were included in the final examination blueprint. The present study has outlined the development of an examination blueprint for a General Surgery certifying examination using a consensus-based methodology. This validation study will serve as the foundational work from which simulated model will be developed, pilot tested and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining small "c" creativity in the science classroom: Multiple case studies of five high school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Dorothea Shawn

    As the US continues to strive toward building capacity for a workforce in STEM fields (NSF, 2006), educational organizations and researchers have constructed frameworks that focus on increasing competencies in creativity in order to achieve this goal (ISTE, 2007; Karoly & Panis, 2004; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007). Despite these recommendations, many teachers either do not believe in the relevance of nurturing creativity in their students (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2007) or accept the importance of it, but do not know how best to foster it in their classrooms (Kampylis et al., 2009). Researchers conclude that teachers need to revise their ideas about the kind of creativity they can expect from their students to reflect the idea of small 'c' versus large 'C' creativity. There is a dearth of literature that looks closely at teacher practice surrounding creativity in the US and gives teachers a set of practical suggestions they can follow easily. I examined five case studies of teachers as they participated in and implemented a large-scale, NSF-funded project premised on the idea that training teachers in 21 st century pedagogies, (for example, problem-based learning), helps teachers create classrooms that increase science competencies in students. I investigated how teachers' curricular choices affect the amount of student creativity produced in their classrooms. Analysis included determining CAT scores for student products and continua scores along the Small 'c' Creativity Framework. In the study, I present an understanding of how teachers' beliefs influence practice and how creativity is fostered in students through various styles of teacher practice. The data showed a relationship between teachers' CAT scores, framework scores, and school context. Thus, alongside CAT, the framework was determined to be a successful tool for understanding the degree to which teachers foster small 'c' creativity. Other themes emerged, which included teachers' allotment of

  18. [On the necessity to prepare new "Rules for the organization and conduction of forensic biological examination and studies by the State Forensic Examination Boards of the Russian Federation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The author substantiates the necessity to prepare new "Rules for the organization and conduction of forensic biological examination and studies by the State Forensic Examination Boards of the Russian Federation". Their long-term absence of the reviewed document has negatively influenced the quality of work of these facilities. The structure and contents of the three previous versions of the Rules for the study of material evidence (1934, 1956, and 1996) are analysed. The structure of the new variant is designed to optimize the work of forensic medical examination bureaus and the performance of relevant studies.

  19. Clinical neurological examination vs electrophysiological studies: Reflections from experiences in occupational medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2015-01-01

    a diagnosis requires the identification of the responsible pathology and the involved tissues and structures. Consequently, improved diagnostic approaches are needed. This editorial discusses the potentials of using the clinical neurologic examination in patients with upper limb complaints related to work....... It is argued that a simple but systematic physical approach permits the examiner to frequently identify patterns of neurological findings that suggest nerve afflictions and their locations, and that electrophysiological studies are less likely to identify pathology. A diagnostic algorithm for the physical...... assessment is provided to assist the clinician. Failure to include representative neurological items in the physical examination may result in patients being misinterpreted, misdiagnosed and mistreated....

  20. Study of problems associated with the ultrasonic examination of repeatedly repaired austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaratnam, R.; Palaniappan, M.; Baskaran, A.; Chandramohan, R.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the ultrasonic examination of austenitic stainless steel weldments has gained increased importance as an NDE technique for the volumetric examination in the nuclear power plant construction and other industries. A study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple repairs on austenitic stainless steel weldments, for the successful ultrasonic examination. The test welds have been subjected to repeated welding cycles and the ultrasonic parameters including the defect characterization have been evaluated for analysis. The paper discusses the approach followed, analysis, results obtained and the recommendations based on the above. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Peer Assisted Study Sessions for Research Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Anne; Camer, Danielle; Stamenkovic, Alexander; Zaccagnini, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Research training should facilitate effective researcher role development. While researcher roles require the performance of specialised knowledge and skill, they also require development of personal research identities within social contexts. Interaction with research peers can provide opportunities for reflective role development. Ad-hoc…

  2. Evidence of Impact: Examination of Evaluation Studies Published in the "Journal of Extension"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jeffrey D.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Research was conducted to explore the level of evidence of impact collected through program evaluation (outcome studies) by Extension as published in "JOE." Articles reviewed were those listed under the headings of "Feature Articles" and "Research in Brief" in 5-year increments (1965-69, 1975-79, 1985-89, 1995-99, and…

  3. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Kawata, Kelssy Hitomi; Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Atsuko; Ogawa, Nanayo; Kanno, Shigenori; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yokoi, Kayoko; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR’s Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistenc...

  4. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  5. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ''channeling'' which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates

  6. Human papillomavirus vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations: a case for examining disaggregated data in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, H; De, P

    2017-12-01

    Vaccine disparities research often focuses on differences between the five main racial and ethnic classifications, ignoring heterogeneity of subpopulations. Considering this knowledge gap, we examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations. National Health Interview Survey data (2008-2013), collected by the National Center for Health Statistics, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted on adults aged 18-26 years (n = 20,040). Asian Indians had high income, education, and health insurance coverage, all positive predictors of preventative health engagement and vaccine uptake. However, we find that Asian Indians had comparatively lower rates of HPV vaccine initiation (odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval = 0.207-0.832), and foreign-born Asian Indians had the lowest rate HPV vaccination of all subpopulations (2.3%). Findings substantiate the need for research on disaggregated data rather than evaluating vaccination behaviors solely across standard racial and ethnic categories. We identified two populations that were initiating HPV vaccine at abysmal levels: foreign-born persons and Asian Indians. Development of culturally appropriate messaging has the potential to improve these initiation rates and improve population health. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing complex interventions: lessons learned from a pilot study examining strategy training in acute stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Dawson, Deirdre R; Whyte, Ellen M; Butters, Meryl A; Dew, Mary Amanda; Grattan, Emily S; Becker, James T; Holm, Margo B

    2014-04-01

    To examine the feasibility of a strategy training clinical trial in a small group of adults with stroke-related cognitive impairments in inpatient rehabilitation, and to explore the impact of strategy training on disability. Non-randomized two-group intervention pilot study. Two inpatient rehabilitation units within an academic health centre. Individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute stroke, who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation and demonstrated cognitive impairments were included. Individuals with severe aphasia; dementia; major depressive disorder, bipolar, or psychotic disorder; recent drug or alcohol abuse; and anticipated length of stay less than five days were excluded. Participants received strategy training or an attention control session in addition to usual rehabilitation care. Sessions in both groups were 30-40 minutes daily, five days per week, for the duration of inpatient rehabilitation. We assessed feasibility through participants' recruitment and retention; research intervention session number and duration; participants' comprehension and engagement; intervention fidelity; and participants' satisfaction. We assessed disability at study admission, inpatient rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months using the Functional Independence Measure. Participants in both groups (5 per group) received the assigned intervention (>92% planned sessions; >94% fidelity) and completed follow-up testing. Strategy training participants in this small sample demonstrated significantly less disability at six months (M (SE) = 117 (3)) than attention control participants (M(SE) = 96 (14); t 8 = 7.87, P = 0.02). It is feasible and acceptable to administer both intervention protocols as an adjunct to acute inpatient rehabilitation, and strategy training shows promise for reducing disability.

  8. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior

  9. In situ stress determination research study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, W.G.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate and implement rock stress determination instruments and techniques developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) at its Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for use in jointed rock and to continue the development of analytical and interpretation methods for stress determination results including effects of scale, structure and anisotropy. Testing and evaluation of the instruments and methods developed at URL need to be done in a similar rock type prior to underground access at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

  10. Analysis on the post-irradiation examination of the HANARO miniplate-1 irradiation test for Kijang research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Man; Tahk, Young Wook; Jeong, Yong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-08-15

    The construction project of the Kijang research reactor (KJRR), which is the second research reactor in Korea, has been launched. The KJRR was designed to use, for the first time, U–Mo fuel. Plate-type U–7 wt.% Mo/Al–5 wt.% Si, referred to as U–7Mo/Al–5Si, dispersion fuel with a uranium loading of 8.0 gU/cm{sup 3}, was selected to achieve higher fuel efficiency and performance than are possible when using U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}/Al dispersion fuel. To qualify the U–Mo fuel in terms of plate geometry, the first miniplates [HANARO Miniplate (HAMP-1)], containing U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel (8 gU/cm{sup 3}), were fabricated at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and recently irradiated at HANARO. The PIE (Post-irradiation Examination) results of the HAMP-1 irradiation test were analyzed in depth in order to verify the safe in-pile performance of the U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel under the KJRR irradiation conditions. Nondestructive analyses included visual inspection, gamma spectrometric mapping, and two-dimensional measurements of the plate thickness and oxide thickness. Destructive PIE work was also carried out, focusing on characterization of the microstructural behavior using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electron probe microanalysis was also used to measure the elemental concentrations in the interaction layer formed between the U–Mo kernels and the matrix. A blistering threshold test and a bending test were performed on the irradiated HAMP-1 miniplates that were saved from the destructive tests. Swelling evaluation of the U–Mo fuel was also conducted using two methods: plate thickness measurement and meat thickness measurement.

  11. Analysis on the post-irradiation examination of the HANARO miniplate-1 irradiation test for kijang research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Man Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction project of the Kijang research reactor (KJRR, which is the second research reactor in Korea, has been launched. The KJRR was designed to use, for the first time, U–Mo fuel. Plate-type U–7 wt.% Mo/Al–5 wt.% Si, referred to as U–7Mo/Al–5Si, dispersion fuel with a uranium loading of 8.0 gU/cm3, was selected to achieve higher fuel efficiency and performance than are possible when using U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel. To qualify the U–Mo fuel in terms of plate geometry, the first miniplates [HANARO Miniplate (HAMP-1], containing U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel (8 gU/cm3, were fabricated at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and recently irradiated at HANARO. The PIE (Post-irradiation Examination results of the HAMP-1 irradiation test were analyzed in depth in order to verify the safe in-pile performance of the U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel under the KJRR irradiation conditions. Nondestructive analyses included visual inspection, gamma spectrometric mapping, and two-dimensional measurements of the plate thickness and oxide thickness. Destructive PIE work was also carried out, focusing on characterization of the microstructural behavior using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electron probe microanalysis was also used to measure the elemental concentrations in the interaction layer formed between the U–Mo kernels and the matrix. A blistering threshold test and a bending test were performed on the irradiated HAMP-1 miniplates that were saved from the destructive tests. Swelling evaluation of the U–Mo fuel was also conducted using two methods: plate thickness measurement and meat thickness measurement.

  12. Examining College Students' Culture Learning before and after Summer Study Abroad in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Chie Matsuzawa; Anzai, Shinobu; Zimmerman, Erica

    2011-01-01

    With study abroad becoming an integral part of the American higher-education curriculum, home-institution instructors face the challenge of understanding the type and content of learning taking place abroad. We report on a study conducted at a service academy on the U.S. East Coast to examine American college students' cultural learning in the…

  13. Virtual study groups and online Observed Structured Clinical Examinations practices - enabling trainees to enable themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Dennisa; Evans, Lois

    2018-03-01

    To explore online study groups as augmentation tools in preparing for the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Observed Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) for fellowship. An online survey of New Zealand trainees was carried out to assess exam preparedness and openness to virtual study groups and results analysed. Relevant material around virtual study groups for fellowship examinations was reviewed and used to inform a pilot virtual study group. Four New Zealand trainees took part in the pilot project, looking at using a virtual platform to augment OSCE preparation. Of the 50 respondents 36% felt adequately prepared for the OSCE. Sixty-four per cent were interested in using a virtual platform to augment their study. Virtual study groups were noted to be especially important for rural trainees, none of whom felt able to form study groups for themselves. The pilot virtual study group was trialled successfully. All four trainees reported the experience as subjectively beneficial to their examination preparation. Virtual platforms hold promise as an augmentation strategy for exam preparation, especially for rural trainees who are more geographically isolated and less likely to have peers preparing for the same examinations.

  14. A research experience for American Indian undergraduates: Utilizing an actor–partner interdependence model to examine the student–mentor dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R.; McMahon, Tracey R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2016-01-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes following these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research experience for American Indian undergraduates utilizing a series of actor-partner interdependence models within SEM. Participants included 26 undergraduate interns (50% American Indian; 50% American Indian and White; M age = 24) and 27 mentors (89% White; M age = 47). Findings indicated that in accounting for all potential paths between students and mentors, the partner path between mentor beliefs at the beginning of the program and students’ skills related to autonomy (β =.59, p = .01) and academic resilience (β =.44, p = .03) at the end of the program were significant. These findings suggest the important impact of mentor beliefs on student outcomes, a relationship that should be adequately assessed and continue to be important focus of undergraduate research experiences. Findings further indicate the important role of mentors for American Indian undergraduates. PMID:28289486

  15. A comparative study on radiological and endoscopic examinations of the stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Sook; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Han Suk [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    An analysis was done for the diagnostic accuracy of radiological and endoscopic examinations in 132 cases of the histologically proved stomach cancer at the national Medical Center from Jan. 1975 to Jan. 1979. The problem in radiological misdiagnosis was especially discussed aimed to improve the further diagnostic accuracy. The following results were obtained: 1. The incidence of the stomach cancer was higher in male than that of female, and was most prevalent in 5th and 6th decades. 2. The misdiagnosis rate of radiological examination of the stomach cancer was 13.5% (18 cases), that of endoscopic examination was 8.3% (11 cases) and that of both examination was 4.6% (6 cases). 3. In most cases of misdiagnosis, the majority were diagnosed as benign gastric ulcer. 4. The causative factors of misdiagnosis in radiological examination were interpretation error in 8 cases and technically poor, unsatisfactory study in 10 cases. 5. In order to decrease the misdiagnosis rate, standardization of radiological examination and careful interpretation are necessary. 6. Complementary examinations of radiology and endoscopy can decrease the misdiagnosis rate.

  16. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  17. .\tA Study on Cervical Pap Smear Examination in Patient Living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Devanshi Gosai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive screening programme of cervical Pap smear examination can detect the precancerous and cancerous lesions at an early stage and mortality & morbidity due to these lesions can be reduced. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in HIV infected women. Methods: The study was carried out on 369 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counselling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 142 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynaecology OPD with various gynaecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conclusion: Regular gynaecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females. Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population.

  18. Physical Examination for Men and Women With Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A MAPP (Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain) Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Claire C; Miller, Jane L; Omidpanah, Adam; Krieger, John N

    2018-06-01

    To examine the feasibility of implementing a standardized, clinically relevant genitourinary examination for both men and women, and to identify physical examination findings characteristic of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS). This study analyzed 2 samples: men and women with UCPPS who participated in the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network Epidemiology and Phenotyping (EP) Study, and age-matched controls who were either positive for chronic fatigue syndrome or healthy (pain-free). We compared physical examination findings in both positive and healthy controls with UCPPS cases: findings from both the EP examinations and from an extended genitourinary examination. EP and extended examinations were performed on 143 participants: 62 UCPPS cases (30 women, 32 men), 42 positive controls (15 women, 27 men), and 39 healthy controls (22 women, 17 men). EP examinations showed that pelvic floor tenderness was more prevalent in cases (55.0%) than in positive (14.6%) or healthy controls (10.5%). Extended examinations revealed specific areas of tenderness in the pelvic floor musculature. Cases were also more likely than healthy controls to report tenderness in multiple areas, including suprapubic, symphysis pubis, and posterior superior iliac spine, and on bimanual examination. No comparative findings were specific to biological sex, and no evidence of pudendal neuropathy was observed on extended examination of cases or controls. The extended genitourinary examination is an easily administered addition to the assessment of men and women during evaluation for UCPPS. Physical findings may help to better categorize patients with UCPPS into clinically relevant subgroups for optimal treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Differences in Study Motivation within and between Genders: An Examination by Gender Typicality among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2018-01-01

    Despite boys' educational underachievement, gender differences in study motivation have received little research attention. Guided by self-determination theory and the identity-based motivation model, this study investigates differences in study motivation between boys and girls, as well as within each gender. To adequately consider these…

  20. Preliminary Feasibility Study on the Construction of Steel Hot Cell Facility for Precise Manipulated Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Kwon, Hyungmun; Kim, Heemoon; Kim, Dosik; Min, Duckkee; Hong, Kwonpyo

    2006-01-01

    Hot laboratory is essential facility to research and develop in the nuclear industries to examine radioactive materials. The post irradiation examinations for irradiated fuels and materials should be mainly conducted in the hot cell facility to protect radiations to operators. Hot cells are divided into a concrete hot cell and a steel hot cell according to the wall materials. Usually a concrete hot cell is applied to test for high level radioactive materials like as a fuel assembly, rods, and large structure specimens, and a steel hot cell for comparatively lower level activity materials in fuel fragments, and small structural materials. A steel hot cell has many benefits in a specimen manipulation, construction and maintenance costs. In recent the test for the irradiated materials is more frequently required a small and precise manipulating examination for higher degree tests of research and developments. Unfortunately hot laboratory facilities in domestics have mainly constituted of concrete hot cells, and not ready for techniques in steel hot cells. In this paper the construction feasibility of steel hot cell facility is preliminary reviewed in the points of the status of domestic facilities, the test demand prospect and detailed plans

  1. Gender effects in alcohol dependence: an fMRI pilot study examining affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Claudia B; Anthenelli, Robert M; Eliassen, James C; Nelson, Erik; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) has global effects on brain structure and function, including frontolimbic regions regulating affective processing. Preliminary evidence suggests alcohol blunts limbic response to negative affective stimuli and increases activation to positive affective stimuli. Subtle gender differences are also evident during affective processing. Fourteen abstinent AD individuals (8 F, 6 M) and 14 healthy controls (9 F, 5 M), ages 23 to 60, were included in this facial affective processing functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study. Whole-brain linear regression analyses were performed, and follow-up analyses examined whether AD status significantly predicted depressive symptoms and/or coping. Fearful Condition-The AD group demonstrated reduced activation in the right medial frontal gyrus, compared with controls. Gender moderated the effects of AD in bilateral inferior frontal gyri. Happy Condition-AD individuals had increased activation in the right thalamus. Gender moderated the effects of AD in the left caudate, right middle frontal gyrus, left paracentral lobule, and right lingual gyrus. Interactive AD and gender effects for fearful and happy faces were such that AD men activated more than control men, but AD women activated less than control women. Enhanced coping was associated with greater activation in right medial frontal gyrus during fearful condition in AD individuals. Abnormal affective processing in AD may be a marker of alcoholism risk or a consequence of chronic alcoholism. Subtle gender differences were observed, and gender moderated the effects of AD on neural substrates of affective processing. AD individuals with enhanced coping had brain activation patterns more similar to controls. Results help elucidate the effects of alcohol, gender, and their interaction on affective processing. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. The Association Between Barium Examination and Subsequent Appendicitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Ming; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Huang, Ying-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and association between appendicitis and barium examination (BE) remain unclear. Such potential risk may be omitted. We conducted a longitudinal, nationwide, population-based cohort study to investigate the association between BE and appendicitis risk. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 24,885 patients who underwent BE between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a BE cohort; an additional 98,384 subjects without BE exposure were selected as a non-BE cohort, matched by age, sex, and index date. The cumulative incidences of subsequent appendicitis in the BE and non-BE cohorts were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were employed to calculate the appendicitis risk between the groups. The cumulative incidence of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort than in the non-BE cohort (P = .001). The overall incidence rates of appendicitis for the BE and non-BE cohorts were 1.19 and 0.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities, the risk of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.73) compared with the non-BE cohort, especially in the first 2 months (adjusted hazard ratio = 9.72, 95% confidence interval = 4.65-20.3). BE was associated with an increased, time-dependent appendicitis risk. Clinicians should be aware of this potential risk to avoid delayed diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radionuclide examination of motility disorders of the esophagus: a comparative study with manometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heukelem, H.A. van.

    1985-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the value of radionuclide studies for clinical diagnostics in the light of its advantages over the manometric examination by means of available casuistics. A general review of the development of the examinations for assessment of the motility of the esophagus is given and both normal and disturbed motor function are described. The details of the patient groups and the techniques used in this study are presented. The results obtained for normal subjects and patients with achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, systemic connective tissue diseases with esophageal involvement and reflux esophagitis are reported and discussed. (Auth.)

  4. International Study of Chaplains' Attitudes About Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Fitchett, George; Grossoehme, Daniel H; Handzo, George; Kelly, Ewan; King, Stephen D W; Telfer, Iain; Tan, Heather; Flannelly, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    An online survey was conducted by twelve professional chaplain organizations to assess chaplains' attitudes about and involvement in research. A total of 2,092 chaplains from 23 countries responded to the survey. Over 80% thought research was definitely important and nearly 70% thought chaplains should definitely be research literate. Just over 40% said they regularly read research articles and almost 60% said they occasionally did. The respondents rated their own research literacy as 6.5 on a 0-10 scale. Significant positive inter-correlations were found among all four measures: importance of (a) research and (b) research literacy; (c) frequency of reading articles; and (d) research literacy rating. Approximately 35% were never involved, 37% had been involved, 17% were currently involved, and 11% expected to be involved in research. The last three groups were significantly more likely to think research and research literacy were important and to read research articles than chaplains who were never involved in research. Given chaplains' interest in research, actions should be undertaken to facilitate further research engagement.

  5. Utility of the physical examination in detecting pulmonary hypertension. A mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Colman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV. However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946-2013 and EMBASE (1947-2013. We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 "specialists" and 3 "generalists" who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD, tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1-5 of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. RESULTS: 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2. In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg. The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could

  6. Utility of the physical examination in detecting pulmonary hypertension. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John

    2014-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946-2013) and EMBASE (1947-2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 "specialists" and 3 "generalists") who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1-5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could consistently rule out PH (negative LRs 0

  7. Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Rebecca; Whittingham, Heather; Tomlinson, George; Granton, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) often present with a variety of physical findings reflecting a volume or pressure overloaded right ventricle (RV). However, there is no consensus regarding the diagnostic utility of the physical examination in PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review of publications that evaluated the clinical examination and diagnosis of PH using MEDLINE (1946–2013) and EMBASE (1947–2013). We also prospectively evaluated the diagnostic utility of the physical examination findings. Patients who underwent right cardiac catheterization for any reason were recruited. After informed consent, participants were examined by 6 physicians (3 “specialists” and 3 “generalists”) who were unaware of the results of the patient's hemodynamics. Each examiner independently assessed patients for the presence of a RV lift, loud P2, jugular venous distension (JVD), tricuspid insufficiency murmur and right-sided 4th heart sound at rest and during a slow inspiration. A global rating (scale of 1–5) of the likelihood that the patient had pulmonary hypertension was provided by each examiner. Results 31 articles that assessed the physical examination in PH were included in the final analysis. There was heterogeneity amongst the studies and many did not include control data. The sign most associated with PH in the literature was a loud pulmonic component of the second heart sound (P2). In our prospective study physical examination was performed on 52 subjects (25 met criteria for PH; mPAP ≥25 mmHg). The physical sign with the highest likelihood ratio (LR) was a loud P2 on inspiration with a LR +ve 1.9, 95% CrI [1.2, 3.1] when data from all examiners was analyzed together. Results from the specialist examiners had higher diagnostic utility; a loud P2 on inspiration was associated with a positive LR of 3.2, 95% CrI [1.5, 6.2] and a right sided S4 on inspiration had a LR +ve 4.7, 95% CI [1.0, 15.6]. No aspect of the physical exam, could

  8. Peer feedback for examiner quality assurance on MRCGP International South Asia: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, D P; Andrades, Marie; Wass, Val

    2017-12-08

    The International Membership Examination (MRCGP[INT]) of the Royal College of General Practitioners UK is a unique collaboration between four South Asian countries with diverse cultures, epidemiology, clinical facilities and resources. In this setting good quality assurance is imperative to achieve acceptable standards of inter rater reliability. This study aims to explore the process of peer feedback for examiner quality assurance with regard to factors affecting the implementation and acceptance of the method. A sequential mixed methods approach was used based on focus group discussions with examiners (n = 12) and clinical examination convenors who acted as peer reviewers (n = 4). A questionnaire based on emerging themes and literature review was then completed by 20 examiners at the subsequent OSCE exam. Qualitative data were analysed using an iterative reflexive process. Quantitative data were integrated by interpretive analysis looking for convergence, complementarity or dissonance. The qualitative data helped understand the issues and informed the process of developing the questionnaire. The quantitative data allowed for further refining of issues, wider sampling of examiners and giving voice to different perspectives. Examiners stated specifically that peer feedback gave an opportunity for discussion, standardisation of judgments and improved discriminatory abilities. Interpersonal dynamics, hierarchy and perception of validity of feedback were major factors influencing acceptance of feedback. Examiners desired increased transparency, accountability and the opportunity for equal partnership within the process. The process was stressful for examiners and reviewers; however acceptance increased with increasing exposure to receiving feedback. The process could be refined to improve acceptability through scrupulous attention to training and selection of those giving feedback to improve the perceived validity of feedback and improved reviewer feedback

  9. A Study on the Role of Web Technology in Enhancing Research Pursuance among University Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Irshad; Durrani, Muhammad Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of web technologies in promoting research pursuance among university teachers, examine the use of web technologies by university teachers in conducting research and identify the problems of university academia in using web technologies for research. The study was delimited to academia of social…

  10. The Use of Fluorescence Technology versus Visual and Tactile Examination in the Detection of Oral Lesions: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Hadeel M; Newcomb, Tara L; McCombs, Gayle B; Bonnie, Marshall

    2015-02-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of the VELscope® Vx versus visual and tactile intraoral examination in detecting oral lesions in an adult, high risk population. The pilot study compared the intra oral findings between 2 examination types. The sample was comprised of 30 participants who were addicted to either cigarettes or a dual addiction (cigarettes plus hookah). High risk population was defined as males who were current cigarette smokers or had a dual addiction. Two trained and experienced licensed dental hygienists conducted all examinations. Throughout the study, all visual and tactile intraoral examinations were conducted first by one dental hygienist first, followed by the VELscope® Vx fluorescence examinations by the second dental hygienist. All subjects received an inspection of the lips, labial and buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, dorsal, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, hard and soft palate, and visual inspection of the oropharynx and uvula. Both evaluations took place in 1 visit in the Dental Hygiene Research Center at Old Dominion University and external sites. All participants received oral cancer screening information, recommendations, referrals for tobacco cessation programs and brochures on the 2 types of examinations conducted. Participants were considered high risk based on demographics (current smokers and mostly males). Neither visual and tactile intraoral examination nor the VELscope® Vx examination showed positive lesions. No lesions were detected; therefore, no referrals were made. Data indicated the duration of tobacco use was significantly higher in cigarette smokers (14.1 years) than dual addiction smokers (5 years) (p>0.005). The average numbers of cigarettes smoked per day were 13.5 compared to 14.2 cigarettes for dual addiction smokers. Results from this study suggest the visual and tactile intraoral examination produced comparative results to the VELscope® Vx examination. Findings from this study support that the

  11. Qualitative research in travel behavior studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars Aicart, M.L.; Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative methodology is extensively used in a wide range of scientific areas, such as Sociology and Psychology, and it is been used to study individual and household decision making processes. However, in the Transportation Planning and Engineering domain it is still infrequent to find in the travel behavior literature studies using qualitative techniques to explore activity-travel decisions. The aim of this paper is first, to provide an overview of the types of qualitative techniques available and to explore how to correctly implement them. Secondly, to highlight the special characteristics of qualitative methods that make them appropriate to study activity-travel decision processes. Far from been an unempirical or intuitive methodology, using qualitative methods properly implies a strong foundation on theoretical frameworks, a careful design of data collection and a deep data analysis. For such a purpose, a review of the scarce activity-travel behavior literature using qualitative methods, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, is presented. The use of qualitative techniques can play a role of being a supplementary way of obtaining information related to activity-travel decisions which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to find. This work ends with some conclusions about how qualitative research could help in making progress on activity-travel behavior studies. (Author)

  12. Research Map of Research Priorities in HE Studies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSumih, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a research map for the key research priorities of higher education (HE) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study diagnoses and analyzes the research reality in HE studies in KSA in terms of strength points and improvement opportunities. It also explores the research map fields of current and prospective research priorities in…

  13. Identifying the risk: a prospective cohort study examining postpartum haemorrhage in a regional Australian health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Lauren; Kynn, Mary; Reed, Rachel; Davenport, Lisa; Young, Jeanine; Schafer, Keppel

    2018-06-07

    In industrialised countries the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is increasing, for which exact etiology is not well understood. Studies have relied upon retrospective data with estimated blood loss as the primary outcome, known to be underestimated by clinicians. This study aimed to explore variables associated with PPH in a cohort of women birthing vaginally in coastal Queensland, Australia, using the gravimetric method to measure blood loss. Women were prospectively recruited to participate using an opt-out consent process. Maternal demographics; pregnancy history; model of care; mode of birth; third stage management practices; antenatal, intrapartum and immediate postpartum complications; gravimetric and estimated blood loss; and haematological laboratory data, were collected via a pre-designed data collection instrument. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic, intrapartum and birthing practices. A General Linear Model was used for multivariate analysis to examine relationship between gravimetric blood loss and demographic, birthing practices and intrapartum variables. The primary outcome was a postpartum haemorrhage (blood loss > 500 ml). 522 singleton births were included in the analysis. Maternal mean age was 29 years; 58% were multiparous. Most participants received active (291, 55.7%) or modified active management of third stage (191, 36.6%). Of 451 births with valid gravimetric blood loss recorded, 35% (n = 159) recorded a loss of 500 ml or more and 111 (70%) of these were recorded as PPH. Gravimetric blood loss was strongly correlated with estimated blood loss (r = 0.88; p gravimetric blood loss, about 78% of the measured value. High neonatal weight, perineal injury, complications during labour, separation of mother and baby, and observation of a gush of blood were associated with PPH. Nulliparity, labour induction and augmentation, syntocinon use were not associated with PPH. In contrast to previous study findings

  14. A Quantitative Study of the Internationalization of the Academics and Research Productivity: Case Study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the significant rise in China's economic strength, more students and scholars have returned to China recently. But there is limited literature examining academics with foreign degrees and their research productivity. Using the data of the Changing Academic Profession in Asia (APA) survey, which was exercised in 2012, this study expands the…

  15. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  16. Research participation by people with intellectual disability and mental health issues: an examination of the processes of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taua, Chris; Neville, Christine; Hepworth, Julie

    2014-12-01

    Balancing the demands of research and ethics is always challenging, and even more so when recruiting vulnerable groups. Within the context of current legislation and international human rights declarations, it is strongly advocated that research can and must be undertaken with all recipients of health-care services. Research in the field of intellectual disability presents particular challenges in regards to consenting processes. This paper is a reflective overview and analysis of the complex processes undertaken, and events that occurred in gaining informed consent from people with intellectual disability to participate in a study exploring their experiences of being an inpatient in mental health hospitals within Aotearoa/New Zealand. A framework based on capacity, information, and voluntariness is presented, with excerpts from the field provided to explore consenting processes. The practical implications of the processes utilized are then discussed in order to stimulate debate regarding clearer and enhanced methods of gaining informed consent from people with intellectual disability. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  18. Examining the Teaching of Science, and Technology and Engineering Content and Practices: An Instrument Modification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Wells, John G.; Parkes, Kelly A.

    2017-01-01

    A modified Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Piburn & Sawada, 2000) instrument was used to separately examine eight technology and engineering (T&E) educators' teaching of science, and T&E content and practices, as called for by the "Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology"…

  19. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  20. Examining Elementary Teachers' Use of Online Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that examined elementary teachers' use of online learning environments for their informal professional learning in literacy instruction. Forty-five elementary teachers from a metropolitan area in Ontario, Canada, completed an online survey and participated in a semistructured interview. Survey and…

  1. Examining the Perceptions of Curriculum Leaders on Primary School Reform: A Case Study of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Yuen, Timothy W. W.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to enhance the quality of teachers and teaching, and to lead internal curriculum development in primary schools, the Hong Kong Education Bureau created a new curriculum leader post entitled primary school master/mistress (curriculum development) or PSMCD for short. The main purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of these…

  2. TOGAF version 9 foundation study guide preparation for the TOGAF 9 Part 1 examination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This document is a Study Guide for TOGAF™ 9 Foundation.It gives an overview of every learning objective for the TOGAF 9 Foundation Syllabus and in-depth coverage on preparing and taking the TOGAF 9 Part 1 Examination. It is specifically designed to help individuals prepare for certification.

  3. A Constructivist Case Study Examining the Leadership Development of Undergraduate Students in Campus Recreational Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stacey L.; Forrester, Scott; Borsz, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    This constructivist case study examined undergraduate student leadership development. Twenty-one student leaders, 13 females and 8 males, in a campus recreational sports department were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Seven broad themes: organizing, planning, and delegating; balancing academic, personal and professional…

  4. A Quantitative Study Examining Teacher Stress, Burnout, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Timar D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationships between stress, burnout, and self-efficacy in public school teachers in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Teacher Stress Inventory was used to collect data on teacher stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educators Survey was used to obtain data on teacher…

  5. A review of empirical studies on examining the consumers' mobile advertising attitudes between 2000-2011

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Nevin; YÜRÜK, Pınar

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the mobile phone technology and the rapid increase in the use of mobile phones have created a new field both for marketers and advertisers as well as for researchers to reach consumers. Therefore, marketing applications made through mobile phones have become a subject for various researches. In this study, mobile marketing and advertising have been discussed. This paper investigates the theoretical base in the literature about the relations which display “whether the consumers appr...

  6. A review of empirical studies on examining the consumers' mobile advertising attitudes between 2000-2011

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Nevin; YÜRÜK, Pınar

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the mobile phone technology and the rapid increase in the use of mobile phones have created a new field both for marketers and advertisers as well as for researchers to reach consumers. Therefore, marketing applications made through mobile phones have become a subject for various researches. In this study, mobile marketing and advertising have been discussed. This paper investigates the theoretical base in the literature about the relations which display “whether the consumers appr...

  7. A Survey Study Examining Teachers' Perceptions in Teaching Refugee and Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbegovic, Dajana

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research around best practices in working with refugee and immigrant students. Since teachers spend the majority of the school day with students, their insights about how best to serve these populations of children and adolescents is critical. This dissertation study conducted an online survey study with 139 elementary school…

  8. Why do Students Cheat in Examinations in Turkey? A Meta-Synthesis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat POLAT

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to determine the possible causes behind the tendency of students in Turkey to exhibit cheating behavior in the exams directly from the results of research conducted on the subject. This research is a meta-synthesis study that was planned in the qualitative research design. Within this scope; three master’s theses and 28 research articles which are accessed using databases such as the Google Academic search engine, TUBITAK Ulakbim DergiPark, the Turkish Council of Higher Education National Thesis Center, EBSCOhost, and ERIC and directly linked to the topic, were subjected to content analysis. The sample group of the studies used for the analysis is secondary school, high school, and university students, prospective teachers of education faculty, teachers, and instructors working in schools. According to the content analysis performed, it was seen that the topical studies conducted in Turkey mainly concentrated on two sub-dimensions. These are studies that aim at revealing the reasons of students’ tendency towards cheating behaviors in exams, and attitude levels of opinions about cheating behaviors in exams and what measures could be taken. The majority of the investigated studies were conducted with prospective teachers (n=15 and the research methods of the studies were mostly based on the quantitative method (n=20. In the context of the data presented and discussed in this current study, it is anticipated that the results will be useful in guiding future research and providing in-service training for teacher training programs.

  9. Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Loma

    2004-01-01

    This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.

  10. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination

  11. Analysis on actual state of selective upper gastrointestinal study in medical examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Son, Soon Yong; Joo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Chang Bok; Kim, Keon Chung [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to present controversial point and reform measurements by analysing factors having important effect on selection of upper gastrointestinal study in total health promotion. We examined 200 persons for this study, who visited for upper gastrointestinal study from January to February in 1999. We classified this group into Endoscopy, Upper gastrointestinal series, and sleeping endoscopy. We also investigated standard of satisfaction and factors having effect on selection of each study. As is results, in the motive of selection, Item of 'making accurate observation' and 'without pain' was 39.3% and 34.7%, respectively. In this study, sleeping endoscopy was 45.7%, but on the other side upper gastrointestinal series was low 22.6%(P<0.05). In the standard of preference of study, the man was 55.7% in the endoscopy, and the woman was 61.8% in the upper gastrointestinal series(P<0.05). The standard of preference of upper gastrointestinal series show that it was satisfied on the whole irrespective of sex, dwelling place, age, occupation, and level of education. In the selection of study, one's own will was showed the highest frequency, and family inducement was showed second(P<0.05). Persons over 60% were examined before the same study. Selection of upper gastrointestinal series was 47.9% of person with normal findings, and endoscopy and sleeping endoscopy was over 70% with gastritis, gastric and duodenal(P<0.01). For one's accurate selection of examination, it is important that objective and credible information should be given to a recipient for examination.

  12. Paper use in research ethics applications and study conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakladar, Abhijoy; Eckstein, Sue; White, Stuart M

    2011-02-01

    Application for Research Ethics Committee (REC) approval and the conduct of medical research is paper intensive. This retrospective study examined all applications to a single REC in the south of England over one year. It estimated the mass of paper used, comparing the proportional paper consumption of different trial types and during different stages of the research process, quantifying the consumption in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. In 2009, 68 trials were submitted to the REC. Total paper consumption for the REC process and study conduct was 176,150 sheets of A4 paper (879 kg), equivalent to an estimated 11.5 million sheets (88 tonnes, 2100 trees) a year for the U.K.; the REC process accounted for 26.4%. REC applications and the conduct of approved trials generate considerable environmental impact through paper consumption contributing to the NHS's carbon footprint. Paper use might be reduced through the implementation of digital technologies and revised research methods, namely changing attitudes in both researchers and ethics committees.

  13. Examining the functionality of the DeLone and McLean information system success model as a framework for synthesis in nursing information and communication technology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    In this review, studies examining information and communication technology used by nurses in clinical practice were examined. Overall, a total of 39 studies were assessed spanning a time period from 1995 to 2008. The impacts of the various health information and communication technology evaluated by individual studies were synthesized using the DeLone and McLean's six-dimensional framework for evaluating information systems success (ie, System Quality, Information Quality, Service Quality, Use, User Satisfaction, and Net Benefits). Overall, the majority of researchers reported results related to the overall Net Benefits (positive, negative, and indifferent) of the health information and communication technology used by nurses. Attitudes and user satisfaction with technology were also commonly measured attributes. The current iteration of DeLone and McLean model is effective at synthesizing basic elements of health information and communication technology use by nurses. Regardless, the current model lacks the sociotechnical sensitivity to capture deeper nurse-technology relationalities. Limitations and recommendations are provided for researchers considering using the DeLone and McLean model for evaluating health information and communication technology used by nurses.

  14. Medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination: findings from an international cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Wearn, Andy M; Vnuk, Anna K; Sato, Toshio J

    2009-03-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes towards PPE at schools from different geographical and cultural regions and assess changes in their attitudes over their first year of medical study. Students at six schools (Peninsula, UK; Durham, UK; Auckland, New Zealand; Flinders, Australia; Sapporo, Japan and Li Ka Shing, Hong Kong) completed the Examining Fellow Students (EFS) questionnaire near the start of their academic year (T1), and students at four schools (Peninsula, Durham, Auckland and Flinders) completed the EFS for a second time, around the end of their academic year (T2). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a high level of acceptance for PPE of non-intimate body regions amongst medical students from all schools (greater than 83%, hips, at T1 and 94.5%, hips and upper body, at T2). At T1 and T2, students' willingness to engage in PPE was associated with their gender, ethnicity, religiosity and school. Typically, students least comfortable with PPE at T1 and T2 were female, non-white, religious and studying at Auckland. Although students' attitudes towards PPE were reasonably stable over their first year of study, and after exposure to PPE, we did find some statistically significant differences in attitudes between T1 and T2. Interestingly, attitude changes were consistently predicted by gender, even when controlling for school. While male students' attitudes towards PPE were relatively stable over time, females' attitudes were changeable. In this paper, we discuss our findings in light of existing research and theory, and discuss their implications for educational practice and further research.

  15. An examination of the relationships between psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Kate Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, pre- and post-injury frequencies of disorders are variable, and their course, associated risk factors and relationship with psychosocial outcome are poorly understood due to methodological inconsistencies. No studies have prospectively examined the full range of Axis I psychiatric disorders using semi-structured clinical interview. Accordingly, the main aims of the current study were to (a) investigate t...

  16. A STUDY ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Batista da Silva; Ernani Ott

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between scientific research and professional accounting practice. In this exploratory study, as it examines a theme that has been little explored in Brazil, a quantitative approach was adopted and a survey was used as the data collection technique, supported by a research instrument with questions on aspects like: interest in and use of research; study and development of themes; means to disseminate the research; and causes of the gap betwe...

  17. Intraoperative Physical Examination for Diagnosis of Interosseous Ligament Rupture-Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Rivlin, Michael; Wu, Fei; Faghfouri, Aram; Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-09-01

    To study the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the diagnosis of interosseous ligament (IOL) rupture in a cadaver model. On 12 fresh frozen cadavers, radial heads were cut using an identical incision and osteotomy. After randomization, the soft tissues of the limbs were divided into 4 groups: both IOL and triangular fibrocartilage (TFCC) intact; IOL disruption but TFCC intact; both IOL and TFCC divided; and IOL intact but TFCC divided. All incisions had identical suturing. After standard instruction and demonstration of radius pull-push and radius lateral pull tests, 10 physician evaluators with different levels of experience examined the cadaver limbs in a standardized way (elbow at 90° with the forearm held in both supination and pronation) and were asked to classify them into one of the 4 groups. Next, the same examiners were asked to re-examine the limbs after randomly changing the order of examination. The interobserver reliability of agreement for the diagnosis of IOL injury (groups 2 and 3) was fair in both rounds of examination and the intraobserver reliability was moderate. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities of agreement for the 4 groups of injuries among the examiners were fair in both rounds of examination. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values were all around 70%. The likelihood of a positive test corresponding with the presence of IOL rupture (positive likelihood ratio) was 2.2. The likelihood of a negative test correctly diagnosing an intact IOL was 0.40. In cadavers, intraoperative tests had fair reliability and 70% accuracy for the diagnosis of IOL rupture using the push-pull and lateral pull maneuvers. The level of experience did not have any effect on the correct diagnosis of intact versus disrupted IOL. Although not common, some failure of surgeries for traumatic elbow fracture-dislocations is because of failure in timely diagnosis of IOL disruption. Copyright © 2015 American

  18. Effect Size (Cohen's d of Cognitive Screening Instruments Examined in Pragmatic Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Larner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many cognitive screening instruments (CSI are available to clinicians to assess cognitive function. The optimal method comparing the diagnostic utility of such tests is uncertain. The effect size (Cohen's d, calculated as the difference of the means of two groups divided by the weighted pooled standard deviations of these groups, may permit such comparisons. Methods: Datasets from five pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies, which examined the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP, the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the Test Your Memory test (TYM, and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, were analysed to calculate the effect size (Cohen's d for the diagnosis of dementia versus no dementia and for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment versus no dementia (subjective memory impairment. Results: The effect sizes for dementia versus no dementia diagnosis were large for all six CSI examined (range 1.59-1.87. For the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment versus no dementia, the effect sizes ranged from medium to large (range 0.48-1.45, with MoCA having the largest effect size. Conclusion: The calculation of the effect size (Cohen's d in diagnostic accuracy studies is straightforward. The routine incorporation of effect size calculations into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration in order to facilitate the comparison of the relative value of CSI.

  19. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Kawata, Kelssy Hitomi; Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Atsuko; Ogawa, Nanayo; Kanno, Shigenori; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Yokoi, Kayoko; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR's Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistency was excellent (α-coefficient = 0.88). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes score was significant (r(s) = -0.61, p Examination. The cut-off score of 80 showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 94%. Like the original ACE-R and the versions designed for other languages, the Japanese version of the ACE-R is a reliable and valid test for the detection of dementia.

  20. The 100 top-cited tuberculosis research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-M; Liu, Y-Q; Shen, J-N; Peng, Y-L; Xiong, T-Y; Tong, X; Du, L; Zhang, Y-G

    2015-06-01

    The examination of top-cited studies is a useful method for identify and monitoring outstanding scientific research. The objective of this study was to identify and analyse the characteristics of the top 100 cited research studies on tuberculosis (TB) based on the Web of Knowledge. Overall, the top 100 cited studies were cited between 366 and 4443 times, and were published between 1995 and 2010, with the largest number of publications in 2003 and in 1995. Four studies were attributed to a single author and 10 to two authors; the number of authors exceeded six in 50 studies. Nine authors had more than one study as the first author and 18 authors had more than one study as the corresponding author. The United States contributed the largest number of studies, followed by the United Kingdom and France. The institutions with the largest number of articles were the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale in France and the University of California in the United States. The studies appeared in 35 journals, with 11 published in Science, followed by PNAS and NEJM. The majority of TB articles have been published in those medical journals with the highest impact factors, and are from the most industrialised countries.

  1. Strategy for improving the detailed examination rate for colorectal cancer screening. New approach for detailed colorectal cancer examination. Study for optimal pre-treatment for CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsushima, Toru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Nagata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    In order to drastically improve the detailed examination rate for strategic colorectal cancer examination in Japan, it is necessary to introduce CT colonography (CTC) as a detailed examination method for colorectal cancer examination, in addition to colonoscopy (CS) which is the conventional detailed examination method. In our study, a cleansing enema/contrast solution (3% Nif-C) was prepared by adding 60 ml of a water-soluble iodine-based contrast agent (Gastrografin) and water to an oral cleansing enema agent (Niflec) in solid (powder) form to a final amount of 2000 ml. The solution was compared with a Niflec solution. In terms of patient's acceptability, more than half of the examined patients answered ''easier to drink than the Niflec solution'' or ''as easy to drink as the Niflec solution. '' Also, the Nif-C solution was comparable or superior to the Niflec solution in terms of cleansing enema effects. Regarding imaging effects essential for CTC, the CT level was found to be 200 HU or greater for any large intestine region upon CTC using the Nif-C solution. Thus, practically sufficient imaging effects were achieved. In conclusion, CTC with pretreatment involving a cleansing enema with oral administration of 3% Nif-C is superior to CS in terms of patient's acceptability. In addition, at least in view of the overseas reports on CTC, there is no particular problem in terms of diagnostic accuracy. Thus, CTC is expected to resolve various problems related to colorectal cancer examination in Japan. (author)

  2. Ultrasonographic findings in patients examined in cataract detection-andtreatment campaigns: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Henrique Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A cataract is defined as an opacity of any portion of the lens, regardless of visual acuity. In some advanced cases of cataracts, in which good fundus visualization is not possible, an ultrasound examination provides better assessment of the posterior segment of the globe. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the ultrasonographic records of patients with advanced cataracts who were examined during cataract campaigns. METHODS: The ultrasonographic findings obtained from 215 patients examined in cataract campaigns conducted by the Hospital das Clínicas Department of Ophthalmology of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo between the years of 2005 and 2007 were evaluated, and the utility of this exam in changing the treatment procedures was studied. RESULTS: A total of 289 eyes from 215 patients were examined. Of the eyes examined, 77.5% presented with findings in the vitreous cavity and the posterior pole. A posterior vitreous detachment with no other complications was observed in 47.4% of the eyes. The remaining 30.1% presented with eye diseases that could result in a reduced visual function after surgery. The most frequent eye diseases observed were diffuse vitreous opacity (12.1% of the eyes and detachment of the retina (9.3% of the eyes. DISCUSSION: In many cases, the ultrasonographic evaluation of the posterior segment revealed significant anomalies that changed the original treatment plan or contra-indicated surgery. At the very least, the evaluation was useful for patient counseling. CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic examination revealed and differentiated between eyes with cataracts and eyes with ocular abnormalities other than cataracts as the cause of poor vision, thereby indicating the importance of its use during ocular evaluation.

  3. Examination of staphylococcal stethoscope contamination in the emergency department (pilot) study (EXSSCITED pilot study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Patrick H P; Worster, Andrew; Srigley, Jocelyn A; Main, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus-contaminated stethoscopes belonging to emergency department (ED) staff and to identify the proportion of these that were Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of bacterial cultures from 100 ED staff members' stethoscopes at three EDs. Study participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. Fifty-four specimens grew coagulase-negative staphylococci and one grew methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. No MRSA was cultured. Only 8% of participants, all of whom were nurses, reported cleaning their stethoscope before or after each patient assessment. Alcohol-based wipes were most commonly used to clean stethoscopes. A lack of time, being too busy, and forgetfulness were the most frequently reported reasons for not cleaning the stethoscope in the ED. This study indicates that although stethoscope contamination rates in these EDs are high, the prevalence of S. aureus or MRSA on stethoscopes is low.

  4. Culture Studies in the Field of International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Verner; Li, Xin; Jakobsen, Michael

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of culture studies within the field of international business research, and to examine how two main paradigms – essentialism and social constructivism – relate to the discourse in this field. We analyze the main points of the two...... in this paper. Practical implications: We encourage practitioners to learn how to switch, both sequentially and spatially, between the two paradigms of culture (fundamentally incommensurable though they are). This involves taking a “both/or” approach to the two paradigms. Originality/Value: We show...

  5. Overactive pelvic floor muscles (OPFM): improving diagnostic accuracy with clinical examination and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Hau Choong; Ranasinghe, Weranja; Tan, Philip Huang Min; O'Connell, Helen E

    2017-07-01

    To identify the functional correlation of overactive pelvic floor muscles (OPFM) with cystoscopic and fluoroscopic urodynamic studies (FUDS), including urethral pressure measurements. Patients refractory to conservative therapy including bladder retraining, medications and pelvic muscle exercises for a variety of gamut of storage and voiding disorders were evaluated. Prospective data for 201 patients across both genders who underwent flexible cystoscopy and urodynamics for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refractory to conservative management between 01 Jan 2014 and 01 Jan 2016 was collected. Factors studied included history of LUTS, voiding patterns, physical examination, cystoscopic findings and functional studies, with maximum urethral closing pressure (MUCP). A total of 201 were patients recruited. The 85 were diagnosed with OPFM based on clinical presentation and presence of pelvic floor tenderness on examination. Significant differences were noted on functional studies with FUDS and urethral pressure measurement. Subjects with pelvic floor tenderness were found to have a higher (MUCP) at 93.1 cm H2O compared to 80.6 cm H2O (P=0.015). There are distinct characteristics of OPFM on clinical examination and functional studies, in particular MUCP. In patients refractory to conservative treatments, specific urodynamics tests are useful in sub-categorising patients. When OPFM is diagnosed, the impact on patient management is significant, and targeted intervention with pelvic floor physiotherapy is central in the multimodal approach of this complex condition.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  7. Multiple physical healthcare needs among outpatients with schizophrenia: findings from a health examination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Saana; Sailas, Eila; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Holi, Matti; Koskela, Tuomas H; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-08-01

    Despite the abundant literature on physical comorbidity, the full range of the concurrent somatic healthcare needs among individuals with schizophrenia has rarely been studied. This observational study aimed to assess the distressing somatic symptoms and needs for physical health interventions in outpatients with schizophrenia, and factors predicting those needs. A structured, comprehensive health examination was carried out, including a visit to a nurse and a general practitioner on 275 outpatients with schizophrenia. The required interventions were classified by type of disease. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, functional limitations, factors related to psychiatric disorder, and healthcare use on the need for interventions. In total, 44.9% of the patients (mean age 44.9 years) reported somatic symptoms affecting daily life; 87.6% needed specific interventions for a disease or condition, most commonly for cardiovascular, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological, and gastrointestinal conditions, and for altered glucose homeostasis. Smoking and obesity predicted significantly a need of any intervention, but the predictors varied in each disease category. Strikingly, use of general practitioner services during the previous year did not reduce the need for interventions. Health examinations for outpatients with schizophrenia revealed numerous physical healthcare needs. The health examinations for patients with schizophrenia should contain a medical history taking and a physical examination, in addition to basic measurements and laboratory tests. Prevention and treatment of obesity and smoking should be given priority in order to diminish somatic comorbidities in schizophrenia.

  8. Factors influencing medical students' self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.

  9. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  10. Study of research needs and priorities in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, W.E.; Mitchell, W. III.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of long-range research needs in nuclear waste management. The purpose is to aid the Director of Energy Research in determining the health of DOE's research programs. The intent of the project reported here was to identify additional, basic research necessary in the 1980s and 1990s to develop an adequate scientific data base for nuclear waste management activities likely to be important around the turn of the century. The recommendations resulted from an overview of the entire area of nuclear waste management, not from focused examinations of narrow topics within that area. The suggested research may be the subject of future studies or more intense work by DOE. The recommendations presented in this report are not accompanied by designations of responsible program offices within DOE. It is anticipated that the contents of the report will be shared with the program offices involved and that those offices will recognize and respond to recommendations within their purviews

  11. Is the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE useful for eligibility screening of research participants with substance use disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldebarán Toledo-Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the MMSE is used for eligibility screening of potential research participants diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD, as abilities needed to provide a valid informed consent or accurate information could be impaired in these clinical populations. Knowledge about the capacity of the MMSE to detect impairment in these abilities or at least to assess impact of SUD on its total score, however, is rather diffuse. This has important ethical and methodological implications. Objective: to analyze effects of SUD only, main substances of abuse, age of onset of substance use, recent substance use, and psychiatric comorbidity upon MMSE outcome. The overall purpose of the study was to assess the utility of the MMSE for eligibility screening of potential research participants with SUD. Method: individuals were recruited from residential facilities for substance use treatment. A demographic questionnaire, MMSE and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used. Results: A total of 601 participants were gathered for main analysis. Controlling for education, no differences in MMSE score were detected within main substances of abuse (F=1.25[4,529], p=.28, nor between SUD only versus SUD with psychiatric comorbidity (F=.58[1,597], p=.44. Effects of age of onset and recent use of specific substances upon MMSE score were also absent. Discussion and conclusions: If there is some cognitive impairment in this clinical population, it may not be pertinently assessed by the MMSE, thus casting doubt on its pertinence for eligibility screening.

  12. Adult health study Hiroshima analysis of participation in examinations, July 1958-December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-07-19

    The participation data for Adult Health Study examinations conducted in Hiroshima during the period July 1958 to December 31, 1960, are presented. The continuing medical examination program includes approximately 13,700 individuals who form the Adult Health Study population of ABCC in Hiroshima. The Adult Health Study population is composed of four exposure groups of equal size, matched by age and sex. Participation scores are analyzed with respect to exposure, age, sex, and socioeconomic variables as well as history of previous contact with the ABCC programs. Significant differences were demonstrated between the participation scores by age, marital status, history of prior contact with ABCC, and occupation; this latter category was significant only for males. Although differences were observed for these variables, the significance was usually attributable to one category in each of the variables, often the least populated, such as separated or divorced for marital status; and previous history unknown for prior ABCC contact. A trend was apparent with respect to exposure, with the lowest participation noted in the nonexposed and the highest participation in the exposed group with symptoms. Sex differences were not significant. Although relatively minor differences were demonstrated for some variables, the outstanding features of this program are the remarkable high participation scores. Only 9 percent of the population were in the so-called refusal category and over 80 percent of the living Adult Health Study population, including non-Hiroshima residents, were examined during the period considered by this report. 6 references, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  13. Dance Education Action Research: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the practices, philosophy, and history of action research, also known as participatory action research, to the purposes and practices of dance education. The comparison yields connections in four categories, enhancing self-reflective teaching and curriculum design, taking responsibility for teaching outcomes,…

  14. Recruitment and Ongoing Engagement in a UK Smartphone Study Examining the Association Between Weather and Pain: Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Katie L; McBeth, John; van der Veer, Sabine N; Selby, David A; Vidgen, Bertie; Georgatzis, Konstantinos; Hellman, Bruce; Lakshminarayana, Rashmi; Chowdhury, Afiqul; Schultz, David M; Sanders, Caroline; Sergeant, Jamie C; Dixon, William G

    2017-11-01

    The huge increase in smartphone use heralds an enormous opportunity for epidemiology research, but there is limited evidence regarding long-term engagement and attrition in mobile health (mHealth) studies. The objective of this study was to examine how representative the Cloudy with a Chance of Pain study population is of wider chronic-pain populations and to explore patterns of engagement among participants during the first 6 months of the study. Participants in the United Kingdom who had chronic pain (≥3 months) and enrolled between January 20, 2016 and January 29, 2016 were eligible if they were aged ≥17 years and used the study app to report any of 10 pain-related symptoms during the study period. Participant characteristics were compared with data from the Health Survey for England (HSE) 2011. Distinct clusters of engagement over time were determined using first-order hidden Markov models, and participant characteristics were compared between the clusters. Compared with the data from the HSE, our sample comprised a higher proportion of women (80.51%, 5129/6370 vs 55.61%, 4782/8599) and fewer persons at the extremes of age (16-34 and 75+). Four clusters of engagement were identified: high (13.60%, 865/6370), moderate (21.76%, 1384/6370), low (39.35%, 2503/6370), and tourists (25.44%, 1618/6370), between which median days of data entry ranged from 1 (interquartile range; IQR: 1-1; tourist) to 149 (124-163; high). Those in the high-engagement cluster were typically older, whereas those in the tourist cluster were mostly male. Few other differences distinguished the clusters. Cloudy with a Chance of Pain demonstrates a rapid and successful recruitment of a large, representative, and engaged sample of people with chronic pain and provides strong evidence to suggest that smartphones could provide a viable alternative to traditional data collection methods. ©Katie L Druce, John McBeth, Sabine N van der Veer, David A Selby, Bertie Vidgen, Konstantinos Georgatzis

  15. A Correlational Study Examining Demonstrated Emotional Intelligence and Perceptions of School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chris James

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative study with a correlational design, this research investigated whether certified teachers' ratings of their school leader's demonstrated emotional intelligence behaviors correlated with the teacher's perceptions of school climate. A sample of 42 graduate and post baccalaureate students from a Mid-Atlantic region college accessed a…

  16. A Case Study Examination of Best Practices of Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopoff, Tanya M.

    2010-01-01

    A current trend in education is that small teacher groups, called professional learning communities (PLC), are being advocated as a tool to help teachers reach struggling students. Educators planning to use PLC as an intervention strategy can benefit from research-based information about PLC best practices. This multiple case study addressed the…

  17. Interaction between examination type, anxiety state, and academic achievement in college science; an action-oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri; Ben-Chaim, David

    The trait anxiety profile of future science teachers, as well as their preferences concerning types of examinations in science and mathematics, have been surveyed prior to the administration - within the various science courses - of several traditional and nontraditional types of examinations and the assessment of students' state anxieties as well as their respective performance, i.e., their academic achievements. Our major findings are that(a)Our students prefer by far examinations in which the emphasis is on understanding and analyzing rather than on knowing and remembering, that the use of any relevant material during the examinations be permitted, and that the time duration be practically unlimited (e.g., take-home-type examinations).(b)Students' state anxiety correlates with the type of the examination, with a tendency towards somewhat higher anxiety for females. The preferred types of examinations reduce test anxiety significantly, and result in higher grades accordingly.(c)The reduction of anxiety and the improvement in achievements as a function of the examination type are far more significant for low achievers compared with medium and high achievers.(d)Although teachers are aware of the student preferences, they persist in giving their students their own pet-type examinations.These results are discussed in terms of the implications for upgrading both science education and college student testing and assessment mechanisms.

  18. Graduate Students' Research Interest in Business Ethics: A Study of Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the nature of business ethics education during graduate-level training is somewhat limited. One approach in determining advanced students' research interest in the area is to examine the selection of "business ethics" topics for dissertation research. The current study addressed this issue by conducting a topical…

  19. Characterizing Mathematics Teaching Research Specialists' Mentoring in the Context of Chinese Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feishi; Gu, Lingyuan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how mathematics teaching research specialists mentor practicing teachers during post-lesson debriefs of a lesson study in China. Based on a systematic, fine-grained analysis of 107 h of videotaped mentoring meetings of 20 groups of teachers and teaching research specialists from different elementary schools, this study reveals…

  20. Active Commuting among K-12 Educators: A Study Examining Walking and Biking to Work

    OpenAIRE

    Bopp, Melissa; Hastmann, Tanis J.; Norton, Alyssa N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC) is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. Methods. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators (n = 437) was recruited to partici...

  1. Cardiometabolic implication of sarcopenia: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (KNHANES) 2008–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung Min Kim; Soo Lim; Sung Hee Choi; Jung Hee Kim; Chan Soo Shin; Kyong Soo Park; Hak Chul Jang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass, contributes to various adverse health outcomes in the elderly. It may be associated with cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between sarcopenia and cardiometabolic risks and to determine an appropriate operational definition for sarcopenia from a cardiometabolic perspective. Material and methods: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2010 (n = 20,812, ≥20 ...

  2. Examining the Effect of Endorser Credibility on the Consumers' Buying Intentions: An Empirical Study in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sertoglu, Aysegul Ermec; Catlı, Ozlem; Korkmaz, Sezer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise) have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a pos...

  3. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF ENDORSER CREDIBILITY ON THE CONSUMERS' BUYING INTENTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Aysegul Ermec Sertoglu; Ozlem Catli; Sezer Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise) have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a pos...

  4. In-vivo study and histological examination of laser reshaping of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Svistushkin, Valeriy M.; Shinaev, Andrei A.; Nikiforova, G.; Jones, Nicholas

    1999-06-01

    The results of recent study of cartilage reshaping in vivo are reported. The ear cartilage of piglets of 8-12 weeks old have been reshaped in vivo using the radiation of a holmium laser. The stability of the shape and possible side effects have been examined during four months. Histological investigation shown that the healing of irradiated are could accompany by the regeneration of ear cartilage. Finally, elastic type cartilage has been transformed into fibrous cartilage or cartilage of hyaline type.

  5. Brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury: an exploratory study by repeated magnetic resonance examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannsjö, Marianne; Raininko, Raili; Bustamante, Mariana; von Seth, Charlotta; Borg, Jörgen

    2013-09-01

    To explore brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury by repeated magnetic resonance examination. A prospective follow-up study. Nineteen patients with mild traumatic brain injury presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 14-15. The patients were examined on day 2 or 3 and 3-7 months after the injury. The magnetic resonance protocol comprised conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences including fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), two susceptibility-weighted sequences to reveal haemorrhages, and diffusion-weighted sequences. Computer-aided volume comparison was performed. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). At follow-up, 7 patients (37%) reported ≥  3 symptoms in RPQ, 5 reported some anxiety and 1 reported mild depression. Fifteen patients reported upper level of good recovery and 4 patients lower level of good recovery (GOSE 8 and 7, respectively). Magnetic resonance pathology was found in 1 patient at the first examination, but 4 patients (21%) showed volume loss at the second examination, at which 3 of them reported GOSE scores of 8. Loss of brain volume, demonstrated by computer-aided magnetic resonance imaging volumetry, may be a feasible marker of brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury.

  6. A study of amount of information in x-ray examination of gastric diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akiro

    1981-01-01

    Gastrointestinal X-ray examinations are widely utilized to find gastric cancers because of the high incidence of this disease in Japan. Because of the high frequency of this examination relatively high gonad and bone marrow radiation exposure due to this kind of examination cannot be ignored. The relationship between exposed doses and amount of information are in inverse proportion. Therefore, this study of the relationship between amount of information and accuracy in gastric X-ray diagnosis was carried out to determine the necessary amount of information in this examination. To intentionally reduce the amount of information air gap method is utilized. Five each copies were made from various original G.I. tract films, and when copies were made air gap is intentionally reduced between original and duplicating films. The air gaps were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. Fifty original films were prepared thus 250 copies (50 sets of 5 each copies) were made. These copied films were read by 10 radiologists and results were scored as true positive and false positive. The results showed that increase of amount of information itself does not mean the increase of diagnostic accuracy. Also it is suggested that the limit of diagnostic accuracy lies between 5 and 10 mm air spaced films. Diagnoses of early gastric cancer and scar of gastric ulcer are easily effected by sharpness of image, but gastric ulcer are relatively not. (author)

  7. Upper gastrointestinal examinations: a radiographic study of clinically normal Beagle puppies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 24 upper gastrointestinal examinations were performed on four weanling beagle puppies over six weeks, using liquid barium (10 ml/kg body weight of 60 per cent w/v barium sulphate suspension] and barium food (8 g/kg of crushed kibble dog food and 7 ml/kg body weight of 60 per cent w/v barium sulphate suspension) as contrast media. The radiographic appearance was similar to that noted in adult dogs except for the consistent location of the pylorus on or near the midline. Duodenal pseudoulcers were seen more often with liquid barium and the caecal shadows were identified more often with the longer examination time with barium food. The stomach of the puppies appeared to have discriminatory emptying function; that is, semi-solid food was emptied from the stomach at a slower rate (210 to 450 minutes) than liquid (60 to 90 minutes). Solid meals emptied faster in puppies than in adult dogs. Dosages of 13 to 15 mg/kg body weight for the liquid barium examination and 14 g of ground kibble and 16 ml of barium sulphate suspension per m2 of body surface area for the barium food examination are suggested as more appropriate for contrast studies in puppies

  8. Study of amount of information in x-ray examination of gastric diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, A [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1981-08-01

    Gastrointestinal X-ray examinations are widely utilized to find gastric cancers because of the high incidence of this disease in Japan. Because of the high frequency of this examination relatively high gonad and bone marrow radiation exposure due to this kind of examination cannot be ignored. The relationship between exposed doses and amount of information are in inverse proportion. Therefore, this study of the relationship between amount of information and accuracy in gastric X-ray diagnosis was carried out to determine the necessary amount of information in this examination. To intentionally reduce the amount of information air gap method is utilized. Five each copies were made from various original G.I. tract films, and when copies were made air gap is intentionally reduced between original and duplicating films. The air gaps were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. Fifty original films were prepared thus 250 copies (50 sets of 5 each copies) were made. These copied films were read by 10 radiologists and results were scored as true positive and false positive. The results showed that increase of amount of information itself does not mean the increase of diagnostic accuracy. Also it is suggested that the limit of diagnostic accuracy lies between 5 and 10 mm air spaced films. Diagnoses of early gastric cancer and scar of gastric ulcer are easily effected by sharpness of image, but gastric ulcer are relatively not.

  9. Dysphagia in Lewy body dementia - a clinical observational study of swallowing function by videofluoroscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londos, Elisabet; Hanxsson, Oskar; Alm Hirsch, Ingrid; Janneskog, Anna; Bülow, Margareta; Palmqvist, Sebastian

    2013-10-07

    Dysphagia, which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death, is a well-known problem in patients with dementia and Parkinson's disease. There are few studies on dysphagia in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), especially studies objectively documenting the type of swallowing dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prevalence, and define the actual swallowing dysfunction according to a videofluoroscopic swallowing examination (VFSE) in patients with DLB and PDD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with DLB or PDD in a clinical follow-up program were asked about symptoms of dysphagia. Those experiencing dysphagia were examined with VFSE. Prevalence and type of swallowing dysfunction was recorded. Twenty-six patients (32%) reported symptoms of dysphagia such as swallowing difficulties or coughing. Twenty-four (92%) of these had a documented swallowing dysfunction on VFSE. Eighty-eight percent suffered from pharyngeal dysfunction. Almost all DLB or PDD patients with subjective signs of dysphagia had pathologic results on VFSE, the majority of pharyngeal type. This type of dysphagia has not been reported in DLB before. The results have clinical implications and highlight the importance of asking for and examining swallowing function to prevent complications such as aspiration.

  10. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Gilbert, Gregory E; Sithole, Fortune; Koster, Liza S

    2017-09-27

    Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog's Ear, Volume 1 . Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS) Depression, Fatigue-Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits.

  11. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpida Artemiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog’s Ear, Volume 1. Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS Depression, Fatigue–Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits.

  12. Food studies: an introduction to research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Jeff; Deutsch, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    .... Designed for the classroom as well as for the independent scholar, the book details the predominant research methods in the field, provides a series of interactive questions and templates to help...

  13. Identifying a Computer Forensics Expert: A Study to Measure the Characteristics of Forensic Computer Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The usage of digital evidence from electronic devices has been rapidly expanding within litigation, and along with this increased usage, the reliance upon forensic computer examiners to acquire, analyze, and report upon this evidence is also rapidly growing. This growing demand for forensic computer examiners raises questions concerning the selection of individuals qualified to perform this work. While courts have mechanisms for qualifying witnesses that provide testimony based on scientific data, such as digital data, the qualifying criteria covers a wide variety of characteristics including, education, experience, training, professional certifications, or other special skills. In this study, we compare task performance responses from forensic computer examiners with an expert review panel and measure the relationship with the characteristics of the examiners to their quality responses. The results of this analysis provide insight into identifying forensic computer examiners that provide high-quality responses. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. A cross-sectional study examining factors related to critical thinking in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Gary Morris; Beach, Nick Lee; Patrician, Patricia A; Martin, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking skills among registered nurses who work in a military hospital. Sixty-five nurses were administered the Health Sciences Reasoning Test to obtain scores in inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, interpretation, analysis, and evaluation skills. Results showed no significant association between critical thinking skills and years of experience; however, differences were identified among racial/ethnic groups. It is hoped that findings from this study create a platform for dialogue among staff development nurses who are best situated to develop strategies that address these issues.

  15. Molecular Approach to Microbiological Examination of Water Quality in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) in Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishinhi, Stephen S; Tchounwou, Paul B; Farah, Ibrahim O

    2013-01-01

    Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) is an important ecosystem in the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It serves as important nursery areas for juveniles of many species of fish. The bay is also used for fishing, crabbing, oyster togging, boating as well as recreation. Like in other aquatic environments, this bay may be contaminated by microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water in the Grand Bay NERR and determine the levels and potential source(s) of human fecal pollution. To achieve this goal, water samples were collected aseptically every month in Bayou Heron, Bayou Cumbest, Point Aux Chenes Bay and Bangs Lake. Enterococci were concentrated from water samples by membrane filtration according to the methodology outlined in USEPA Method 1600. After incubation, DNA was extracted from bacteria colonies on the membrane filters by using QIAamp DNA extraction kit. Water samples were also tested for the presence of traditional indicator bacteria including: heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Enterococcus bacteria. The marker esp gene was detected in one site of Bayou Cumbest, an area where human populations reside. Data from this study indicates higher concentrations of indicator bacteria compared to the recommended acceptable levels. Presence of esp marker and high numbers of indicator bacteria suggest a public health concern for shellfish and water contact activities. Hence, control strategies should be developed and implemented to prevent further contamination of the Grand bay NERR waters.

  16. Using Readership Research to Study Employee Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Surveys employees of the Hershey Medical Center in Pennsylvania to examine why they read "Vital Signs," the employee newsletter. Finds that employees with a higher level of organizational integration often place more emphasis on reading the employee newsletter to survey system functions and the employee social network. (MM)

  17. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF LIVER LESIONS IN AUTOPSY EXAMINATION- A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Konjengbam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Liver is the main site of various primary and secondary diseases including variety of external agents. Most of the chronic liver diseases remained asymptomatic even in the late stage. In apparently healthy persons, many liver lesions are detected incidentally following a postmortem examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done for a period of 5 years in a tertiary hospital to evaluate the histopathological profile of liver specimen in autopsy examination. Haematoxylin and Eosin sections of liver specimen were studied. A total of 352 samples were evaluated with male predominates the female sex in the ratio of 5.2:1. RESULTS The most common lesion was fatty liver (19% followed by cirrhosis (11.8%, venous congestion (11.5%, portal triaditis (10.9%, chronic hepatitis (6.2%, granulomatous hepatitis (2.1%, autolysis (16% and others (0.96%. Liver finding was normal in 14% of the cases. CONCLUSION Silent liver diseases are a quite regular finding in autopsy cases and thereby may implicate a common occurrence in general population. Autopsy examination of liver is a must for detection of silent liver diseases like fatty change, cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis.

  18. [A school-level longitudinal study of clinical performance examination scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Hee

    2015-06-01

    This school-level longitudinal study examined 7 years of clinical performance data to determine differences (effects) in students and annual changes within a school and between schools; examine how much their predictors (characteristics) influenced the variation in student performance; and calculate estimates of the schools' initial status and growth. A school-level longitudinal model was tested: level 1 (between students), level 2 (annual change within a school), and level 3 (between schools). The study sample comprised students who belonged to the CPX Consortium (n=5,283 for 2005~2008 and n=4,337 for 2009~2011). Despite a difference between evaluation domains, the performance outcomes were related to individual large-effect differences and small-effect school-level differences. Physical examination, clinical courtesy, and patient education were strongly influenced by the school effect, whereas patient-physician interaction was not affected much. Student scores are influenced by the school effect (differences), and the predictors explain the variation in differences, depending on the evaluation domain.

  19. A study comparing MRI with clinical examinations on wrists with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Niu Jinliang; Xie Weina; Song Zhizhen; Zheng Jie; Ma Qiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the appearances of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on MRI, and compare MRI with clinical examinations on wrists with RA. Methods: Fifty patients, fulfilled 1987 American Rheumatism Association (ARA) revised criteria, and 10 age-matched healthy controls entered the study. T 1 -weighted spin echo, short time inversion recovery (STIR) of both wrists, gadolinium contrast material-enhanced sequences of dominant wrists were performed in the coronal planes. MRl, plain wrist radiographs, clinical date, including swollen joint, patient global assessment (AIMS), and laboratory examinations including ESR, RF, APF, and AKA were obtained at the same time. Functional disability was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Score. Results: In 50 patients, all had pannus on MRI of wrists, 38 patients had enhanced signal intensity for pannus, 21 patients had bone marrow edema, 37 patients had joint effusion, and 37 patients had bone erosions. There were significant difference in the ESR, HAQ, AIMS as well as swollen joint count between patients with bone marrow edema and patients without bone marrow edema (P 2 =5.06, P=0.025; χ 2 =5.59, P=0.018). Number of patients with MRI erosion of wrists was associated with the number of patients without MRI bone marrow edema of wrists (χ 2 =5.11, P=0.024). Conclusion: MRI can find the appearances of wrists with RA. Comparing MRI with clinical examinations on wrists with RA, authors can assess and evaluate the role of MRI on RA

  20. Active commuting among K-12 educators: a study examining walking and biking to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Hastmann, Tanis J; Norton, Alyssa N

    2013-01-01

    Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC) is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators (n = 437) was recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants responded about AC patterns and social ecological influences on AC (individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors). t-tests and ANOVAs examined trends in AC, and Pearson correlations examined the relationship between AC and dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis determined the relative influence of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental levels on AC. Participants actively commuted 0.51 ± 1.93 times/week. There were several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors significantly related to AC. The full model explained 60.8% of the variance in AC behavior. This study provides insight on the factors that determine K-12 educators mode of commute and provide some insight for employee wellness among this population.

  1. Active Commuting among K-12 Educators: A Study Examining Walking and Biking to Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Walking and biking to work, active commuting (AC is associated with many health benefits, though rates of AC remain low in the US. K-12 educators represent a significant portion of the workforce, and employee health and associated costs may have significant economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the current rates of AC and factors associated with AC among K-12 educators. Methods. A volunteer sample of K-12 educators ( was recruited to participate in an online survey. Participants responded about AC patterns and social ecological influences on AC (individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors. -tests and ANOVAs examined trends in AC, and Pearson correlations examined the relationship between AC and dependent variables. Multiple regression analysis determined the relative influence of individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental levels on AC. Results. Participants actively commuted times/week. There were several individual, interpersonal, institutional, community, and environmental factors significantly related to AC. The full model explained 60.8% of the variance in AC behavior. Conclusions. This study provides insight on the factors that determine K-12 educators mode of commute and provide some insight for employee wellness among this population.

  2. Examination of pain experiences of cancer patients in western Turkey: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Korhan, Esra; Yildirim, Yasemin; Uyar, Meltem; Eyigör, Can; Uslu, Ruçhan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the individual experience of living with cancer pain. This qualitative study was performed by using a phenomenological research design. In-depth and open interviews with participants were conducted to collect the data and a qualitative Colaizzi method of analysis was performed. Following the analysis of the data, the expressions made by the cancer patients during the interviews were grouped under 5 themes. Consistent with the questionnaire format, 5 themes and 19 subthemes of responses were determined describing the pain of the cancer patients. The results of our study have demonstrated that cancer patients go through negative physical, psychological, and social experiences due to the pain they suffered.

  3. Examining E-Loyalty in a Sexual Health Website: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Alexandra; Crutzen, Rik; Haag, Devon; Chabot, Cathy; Carson, Anna; Ogilvie, Gina; Shoveller, Jean; Gilbert, Mark

    2017-11-02

    Web-based sexual health resources are typically evaluated in terms of their efficacy. Information is lacking about how sexual health promotion websites are perceived and used. It is essential to understand website use to address challenges with adherence and attrition to Web-based health interventions. An existing theoretical framework for examining loyalty to electronic health (eHealth) interventions has been not yet been applied in the context of sexual health promotion nor has the association between e-loyalty and intended intervention efficacy outcomes been investigated. The objectives of this study were to investigate users' loyalty toward a sexual health website (ie, e-loyalty), measure user perceptions of the website, and measure the association between e-loyalty and perceived knowledge increase and intent to change behavior. Over 4 months, website users (clients and health care providers) participated in an open, online, cross-sectional survey about their user experiences that measured e-loyalty, user perceptions, and intended website efficacy outcomes. Relationships between user perceptions and e-loyalty were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Associations between e-loyalty and website efficacy outcomes were tested using Spearman rank correlation. A total of 173 participants completed user perception questions and were included in the analysis. E-loyalty was high for both clients and providers and was significantly correlated with clients' perceived knowledge increase (ρ(171)=.30, Ployalty. Finding the website "easy to understand" was significantly related to active trust (ie, participants' willingness to act upon information presented on the website). E-loyalty may be related to the efficacy of the selected website in improving one's sexual health and was significantly associated with all three intended knowledge and behavioral outcomes. To increase e-loyalty, trustworthiness and active trust are important user perceptions to

  4. A study of requested CT head examinations and their positive yield rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Requests for CT examinations are ever increasing, partly due to the excellent clinical information they can provide for patient management and partly due to a perceived need for 'evidence' that everything has been done to diagnose a patient correctly. This has led to many CT examinations being done on patients where many of the radiology community does not necessarily feel CT will yield a positive finding, i.e. in their eyes - a possible unjustified use of radiation. To determine whether this was in fact true, or merely a perception, a study was performed by medical imaging and physics staff at the Royal Brisbane Hospital to determine statistics of positive yield for CT head exams. 600 CT head examinations from the Emergency Department at the Royal Brisbane Hospital were retrospectively examined and their findings were tabulated under various clinical categories to determine positive yield statistics. These categories were also tabulated with the radiologists advice as to whether they would have expected a positive finding. For several categories the positive yield for CT head exams was so low as to be considered negligible. Other categories, although low were still considered significant. These will be presented to the emergency department along with a suggested protocol for requesting CT head exams. It was unfortunate that this study had to be performed to prove to clinical staff that medical imaging staff members do in general have an excellent idea of what will show up in an x-ray and what will not! However, it was useful to be able to categorise 'positive yield' statistics into such specific classes. The next step is to try and communicate these findings to staff to create more trust and better communication between departments. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  5. Examining the Extent and Nature of Online Learning in American K-12 Education: The Research Initiatives of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, Anthony G.; Seaman, Jeff; Shea, Peter; Swan, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 1992, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation began its "Anytime, Anyplace Learning Program", the purpose of which was to explore educational alternatives for people who wanted to pursue an education via Internet technology. Part of this grant activity was a research award to the Babson College Survey Research Group to examine online learning in…

  6. Telemedicine Physical Examination Utilizing a Consumer Device Demonstrates Poor Concordance with In-Person Physical Examination in Emergency Department Patients with Sore Throat: A Prospective Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Moneeb; Van Heukelom, Paul G; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Tranter, Rachel D; White, Erinn; Shekem, Nathaniel; Walz, David; Fairfield, Catherine; Vakkalanka, J Priyanka; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2018-02-22

    Telemedicine allows patients to connect with healthcare providers remotely. It has recently expanded to evaluate low-acuity illnesses such as pharyngitis by using patients' personal communication devices. The purpose of our study was to compare the telemedicine-facilitated physical examination with an in-person examination in emergency department (ED) patients with sore throat. This was a prospective, observational, blinded diagnostic concordance study of patients being seen for sore throat in a 60,000-visit Midwestern academic ED. A telemedicine and a face-to-face examination were performed independently by two advanced practice providers (APP), blinded to the results of the other evaluator. The primary outcome was agreement on pharyngeal redness between the evaluators, with secondary outcomes of agreement and inter-rater reliability on 14 other aspects of the pharyngeal physical examination. We also conducted a survey of patients and providers to evaluate perceptions and preferences for sore throat evaluation using telemedicine. Sixty-two patients were enrolled, with a median tonsil size of 1.0. Inter-rater agreement (kappa) for tonsil size was 0.394, which was worse than our predetermined concordance threshold. Other kappa values ranged from 0 to 0.434, and telemedicine was best for detecting abnormal coloration of the palate and tender superficial cervical lymph nodes (anterior structures), but poor for detecting abnormal submandibular lymph nodes or asymmetry of the posterior pharynx (posterior structures). In survey responses, telemedicine was judged easier to use and more comfortable for providers than patients; however, neither patients nor providers preferred in-person to telemedicine evaluation. Telemedicine exhibited poor agreement with the in-person physical examination on the primary outcome of tonsil size, but exhibited moderate agreement on coloration of the palate and cervical lymphadenopathy. Future work should better characterize the importance of

  7. Examining a Social-Participatory Youth Co-Researcher Methodology: A Cross-Case Analysis Extending Possibilities of Literacy and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Vaughn W. M.; Marciano, Joanne E.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when youth are increasingly negotiating new media literacy practices across multiple contexts, literacy researchers are compelled to take notice and reconsider methodologies that centre the researcher, to purposefully engage youth's knowledge, identities and new media literacies as research methodologies. To that end, the authors…

  8. A case study examination of structure and function in a state health department chronic disease unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Jeanne

    2015-04-01

    I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness.

  9. Examining the Use of a Visual Analytics System for Sensemaking Tasks: Case Studies with Domain Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youn-Ah; Stasko, J

    2012-12-01

    While the formal evaluation of systems in visual analytics is still relatively uncommon, particularly rare are case studies of prolonged system use by domain analysts working with their own data. Conducting case studies can be challenging, but it can be a particularly effective way to examine whether visual analytics systems are truly helping expert users to accomplish their goals. We studied the use of a visual analytics system for sensemaking tasks on documents by six analysts from a variety of domains. We describe their application of the system along with the benefits, issues, and problems that we uncovered. Findings from the studies identify features that visual analytics systems should emphasize as well as missing capabilities that should be addressed. These findings inform design implications for future systems.

  10. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF ENDORSER CREDIBILITY ON THE CONSUMERS' BUYING INTENTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ermec Sertoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a positive relationship with purchase intention. Created spokesperson is perceived to be more trustworthy and competent whereas the celebrity endorser is found to be more attractive by the respondents. This study is unique in a way that it covers fairly new and rapidly growing Turkish market. One factor that makes this study unique in Turkey, in which the usage of celebrity endorsers holds significant part in the marketing of products, is the lack of studies that would measure the effectiveness of this method.

  11. The assessment of neurovascular coupling with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination: a functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beishon, Lucy C; Williams, Claire A L; Panerai, Ronney B; Robinson, Thompson G; Haunton, Victoria J

    2018-03-01

    Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs early in dementia and can be identified by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Few studies have examined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) responses to a detailed cognitive battery. This study aimed to characterize all CBFv responses, and the effect of hemispheric dominance, to the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in healthy volunteers. Forty volunteers underwent continuous bilateral TCD, beat-to-beat blood pressure (MAP; Finapres), heart rate (HR; electrocardiogram), and end-tidal CO 2 (ETCO 2 ; capnography) monitoring. After a 5-min baseline period, all tasks from the ACE-III were performed in 3 sections (A: attention, fluency, memory; B: language; C: visuospatial, memory). Data are population mean normalized percentage (PM%) change from a 20-s baseline period before task initiation. Forty bilateral data sets were obtained (27 women, 37 right-hand dominant). All paradigms produced a sharp increase in CBFv in both dominant (PM% range: 3.29 to 9.70%) and nondominant (PM% range: 4.34 to 11.63%) hemispheres at task initiation, with associated increases in MAP (PM% range: 3.06 to 16.04%). ETCO 2 did not differ significantly at task initiation (PM% range: -1.1 to 2.4%, P > 0.05). HR differed significantly across A and C tasks at initiation (PM% range: -1.1 to 2.4%, P cognitively impaired population. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to provide a normative data set of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) responses to a complete cognitive assessment (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination, ACE-III) in a large sample ( n = 40) of healthy volunteers. All tasks produced peak and sustained increases in CBFv to different extents. The ACE-III is a feasible tool to assess neurovascular coupling with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. These data can be used to inform the most appropriate cognitive task to elicit CBFv responses for future studies.

  12. Cheating in Examinations: A Study of Academic Dishonesty in a Malaysian College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Asmawati Shariffuddin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical studies indicate that cheating by post-secondary students is prevalent in many countries. This study attempts to explore academic dishonesty among students at Terengganu Advanced Technical Institute University College (TATiUC in Malaysia. Cheating techniques, preventive measures and the support required by lecturers to handle cheating incidents were examined. Six former students who were confirmed cheaters and two lecturers and administrators at TATiUC participated in the study. Data were collected by using narrative responses and interviews. The results showed that creative and innovative techniques were used to cheat successfully. It was also found that participants believed that even if preventive measures were taken, it was not possible to stop academic cheating entirely although it could be deterred to a certain extent. Furthermore, it was discovered that there were variations in the implementation of examination rules and regulations by lecturers. Finally, the study revealed that support in terms of training and courses was needed to deal with academic dishonesty.

  13. Post-hoc simulation study to adopt a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for a Korean Medical License Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Gi; Choi, Jeongwook

    2018-05-17

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has been adopted in license examinations due to a test efficiency and accuracy. Many research about CAT have been published to prove the efficiency and accuracy of measurement. This simulation study investigated scoring method and item selection methods to implement CAT in Korean medical license examination (KMLE). This study used post-hoc (real data) simulation design. The item bank used in this study was designed with all items in a 2017 KMLE. All CAT algorithms for this study were implemented by a 'catR' package in R program. In terms of accuracy, Rasch and 2parametric logistic (PL) model performed better than 3PL model. Modal a Posteriori (MAP) or Expected a Posterior (EAP) provided more accurate estimates than MLE and WLE. Furthermore Maximum posterior weighted information (MPWI) or Minimum expected posterior variance (MEPV) performed better than other item selection methods. In terms of efficiency, Rasch model was recommended to reduce test length. Simulation study should be performed under varied test conditions before adopting a live CAT. Based on a simulation study, specific scoring and item selection methods should be predetermined before implementing a live CAT.

  14. Examination of the utility of the promoting action on research implementation in health services framework for implementation of evidence based practice in residential aged care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; Bellchambers, Helen; Howie, Andrew; Moxey, Annette; Parkinson, Lynne; Capra, Sandra; Byles, Julie

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the relevance and fit of the PARiHS framework (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) as an explanatory model for practice change in residential aged care. Translation of research knowledge into routine practice is a complex matter in health and social care environments. Examination of the environment may identify factors likely to support and hinder practice change, inform strategy development, predict and explain successful uptake of new ways of working. Frameworks to enable this have been described but none has been tested in residential aged care. This paper reports preliminary qualitative analyses from the Encouraging Best Practice in Residential Aged Care Nutrition and Hydration project conducted in New South Wales in 2007-2009. We examined congruence with the PARiHS framework of factors staff described as influential for practice change during 29 digitally recorded and transcribed staff interviews and meetings at three facilities. Unique features of the setting were flagged, with facilities simultaneously filling the roles of residents' home, staff's workplace and businesses. Participants discussed many of the same characteristics identified by the PARiHS framework, but in addition temporal dimensions of practice change were flagged. Overall factors described by staff as important for practice change in aged care settings showed good fit with those of the PARiHS framework. This framework can be recommended for use in this setting. Widespread adoption will enable cross-project and international synthesis of findings, a major step towards building a cumulative science of knowledge translation and practice change. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Intervention Studies in Suicide Prevention Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, A.; Pirkis, J; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing strength of the field of suicidology, various commentators have recently noted that insufficient effort is being put into intervention research, and that this is limiting our knowledge of which suicide prevention strategies might be the most effective. Aims: To

  16. An Examination of How Women and Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Experience Barriers in Biomedical Research and Medical Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    2013-01-01

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, &…

  17. Results of the study of entrance surface dose from conventional examinations in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Jova, L.; Carrazana, J.; Diaz, E.; Mora, R. de la; Guevara, C.; Fleitas, I.

    2001-01-01

    The wide diffusion of X-ray diagnostic together with the quick development and expansion that has come with experiencing the technology in this practice, has motivated the emission of recommendations in the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA for the establishment of guidance levels for different radiological examinations in each country that allow the optimization of the medical exposure. Considering the above-mentioned and the existence in Cuba in a great number of conventional X-ray equipment, with an average of over 10 years of use which influences directly on the patient dose, in 1999, an investigation began in the country on the patient exposure in this practice. This work shows the first results of measurements carried out in 9 major hospitals of several provinces of the country. The doses were evaluated in the examinations of lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine LAT, thorax PA, skull AP and skull LAT. The determination of the doses in these examinations was carried out by 'in-vivo' measurements on the patients, placing in the center of the irradiation field TLD of LiF. The distributions obtained in the studies are compared with the guidance levels that is shown in the Basic Safety Standards of the IAEA. (author)

  18. Utility of AD8 for Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Physical Examination Population: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yue; Gao, Ya; Jia, Jianjun; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhenfu; Xie, Hengge

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the utility of AD8 for cognitive impairment in a Chinese physical examination population. Methods. Military cadres who took routine physical examination in Chinese PLA General Hospital from Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2013, were subjected to AD8 scale. Individual information such as age, gender, and education was also collected. All data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results. 1544 subjects were enrolled in this study with mean age 75.4 ± 10.6 years. The subjects who scored 0 to 8 of AD8 scale were 1015, 269, 120, 60, 30, 14, 19, 8, and 9, respectively. Corresponding proportions were 65.7%, 17.4%, 7.8%, 3.9%, 2.0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 0.5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of 8 questions was 5.6%, 9.2%, 6.6%, 9.2%, 4.8%, 4.5%, 8.9%, and 24.1%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of question 8 was significantly higher than others (P physical examination population. PMID:25436227

  19. Utility of AD8 for Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Physical Examination Population: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the utility of AD8 for cognitive impairment in a Chinese physical examination population. Methods. Military cadres who took routine physical examination in Chinese PLA General Hospital from Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2013, were subjected to AD8 scale. Individual information such as age, gender, and education was also collected. All data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results. 1544 subjects were enrolled in this study with mean age 75.4 ± 10.6 years. The subjects who scored 0 to 8 of AD8 scale were 1015, 269, 120, 60, 30, 14, 19, 8, and 9, respectively. Corresponding proportions were 65.7%, 17.4%, 7.8%, 3.9%, 2.0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 0.5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of 8 questions was 5.6%, 9.2%, 6.6%, 9.2%, 4.8%, 4.5%, 8.9%, and 24.1%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of question 8 was significantly higher than others (P<0.05. 260 subjects were scored equal to or greater than 2. The abnormal rate was 16.9%. All the participants were stratified into 9 groups by age; the prevalence of dementia was highly correlated with age (P<0.01. Conclusion. AD8 scale is a convenient and effective tool for cognitive screening in routine physical examination population.

  20. A Validation Study of the Japanese Version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelssy Hitomi dos Santos Kawata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R [Mori: Japanese Edition of Hodges JR’s Cognitive Assessment for Clinicians, 2010] designed to detect dementia, and to compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination. The ACE-R was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 126 patients with dementia. The reliability assessment revealed a strong correlation in both groups. The internal consistency was excellent (α-coefficient = 0.88. Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes score was significant (rs = –0.61, p < 0.001. The area under the curve was 0.98 for the ACE-R and 0.96 for the Mini-Mental State Examination. The cut-off score of 80 showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 94%. Like the original ACE-R and the versions designed for other languages, the Japanese version of the ACE-R is a reliable and valid test for the detection of dementia.

  1. Nursing service innovation: A case study examining emergency nurse practitioner service sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Amanda; Gardner, Glenn; Osborne, Sonya

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to explore factors that influence sustainability of health service innovation, specifically emergency nurse practitioner service. Planning for cost effective provision of healthcare services is a concern globally. Reform initiatives are implemented often incorporating expanding scope of practice for health professionals and innovative service delivery models. Introducing new models is costly in both human and financial resources and therefore understanding factors influencing sustainability is imperative to viable service provision. This research used case study methodology (Yin, ). Data were collected during 2014 from emergency nurse practitioners, emergency department multidisciplinary team members and documents related to nurse practitioner services. Collection methods included telephone and semi-structured interviews, survey and document analysis. Pattern matching techniques were used to compare findings with study propositions. In this study, emergency nurse practitioner services did not meet factors that support health service sustainability. Multidisciplinary team members were confident that emergency nurse practitioner services were safe and helped to meet population health needs. Organizational support for integration of nurse practitioner services was marginal and led to poor understanding of service capability and underuse. This research provides evidence informing sustainability of nursing service models but more importantly raises questions about this little explored field. The findings highlight poor organizational support, excessive restrictions and underuse of the service. This is in direct contrast to contemporary expanding practice reform initiatives. Organizational support for integration is imperative to future service sustainability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Uses of Published Research: An Exploratory Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Fahy

    Full Text Available Academic publications are too often ignored by other researchers. There are various reasons: Researchers know that conclusions may eventually be proved wrong; publications are sometimes retracted; effects may decline when studied later; researchers occasionally don’t seem to know about papers they have allegedly authored; there are even accusations of fraud (Cohen, 2011. In this exploratory case study, 10 papers were examined to determine the various ways they were used by others, whether there were cases of reported effects declining, and whether, among those who referenced the papers, there were suggestions that anything in the papers ought to be retracted. Findings showed that all the papers had been referenced by others (337 user publications were found, containing a total of 868 references. Other findings include the following: Single references were far more common than multiple references; applications/replications were the least common type of usage (23 occurrences, followed by contrasts/elaborations (34, and quotations (65; unlike reports regarding publications in the sciences, whether the paper was solo- or co-authored did not affect usage; appearance in a non-prestige journal was actually associated with more usage of some kinds; and well over 80% of uses were in heavily scrutinized sources (journal articles or theses/dissertations. The paper concludes with recommendations to writers about how to avoid producing publications that are ignored.

  3. A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Paradies, Yin; Trenerry, Brigid; Truong, Mandy; Karlsen, Saffron; Kelly, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Racial discrimination is increasingly recognised as a determinant of racial and ethnic health inequalities, with growing evidence of strong associations between racial discrimination and adult health outcomes. There is a growing body of literature that considers the effects of racial discrimination on child and youth health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine relationships between reported racial discrimination and child and youth health. We describe the characteristics of 121 studies identified by a comprehensive search strategy, including definitions and measurements of racial discrimination and the nature of reported associations. Most studies were published in the last seven years, used cross-sectional designs and were conducted in the United States with young people aged 12-18 years. African American, Latino/a, and Asian populations were most frequently included in these studies. Of the 461 associations examined in these studies, mental health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety) were most commonly reported, with statistically significant associations with racial discrimination found in 76% of outcomes examined. Statistically significant associations were also found for over 50% of associations between racial discrimination and positive mental health (e.g. self esteem, resilience), behaviour problems, wellbeing, and pregnancy/birth outcomes. The field is currently limited by a lack of longitudinal studies, limited psychometrically validated exposure instruments and poor conceptualisation and definition of racial discrimination. There is also a need to investigate the complex and varying pathways by which reported racial discrimination affect child and youth health. Ensuring study quality in this field will allow future research to reveal the complex role that racial discrimination plays as a determinant of child and youth health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Researching Critical Literacy: A Critical Study of Analysis of Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sluys, Katie; Lewison, Mitzi; Flint, Amy Seely

    2006-01-01

    Studying critical literacies includes examining how research practices influence what is learned about classroom activity and the world. This article highlights the processes and practices used in studying 1 classroom conversation. The data, drawn from an elementary school classroom of a Critical Literacy in Action teacher-researcher group member,…

  5. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehrani Fahimeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI. In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. Results The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Conclusion Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  6. Wines of Baja Mexico: A qualitative study examining viticulture, enology, and marketing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Covarrubias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has been producing wine since the 1500, yet very little is known about their viticulture, enology, and marketing practices. This qualitative research study was designed to shed more light on these issues. Based on 10 in-depth interviews with winery owners and winemakers in the Valle de Guadualupe of the Baja Peninsula, where the majority of Mexican wineries are located, this study describes viticulture, enology, and marketing practices for Baja wines. It concludes with a discussion on the future of Mexican wines.

  7. The third space: The use of self-study to examine the culture of a science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Dashia M.

    Science educators are in the position to create bridges between their students and the world of science (Aikenhead, 1996, 1999). This connection has often been described as the third space (Bhabha, 1994; Moje, Collazo, Carrillo, & Marx, 2001; Wallace, 2004), which is represented as a combination or a meeting of the students' world and the world of science. In this study, I examined my role in creating the third space through the use of self-study. Self-study is a form of research, educators use to understand their practice (Austin & Senese, 2004; Loughran, 2004; Northfield & Loughran, 1996). It is a means of describing, analyzing, and interpreting a teacher's actions within his or her classroom (Tidwell, 2002). The focal point of this self-study is to understand my actions found within my past and present teaching experiences and the underlying beliefs that are expressed through those actions. In this self-study, I collected data from my life history, classroom observations, and member check interview. My life history described my influences that shaped my philosophy of teaching and learning, while the classroom observations provided a means of understanding my interactions with the science curriculum and my English Language Learner (ELL) students. And finally, a member check focus group interview occurred to confirm the results occurring in the classroom observations. Once the data were collected, I used grounded theory methods to analyze my results and answer the research questions. This self-study became the means of exploring my philosophy of teaching and learning and my teaching practices as they occurred in an ELL science classroom. I examined my own practice through a comparison between my past experiences and my current teaching situation and through this exploration, I identified my actions and the beliefs associated with those actions as they informed my teaching practices.

  8. [Strengthening the methodology of study designs in scientific researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ze-qin

    2010-06-01

    Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.

  9. Basic heart examination: feasibility study of first-trimester systematic simplified fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarello, E; Lafouge, A; Fries, N; Salomon, L J

    2017-02-01

    First-trimester fetal cardiac screening examinations in low-risk populations should not have to meet the specifications required for high-risk populations. Our aim was to evaluate a simplified fetal echocardiographic ('basic heart') examination for early detection of severe congenital heart defects in a low-risk population. This was a first-trimester national 'flash study', performed over a 2-week period. Each observer was requested to perform simplified echocardiography without modifying the time and methods deemed necessary for the routine first-trimester ultrasound examination, in fetuses with crown-rump length between 45 and 84 mm. This basic heart assessment used targeted cross-sections of the four-chamber view (4CV) and of the three vessels and trachea (3VT) view, using color and/or directional power Doppler. All examinations were then reviewed offline and scored for quality by a qualified expert. Sixty observers performed a total of 597 first-trimester ultrasound examinations, each performing an average of 10 (range, 1-26) procedures. Examinations were conducted transabdominally (79%; 472/597), transvaginally (3%; 17/597) or both (18%; 108/597). In 8% (45/597) of cases, the fetal back was anterior, in 18% (108/597) it was on the left side, in 63% (377/597) it was posterior and in 11% (67/597) it was on the right side. It became clear during scoring by the expert that, unlike the Herman quality score for nuchal translucency measurement, it was difficult to assess the quality of these images without taking into account normality of the heart itself. Analysis of scores showed that the 4CV was obtained successfully and was deemed normal in 86% (512/597) of the patients, in 7% (41/597) it was deemed technically infeasible and in 7% (44/597) it was deemed feasible but atypical, which may have been due to the presence of an abnormality or to poor quality of the image. The 3VT view was obtained successfully and was normal in 79% (472/597) of the patients, in 13

  10. Studies of the CNESTEN's Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alami, R.

    1988-11-01

    The different steps of the methodology applied to the site selection of Maamora's Nuclear Research Centre, within a 20 km wide coastal band preliminarily fixed between Kenitra and Casablanca cities, are outlined: delimitation of potential zones, identification of potential sites, selection of preferred sites. A particular attention is given to the criterium of the methodology applied to the preferred sites classifying. 1 map, 2 tabs, 2 refs. (F.M.)

  11. Can informetrics shape biomedical research? A case study of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical research is burgeoning as new dangerous diseases and healing methods emerge. Informetrics defined as methods or a research field that uses mathematical and statistical techniques and/or models to examine patterns that show up not only in publications but also in many aspects of life, as long as the patterns ...

  12. Practice as Research: A Fine Art Contextual Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Suze

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic interplay between practice and theory in practice-led research in the visual arts. Building on recent debate around the issue and following appropriately rigorous models, the importance of locating a suitable methodology to adequately reflect the integrated process of research practice in written as well as visual…

  13. A Study of Automation for Examination Analysis of Inservice Inspection for Nuclear Power Plant (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.

    1985-01-01

    The developing country, KOREA where does not possess the natural resources for traditional energy such as oil and gas, so. The nuclear energy is the most single reliable source available for closing the energy gap. For these reason, It is inavoidable to construct the nuclear power plant and to develop technology related nuclear energy. The rate of operation in large nuclear power facilities depends upon the performance of work system through design and construction, and also the applied technology. Especially, it is the most important element that safety and reliability in operation of nuclear power plant. In view of this aspects, Nuclear power plant is performed severe examinations during perceives and inservice inspection. This study provide an automation of analysis for volumetric examination which is required to nuclear power plant components. It is composed as follows: I. Introduction II. Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant * General Requirement. * Principle and Methods of Ultrasonic Test. * Study of Flaw Evaluation and Design of Classifying Formula for Flaws. III. Design of Automation for Flaw Evaluation. IV. An Example V. Conclusion In this theory, It is classifying the flaws, the formula of classifying flaws and the design of automation that is the main important point. As motioned the above, Owing to such as automatic design, more time could be allocated to practical test than that of evaluation of defects, Protecting against subjective bias tester by himself and miscalculation by dint of various process of computation. For the more, adopting this method would be used to more retaining for many test data and comparative evaluating during successive inspection intervals. Inspire of limitation for testing method and required application to test components, it provide useful application to flow evaluation for volumetric examination. Owing to the characteristics of nuclear power plant that is highly skill intensive industry and has huge system, the

  14. A comparative study of postmortem MR imaging and pathological examination of human brain specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiga, Tohru

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the value of MRI of the postmortem brain specimens by comparing MRI findings with neuropathological findings. Postmortem MRI was performed in 17 consecutive formalin-fixed whole brains comprising 3 with primary CNS neoplasm, 1 with metastatic brain tumor, 6 with cerebral vascular disease (CVD), 1 with degenerative disease, 1 with spongy state in thalamus, and 5 with no abnormality. Postmortem T2WI detected all neuropathological abnormalities but sparsely distributed tumor cells without edema. In one case of CNS neoplasm, the tumor lesions with little necrosis or edema showed isointensity to brain tissue, while others with large amounts of necrosis and edema showed high signal intensity on T2WI. In the cases of CVD, the major signal changes on T2WI were due to edema, necrosis, and damage of the organization as observed on neuropathological studies. There was one case in which both MRI and neuropathological examination showed an abnormality, which was pathologically unexplainable. In two cases, findings of postmortem MRI were more apparent than those of macroscopic examination. Postmortem MRI appeared different from premortem MRI in one of the rest three cases whereas the postmortem MRI correlated well with neuropathological findings. Progression of the disease immediately before death may have caused this difference. In conclusion, the correlations between MRI and neuropathological findings facilitate understanding the mechanisms responsible for MRI abnormalities. An increase in free water in edema, necrosis, and damage in brain tissue can explain an increased signal intensity on T2WI. Postmortem MRI may contribute to the effective pathological examination by pointing out subtle abnormalities before brain cutting. (author)

  15. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    George C. Hadjinicola; Andreas C. Soteriou

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM) groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as ...

  16. Psoriasis and wound healing outcomes: A retrospective cohort study examining wound complications and antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Paulina M; Parsi, Kory K; Schupp, Clayton W; Armstrong, April W

    2017-11-15

    Little is known about wound healing in psoriasis. We performed a cohort study examining differences in wound healing complications between patients with and without psoriasis. Psoriasis patients with traumatic wounds were matched 1:3 to non-psoriasis patients with traumatic wounds based on age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). We examined theincidence of wound complications including infection, necrosis, and hematoma as well as incident antibiotic use within three months following diagnosis of a traumatic wound. The study included 164 patients with traumatic wounds, comprised of 41 patients with psoriasis matched to 123 patients without psoriasis. No statistically significant differences were detected in the incidence of overall wound complications between wound patients with psoriasis and wound patients without psoriasis (14.6% versus. 13.0%, HR 1.18, CI 0.39-3.56). After adjustment for diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and smoking, no statistically significant differences were detected in the incidence of overall wound complications between patients with and without psoriasis (HR 1.11, CI 0.34-3.58). Specifically, the adjusted rates of antibiotic use were not significantly different between those with and without psoriasis (HR 0.65, CI 0.29-1.46). The incidence of wound complications following traumatic wounds of the skin was found to be similar between patients with and without psoriasis.

  17. Evaluation of radiation dose in pediatric head CT examination: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhasrina Nik Din, Nik; Zainon, Rafidah; Rahman, Ahmad Taufek Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation dose in pediatric head Computed Tomography examination. It was reported that decreasing tube voltage in CT examination can reduce the dose to patients significantly. A head phantom was scanned with dual-energy CT at 80 kV and 120 kV. The tube current was set using automatic exposure control mode and manual setting. The pitch was adjusted to 1.4, 1.45 and 1.5 while the slice thickness was set at 5 mm. The dose was measured based on CT Dose Index (CTDI). Results from this study have shown that the image noise increases substantially with low tube voltage. The average dose was 2.60 mGy at CT imaging parameters of 80 kV and 10 - 30 mAs. The dose increases up to 17.19 mGy when the CT tube voltage increases to 120 kV. With the reduction of tube voltage from 120 kV to 80 kV, the radiation dose can be reduced by 12.1% to 15.1% without degradation of contrast-to-noise ratio.

  18. Examining the Disciplinary Level Relationship between the Research Context of Academic Work and the Utilization of Student-Centered Pedagogy at Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbosh, Kyle William

    2015-01-01

    The roles of researcher and teacher are fundamental to faculty work. Academic freedom enables faculty to principally direct the performance of their research and teaching; even so, these roles are not immune to normative influence. Disciplinary affiliation represents a powerful source of peer-driven, norms that inform the performance and…

  19. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  20. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study. Report 2. 1958-1960 cycle of examinations Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L; Seigel, D

    1963-10-29

    This report has presented the basic data collected during the 1958 to 1960 cycle of examinations in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study in Nagasaki. No large differences were found among the 4 comparison groups. The only exceptions are to be found in a number of nonspecific complaints elicited during the review of systems. Inevitably in a review of this size some differences appeared between groups. These are pointed out in the text whenever possible. None were so large, nor so consistent within specific age and sex groups, however, that they could be categorically attributed to radiation. It will be necessary to compare them with subsequent medical experience in this study group and in Hiroshima. 13 references, 41 tables.

  1. TOGAF 9 foundation study guide preparation for the TOGAF 9 part 1 examination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This title is a Study Guide for Togaf® 9 Foundation. It gives an overview of every learning objective for the Togaf 9 Foundation Syllabus and in-depth coverage on preparing and taking the Togaf 9 Part 1 Examination. It is specifically designed to help individuals prepare for certification. This Study Guide is excellent material for: * Individuals who require a basic understanding of Togaf 9; * Professionals who are working in roles associated with an architecture project such as those responsible for planning, execution, development, delivery, and operation; * Architects who are looking for a first introduction to Togaf 9; * Architects who want to achieve Level 2 certification in a stepwise manner and have not previously qualified as Togaf 8 Certified. A prior knowledge of enterprise architecture is advantageous but not required.

  2. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis showed widely differing radiographic techniques. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques poorly suited for paediatric radiology. Significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. This study emphasises the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology. (author)

  3. Results of a dosimetry study in the European Community on frequent X ray examinations in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Bakowski, C.; Stein, E.; Kohn, M.; Kellner, M.; Schweighofer, K.; Cartagena, G.; Panzer, W.; Scheurer, C.; Wall, B.

    1992-01-01

    This Europe-wide dosimetry study, covering 89 departments in 11 EC countries, measured entrance surface dose (ESD) using TLDs, and surveyed X ray equipment and radiographic techniques used for frequent paediatric X ray examinations of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull and spine. The survey was limited to infants (10 months, 4 months and prematures of ∼ 1 kg). Data analysis shows that radiographic techniques differed widely. This was one of the reasons for the large variations in ESD of an order of magnitude of 1:50. A substantial number of departments used either very old X ray generators and/or techniques which are poorly suited for paediatric radiology. A significant dose reduction was seen when recommended guidelines for good radiographic technique were followed. The results of this study emphasize the necessity for the adherence to easily followed guidelines for the improvement of training and equipment in paediatric radiology

  4. Hypofractionated regional nodal irradiation for breast cancer: Examining the data and potential for future studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiyan, Shahed N.; Shah, Chirag; Arthur, Douglas; Khan, Atif J.; Freedman, Gary; Poppe, Matthew M.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available examining the role of hypofractionated radiation schedules in the management of women requiring regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The purpose of this review is to examine the available literature for the efficacy (where available) and toxicity of hypofractionated radiation schedules in breast cancer with RNI limited to the axilla and supraclavicular regions. Multiple randomized and prospective studies have documented the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated schedules delivering whole breast irradiation (WBI) alone. Subsets from these randomized trials and smaller prospective/single-institution studies have documented the feasibility of hypofractionated RNI but the limited numbers prevent definitive conclusions and limited efficacy data are available. With regard to possible toxicity affecting organs at risk with RNI, key structures include the breast, skin, heart, lungs, axilla (lymphedema), and brachial plexus. Based on data from several randomized trials, hypofractionated radiation is not associated with significant changes in breast toxicity/cosmesis or cardiac toxicity; the addition of hypofractionated RNI would not be expected to change the rates of breast or cardiac toxicity. While RNI has been shown to increase rates of pulmonary toxicity, hypofractionated RNI has not been associated with more frequent pulmonary complications than standard RNI. Moving forward, future studies will have to evaluate for increased lung toxicity. With regard to lymphedema, data from randomized hypofractionated WBI trials failed to demonstrate an increase in lymphedema and smaller studies utilizing hypofractionated RNI have failed to as well. Data from head and neck cancer as well as hypofractionated breast radiation with RNI have failed to demonstrate an increase in brachial plexopathy with the exception of older trials that used much larger dose per fraction (>4 Gy/fraction) schedules. At this time, published data support the feasibility of

  5. Trunk Muscle Size and Composition Assessment in Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Intra-Examiner and Inter-Examiner Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sions, Jaclyn Megan; Smith, Andrew Craig; Hicks, Gregory Evan; Elliott, James Matthew

    2016-08-01

     To evaluate intra- and inter-examiner reliability for the assessment of relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area, i.e., total cross-sectional area minus intramuscular fat, from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained in older adults with chronic low back pain.  Reliability study.  n = 13 (69.3 ± 8.2 years old)  After lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, two examiners produced relative cross-sectional area measurements of multifidi, erector spinae, psoas, and quadratus lumborum by tracing regions of interest just inside fascial borders. Pixel-intensity summaries were used to determine muscle-to-fat infiltration indices; relative muscle cross-sectional area was calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to estimate intra- and inter-examiner reliability; standard error of measurement was calculated.  Intra-examiner intraclass correlation coefficient point estimates for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area were excellent for multifidi and erector spinae across levels L2-L5 (ICC = 0.77-0.99). At L3, intra-examiner reliability was excellent for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area for both psoas and quadratus lumborum (ICC = 0.81-0.99). Inter-examiner intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from poor to excellent for relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area.  Assessment of relative cross-sectional area, muscle-to-fat infiltration indices, and relative muscle cross-sectional area in older adults with chronic low back pain can be reliably determined by one examiner from T1-weighted images. Such assessments provide valuable information, as muscle-to-fat infiltration indices and relative muscle cross-sectional area indicate that a substantial amount of

  6. Examining “Elite” Power Dynamics in Informant–Research Relations and Its Impact on Ethnographic Data Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Declercq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how power dynamics between informants and field researchers shape ethnographic data construction, drawing on fieldwork at a pharmaceutical company. Pharmaceutical companies are considered elite settings, and often assumed to be powerful in relation to the researcher and dominating the data construction. However, such a view conceptualizes power in terms of fixed categories, in which there is a superior and subordinate position. We reconsider the impact of elite informants in the light of a constructivist, interactionist view on power, in which power is dynamic and not necessarily entailing domination. We answer the following research questions: (1 How can we observe power dynamics, as conceptualized in a constructionist and interaction orientation, in ethnographic research? and (2 How can we reflect on what these power dynamics mean for data construction, based on our experiences in elite settings? To do so, we make use of discursive and interactional analytic methods and propose three levels of analysis: (1 the level of conversation, (2 the level of ethnography, and (3 the level of the organization in society. They respectively shed light on power in relation to (1 what is said and how, (2 the meanings attached to the ethnographic events, and (3 the meaning of the ethnography in relation to the discourses on the organization in society. With this article, we aim to provide researchers with a methodological tool to approach and to reflect on the significance of power relations in the context of ethnography and interviewing and its impact on data construction.

  7. Do feasibility studies contribute to, or avoid, waste in research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ben; Hejdenberg, Jennie; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Armstrong, David

    2018-01-01

    In the context of avoiding research waste, the conduct of a feasibility study before a clinical trial should reduce the risk that further resources will be committed to a trial that is likely to 'fail'. However, there is little evidence indicating whether feasibility studies add to or reduce waste in research. Feasibility studies funded by the National Institute for Health Research's (NIHR) Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) programme were examined to determine how many had published their findings, how many had applied for further funding for a full trial and the timeframe in which both of these occurred. A total of 120 feasibility studies which had closed by May 2016 were identified and each Principal Investigator (PI) was sent a questionnaire of which 89 responses were received and deemed suitable for analysis. Based on self reported answers from the PIs a total of 57 feasibility studies were judged as feasible, 20 were judged not feasible and for 12 it was judged as uncertain whether a full trial was feasible. The RfPB programme had spent approximately £19.5m on the 89 feasibility studies of which 16 further studies had been subsequently funded to a total of £16.8m. The 20 feasibility studies which were judged as not feasible potentially saved up to approximately £20m of further research funding which would likely to have not completed successfully. The average RfPB feasibility study took 31 months (range 18 to 48) to complete and cost £219,048 (range £72,031 to £326,830) and the average full trial funded from an RfPB feasibility study took 42 months (range 26 to 55) to complete and cost £1,163,996 (range £321,403 to £2,099,813). The average timeframe of feasibility study and full trial was 72 months (range 56 to 91), however in addition to this time an average of 10 months (range -7 to 29) was taken between the end of the feasibility study and the application for the full trial, and a further average of 18 months (range 13 to 28) between the

  8. A Pilot Study Examining ADHD and Behavioural Disturbance in Female Mentally Disordered Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hollingdale

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared with general population rates, prevalence rates of ADHD have been consistently reported to be higher in both male and female offender populations, the latter estimated to range between 10–29%. Research in forensic institutional settings has reported that aggressive behaviour is a particularly prominent source of impairment among men with ADHD. However there is a paucity of research investigating the type of behavioural incidents that may arise in female offenders with ADHD. This pilot study therefore aimed to further our understanding of ADHD within a cohort of female mentally disordered offenders by ascertaining estimated rates of ADHD and associated functional disturbance presenting in this population. Fifty female offenders completed the Barkley ADHD rating scales. Data on aggressive and self-harming behaviours were obtained from patients’ clinical records. Almost one-third of patients (28% screened positive for ADHD, most commonly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. They were significantly younger than their peers and there were no significant differences in behavioural disturbance records between groups. When controlling for age, hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and combined symptoms were significantly and positively correlated with measures of behavioural disturbance. ADHD symptoms correlated more strongly with self-harm than outward aggression, which is a novel finding. This pilot study has contributed to the knowledge base about the rate and functional problems of female offenders with ADHD. Future research should replicate the study using a larger sample and explore the effect of treatment (pharmacological and psychological on the reduction of ADHD symptoms, behavioural disturbance, length of stay and quality of life.

  9. Are Leadership and Management Essential for Good Research? An Interview Study of Genetic Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Alison L; Mart, Adelina; DuBois, James M

    2016-12-01

    Principal investigators are responsible for a myriad of leadership and management activities in their work. The practices they use to navigate these responsibilities ultimately influence the quality and integrity of research. However, leadership and management roles in research have received scant empirical examination. Semi-structured interviews with 32 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded genetic researchers revealed that they considered leadership and management essential for effective research, but their scientific training inadequately prepared them. We also report management practices that the researchers described using in their labs, as well as their perceptions of a proposed intervention to enhance laboratory leadership. These findings suggest best practices for the research community, future directions for scientific training, and implications for research on leadership and management in science.

  10. Are Leadership and Management Essential for Good Research? An Interview Study of Genetic Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Alison L.; Mart, Adelina; DuBois, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Principal investigators are responsible for a myriad of leadership and management activities in their work. The practices they employ to navigate these responsibilities ultimately influence the quality and integrity of research. However, leadership and management roles in research have received scant empirical examination. Semi-structured interviews with 32 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded genetic researchers revealed that they considered leadership and management essential for effective research, but their scientific training inadequately prepared them. We also report management practices that the researchers described employing in their labs, as well as their perceptions of a proposed intervention to enhance laboratory leadership. These findings suggest best practices for the research community, future directions for scientific training, and implications for research on leadership and management in science. PMID:27646401

  11. A pilot study to examine maturation of body temperature control in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobel, Robin B; Levy, Janet; Katz, Laurence; Guenther, Bob; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2013-01-01

    To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low-birth-weight (EBLW) infants. A case study design. The study took place in a Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. Four ELBW infants, fewer than 29 weeks gestational age at birth. Physiologic data were measured every minute for the first 5 days of life: peripheral perfusion using perfusion index by Masimo and body temperature using thermistors. Body temperature was also measured using infrared thermal imaging. Stimulation and care events were recorded over the first 5 days using video which was coded with Noldus Observer software. Novel analytical models using the state space approach to time-series analysis were developed to explore maturation of neural control over central and peripheral body temperature. Results from this pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using multiple instruments to measure temperature and perfusion in ELBW infants. This approach added rich data to our case study design and set a clinical context with which to interpret longitudinal physiological data. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  12. Examining a Transformative Approach to Communication Education: A Teacher-Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    A critical task for communication educators is preparing students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes for active and responsible participation within a rapidly changing global community. Given the complex nature of the challenges citizens will tackle in this century, there is a pressing need for educational approaches that will cultivate…

  13. Case Studies Approach in Tourism Destination Branding Research

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyinka-Ojo S.F.; Nair V.; Khoo-Lattimore C.

    2014-01-01

    A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination bran...

  14. Research progress in study of accidental hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui YUAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidental hypothermia refers to a state of lowering of core body temperature down to 35 ℃induced by drowning, burial in snow and prolonged exposure to cold environment, etc. Hypothermia may affect the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, etc. The triad consisting "hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy" is an important factor accelerating the death of patients. Early, timely application of rewarming measures is regarded as the basic principle in treatment of hypothermia. A series of rewarming measures, such as infusion of warm fluids, inspiration of warm air, abdominal infusion of warm fluid, instruction of warm fluid into pleural cavity, intravenous infusion of warm fluid, rewarming through ECMO, etc. have been used recently. Advance in research on the classification of hypothermia, its impact to the body and the treatment methods are reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.15

  15. Understanding the scatter radiation distribution during C-arm CT examination. A body phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimasa, Toshiyo; Kakimi, Akihiko; Takao, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Shohei; Katayama, Yutaka; Himoto, Daisuke; Izuta, Shinichiro; Ichida, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the scatter radiation distribution during C-arm CT examination in the interventional radiography (IVR) room to show the escaped area and the radiation protective method. The C-arm rotates 200deg in 5 s. The tube voltage was 90 kV, and the entrance dose to the detector was 0.36 μGy/frame during C-arm CT examination. The scattered doses were measured each 50 cm from the isocenter like a grid pattern. The heights of the measurement were 50, 100, and 150 cm from the floor. The maximum scattered doses were 38.23 ± 0.60 μGy at 50 cm, 43.86 ± 20 μGy at 100 cm, and 25.78 ± 0.37 μGy at 150 cm. The scatter radiation distribution at 100 cm was the highest scattered dose. The operator should protect their reproductive gland, thyroid, and lens. The scattered dose was low behind the C-arm body and the bed, so they will be able to become the escaped area for staff. (author)

  16. Will it hurt? Patients' experience of X-ray examinations: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesson, Rosemary A. [Health Services Research Group, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Good, Maureen [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Hart, Cleone L. [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Moray Health Services, Elgin (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a worldwide trend towards involving patients in health care, but little is known about children's expectations of routine radiological procedures. Objective: To determine children's perceptions of X-ray examinations. Materials and methods: A convenience sample was selected from consecutive patients referred to a children's hospital in Scotland. Children were allocated either to a drawing study (n=20) or a two-stage interview (n=25). The investigation was restricted to first-time users of the radiological service aged 7-14 years if accompanied by a parent and consent having been obtained. Children were excluded if pain control was administered in the Accident and Emergency Department. Children's drawings were reported on by an art therapist and a child psychiatrist. Results: All children approached agreed to participate. Seventeen children provided accurate pictures of the X-ray examination room. Concordance existed between the psychiatrist's and art therapist's reports. Children at interview had at least a minimal level of knowledge of X-rays and this was from (1) family, friends and neighbours, (2) the school classroom, and (3) television programmes. Conclusions: Children had anxieties revealed through drawings and interviews. We recommend drawings for establishing children's views of radiology. (orig.)

  17. Comparative study of colorectal carcinoma examination with four postprocessing of CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Luo; Kangrong, Zhou [The 3rd Affilated Hospital Sun Yat-sen Univ. of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-10-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of colorectal carcinoma examination by comparison of different postprocessing techniques such as multiplanar reformation (MPR), CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC), shaded surface display (SSD) and Raysum. Methods: 64 patients with colorectal carcinomas underwent volume scanning using spiral CT. MPR, CTVC, SSD and Raysum images were obtained by using 4 different software in workstation. All cases were proved by surgical or CC biotic histology. The results were compared and analyzed according to the circumferential extension, length and pathologic patterns of colorectal carcinoma with MPR, CTVC, SSD and Raysum. Results: The correction rate of determination the circumferential extension of colorectal carcinoma with MPR, CTVC, SSD and Raysum were 100.0%, 82.8%, 79.7% and 79.7%, respectively. There was significant statistical difference between MPR and CTVC; The accuracy of judging the length of carcinoma were 89.1%, 76.6%, 95.3% and 100.0%, respectively. There was statistical difference between CTVC and SSD; The accuracy of showing carcinoma pathologic patterns were 81.3%, 92.2%, 71.9% and 71.0%, respectively. There was statistical difference between CTVC and SSD, too. MPR could correctly determine the circumferential extension of colorectal carcinoma. In determination the length of carcinoma, Raysum was more accurate than SSD. CTVC could be more helpful in showing carcinoma pathologic patterns. Conclusion: There were advantages and disadvantages in colorectal carcinoma examination with MPR, CTVC, SSD and Raysum, and the combination could display colorectal carcinoma more completely and comprehensively.

  18. Comparative study of colorectal carcinoma examination with four postprocessing of CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingyue; Zhou Kangrong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of colorectal carcinoma examination by comparison of different postprocessing techniques such as multiplanar reformation (MPR), CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC), shaded surface display (SSD) and Raysum. Methods: 64 patients with colorectal carcinomas underwent volume scanning using spiral CT. MPR, CTVC, SSD and Raysum images were obtained by using 4 different software in workstation. All cases were proved by surgical or CC biotic histology. The results were compared and analyzed according to the circumferential extension, length and pathologic patterns of colorectal carcinoma with MPR, CTVC, SSD and Raysum. Results: The correction rate of determination the circumferential extension of colorectal carcinoma with MPR, CTVC, SSD and Raysum were 100.0%, 82.8%, 79.7% and 79.7%, respectively. There was significant statistical difference between MPR and CTVC; The accuracy of judging the length of carcinoma were 89.1%, 76.6%, 95.3% and 100.0%, respectively. There was statistical difference between CTVC and SSD; The accuracy of showing carcinoma pathologic patterns were 81.3%, 92.2%, 71.9% and 71.0%, respectively. There was statistical difference between CTVC and SSD, too. MPR could correctly determine the circumferential extension of colorectal carcinoma. In determination the length of carcinoma, Raysum was more accurate than SSD. CTVC could be more helpful in showing carcinoma pathologic patterns. Conclusion: There were advantages and disadvantages in colorectal carcinoma examination with MPR, CTVC, SSD and Raysum, and the combination could display colorectal carcinoma more completely and comprehensively

  19. A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF DILTIAZEM IN THE DRE AND PROCTOSCOPIC EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thampan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Digital Rectal Examination (DRE and proctoscopy is an important routine investigation done by surgeons, gastroenterologists’, etc. Most of the patients complain of pain and discomfort during the procedure. Anal sphincter complex contracts to the penetrating index finger as a voluntary reflex try to avoid hurting. A good lubricant jelly (with 2% lignocaine and extreme gentleness should be the rule to this procedure to avoid discomfort and pain to the patients. Even with maximum precautions, majority of patients complain discomfort or pain during the procedure. To overcome this problem, we tried lubricant jelly and diltiazem gel combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS We evaluated 500 patients in this trial during the period 2010 to 2015 from the OPD of our institution with lubricant jelly alone and with diltiazem in the interval of two weeks. Analysis showed most of the patients is comfortable with combination lubricant jelly and diltiazem gel rather than lubricant jelly alone. RESULTS A total of 625 patients were screened for this study, but only 560 considered and enrolled (mean age 40 years. 60 patients failed to attend for the second examination, hence they were excluded from the final analysis. CONCLUSION The importance of DRE and proctoscopy known to every clinician, since it provides valuable information about anorectal pathology. Some patients are reluctant to give consent thinking that it will hurt them. By mixing lubricant jelly with diltiazem, the procedure becomes really comfortable due to good relaxation of anal sphincter complex.

  20. Will it hurt? Patients' experience of X-ray examinations: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesson, Rosemary A.; Good, Maureen; Hart, Cleone L.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is a worldwide trend towards involving patients in health care, but little is known about children's expectations of routine radiological procedures. Objective: To determine children's perceptions of X-ray examinations. Materials and methods: A convenience sample was selected from consecutive patients referred to a children's hospital in Scotland. Children were allocated either to a drawing study (n=20) or a two-stage interview (n=25). The investigation was restricted to first-time users of the radiological service aged 7-14 years if accompanied by a parent and consent having been obtained. Children were excluded if pain control was administered in the Accident and Emergency Department. Children's drawings were reported on by an art therapist and a child psychiatrist. Results: All children approached agreed to participate. Seventeen children provided accurate pictures of the X-ray examination room. Concordance existed between the psychiatrist's and art therapist's reports. Children at interview had at least a minimal level of knowledge of X-rays and this was from (1) family, friends and neighbours, (2) the school classroom, and (3) television programmes. Conclusions: Children had anxieties revealed through drawings and interviews. We recommend drawings for establishing children's views of radiology. (orig.)