WorldWideScience

Sample records for research strategy recommendations

  1. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  2. Rigor or Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research: Perspectives, Strategies, Reconceptualization, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypress, Brigitte S

    Issues are still raised even now in the 21st century by the persistent concern with achieving rigor in qualitative research. There is also a continuing debate about the analogous terms reliability and validity in naturalistic inquiries as opposed to quantitative investigations. This article presents the concept of rigor in qualitative research using a phenomenological study as an exemplar to further illustrate the process. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Lincoln and Guba, strategies congruent with qualitative perspective for ensuring validity to establish the credibility of the study are described. A synthesis of the historical development of validity criteria evident in the literature during the years is explored. Recommendations are made for use of the term rigor instead of trustworthiness and the reconceptualization and renewed use of the concept of reliability and validity in qualitative research, that strategies for ensuring rigor must be built into the qualitative research process rather than evaluated only after the inquiry, and that qualitative researchers and students alike must be proactive and take responsibility in ensuring the rigor of a research study. The insights garnered here will move novice researchers and doctoral students to a better conceptual grasp of the complexity of reliability and validity and its ramifications for qualitative inquiry.

  3. U.S. Army Classification Research Panel: Conclusions and Recommendations on Classification Research Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, John P; McCloy, Rodney A; McPhail, S. M; Pearlman, Kenneth; Peterson, Norman G; Rounds, James; Ingerick, Michael

    2007-01-01

    As the U.S. Army transforms to meet the needs of the future force, the importance of classifying recruits to entry-level jobs will only increase, as will research to enhance the classification process (e.g...

  4. Using Cyber-Insurance as a Risk Management Strategy: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations for Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tøndel, Inger Anne; Meland, Per Håkon; Omerovic, Aida; Gjære, Erlend Andreas; Solhaug, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    - Risk transfer can be an economically favorable way of handling security and privacy issues, but choosing this option indiscriminately and without proper knowledge is a risk in itself. This report provides an overview of knowledge gaps related to cyber-insurance as a risk management strategy. These are grouped into three high-level topics; cyber-insurance products, understanding and measuring risk and estimation of consequences. The topics are further divided into 11 knowledge areas with ...

  5. Efficient Tensor Strategy for Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboagye Emelia Opoku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The era of big data has witnessed the explosion of tensor datasets, and large scale Probabilistic Tensor Factorization (PTF analysis is important to accommodate such increasing trend of data. Sparsity, and Cold-Start are some of the inherent problems of recommender systems in the era of big data. This paper proposes a novel Sentiment-Based Probabilistic Tensor Analysis technique senti-PTF to address the problems. The propose framework first applies a Natural Language Processing technique to perform sentiment analysis taking advantage of the huge sums of textual data generated available from the social media which are predominantly left untouched. Although some current studies do employ review texts, many of them do not consider how sentiments in reviews influence recommendation algorithm for prediction. There is therefore this big data text analytics gap whose modeling is computationally expensive. From our experiments, our novel machine learning sentiment-based tensor analysis is computationally less expensive, and addresses the cold-start problem, for optimal recommendation prediction.

  6. Improving Health Care Accessibility: Strategies and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almorsy, Lamia; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Access time refers to the interval between requesting and actual outpatient appointment. It reflects healthcare accessibility and has a great influence on patient treatment and satisfaction. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia studied the accessibility to outpatient services in order to develop useful strategies and recommendations for improvement. Utilized, unutilized and no-show appointments were analyzed. It is crucial to manage no-shows and short notice appointment cancellations by preparing a waiting list for those patients who can be called in to an appointment on the same day using an open access policy. An overlapping appointment scheduling model can be useful to minimize patient waiting time and doctor idle time in addition to the sensible use of appointment overbooking that can significantly improve productivity.

  7. IPTV program recommendation based on combination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new interactive service technology, IPTV has been extensively studying in the field of TV pro-gram recommendation, but the sparse of the user-program rating matrix and the cold-start problem is a bottleneck that the program recommended accurately. In this paper, a flexible combination of two recommendation strategies proposed, which explored the sparse and cold-start problem as well as the issue of user interest change over time. This paper achieved content-based filtering section and collaborative filtering section according to the two combination strategies, which effectively solved the cold-start program and over the sparse problem and the problem of users interest change over time. The experimental results showed that this combinational recommendation system in optimal parameters compared by using any one of two combination strategies or not using any combination strategy at all, and the reducing range of MAE is [2.7%,3%].The increasing range of precision and recall is [13.8%95.5%] and [0,97.8%], respectively. The experiment showed better results when using combinational recommendation system in optimal parameters than using each combination strategies individually or not using any combination strategy.

  8. European Union and EDCTP strategy in the global context: recommendations for preventive HIV/AIDS vaccines research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehner, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Clerici, Mario; Gotch, Frances; Pedneault, Louise; Tartaglia, Jim; Gray, Clive; Mestecky, Jiri; Sattentau, Quentin; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Toure, Coumba; Osmanov, Saladin; Schmidt, Reinold E.; Debre, Patrice; Romaris, Manuel; Hoeveler, Arnd; Di Fabio, Simonetta

    2005-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) has strong commitments and recognises the need to continue to ensure that HIV/AIDS research efforts receive global attention. The EC is facing this challenge in a global context and has made substantial investments together with European Developing Countries Clinical

  9. Group recommendation strategies based on collaborative filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Melo Queiroz, Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Ricardo de Melo Queiroz, Sérgio; de Assis Tenório Carvalho, Francisco. Group recommendation strategies based on collaborative filtering. 2003. Dissertação (Mestrado). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Computação, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, 2003.

  10. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  11. Research on Long Tail Recommendation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuezhi; Zhang, Chuang; Wu, Ming; Zeng, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Most recommendation systems in the major electronic commerce platforms are influenced by the long tail effect more or less. There are sufficient researches of how to assess recommendation effect while no criteria to evaluate long tail recommendation rate. In this study, we first discussed the existing problems of recommending long tail products through specific experiments. Then we proposed a long tail evaluation criteria and compared the performance in long tail recommendation between different models.

  12. Research Methodology in Global Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    We review advances in research methodology used in global strategy research and provide suggestions on how researchers can improve their analyses and arguments. Methodological advances in the extraction of information, such as computer-aided text analysis, and in the analysis of datasets......, such as differences-in-differences and propensity score matching, have helped deal with challenges (e.g., endogeneity and causality) that bedeviled earlier studies and resulted in conflicting findings. These methodological advances need to be considered as tools that complement theoretical arguments and well......-explained logics and mechanisms so that researchers can provide better and more relevant recommendations to managers designing the global strategies of their organizations....

  13. Developing a Research Strategy for Suicide Prevention in the Department of Defense: Status of Current Research, Prioritizing Areas of Need, and Recommendations for Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    practice. Websites, brochures , pamphlets , and marketing campaigns can help translate “jargon-y” academic research ndings into layman’s terms for...websites, brochures , pamphlets , and marketing campaigns, among other approaches. Careful attention should be paid to the media portrayal of new practices...cide prevention every three to six months from the Chief of Sta of the Air Force. As stated in Air Force Pamphlet 44-160: “It is encouraging that

  14. Training Research: Practical Recommendations for Maximum Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Koerner, Kelly; Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This review offers practical recommendations regarding research on training in evidence-based practices for mental health and substance abuse treatment. When designing training research, we recommend: (a) aligning with the larger dissemination and implementation literature to consider contextual variables and clearly defining terminology, (b) critically examining the implicit assumptions underlying the stage model of psychotherapy development, (c) incorporating research methods from other disciplines that embrace the principles of formative evaluation and iterative review, and (d) thinking about how technology can be used to take training to scale throughout all stages of a training research project. An example demonstrates the implementation of these recommendations. PMID:21380792

  15. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.

  16. Recommending Research Profiles for Multidisciplinary Academic Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Sidath Deepal

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates how data on multidisciplinary collaborative experiences can be used to solve a novel problem: recommending research profiles of potential collaborators to academic researchers seeking to engage in multidisciplinary research collaboration. As the current domain theories of multidisciplinary collaboration are insufficient…

  17. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  18. A systematic review of management strategies for children's mental health care in the emergency department: update on evidence and recommendations for clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Amanda S; Hartling, Lisa; Soleimani, Amir; Kirkland, Scott; Dyson, Michele P; Cappelli, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Children with mental health crises require access to specialised resources and services which are not yet standard in general and paediatric EDs. In 2010, we published a systematic review that provided some evidence to support the use of specialised care models to reduce hospitalisation, return ED visits and length of ED stay. We perform a systematic review to update the evidence base and inform current policy statements. Twelve databases and the grey literature were searched up to January 2015. Seven studies were included in the review (four newly identified studies). These studies compared ED-based strategies designed to assess, treat and/or therapeutically support or manage a mental health presentation. The methodological quality of six studies was assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Risk of Bias tool (one interrupted time series study) and a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (three retrospective cohort and two before-after studies). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was applied to rate overall evidence quality (high, moderate, low or very low) for individual outcomes from these six studies. An additional study evaluated the psychometric properties of a clinical instrument and was assessed using criteria developed by the Society of Pediatric Psychology Assessment Task Force (well-established, approaching well-established or promising assessment). There is low to very low overall evidence quality that: (1) use of screening laboratory tests to medically clear mental health patients increases length of ED stay and costs, but does not increase the risk of clinical management or disposition change if not conducted; and (2) specialised models of ED care reduce lengths of ED stay, security man-hours and restraint orders. One mental health assessment tool of promising quality, the home, education, activities and peers, drugs and alcohol, suicidality, emotions and behaviour, discharge

  19. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigat...

  20. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.; Hollnagel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance....... This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective...... strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recommendation strategies for e-learning: preliminary effects of a personal recommender system for lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Van den Berg, Bert; Eshuis, Jannes; Berlanga, Adriana; Nadolski, Rob; Waterink, Wim; Boers, Nanda; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., Van den Berg, B., Eshuis, J., Berlanga, A. J., Nadolski, R. J., Waterink, W., Boers, N., & Koper, R. (2007). Recommendation strategies for e-learning: preliminary effects of personal recommender system for lifelong learners. Unpublished manuscript.

  3. The Society of Radiographers' research strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline; Wright, Caroline; Shelley, Susan; Williams, Pat

    2004-01-01

    A research strategy for the Radiography (London 1995) profession was approved by the Council of the Society and College of Radiographers at the end of 2001.This paper discusses the formulation of that strategy, including the factors that lay behind its development. The recommendations of the strategy are then addressed one by one, together with a review as to their implementation by the College's Research Group

  4. Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  5. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Implementation of genomics research in Africa: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, Sally N; Francis, Veronica; Tambo, Ernest; Diallo, Seybou H; Landouré, Guida; Nembaware, Victoria; Dareng, Eileen; Muhamed, Babu; Odutola, Michael; Akeredolu, Teniola; Nerima, Barbara; Ozumba, Petronilla J; Mbhele, Slee; Ghanash, Anita; Wachinou, Ablo P; Ngomi, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    There is exponential growth in the interest and implementation of genomics research in Africa. This growth has been facilitated by the Human Hereditary and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, which aims to promote a contemporary research approach to the study of genomics and environmental determinants of common diseases in African populations. The purpose of this article is to describe important challenges affecting genomics research implementation in Africa. The observations, challenges and recommendations presented in this article were obtained through discussions by African scientists at teleconferences and face-to-face meetings, seminars at consortium conferences and in-depth individual discussions. Challenges affecting genomics research implementation in Africa, which are related to limited resources include ill-equipped facilities, poor accessibility to research centers, lack of expertise and an enabling environment for research activities in local hospitals. Challenges related to the research study include delayed funding, extensive procedures and interventions requiring multiple visits, delays setting up research teams and insufficient staff training, language barriers and an underappreciation of cultural norms. While many African countries are struggling to initiate genomics projects, others have set up genomics research facilities that meet international standards. The lessons learned in implementing successful genomics projects in Africa are recommended as strategies to overcome these challenges. These recommendations may guide the development and application of new research programs in low-resource settings.

  7. Implementation of genomics research in Africa: challenges and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, Sally N.; Francis, Veronica; Tambo, Ernest; Diallo, Seybou H.; Landouré, Guida; Nembaware, Victoria; Dareng, Eileen; Muhamed, Babu; Odutola, Michael; Akeredolu, Teniola; Nerima, Barbara; Ozumba, Petronilla J.; Mbhele, Slee; Ghanash, Anita; Wachinou, Ablo P.; Ngomi, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is exponential growth in the interest and implementation of genomics research in Africa. This growth has been facilitated by the Human Hereditary and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, which aims to promote a contemporary research approach to the study of genomics and environmental determinants of common diseases in African populations. Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe important challenges affecting genomics research implementation in Africa. Methods: The observations, challenges and recommendations presented in this article were obtained through discussions by African scientists at teleconferences and face-to-face meetings, seminars at consortium conferences and in-depth individual discussions. Results: Challenges affecting genomics research implementation in Africa, which are related to limited resources include ill-equipped facilities, poor accessibility to research centers, lack of expertise and an enabling environment for research activities in local hospitals. Challenges related to the research study include delayed funding, extensive procedures and interventions requiring multiple visits, delays setting up research teams and insufficient staff training, language barriers and an underappreciation of cultural norms. While many African countries are struggling to initiate genomics projects, others have set up genomics research facilities that meet international standards. Conclusions: The lessons learned in implementing successful genomics projects in Africa are recommended as strategies to overcome these challenges. These recommendations may guide the development and application of new research programs in low-resource settings. PMID:29336236

  8. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Kreider, Richard B; Almada, Anthony L; Antonio, Jose; Broeder, Craig; Earnest, Conrad; Greenwood, Mike; Incledon, Thomas; Kalman, Douglas S; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize perf...

  9. May I Suggest? Comparing Three PLE Recommender Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Mödritscher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environment (PLE solutions aim at empowering learners to design (ICT and web-based environments for their learning activities, mashingup content and people and apps for different learning contexts. Widely used in other application areas, recommender systems can be very useful for supporting learners in their PLE-based activities, to help discover relevant content, peers sharing similar learning interests or experts on a specific topic. In this paper we examine the utilization of recommender technology for PLEs. However, being confronted by a variety of educational contexts we present three strategies for providing PLE recommendations to learners. Consequently, we compare these recommender strategies by discussing their strengths and weaknesses in general.

  10. Conducting research in clinical psychology practice: Barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsten V; Thew, Graham R

    2017-09-01

    The combination of clinical psychologists' therapeutic expertise and research training means that they are in an ideal position to be conducting high-quality research projects. However, despite these skills and the documented benefits of research to services and service users, research activity in practice remains low. This article aims to give an overview of the advantages of, and difficulties in conducting research in clinical practice. We reviewed the relevant literature on barriers to research and reflected on our clinical and research experiences in a range of contexts to offer practical recommendations. We considered factors involved in the planning, sourcing support, implementation, and dissemination phases of research, and outline suggestions to improve the feasibility of research projects in post-qualification roles. We suggest that research leadership is particularly important within clinical psychology to ensure the profession's continued visibility and influence within health settings. Clinical implications Emerging evidence suggests that clinical settings that foster research are associated with better patient outcomes. Suggestions to increase the feasibility of research projects in clinical settings are detailed. Limitations The present recommendations are drawn from the authors' practical experience and may need adaptation to individual practitioners' settings. This study does not attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies suggested. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  11. Decision Strategy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described.

  12. Decision Strategy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described

  13. Post Stroke Llife in Iranian People: Used and Recommended Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dalvandi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stroke survivors develop their own strategies to combat disabilities, developing strategies to maintain or reestablish a sense of continuity after the disruptive life event that stroke represents, using strategies to foster hope during the process of adjusting to life after stroke and drawing on spiritual practices. The aim of this study is to identify the used and recommended strategies of life after stroke among Iranian people. Methods: A grounded theory approach was recruited using semi-structured interviews with 10 stroke survivors, 12 family caregivers and 6 formal care givers. Results: Five main concepts emerged describing as the used and recommended strategies of the participants including, improving functional performance, re-learning life skills and educational support, accessing to rehabilitative services, socio-economical support and well-suited coping strategies. Discussion: Participants valued better knowledge and skills regarding the adaptive strategies for stroke survivors and their family care givers are essential in accomplishing with activities of daily living and doing social roles for improving life after stroke. Also developing the socio- economic supports is crucial for assuring a more supportive approach to achieve rehabilitation services and design better educational program for them.

  14. Heat stress intervention research in construction: gaps and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chan, Albert Ping-Chuen

    2017-06-08

    Developing heat stress interventions for construction workers has received mounting concerns in recent years. However, limited efforts have been exerted to elaborate the rationale, methodology, and practicality of heat stress intervention in the construction industry. This study aims to review previous heat stress intervention research in construction, to identify the major research gaps in methodological issues, and to offer detailed recommendations for future studies. A total of 35 peer-reviewed journal papers have been identified to develop administrative, environmental or personal engineering interventions to safeguard construction workers. It was found that methodological limitations, such as arbitrary sampling methods and unreliable instruments, could be the major obstacle in undertaking heat stress intervention research. To bridge the identified research gaps, this study then refined a research framework for conducting heat stress intervention studies in the construction industry. The proposed research strategy provides researchers and practitioners with fresh insights into expanding multidisciplinary research areas and solving practical problems in the management of heat stress. The proposed research framework may foster the development of heat stress intervention research in construction, which further aids researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in formulating proper intervention strategies.

  15. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  16. Trusted Service Scheduling and Optimization Strategy Design of Service Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more Web services raise the demands of personalized service recommendation; there exist some recommendation technologies, which improve the qualities of service recommendation by using service ranking and collaborative filtering. However, privacy and security are also important issues in service scheduling process; social relationships have been the key factors of interpersonal communication; service selection based on user preferences has become an inevitable trend. Starting from user demand preferences, this paper analyzes social topology and service demand information and obtains trusted social relationships; then we construct the fusion model of service historical preferences and potential ones; according to social service recommendation demands, TSRSR algorithm has completed designing. Through experiments, TSRSR algorithm is much better than the others, which can effectively improve potential preferences’ learning. Furthermore, the research results of this paper have more significance to study the security and privacy of service recommendation.

  17. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1. how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2. general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3. our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  18. Time management strategies for research productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Jo-Ana D; Topp, Robert; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Zerwic, Julie J; Benefield, Lazelle E; Anderson, Cindy M; Conn, Vicki S

    2013-02-01

    Researchers function in a complex environment and carry multiple role responsibilities. This environment is prone to various distractions that can derail productivity and decrease efficiency. Effective time management allows researchers to maintain focus on their work, contributing to research productivity. Thus, improving time management skills is essential to developing and sustaining a successful program of research. This article presents time management strategies addressing behaviors surrounding time assessment, planning, and monitoring. Herein, the Western Journal of Nursing Research editorial board recommends strategies to enhance time management, including setting realistic goals, prioritizing, and optimizing planning. Involving a team, problem-solving barriers, and early management of potential distractions can facilitate maintaining focus on a research program. Continually evaluating the effectiveness of time management strategies allows researchers to identify areas of improvement and recognize progress.

  19. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  20. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1. The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2. How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3. How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4. General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5. An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  1. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  2. Evidence, explanations, and recommendations for teachers' field trip strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Bryan

    their practices. A subset of eight teachers were interviewed using guided conversations in order to shed further light on their use of the aquarium field trip and their pedagogical preparation. Data from all sources were organized by repeating ideas relevant to the questions of interest. The resulting evidence was interpreted to support distinct categories of teacher strategies and experience and related claims about these strategies and experiences. Thus, findings reveal that teachers attempt to link the curriculum to the activities, resources, and content encountered on the trip using a variety of connections. However, these curriculum connections are characterized as products of opportunistic situations and reveal limited depth. Evidence further indicates that teachers treat the aquarium visit as a background experience for their students rather than as an opportunity to introduce new concepts or do an activity that is integrated into the curriculum. Nevertheless, teachers included in this study were leading field trips that created countless learning opportunities for their students. Because training specific to field trips is rarely included in preservice programs, teachers were asked about influences on their field trip practice with specific focus on observed strategies. Findings suggest four categories of training experiences that teachers apply to their practice: (1) informal mentoring; (2) past experience trip leading; (3) outdoor education training; (4) traditional education training. Overall findings along with a review of previous research are suggestive of many ways in which efforts to enhance students' learning opportunities may be developed by means of support for teachers. Foremost among recommendations is the idea that field trip pedagogy be integrated into science methods courses required for preservice teachers (the premise for the final manuscript). Furthermore, the findings of this study may serve as a starting point for museums interested in the

  3. A recommended program of tritium monitoring research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, S.B.; Gerdingh, R.F.; Penfold, K.

    1982-10-01

    This report presents recommendations for programs of research and development in tritium monitoring instrumentation. These recommendations, if implemented, will offer Canadian industry the opportunity to develop marketable instruments. The major recommendations are to assist in the development and promotion of two Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories' monitors and an Ontario Hydro monitor, and to support research and development of a surface monitor

  4. Environmental Economics Research Strategy (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2005 Environmental Economics Research Strategy outlines EPA’s research effort to provide the necessary behavioral science foundation for making decisions and designing environmental policies at the least cost to American businesses and consumers.

  5. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  6. Recommender systems for technology enhanced learning research trends and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    Presents cutting edge research from leading experts in the growing field of Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSys TEL) International contributions are included to demonstrate the merging of various efforts and communities Topics include: Linked Data and the Social Web as Facilitators for TEL Recommender Systems in Research and Practice, Personalised Learning-Plan Recommendations in Game-Based Learning and Recommendations from Heterogeneous Sources in a Technology Enhanced Learning Ecosystem

  7. Pharmaceutical Research Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Phlippen, Sandra; Vermeersch, Ad

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study analyses 1400 research projects of the top 20 R&D-spending pharmaceuticals to identify the determinants of successful research projects. We provide clear evidence that externally sourced projects and projects involving biotechnologies perform better than internal projects and chemical projects, respectively. Controlling for these effects, we find that big pharma should either build a critical mass of disease area knowledge or diversify projects over different DA’s in or...

  8. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Current Strategies and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V. Naccarelli, MD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the most common complication of atrial fibrillation (AF. Guidelines recommend anticoagulant treatment in patients with CHA2DS2VASc scores of >2. Registry data suggests that almost half of patients who should be on therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke prevention in AF (SPAF are not. Warfarin and more recently developed agents, the “novel anticoagulants” (NOACs reduce the risk of embolic strokes. In addition, the NOACs also reduce intracranial hemorrhage (ICH by over 50% compared to warfarin. Anticoagulation and bridging strategies involving cardioversion, catheter ablation, and invasive/surgical procedures are reviewed. The development of reversal agents for NOACs and the introduction of left atrial appendage occluding devices will evolve the use of newer strategies for preventing stroke in high risk AF patients.

  9. Research strategies for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, B B

    2001-12-01

    If there is a story waiting to be told about nurses and research, it is this: research is part of our past, our present, and our future. Research gives "caring" a mental muscle that makes it stronger than caring would be without it. Since the Crimean War, research has been a foundational cornerstone of the profession. Florence Nightingale espoused caring and human touch but not without also observing and measuring important patient outcomes that identified the spread of infection via human contact. As a new generation of nurses emerges, we who have come before might serve them well to role model what we know: that strong research is strong nursing and that obtaining and using evidence in nursing practice results in better outcomes for those patients and families we serve. Is the story waiting to be told your story? Part of the story of nursing waiting to be told is your story. Regardless of why you embarked on your career in nursing and regardless of where your journey has taken you to this point, you are a part of the twenty-first century body of nursing, and your individual contribution is an important one. Listen to your patients with an ear toward measuring and evaluating outcomes. Reflect on the care you provided, the interventions you had to offer, and why. Should something have been different? Could something have been better? Find out ... measure it.

  10. SKI's research strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    SKI's research is a prerequisite for SKI's ability to fulfil its assignment. Research to support supervision is focused today on a number of strategically important areas such as reactor technology, material and fuel questions, human factors, waste and non-proliferation (safeguards). SKI's intelligence analysis shows that this focus should be maintained over the next few years. Some reallocation of priorities between research areas may be necessary due to changes in the nuclear area. For this research, SKI contracts universities as well as consulting companies. The resources that are of importance for nuclear research are concentrated to a few organisations in Sweden. But the national research resources alone do not cover the existing needs. One reason is that the previously highly competent and well funded Swedish expert organisations within the nuclear power utilities have gradually been phased out or transformed into consulting firms. Changes have also taken place at the Swedish vendor of boiling-water plants, now Westinghouse Atom, and the activities have been down sized considerably in Sweden. There has been a similar trend in other countries. Moreover, countries which previously conducted expensive experiments have themselves increasingly sought international support as their research resources have dwindled. As a result, numerous international projects have or are planned to be started. SKI notes that Swedish nuclear activities are also becoming increasingly dependent on international collaboration. SKI further notes that in order to fulfil its assignment, the Inspectorate needs not only financial resources but also competent personnel. This enables targeted support to be maintained to strategic national infrastructure and to international cooperation including internationally financed projects. With this is meant above all experimental research where small countries such as Sweden can join forces with other countries on to important research information at

  11. Marketing Strategy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-31

    This report documents the research that has been undertaken as background for preparation of a marketing campaign for middle and high school students to increase interest in national security careers at the National Nuclear Security Administration. This work is a part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Previous research on the development of a properly trained and skilled national security workforce has identified a lack of interest by k-12 students in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. Further, participation in these careers by women and minority populations is limited and is not increasing. Added to this are low educational achievement levels in New Mexico, where the marketing campaign will be deployed.

  12. Empathic design: Research strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed ‘just for them’, otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker, when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities.The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user’s needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  13. Empathic design: Research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of empathy within new product development from the perspective of human-centred design. The authors have developed a range of empathic design tools and strategies that help to identify authentic human needs.For products and services to be effective, they need to satisfy both functional and emotional needs of individuals. In addition, the individual user needs to feel that the product and/or service has been designed 'just for them', otherwise they may misuse, underuse or abandon the product/service. This becomes critical with a product such as a Zimmer frame (walker), when it fails to resonate with the patient due to any stigma the patient may perceive, and thus remains unused.When training young designers to consider the wider community (people unlike themselves) during the design process, it has proven extremely valuable to take them outside their comfort zones, by seeking to develop empathy with the end user for whom they are designing. Empathic modelling offers designers the opportunity to develop greater insight and understanding, in order to support more effective design outcomes. Sensitising designers to the different ways that individuals complete daily tasks has helped to diminish the gap between themselves and others (e.g. people with disabilities).The authors intend for this paper to resonate with health care providers. Human-centred design can help to refocus the designer, by placing the individual end user's needs at the heart of their decision-making.

  14. Novel strategies for sedentary behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori E; Lee, I-Min; Young, Deborah Rohm; Prohaska, Thomas R; Owen, Neville; Buchner, David M

    2015-06-01

    This article reports on the "Novel Strategies for Sedentary Behavior Research" session of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities workshop. The purpose of this session of the workshop were to propose strategies for accomplishing a research agenda in dealing with sedentary behavior and to consider research priorities for people at high risk for excess sedentary behavior. The four major recommendations from this workshop were as follows: 1) To add repeated objective measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior to existing cohort studies and standardize approaches to measurement and analysis. Epidemiologic studies will be the most efficient design for addressing some research questions. 2) To increase research efficiency, consider the advantages of a network of connected research studies and health systems. Advantages include access to existing data in electronic health records. 3) To carefully select a variety of high-risk study populations and preplan collaboration among studies in intervention research. This strategy can efficiently address the breadth of issues in sedentary behavior research. 4) To include comparative effectiveness designs and pure environmental interventions in intervention research. This strategy facilitates and enhances translation of interventions into practice.

  15. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Kreider, Richard B; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill; Almada, Anthony L; Collins, Rick; Cooke, Mathew; Earnest, Conrad P; Greenwood, Mike; Kalman, Douglas S; Kerksick, Chad M; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lopez, Hector; Lowery, Lonnie M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this pap...

  16. Drug Target Interference in Immunogenicity Assays: Recommendations and Mitigation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhandong Don; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Gorovits, Boris; Maia, Mauricio; Sumner, Giane; Theobald, Valerie; Wu, Yuling; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj

    2017-11-01

    Sensitive and specific methodology is required for the detection and characterization of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs). High-quality ADA data enables the evaluation of potential impact of ADAs on the drug pharmacokinetic profile, patient safety, and efficacious response to the drug. Immunogenicity assessments are typically initiated at early stages in preclinical studies and continue throughout the drug development program. One of the potential bioanalytical challenges encountered with ADA testing is the need to identify and mitigate the interference mediated by the presence of soluble drug target. A drug target, when present at sufficiently high circulating concentrations, can potentially interfere with the performance of ADA and neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays, leading to either false-positive or, in some cases, false-negative ADA and NAb assay results. This publication describes various mechanisms of assay interference by soluble drug target, as well as strategies to recognize and mitigate such target interference. Pertinent examples are presented to illustrate the impact of target interference on ADA and NAb assays as well as several mitigation strategies, including the use of anti-target antibodies, soluble versions of the receptors, target-binding proteins, lectins, and solid-phase removal of targets. Furthermore, recommendations for detection and mitigation of such interference in different formats of ADA and NAb assays are provided.

  17. A collaborative approach for research paper recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Khalid; Akmar Ismail, Maizatul; Damiasih, Damiasih; Sutopo, Joko; Herawan, Tutut

    2017-01-01

    Research paper recommenders emerged over the last decade to ease finding publications relating to researchers' area of interest. The challenge was not just to provide researchers with very rich publications at any time, any place and in any form but to also offer the right publication to the right researcher in the right way. Several approaches exist in handling paper recommender systems. However, these approaches assumed the availability of the whole contents of the recommending papers to be freely accessible, which is not always true due to factors such as copyright restrictions. This paper presents a collaborative approach for research paper recommender system. By leveraging the advantages of collaborative filtering approach, we utilize the publicly available contextual metadata to infer the hidden associations that exist between research papers in order to personalize recommendations. The novelty of our proposed approach is that it provides personalized recommendations regardless of the research field and regardless of the user's expertise. Using a publicly available dataset, our proposed approach has recorded a significant improvement over other baseline methods in measuring both the overall performance and the ability to return relevant and useful publications at the top of the recommendation list.

  18. Decision Strategy Research: Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to perform research on relevant topics that might have an important impact on decision making related to nuclear applications, including social and economic sciences. Main achievements in this area in 1999 are described

  19. Policy analysis and recommendations for the DCM research data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report is a policy analysis and set of recommendations regarding open data policies and policies for new, transformative data environments that are being developed as part of the Connected Vehicle research program. It is presented in three secti...

  20. Managing incidental findings in human subjects research: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Lawrenz, Frances P; Nelson, Charles A; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Cho, Mildred K; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Fletcher, Joel G; Georgieff, Michael K; Hammerschmidt, Dale; Hudson, Kathy; Illes, Judy; Kapur, Vivek; Keane, Moira A; Koenig, Barbara A; Leroy, Bonnie S; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Paradise, Jordan; Parker, Lisa S; Terry, Sharon F; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2008-01-01

    No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers have an obligation to address the possibility of discovering IFs in their protocol and communications with the IRB, and in their consent forms and communications with research participants. Researchers should establish a pathway for handling IFs and communicate that to the IRB and research participants. We recommend a pathway and categorize IFs into those that must be disclosed to research participants, those that may be disclosed, and those that should not be disclosed.

  1. Recommendations on Problematic Issues Solution of the Customs Development Strategy Until the Year 2020 Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Bromberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author offers recommendations for solving problematic issues of the Customs development strategy until the year 2020 implementing. In the process of research author notes that in the new conditions, not only the tasks are transformed but also the functions and powers of the Federal Customs Service, priority issues are the issues of improving information technologies, reducing the time for customs control, and creating favorable conditions for doing business. In the conclusion author concludes that the current stage of implementation of the administrative reform and the Customs development strategy until the year 2020 in Russia involves a qualitative transformation of the customs regulation of foreign trade activities.

  2. Four simple recommendations to encourage best practices in research software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Rafael C; Kuzak, Mateusz; Alhamdoosh, Monther; Barker, Michelle; Batut, Bérénice; Borg, Mikael; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Chue Hong, Neil; Cook, Martin; Corpas, Manuel; Flannery, Madison; Garcia, Leyla; Gelpí, Josep Ll; Gladman, Simon; Goble, Carole; González Ferreiro, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Griffin, Philippa C; Grüning, Björn; Hagberg, Jonas; Holub, Petr; Hooft, Rob; Ison, Jon; Katz, Daniel S; Leskošek, Brane; López Gómez, Federico; Oliveira, Luis J; Mellor, David; Mosbergen, Rowland; Mulder, Nicola; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Pergl, Robert; Pichler, Horst; Pope, Bernard; Sanz, Ferran; Schneider, Maria V; Stodden, Victoria; Suchecki, Radosław; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Talvik, Harry-Anton; Todorov, Ilian; Treloar, Andrew; Tyagi, Sonika; van Gompel, Maarten; Vaughan, Daniel; Via, Allegra; Wang, Xiaochuan; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Crouch, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Scientific research relies on computer software, yet software is not always developed following practices that ensure its quality and sustainability. This manuscript does not aim to propose new software development best practices, but rather to provide simple recommendations that encourage the adoption of existing best practices. Software development best practices promote better quality software, and better quality software improves the reproducibility and reusability of research. These recommendations are designed around Open Source values, and provide practical suggestions that contribute to making research software and its source code more discoverable, reusable and transparent. This manuscript is aimed at developers, but also at organisations, projects, journals and funders that can increase the quality and sustainability of research software by encouraging the adoption of these recommendations.

  3. Exercise and Self-esteem: Recommendations for Expository Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonstroem, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    A review of selected research in the area of exercise and self-esteem illustrates recommendations made for improving research in this area. Studies concerning self-esteem theory and static and dynamic relationships between exercise and self-esteem are reported. (CJ)

  4. Surgery for constipation : systematic review and practice recommendations : Graded practice and future research recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, C. H.; Grossi, U.; Horrocks, E. J.; Pares, D.; Vollebregt, P. F.; Chapman, M.; Brown, S.; Mercer-Jones, M.; Williams, A. B.; Yiannakou, Y.; Hooper, R. J.; Stevens, N.; Mason, James; HASH(0x55897e1f8d68); HASH(0x55897e16c5e8)

    2017-01-01

    Aim\\ud \\ud This manuscript forms the final of seven that address the surgical management of chronic constipation (CC) in adults. The content coalesces results from the five systematic reviews that precede it and of the European Consensus process to derive graded practice recommendations (GPR).\\ud Methods\\ud \\ud Summary of review data, development of GPR and future research recommendations as outlined in detail in the ‘introduction and methods’ paper.\\ud Results\\ud \\ud The overall quality of d...

  5. Consensus Recommendations for Treatment Strategies in Indians Using Botulinum Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Mohan Kapoor, MCh, DNB

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. These recommendations give physicians treating Indians worldwide a better understanding of their unique facial characteristics and provide treatment strategies to achieve optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  6. May I suggest? Three PLE recommender strategies in comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Mödritscher, Felix; Krumay, Barbara; El Helou, Sandy; Gillet, Denis; Nussbaumer, Alexander; Albert, Dietrich; Dahn, Ingo; Ullrich, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Personal learning environment (PLE) solutions aim at empowering learners to design (ICT and web-based) environments for their activities in different learning contexts and even for transitions between these contexts. Hereby, recommender systems which are highly successful in other application areas comprise one relevant technology for supporting learners in PLE-based activities. In this paper we examine the utilization of recommender technology for PLEs. However, being confronted by a variety...

  7. International strategy for Nanotechnology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The worldwide nanotechnology research and development (R and D) investment reported by government organizations has increased by a factor of 3.5 between 1997 and 2001, and the highest rate of 90% is in 2001. At least 30 countries have initiated or are beginning national activities in this field. Scientists have opened a broad net of discoveries that does not leave any major research area untouched in physical, biological, and engineering sciences. Industry has gained confidence that nanotechnology will bring competitive advantages. The worldwide annual industrial production is estimated to exceed $1 trillion in 10-15 years from now, which would require about 2 million nanotechnology workers. U.S. has initiated a multidisciplinary strategy for development of science and engineering fundamentals through the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Japan and Europe have broad programs, and their current plans look ahead to four to five years. Other countries have encouraged their own areas of strength, several of them focusing on fields of the potential markets. Differences among countries are observed in the research domain they are aiming for, the level of program integration into various industrial sectors, and in the time scale of their R and D targets. Nanotechnology is growing in an environment where international interactions accelerate in science, education and industrial R and D. A global strategy of mutual interest is envisioned by connecting individual programs of contributing countries, professional communities, and international organizations

  8. Prediction strategies in a TV recommender system - Method and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Setten, M.J.; Veenstra, M.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; Isaísas, P.; Karmakar, N.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting the interests of a user in information is an important process in personalized information systems. In this paper, we present a way to create prediction engines that allow prediction techniques to be easily combined into prediction strategies. Prediction strategies choose one or a

  9. Dataset-driven research for improving recommender systems for learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, Katrien; Drachsler, Hendrik; Manouselis, Nikos; Wolpers, Martin; Vuorikari, Riina; Duval, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Verbert, K., Drachsler, H., Manouselis, N., Wolpers, M., Vuorikari, R., & Duval, E. (2011). Dataset-driven research for improving recommender systems for learning. In Ph. Long, & G. Siemens (Eds.), Proceedings of 1st International Conference Learning Analytics & Knowledge (pp. 44-53). February,

  10. May I Suggest? Comparing Three PLE Recommender Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modritscher, Felix; Krumay, Barbara; El Helou, Sandy; Gillet, Denis; Nussbaumer, Alexander; Albert, Dietrich; Dahn, Ingo; Ullrich, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Personal learning environment (PLE) solutions aim at empowering learners to design (ICT and web-based) environments for their learning activities, mashing-up content and people and apps for different learning contexts. Widely used in other application areas, recommender systems can be very useful for supporting learners in their PLE-based…

  11. Strategy Guideline. Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Gates, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Straube, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. This report presents four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  12. Four simple recommendations to encourage best practices in research software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Rafael C.; Kuzak, Mateusz; Alhamdoosh, Monther

    2017-01-01

    Scientific research relies on computer software, yet software is not always developed following practices that ensure its quality and sustainability. This manuscript does not aim to propose new software development best practices, but rather to provide simple recommendations that encourage...... the adoption of existing best practices. Software development best practices promote better quality software, and better quality software improves the reproducibility and reusability of research. These recommendations are designed around Open Source values, and provide practical suggestions that contribute...... to making research software and its source code more discoverable, reusable and transparent. This manuscript is aimed at developers, but also at organisations, projects, journals and funders that can increase the quality and sustainability of research software by encouraging the adoption...

  13. Enabling Open Research Data Discovery through a Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, Anusuriya; Jayasinghe, Gaya; Klump, Jens; Hogan, Dominic

    2017-04-01

    Government agencies, universities, research and nonprofit organizations are increasingly publishing their datasets to promote transparency, induce new research and generate economic value through the development of new products or services. The datasets may be downloaded from various data portals (data repositories) which are general or domain-specific. The Registry of Research Data Repository (re3data.org) lists more than 2500 such data repositories from around the globe. Data portals allow keyword search and faceted navigation to facilitate discovery of research datasets. However, the volume and variety of datasets have made finding relevant datasets more difficult. Common dataset search mechanisms may be time consuming, may produce irrelevant results and are primarily suitable for users who are familiar with the general structure and contents of the respective database. Therefore, we need new approaches to support research data discovery. Recommender systems offer new possibilities for users to find datasets that are relevant to their research interests. This study presents a recommender system developed for the CSIRO Data Access Portal (DAP, http://data.csiro.au). The datasets hosted on the portal are diverse, published by researchers from 13 business units in the organisation. The goal of the study is not to replace the current search mechanisms on the data portal, but rather to extend the data discovery through an exploratory search, in this case by building a recommender system. We adopted a hybrid recommendation approach, comprising content-based filtering and item-item collaborative filtering. The content-based filtering computes similarities between datasets based on metadata such as title, keywords, descriptions, fields of research, location, contributors, etc. The collaborative filtering utilizes user search behaviour and download patterns derived from the server logs to determine similar datasets. Similarities above are then combined with different

  14. May I Suggest? Comparing Three PLE Recommender Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mödritscher, Felix; Krumay, Barbara; El Helou, Sandy; Gillet, Denis; Nussbaumer, Alexander; Albert, Dietrich; Dahn, Ingo; Ullrich, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Personal learning environment (PLE) solutions aim at empowering learners to design (ICT and web-based) environments for their learning activities, mashingup content and people and apps for different learning contexts. Widely used in other application areas, recommender systems can be very useful for supporting learners in their PLE-based activities, to help discover relevant content, peers sharing similar learning interests or experts on a specific topic. In this paper we examine the utilizat...

  15. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence Human Performance is essential for the safety of nuclear power plant operation. Through a number of tasks, workshops and projects, experience is shared among OECD countries. At its December 1996 meeting, the CSNI endorsed the SESAR/CAF report on 'Nuclear Safety Research in OECD Countries: Capabilities and Facilities' and requested that the Principal Working Groups (PWGs) review existing co-operative programmes and develop specifications for programmes which address the identified needs. Following discussions between the chairmen of these PWGs and the NEA Secretariat, it was concluded that, for this technical area, the development of programme specifications must be preceded by the development of a strategic document that further elaborates the conclusions of the SESAR/CAF report and set out the general orientation of the research over the medium and long term. Accordingly, a group of senior experts met in August 1997 to discuss possible strategies in the area of Human Performance. The objectives of this meeting were: - To exchange information on existing plans and strategies by different Member countries; - To determine relevant issues and realistic medium/long-term targets and expectations for their resolution, and - To determine, in general sense, possible research programmes, their priority and their likelihood for success. This document is the result of this meeting. Its objective is to present to the CSNI proposals for future work on Human Performance research. The proposals are built upon the work performed to date by PWG1 and PWG5. Carrying out these proposals will continue to require close coordination on joint activities between these two PWGs. Reinforced systematic networking activities are needed particularly in management and organisational performance research to initiate and manage comparison and benchmarking activities. Synchronising the availability of funding is a specific problem in many cases. Since most

  16. Recommendations of the Global Multiple System Atrophy Research Roadmap Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan R; Krismer, Florian; Galpern, Wendy R; Wenning, Gregor K; Low, Phillip A; Halliday, Glenda; Koroshetz, Walter J; Holton, Janice; Quinn, Niall P; Rascol, Olivier; Shaw, Leslie M; Eidelberg, David; Bower, Pam; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Abler, Victor; Biedenharn, Judy; Bitan, Gal; Brooks, David J; Brundin, Patrik; Fernandez, Hubert; Fortier, Philip; Freeman, Roy; Gasser, Thomas; Hewitt, Art; Höglinger, Günter U; Huentelman, Matt J; Jensen, Poul H; Jeromin, Andreas; Kang, Un Jung; Kaufmann, Horacio; Kellerman, Lawrence; Khurana, Vikram; Klockgether, Thomas; Kim, Woojin Scott; Langer, Carol; LeWitt, Peter; Masliah, Eliezer; Meissner, Wassilios; Melki, Ronald; Ostrowitzki, Susanne; Piantadosi, Steven; Poewe, Werner; Robertson, David; Roemer, Cyndi; Schenk, Dale; Schlossmacher, Michael; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Seppi, Klaus; Shih, Lily; Siderowf, Andrew; Stebbins, Glenn T; Stefanova, Nadia; Tsuji, Shoji; Sutton, Sharon; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-09

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with substantial knowledge gaps despite recent gains in basic and clinical research. In order to make further advances, concerted international collaboration is vital. In 2014, an international meeting involving leaders in the field and MSA advocacy groups was convened in Las Vegas, Nevada, to identify critical research areas where consensus and progress was needed to improve understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Eight topic areas were defined: pathogenesis, preclinical modeling, target identification, endophenotyping, clinical measures, imaging biomarkers, nonimaging biomarkers, treatments/trial designs, and patient advocacy. For each topic area, an expert served as a working group chair and each working group developed priority-ranked research recommendations with associated timelines and pathways to reach the intended goals. In this report, each groups' recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Surgery for constipation: systematic review and practice recommendations: Graded practice and future research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C H; Grossi, U; Horrocks, E J; Pares, D; Vollebregt, P F; Chapman, M; Brown, S; Mercer-Jones, M; Williams, A B; Yiannakou, Y; Hooper, R J; Stevens, N; Mason, J

    2017-09-01

    This manuscript forms the final of seven that address the surgical management of chronic constipation (CC) in adults. The content coalesces results from the five systematic reviews that precede it and of the European Consensus process to derive graded practice recommendations (GPR). Summary of review data, development of GPR and future research recommendations as outlined in detail in the 'introduction and methods' paper. The overall quality of data in the five reviews was poor with 113/156(72.4%) of included studies providing only level IV evidence and only four included level I RCTs. Coalescence of data from the five procedural classes revealed that few firm conclusions could be drawn regarding procedural choice or patient selection: no single procedure dominated in addressing dynamic structural abnormalities of the anorectum and pelvic floor with each having similar overall efficacy. Of one hundred 'prototype' GPRs developed by the clinical guideline group, 85/100 were deemed 'appropriate' based on the independent scoring of a panel of 18 European experts and use of RAND-UCLA consensus methodology. The remaining 15 were all deemed uncertain. Future research recommendations included some potential RCTs but also a strong emphasis on delivery of large multinational high-quality prospective cohort studies. While the evidence base for surgery in CC is poor, the widespread European consensus for GPRs is encouraging. Professional bodies have the opportunity to build on this work by supporting the efforts of their membership to help convert the documented recommendations into clinical guidelines. © 2017 The Authors. Colorectal Disease published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Advanced Construction Documentation Recommendations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A.; Gates, C.; Straube, J.

    2011-12-01

    As whole house energy efficiency increases, new houses become less like conventional houses that were built in the past. New materials and new systems require greater coordination and communication between industry stakeholders. The Guideline for Construction Documents for High Performance Housing provides advice to address this need. The reader will be presented with four changes that are recommended to achieve improvements in energy efficiency, durability and health in Building America houses: create coordination drawings, improve specifications, improve detail drawings, and review drawings and prepare a Quality Control Plan.

  19. Northeast Florida Regional Sediment Management: Implementation Strategies and Recommendations for Nassau County and Duval County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    management strategies and alternatives are actively coordinated. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication... Strategies and Recommendations for Nassau County and Duval County, Florida Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Kevin C. Hodgens, Michael...Sediment Management Implementation Strategies and Recommendations for Nassau County and Duval County, Florida Kevin C. Hodgens and Michael P

  20. Strategic measures for the two cities. Most important strategies - recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    and challenges with flooding and drought into the main city plans as well as in land use and environmental planning, urban services like drainage and solid waste management and upgrading programs etc. Focus should be put on building networks between the stakeholders from integrated and on-going projects like......The deliverable serves three purposes: First it lists core measures brought forward in literature and guidelines on how to make developing cities more resilient to climate change as well as some necessary conditions for effective implementation. Second it presents strategic measures for climate...... change adaptation based on stakeholder interactions and interviews in the two CLUVA cities: Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa. Third it draws together the main points in recommendations on data needs and process for how to work towards more resilient cities. The deliverable combines the identification...

  1. Mark-18A Ion Exchange Raffinate Management Strategy & Processing Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-21

    It is desired to recover Cm-244 through Cm-248 from dissolved Mark-18A targets following anion exchange processing to remove the Pu. The Cm will be sent to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for additional R&D. Approximately 5-8 L per quarter of a Mark-18A target will have undergone anion exchange treatment and will contain Cm. A significant portion of this volume of anion exchange raffinate solution is dissolved fission products not desired to be recovered which could be sent to waste. To reduce the amount of material being sent to ORNL, a waste and volume minimization strategy was developed and is described in this report.

  2. Industry Research and Recommendations for New Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.; Leach, M.; Gregory, N.; Pless, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Matthew, P.

    2014-05-01

    Researchers evaluated industry needs and developed logic models to support possible future commercial new construction research and deployment efforts that could be led or supported by DOE's Commercial Building Integration program or other national initiatives. The authors believe that these recommendations support a proposed course of action from the current state of commercial building energy efficiency to a possible long-term goal of achieving significant market penetration of cost-effective NZE buildings in all building sectors and climates by 2030.

  3. Recommendations for severe hypertriglyceridemia treatment, are there new strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2014-01-01

    This review considers drug combinations and newer treatment strategies for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an atherogenic metabolic profile and in most studies with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia also have increased incidence of pancreatitis. All types of severe hypertriglyceridemia are associated with a reduction in lipoprotein lipase activity. Patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal pain or pancreatitis should be hospitalized and treated with hypolipidemic drugs and, if needed, with insulin/dextrose infusion or therapeutic apheresis. Fibrates are the first-line treatment in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Omega-3 fatty acids and niacin are very useful drugs for patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Statins in high doses exhibit a significant hypotriglyceridemic activity. Drugs that interfere with chylomicron production such as orlistat are also useful for hypertriglyceridemic patients. In most patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia drug combinations are needed to maintain an acceptable triglyceride concentration. Gene therapy is under development for patients with known genetic abnormalities of triglyceride metabolism. Clinicians should be vigilant for the recognition and prompt treatment of patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia aimed to avoid the serious complication of pancreatitis and to reduce their cardiovascular risk.

  4. [Physiotherapy strategies in osteoporosis--recommendations for daily practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, C; Lange, U

    2006-09-01

    Physiotherapy in osteoporosis essentially takes the form of stimulatory therapy tailored to the findings and the pathomechanism. The choice of therapy and its dosage depend on the desired result (prevention, cure, rehabilitation). Physical therapy applied in osteoporosis includes electrical, thermic (hydrothermic, high frequency thermic, light thermic) and mechanical (massage, physiotherapy) stimuli, which can be applied regionally, locally or hoistically. To be efficient, a pain therapy requires that the various painful states be differentiated between: whereas, for example, in the case of acute pain physiotherapy fulfils the function of immediate therapy (normally rest and "mild" cold applications), in chronic pain it has to fulfil the function of an adaptive performance therapy of neuronal structures (formative-adaptive physiotherapy, thermic therapy improving trophism, direct current, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation/TENS). It is necessary and extremely important forday-to-day clinical practice that physiotherapy strategies that are tailored to each patient's needs and also economically justifiable be implemented. The article isintended to contribute to this.

  5. Energy in the strategy to Sahel Development : Situation - Perspectives - Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Burkina Faso does not have fossil energy source. The problem of energy thus arises with acuity for the rural and urban populations. The energy sources used are primarily the hydrocarbons, electrical energy, the woody fuels as new and renewable energies which are the biomass, the solar energy and the wind energy. The hydrocarbons are 100% imported, which makes the country very depend on over sea with respect to its conventional energy supply. These imports represent, for the years 1987 to 1992, 12 to 29% of the export earnings of the country. In addition to this dependence, there is a great weakness of the electrical communication and the too high cost of energy which led to the development of a strategic planning of the scientific research centered on the energy sector. In this field, research made it possible to undertake a study of the Burkina Faso energy system, to evaluate and exploit solar energy and wind mill, to develop the use of new methods allowing the energy saving in the households and the safeguard of the environment. In addition research shows that an economy is possible in the administrative buildings. Work is undertaken on air-conditioning by evaporation, the technology of the cold and the valorization of nonfood plant oils. There is also a work done on the de-pollution of industrial waste water, the energy valorization of the biomass as well as the improvement of the technology of the dolo, local beer containing sorghum. All these scientific research activities aim at the definition of a development policy on the energetic sector which takes into account the reduction of the cost of energy, the access of the populations to this resource, the reduction in the invoice of oil products imports as well as the promotion of environmental protection, the industrial development and that of the new methods of local technology as regards energy in Burkina Faso [fr

  6. A Strategy toward Collaborative Filter Recommended Location Service for Privacy Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jianpei

    2018-05-11

    A new collaborative filtered recommendation strategy was proposed for existing privacy and security issues in location services. In this strategy, every user establishes his/her own position profiles according to their daily position data, which is preprocessed using a density clustering method. Then, density prioritization was used to choose similar user groups as service request responders and the neighboring users in the chosen groups recommended appropriate location services using a collaborative filter recommendation algorithm. The two filter algorithms based on position profile similarity and position point similarity measures were designed in the recommendation, respectively. At the same time, the homomorphic encryption method was used to transfer location data for effective protection of privacy and security. A real location dataset was applied to test the proposed strategy and the results showed that the strategy provides better location service and protects users' privacy.

  7. A Strategy toward Collaborative Filter Recommended Location Service for Privacy Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jianpei

    2018-01-01

    A new collaborative filtered recommendation strategy was proposed for existing privacy and security issues in location services. In this strategy, every user establishes his/her own position profiles according to their daily position data, which is preprocessed using a density clustering method. Then, density prioritization was used to choose similar user groups as service request responders and the neighboring users in the chosen groups recommended appropriate location services using a collaborative filter recommendation algorithm. The two filter algorithms based on position profile similarity and position point similarity measures were designed in the recommendation, respectively. At the same time, the homomorphic encryption method was used to transfer location data for effective protection of privacy and security. A real location dataset was applied to test the proposed strategy and the results showed that the strategy provides better location service and protects users’ privacy. PMID:29751670

  8. A Strategy toward Collaborative Filter Recommended Location Service for Privacy Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A new collaborative filtered recommendation strategy was proposed for existing privacy and security issues in location services. In this strategy, every user establishes his/her own position profiles according to their daily position data, which is preprocessed using a density clustering method. Then, density prioritization was used to choose similar user groups as service request responders and the neighboring users in the chosen groups recommended appropriate location services using a collaborative filter recommendation algorithm. The two filter algorithms based on position profile similarity and position point similarity measures were designed in the recommendation, respectively. At the same time, the homomorphic encryption method was used to transfer location data for effective protection of privacy and security. A real location dataset was applied to test the proposed strategy and the results showed that the strategy provides better location service and protects users’ privacy.

  9. Online Financial Education Programs: Theory, Research, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have created unprecedented opportunities for online financial education that can be used to improve financial literacy and money management practices. While online financial education programs have become popular, relevant research and theoretical frameworks have rarely been considered in the development of such programs. This article synthesizes lessons from literature and theories for the development of an effective online financial education program. Drawing from literature on financial literacy education and online education, implications and recommendations for integrating technology into online financial education programs for adults are discussed.

  10. Research, Perspectives, and Recommendations on Implementing the Flipped Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotellar, Cristina; Cain, Jeff

    2016-03-25

    Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regarding flipped classrooms, discusses concerns and unanswered questions from both a student and faculty member perspective, and offers recommendations regarding implementation.

  11. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.

  12. Transforming Defense Basic Research Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountain, Augustus W

    2004-01-01

    .... Public funding of basic research for the DoD during the Cold War was successful because it minimized risk through taking maximum advantage of long term research projects that produced rather mature...

  13. Research by design - a research strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic....... Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking in consideration that the practise of architects stretch from natural science and sociology to art, and because the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition is through...... for the field. All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency - on the other hand they have different practices, using different methods...

  14. Research by Design - a research strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic...... methods. Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking into consideration that the practice of architects stretches from natural science and sociology to art and that the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition...... for the field. All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency – and on the other hand, they have different practices, using different...

  15. Research ethics consultation: ethical and professional practice challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services.

  16. Research Ethics Consultation: Ethical and Professional Practice Challenges and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  17. Foresight and strategy in national research councils and research programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Borup, Mads

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of foresight and strategy processes of national research councils and research programmes. It is based on a study of strategy processes in national research councils and programmes and the challenges faced by their strategy activities. We analysed the strategy...... processes of two organisations: the Danish Technical Research Council and the Danish Energy Research Programme. We analysed the mechanisms of the strategy processes and studied the actors involved. The actors’ understanding of strategy was also included in the analysis. Based on these analyses we argue...... that the impact of foresight exercises can be improved if we have a better understanding of the traditions and new challenges faced by the research councils. We also argue that a more formal use of foresight elements might improve the legitimacy and impact of the strategic considerations of research councils...

  18. Data repositories for medical education research: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan; Pappas, Cleo; Sandlow, Leslie J

    2010-05-01

    The authors explore issues surrounding digital repositories with the twofold intention of clarifying their creation, structure, content, and use, and considering the implementation of a global digital repository for medical education research data sets-an online site where medical education researchers would be encouraged to deposit their data in order to facilitate the reuse and reanalysis of the data by other researchers. By motivating data sharing and reuse, investigators, medical schools, and other stakeholders might see substantial benefits to their own endeavors and to the progress of the field of medical education.The authors review digital repositories in medicine, social sciences, and education, describe the contents and scope of repositories, and present extant examples. The authors describe the potential benefits of a medical education data repository and report results of a survey of the Society for Directors of Research in Medicine Education, in which participants responded to questions about data sharing and a potential data repository. Respondents strongly endorsed data sharing, with the caveat that principal investigators should choose whether or not to share data they collect. A large majority believed that a repository would benefit their unit and the field of medical education. Few reported using existing repositories. Finally, the authors consider challenges to the establishment of such a repository, including taxonomic organization, intellectual property concerns, human subjects protection, technological infrastructure, and evaluation standards. The authors conclude with recommendations for how a medical education data repository could be successfully developed.

  19. KEEP Language Research Strategy. Technical Report #14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Roland G.; Gallimore, Ronald

    This paper outlines the strategies of Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) language research, and briefly reviews the findings through Spring 1974. A major research emphasis has been placed on the assessment of Standard English comptence of Hawaii school children. (CM)

  20. A multifaceted knowledge translation strategy can increase compliance with guideline recommendations for mechanical bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cagla; Pearsall, Emily; Victor, J Charles; Aarts, Mary-Anne; Okrainec, Allan; McLeod, Robin S

    2015-01-01

    The successful transfer of evidence into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. We report the outcome of a 5-year knowledge translation (KT) strategy to increase adherence with a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) for elective colorectal surgery patients. A locally tailored CPG recommending MBP practices was developed. Data on MBP practices were collected at six University of Toronto hospitals before CPG implementation as well as after two separate KT strategies. KT strategy #1 included development of the CPG, education by opinion leaders, reminder cards, and presentations of data. KT strategy #2 included selection of hospital champions, development of communities of practice, education, reminder cards, electronic updates, pre-printed standardized orders, and audit and feedback. A total of 744 patients (400 males, 344 females, mean age 57.0) were included. Compliance increased from 58.6 to 70.4% after KT strategy #1 and to 81.1% after KT strategy #2 (p < 0.001). Using a tailored KT strategy, increased compliance was observed with CPG recommendations over time suggesting that a longitudinal KT strategy is required to increase and sustain compliance with recommendations. Furthermore, different strategies may be required at different times (i.e., educational sessions initially and reminders and standardized orders to maintain adherence).

  1. Improving the dependability of research in personality and social psychology: recommendations for research and educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C; Levine, John M; Mackie, Diane M; Morf, Carolyn C; Sansone, Carol; Vazire, Simine; West, Stephen G

    2014-02-01

    In this article, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) Task Force on Publication and Research Practices offers a brief statistical primer and recommendations for improving the dependability of research. Recommendations for research practice include (a) describing and addressing the choice of N (sample size) and consequent issues of statistical power, (b) reporting effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), (c) avoiding "questionable research practices" that can inflate the probability of Type I error, (d) making available research materials necessary to replicate reported results, (e) adhering to SPSP's data sharing policy, (f) encouraging publication of high-quality replication studies, and (g) maintaining flexibility and openness to alternative standards and methods. Recommendations for educational practice include (a) encouraging a culture of "getting it right," (b) teaching and encouraging transparency of data reporting, (c) improving methodological instruction, and (d) modeling sound science and supporting junior researchers who seek to "get it right."

  2. Disposition of recommendations of the National Research Council in the report ''Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    On December 8, 1986, the Committee on Nuclear Safety Research of the National Research Council submitted its report, ''Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research,'' to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Commission and its staff have carefully reviewed the Committee's report and have extensively examined the planning, implementation, and management of NRC research programs in order to respond most effectively to the Committee's recommendations. This report presents the Commission's view of the Committee's report and describes the actions that are under way in response to its recommendations

  3. Transforming Defense Basic Research Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountain, Augustus W

    2004-01-01

    ... technologies for development. With a basic research budget less than half that of the National Science Foundation and a mere fraction that of the NIH the DoD can no longer afford to pursue lofty science education goals...

  4. Use of community engagement strategies to increase research participation in practice-based research networks (PBRNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, William; Tsoh, Janice Y; Potter, Michael B; Weller, Nancy; Brown, Anthony E; Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Getrich, Christina M; Sussman, Andrew L; Pascoe, John; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are increasingly encouraged to use community engagement approaches. The extent to which PBRNs engage clinic and community partners in strategies to recruit and retain participants from their local communities (specifically racial/ethnic communities) is the focus of this study. The design was a cross-sectional survey of PBRN directors in the United States. Survey respondents indicated whether their research network planned for, implemented, and has capacity for activities that engage clinic and community partners in 7 recommended strategies organized into study phases, called the cycle of trust. The objectives of the national survey were to (1) describe the extent to which PBRNs across the United States routinely implement the strategies recommended for recruiting diverse patient groups and (2) identify factors associated with implementing the recommended strategies. The survey response rate was 63%. Activities that build trust often are used more with clinic partners than with community partners. PBRNs that adopt engagement strategies when working with clinic and community partners have less difficulty in recruiting diverse populations. Multivariate analysis showed that the targeting racial/ethnic communities for study recruitment, Clinical and Translational Science Award affiliation, and planning to use community engagement strategies were independent correlates of PBRN implementation of the recommended strategies. PBRNs that successfully engage racial/ethnic communities as research partners use community engagement strategies. New commitments are needed to support PBRN researchers in developing relationships with the communities in which their patients live. Stable PBRN infrastructure funding that appreciates the value of maintaining community engagement between funded studies is critical to the research enterprise that values translating research findings into generalizable care models for patients in the community.

  5. Nonmedical interventions for children with ASD: recommended guidelines and further research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Margaret A; Gans, Daphna; Das, Lopamudra; Timbie, Justin; Kasari, Connie

    2012-11-01

    To use the findings of a systematic review of scientific evidence to develop consensus guidelines on nonmedical interventions that address cognitive function and core deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and to recommend priorities for future research. The guidelines were developed by a Technical Expert Panel (TEP) consisting of practitioners, researchers, and parents. A systematic overview of research findings was presented to the TEP; guideline statements were drafted, discussed, debated, edited, reassessed, and presented for formal voting. The strength of evidence of efficacy varied by intervention type from insufficient to moderate. There was some evidence that greater intensity of treatment (hours per week) and greater duration (in months) led to better outcomes. The TEP agreed that children with ASD should have access to at least 25 hours per week of comprehensive intervention to address social communication, language, play skills, and maladaptive behavior. They agreed that applied behavioral analysis, integrated behavioral/developmental programs, the Picture Exchange Communication System, and various social skills interventions have shown efficacy. Based on identified gaps, they recommend that future research focus on assessment and monitoring of outcomes, addressing the needs of pre/nonverbal children and adolescents, and identifying the most effective strategies, dose, and duration to improve specific core deficits. The creation of treatment guidelines and recommendations for future research represents an effort by leading experts to improve access to services for children with ASDs while acknowledging that the research evidence has many gaps.

  6. Recommendations for control of pathogens and infectious diseases in fish research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.L.; Feist, S.W.; Harper, C.; Hoogstraten-Miller, S.; Law, J.M.; Sanchez-Morgado, J. M.; Tanguay, R.L.; Sanders, G.E.; Spitsbergen, J.M.; Whipps, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about infectious diseases in fish used for research have risen along with the dramatic increase in the use of fish as models in biomedical research. In addition to acute diseases causing severe morbidity and mortality, underlying chronic conditions that cause low-grade or subclinical infections may confound research results. Here we present recommendations and strategies to avoid or minimize the impacts of infectious agents in fishes maintained in the research setting. There are distinct differences in strategies for control of pathogens in fish used for research compared to fishes reared as pets or in aquaculture. Also, much can be learned from strategies and protocols for control of diseases in rodents used in research, but there are differences. This is due, in part, the unique aquatic environment that is modified by the source and quality of the water provided and the design of facilities. The process of control of pathogens and infectious diseases in fish research facilities is relatively new, and will be an evolving process over time. Nevertheless, the goal of documenting, detecting, and excluding pathogens in fish is just as important as in mammalian research models.

  7. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described

  8. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, B

    2000-07-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described.

  9. Research on personalized recommendation algorithm based on spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng; Liu, Yu

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing amount of data in the past years, the traditional recommendation algorithm has been unable to meet people's needs. Therefore, how to better recommend their products to users of interest, become the opportunities and challenges of the era of big data development. At present, each platform enterprise has its own recommendation algorithm, but how to make efficient and accurate push information is still an urgent problem for personalized recommendation system. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm based on user collaborative filtering and content-based recommendation algorithm is proposed on Spark to improve the efficiency and accuracy of recommendation by weighted processing. The experiment shows that the recommendation under this scheme is more efficient and accurate.

  10. Conducting Clinically Based Intimate Partner Violence Research: Safety Protocol Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jocelyn C; Glass, Nancy E; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    Maintaining safety is of utmost importance during research involving participants who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Limited guidance on safety protocols to protect participants is available, particularly information related to technology-based approaches to informed consent, data collection, and contacting participants during the course of a study. The purpose of the article is to provide details on the safety protocol developed and utilized with women receiving care at an urban HIV clinic and who were taking part in an observational study of IPV, mental health symptoms, and substance abuse and their relationship to HIV treatment adherence. The protocol presents the technological strategies to promote safety and allow autonomy in participant decision-making throughout the research process, including Voice over Internet Protocol telephone numbers, and tablet-based eligibility screening and data collection. Protocols for management of participants at risk for suicide and/or intimate partner homicide that included automated high-risk messaging to participants and research staff and facilitated disclosure of risk to clinical staff based on participant preferences are discussed. Use of technology and partnership with clinic staff helped to provide an environment where research regarding IPV could be conducted without undue burden or risk to participants. Utilizing tablet-based survey administration provided multiple practical and safety benefits for participants. Most women who screened into high-risk categories for suicide or intimate partner homicide did not choose to have their results shared with their healthcare providers, indicating the importance of allowing participants control over information sharing whenever possible.

  11. Marketing Capability in Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Distel, Andreas Philipp

    Following the call for a demand-side perspective of strategic management (e.g., Priem et al., 2012), a firm’s marketing capability, i.e. its ability to interact with down-stream stakeholders, becomes a pivotal element in explaining a firm’s competitiveness. While marketing capability is recognized...... in the strategic management literature as an important driver of firm performance, our review of 86 articles reveals a lack of a generally accepted definition of marketing capability, a lack of a common conceptualization as well as differences in the measurement of marketing capability. In order to build a common...... ground for advancing marketing capability research and thus supporting the demand-side perspective in strategic management, we develop an integrative framework to explain the differences and propose a research agenda for developing the field....

  12. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Lennart

    1998-01-01

    This document reflects basic proposals derived from the discussions and results by the expert group on human performance within the frame of an OECD study on nuclear safety research. Different topics have identified which are herein briefly presented: cognitive models and errors of commission, organizational practices, validation of existing techniques for human reliability analysis, control room design and man-machine interactions, use of simulators, improvement of methods for evaluation of operating experience, safety culture, operator aids, shutdown, decommissioning

  13. Algorithm Research of Individualized Travelling Route Recommendation Based on Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although commercial recommendation system has made certain achievement in travelling route development, the recommendation system is facing a series of challenges because of people’s increasing interest in travelling. It is obvious that the core content of the recommendation system is recommendation algorithm. The advantages of recommendation algorithm can bring great effect to the recommendation system. Based on this, this paper applies traditional collaborative filtering algorithm for analysis. Besides, illustrating the deficiencies of the algorithm, such as the rating unicity and rating matrix sparsity, this paper proposes an improved algorithm combing the multi-similarity algorithm based on user and the element similarity algorithm based on user, so as to compensate for the deficiencies that traditional algorithm has within a controllable range. Experimental results have shown that the improved algorithm has obvious advantages in comparison with the traditional one. The improved algorithm has obvious effect on remedying the rating matrix sparsity and rating unicity.

  14. Poultry studies and anthropological research strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Poultry are not simply birds; they are also a human creation, a social and cultural practice. The human element is the justification for an anthropology of poultry. Such an anthropology combines the objective research strategies familiar to the natural sciences with what is often called 'subjective' or qualitative research. In the study of poultry management, it is important that both research strategies focus on differences and variation. The subjective approach is particularly useful in identifying and understanding how the motivations and strategies of local actors are dependent on the social positions, which they occupy in their specific societies. (author)

  15. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Huppert, Mark [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States); Cochrane, Ric [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  16. Research on the Application of Persona in Book Recommendation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baozhong; Du, Shouyan; Li, Xinzhi; Liu, Fangai

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there still exists a host of problems in the book recommendation system, such as low accuracy, weak correlation and poor pertinence. Aiming to unravel these problems, this paper based on the theory of big data and data mining technology, through analyzing internet user behavior and the “5C” model of personal credit evaluation, combined with joint impact weight calculation method, which involves user grade, borrowing credit, book friend recommendation degree, book friend recommended adoption degree, borrowing frequency, borrowing number, and borrowing time interval. User activity and credit are also taken into account in the process of establishing user tagging system so as to build classified book recommendation service. This method is of universal meaning to the book recommendation service of smart campus with user as the core under big data environment.

  17. Effects of Sonic Booms on Marine Mammals: Problem Review and Recommended Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.

    1996-01-01

    By flying the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exclusively over uninhabited areas and mo over water, human annoyance will be reduced to acceptable levels. However, this strategy will for HSCT proponents to contend with the potential effects of sonic booms on animals, particularly ma mammals. What follows is a summary of the environmental regulations that must be addressed, the scientific community's concerns about the potential effects of the HSCT, and recommendations fox research to address the most important concerns. The recommendations included herein are based both on existing scientific evidence and regulatory needs. One cannot over-emphasize the importance of obtaining the appropriate information prior to substantial public exposure. Recent controversies over other human-made acoustic sources in the ocean suggest that the HSCT will receive intense scrutiny. It seems certain that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) or its equivalent will be necessary.

  18. An overview on ethical considerations in stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendations: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajkhoda, Tahmineh

    2017-01-01

    Conducting research on the stem cell lines might bring some worthy good to public. Human Stem Cells (hSCs) research has provided opportunities for scientific progresses and new therapies, but some complex ethical matters should be noticed to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. The aim of this review article is to discuss the importance of stem cell research, code of ethics for stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendation. Generation of stem cells for research from human embryo or adult stem cells, saving, maintenance and using of them are the main ethical, legal and jurisprudence concerns in Iran. Concerns regarding human reproduction or human cloning, breach of human dignity, genetic manipulation and probability of tumorogenisity are observed in adult/somatic stem cells. Destruction of embryo to generate stem cell is an important matter in Iran. In this regards, obtaining stem cell from donated frozen embryos through infertility treatment that would be discarded is an acceptable solution in Iran for generation of embryo for research. Ethical, legal, and jurisprudence strategies for using adult/somatic stem cells are determination of ownership of stem cells, trade prohibition of human body, supervision on bio banks and information of Oversight Committee on Stem Cell Research. Recommendations to handle ethical issues for conducting stem cell research are well-designed studies, compliance codes of ethics in biomedical research (specifically codes of ethics on stem cell research, codes of ethics on clinical trials studies and codes of ethics on animals studies), appropriate collaboration with ethics committees and respecting of rights of participants (including both of human and animal rights) in research. In addition, there is a necessity for extending global networks of bioethics for strengthening communications within organizations at both the regional and international level, strengthening legislation systems

  19. An overview on ethical considerations in stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendations: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Farajkhoda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Conducting research on the stem cell lines might bring some worthy good to public. Human Stem Cells (hSCs research has provided opportunities for scientific progresses and new therapies, but some complex ethical matters should be noticed to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. The aim of this review article is to discuss the importance of stem cell research, code of ethics for stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendation. Generation of stem cells for research from human embryo or adult stem cells, saving, maintenance and using of them are the main ethical, legal and jurisprudence concerns in Iran. Concerns regarding human reproduction or human cloning, breach of human dignity, genetic manipulation and probability of tumorogenisity are observed in adult/somatic stem cells. Destruction of embryo to generate stem cell is an important matter in Iran. In this regards, obtaining stem cell from donated frozen embryos through infertility treatment that would be discarded is an acceptable solution in Iran for generation of embryo for research. Ethical, legal, and jurisprudence strategies for using adult/somatic stem cells are determination of ownership of stem cells, trade prohibition of human body, supervision on bio banks and information of Oversight Committee on Stem Cell Research. Recommendations to handle ethical issues for conducting stem cell research are well-designed studies, compliance codes of ethics in biomedical research (specifically codes of ethics on stem cell research, codes of ethics on clinical trials studies and codes of ethics on animals studies, appropriate collaboration with ethics committees and respecting of rights of participants (including both of human and animal rights in research. In addition, there is a necessity for extending global networks of bioethics for strengthening communications within organizations at both the regional and international level, strengthening

  20. An overview on ethical considerations in stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendations: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajkhoda, Tahmineh

    2017-02-01

    Conducting research on the stem cell lines might bring some worthy good to public. Human Stem Cells (hSCs) research has provided opportunities for scientific progresses and new therapies, but some complex ethical matters should be noticed to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. The aim of this review article is to discuss the importance of stem cell research, code of ethics for stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendation. Generation of stem cells for research from human embryo or adult stem cells, saving, maintenance and using of them are the main ethical, legal and jurisprudence concerns in Iran. Concerns regarding human reproduction or human cloning, breach of human dignity, genetic manipulation and probability of tumorogenisity are observed in adult/somatic stem cells. Destruction of embryo to generate stem cell is an important matter in Iran. In this regards, obtaining stem cell from donated frozen embryos through infertility treatment that would be discarded is an acceptable solution in Iran for generation of embryo for research. Ethical, legal, and jurisprudence strategies for using adult/somatic stem cells are determination of ownership of stem cells, trade prohibition of human body, supervision on bio banks and information of Oversight Committee on Stem Cell Research. Recommendations to handle ethical issues for conducting stem cell research are well-designed studies, compliance codes of ethics in biomedical research (specifically codes of ethics on stem cell research, codes of ethics on clinical trials studies and codes of ethics on animals studies), appropriate collaboration with ethics committees and respecting of rights of participants (including both of human and animal rights) in research. In addition, there is a necessity for extending global networks of bioethics for strengthening communications within organizations at both the regional and international level, strengthening legislation systems

  1. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new...... agenda for research on Europe. The crisis gripping the EU in the 21st century is not just an economic crisis, it is a crisis of belief in the EU. Research on the EU is deeply implicated in this crisis, not least because of the questions it does not ask, but also because of the pereceived weakness...... of demonstrating the methods and evidence used. A new agenda for research on Europe needs to acknowledge these weaknesses of the past and move beyond dichotomies towards greater awareness and openesss of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods....

  2. Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: Research Trends & Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Drachsler, Hendrik; Santos, Olga

    2014-01-01

    As an area, Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test socio-technical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of individuals and organizations. Information retrieval is a pivotal activity in TEL and the deployment of recommender systems has attracted

  3. Speculations on Teacher Education: Recommendations from Research on Teachers' Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borko, Hilda; Shavelson, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a review of the literature about teachers' pedagogical thoughts, judgments, decisions, and behavior are summarized and form the basis for recommendations for restructuring teacher education programs. Teacher educators should consider adopting the decision-making schema as a conceptual framework for organizing their programs. (Author/PP)

  4. RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

  5. Maternal uptake of pertussis cocooning strategy and other pregnancy related recommended immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C Y; Thomas, N J; Clarke, M; Boros, C; Tuckerman, J; Marshall, H S

    2015-01-01

    Maternal immunization is an important strategy to prevent severe morbidity and mortality in mothers and their offspring. This study aimed to identify whether new parents were following immunization recommendations prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, and postnatally. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by a questionnaire administered antenatally to pregnant women attending a maternity hospital with a follow-up telephone interview at 8-10 weeks post-delivery. Factors associated with uptake of pertussis vaccination within the previous 5 y or postnatally and influenza vaccination during pregnancy were explored using log binomial regression models. A total of 297 pregnant women completed the questionnaire. For influenza vaccine, 20.3% were immunized during pregnancy and 3.0% postnatally. For pertussis vaccine, 13.1% were vaccinated within 5 y prior to pregnancy and 31 women received the vaccine postnatally, 16 (51.6%) received the vaccine >4 weeks after delivery. Receiving a recommendation from a healthcare provider (HCP) was an independent predictor for receipt of both pertussis (RR 2.07, p immunization is low and likely due to poor knowledge of availability, language barriers and lack of recommendations from HCPs. Strategies to improve maternal vaccine uptake should include education about recommended vaccines for both HCPs and parents and written information in a variety of languages.

  6. Process evaluations in neurological rehabilitation: a mixed-evidence systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson-Algar, Patricia; Burton, Christopher R; Rycroft-Malone, Jo

    2016-11-08

    To systematically review how process evaluations are currently designed, what methodologies are used and how are they developed alongside or within neurological rehabilitation trials. This mixed-methods systematic review had two evidence streams: stream I, studies reporting process evaluations alongside neurorehabilitation trials research and stream II, methodological guidance on process evaluation design and methodology. A search strategy was designed for each evidence stream. Data regarding process evaluation core concepts and design issues were extracted using a bespoke template. Evidence from both streams was analysed separately and then synthesised in a final overarching synthesis proposing a number of recommendations for future research. A total of 124 process evaluation studies, reporting on 106 interventions, were included in stream I evidence. 30 studies were included as stream II evidence. Synthesis 1 produced 9 themes, and synthesis 2 identified a total of 8 recommendations for process evaluation research. The overall synthesis resulted in 57 'synthesis recommendations' about process evaluation methodology grouped into 9 research areas, including the use of theory, the investigation of context, intervention staff characteristics and the delivery of the trial intervention. There remains no consensus regarding process evaluation terminology within the neurological rehabilitation field. There is a need for process evaluations to address the nature and influence of context over time. Process evaluations should clearly describe what intervention staff bring to a trial, including skills and experience prior to joining the research. Process evaluations should monitor intervention staff's learning effects and the possible impact that these may have on trial outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Creative classroom strategies for teaching nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Regina Miecznikoski

    2014-01-01

    Faculty are constantly challenged to find interesting classroom activities to teach nursing content and engage students in learning. Nursing students and graduates need to use research skills and evidence-based practice as part of their professional care. Finding creative and engaging ways to teach this material in undergraduate nursing programs are essential. This article outlines several successful strategies to engage nursing students in research content in the time and space constraints of the classroom.

  9. Challenges, coping strategies, and recommendations related to the HIV services field in the HAART era: a systematic literature review of qualitative studies from the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Miller, Katye R; Galos, Dylan; Love, Randi; Poole, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Qualitative research methods have been utilized to study the nature of work in the HIV services field. Yet current literature lacks a Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) era compendium of qualitative research studying challenges and coping strategies in the field. This study systematically reviewed challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era, and their recommendations to organizations. Four online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research that utilized qualitative methods, were published from January 1998 to February 2012, utilized samples of individuals in the HIV services field; occurred in the U.S. or Canada, and contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. Abstracts were identified (n=846) and independently read and coded for inclusion by at least two of the four first authors. Identified articles (n=26) were independently read by at least two of the four first authors who recorded the study methodology, participant demographics, challenges and coping strategies, and recommendations. A number of challenges affecting those in the HIV services field were noted, particularly interpersonal and organizational issues. Coping strategies were problem- and emotion-focused. Summarized research recommendations called for increased support, capacity-building, and structural changes. Future research on challenges and coping strategies must provide up-to-date information to the HIV services field while creating, implementing, and evaluating interventions to manage current challenges and reduce the risk of burnout.

  10. Strategies for Excellence: Recommendations for a Productive School Model with Strategies for Achieving the Model. The Final Report of the IASB Committee on Strategies for Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Association of School Boards, Des Moines.

    The charge of the Committee on Strategies for Excellence was to examine the current status of elementary and secondary education in Iowa, and to investigate ways in which school districts could be educationally more productive. The report brings together recommendations from various state and national reports, reviews the literature, and makes…

  11. [How to avoid research misconduct - recommendations for surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Schouman, T; Bertrand, J-C; Hervé, C

    2008-01-01

    Research misconduct is defined by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh as any behaviour by a researcher, whether intentional or not, that fails to scrupulously respect high scientific and ethical standards. Various types of research misconduct include fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, problematic data presentation or analysis, failure to obtain ethical approval by a research ethics committee or to obtain the subject's informed consent, inappropriate claims of authorship, duplicated publication, and undisclosed conflicts of interest. These can result in patient injury, deterioration of the patient-physician relationship, loss of public trust in biomedical research, as well as pollution/degradation of the medical literature. Surgical research malfeasance has been underreported, and no practical guidelines for good research and publication have appeared to date in French surgical journals. In an attempt to uphold the scientific integrity of our profession, we discuss research misconduct and emphasise preventive measures and considerations for surgeons.

  12. [Antibiotic resistance: recommendations from the Advisory Council for Health Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Advisory Council for Health Research (RGO) advised the Dutch Minister of Health on research into the epidemiology, prevention and research of antibiotic resistance in the Netherlands. Good antimicrobial practice, insight into antibiotic use, implementation of measures to prevent development of

  13. Forest Planning Heuristics—Current Recommendations and Research Opportunities for s-Metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Bettinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive forest management requires planning and implementation of activities designed to maintain or improve forest conditions, and in support of these endeavors knowledge of silviculture, economics, operations research, and other allied fields are necessary. With regard to forest planning, traditional (exact mathematical techniques along with heuristics have been demonstrated as useful in developing alternative courses of action for forest managers to consider. In this discussion paper, we present six areas of future work with regard to investigations into the development of heuristics, along with several recommendations that are based on our experiences. These areas include process improvements, reversion strategies, destruction and reconstruction strategies, intelligent or dynamic parameterization approaches, intelligent termination or transitioning approaches, and seeding strategies. We chose the six areas based on our experiences in developing forest planning heuristics. These areas reflect our opinion of where future research might concentrate. All of these areas of work have the potential to enhance the capabilities and effectiveness of heuristic approaches when applied to adaptive forest management problems.

  14. Consent to tissue banking for research: qualitative study and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Carmen; Tarrant, Carolyn; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2012-07-01

    To explore how families of children with cancer experience giving consent for tissue banking and to produce recommendations on good practice. 79 participants from 42 families (41 mothers, 18 fathers, 20 children and young people with cancer) took part in semistructured interviews to explore their experiences of being approached for consent to tissue banking. Tertiary care facilities for childhood cancer. Families are generally supportive of tissue banking, although they report that it may be difficult for them to consider all the implications when asked for consent. They typically do not want detailed information when consent is sought close to diagnosis, preferring to see tissue banking as part of routine practice. Families often recognise that their consent may not be fully informed, but are content to give consent based on their understanding at the time. Some may want a chance to go over the information and revisit their decision when things have settled. Families' views can inform practical recommendations for optimising the experience of consent for tissue banking. Current guidelines for obtaining consent should be revisited to take account of families' preferences.

  15. E-Learning Personalization Based on Hybrid Recommendation Strategy and Learning Style Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasnja-Milicevic, Aleksandra; Vesin, Boban; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Personalized learning occurs when e-learning systems make deliberate efforts to design educational experiences that fit the needs, goals, talents, and interests of their learners. Researchers had recently begun to investigate various techniques to help teachers improve e-learning systems. In this paper, we describe a recommendation module of a…

  16. Identifying research priorities for effective retention strategies in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Anna; Daykin, Anne; Shaw, Alison R G; Lane, Athene J; Blazeby, Jane M; Clarke, Mike; Williamson, Paula; Gamble, Carrol

    2017-08-31

    The failure to retain patients or collect primary-outcome data is a common challenge for trials and reduces the statistical power and potentially introduces bias into the analysis. Identifying strategies to minimise missing data was the second highest methodological research priority in a Delphi survey of the Directors of UK Clinical Trial Units (CTUs) and is important to minimise waste in research. Our aim was to assess the current retention practices within the UK and priorities for future research to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to reduce attrition. Seventy-five chief investigators of NIHR Health Technology Assessment (HTA)-funded trials starting between 2009 and 2012 were surveyed to elicit their awareness about causes of missing data within their trial and recommended practices for improving retention. Forty-seven CTUs registered within the UKCRC network were surveyed separately to identify approaches and strategies being used to mitigate missing data across trials. Responses from the current practice surveys were used to inform a subsequent two-round Delphi survey with registered CTUs. A consensus list of retention research strategies was produced and ranked by priority. Fifty out of seventy-five (67%) chief investigators and 33/47 (70%) registered CTUs completed the current practice surveys. Seventy-eight percent of trialists were aware of retention challenges and implemented strategies at trial design. Patient-initiated withdrawal was the most common cause of missing data. Registered CTUs routinely used newsletters, timeline of participant visits, and telephone reminders to mitigate missing data. Whilst 36 out of 59 strategies presented had been formally or informally evaluated, some frequently used strategies, such as site initiation training, have had no research to inform practice. Thirty-five registered CTUs (74%) participated in the Delphi survey. Research into the effectiveness of site initiation training, frequency of patient contact

  17. Knowledge gaps and research recommendations for essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopfner, F.; Haubenberger, D.; Galpern, W.R.; Gwinn, K.; Veer, A. van der; White, S.; Bhatia, K.; Adler, C.H.; Eidelberg, D.; Ondo, W.; Stebbins, G.T.; Tanner, C.M.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Lenz, F.A.; Sillitoe, R.V.; Vaillancourt, D.; Vitek, J.L.; Louis, E.D.; Shill, H.A.; Frosch, M.P.; Foroud, T.; Kuhlenbaumer, G.; Singleton, A.; Testa, C.M.; Hallett, M.; Elble, R.; Deuschl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is a common cause of significant disability, but its etiologies and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Research has been hampered by the variable definition of ET and by non-standardized research approaches. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (USA)

  18. Standards for reporting qualitative research: a synthesis of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Harris, Ilene B; Beckman, Thomas J; Reed, Darcy A; Cook, David A

    2014-09-01

    Standards for reporting exist for many types of quantitative research, but currently none exist for the broad spectrum of qualitative research. The purpose of the present study was to formulate and define standards for reporting qualitative research while preserving the requisite flexibility to accommodate various paradigms, approaches, and methods. The authors identified guidelines, reporting standards, and critical appraisal criteria for qualitative research by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Google through July 2013; reviewing the reference lists of retrieved sources; and contacting experts. Specifically, two authors reviewed a sample of sources to generate an initial set of items that were potentially important in reporting qualitative research. Through an iterative process of reviewing sources, modifying the set of items, and coding all sources for items, the authors prepared a near-final list of items and descriptions and sent this list to five external reviewers for feedback. The final items and descriptions included in the reporting standards reflect this feedback. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) consists of 21 items. The authors define and explain key elements of each item and provide examples from recently published articles to illustrate ways in which the standards can be met. The SRQR aims to improve the transparency of all aspects of qualitative research by providing clear standards for reporting qualitative research. These standards will assist authors during manuscript preparation, editors and reviewers in evaluating a manuscript for potential publication, and readers when critically appraising, applying, and synthesizing study findings.

  19. Researching the psychological therapies in prison: considerations and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Joanna; Bertrand-Godfrey, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The psychological therapies are widely considered within the forensic literature as holding a useful role in the prison system, however, despite this, very little research into the psychological therapies has taken place. Further, where research is carried out, it is often associated with the need for evidence-based practice (EBP), involving quantification and randomization. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This paper will initially introduce the importance of research into the psychological therapies in prison, followed by a consideration of EBP which can be thought of as the current movement governing research in the psychological therapies in the UK. However, in providing a focused critique of EBP, particularly within prisons, this paper will attempt to pave the way for a consideration of alternative research methodologies and resultant methods in researching the psychological therapies in prisons in the UK. Through this it is argued that research within the prison setting should act not to promote interventions and create an evidence-based as such, but to provide an accessible body of knowledge for the psychological therapists working in prisons in the UK.

  20. Extramural Research Grants and Scientists’ Funding Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Although competitive funding of public research has been characterised as providing output incentives that raise efficiency and productivity, we know very little about whether the quality of a scientist’s research is in fact the primary award criterion on which funding bodies base their grant...... decision. This paper provides insights into scientists’ strategies for obtaining project-based research funding in the presence of multiple funding opportunities. It draws a distinction between four types of grants, including the Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6......), government, foundation, and industry grants. Based on a sample of more than 800 scientists at universities and public research institutes in Germany, the results indicate that scientist productivity measured in terms of publication and patent stock is a statistically significant determinant only...

  1. Optimal Pricing Strategy in Marketing Research Consulting.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chun-Hao; Lee, Chi-Wen Jevons

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal pricing scheme for a monopolistic marketing research consultant who sells high-cost proprietary marketing information to her oligopolistic clients in the manufacturing industry. In designing an optimal pricing strategy, the consultant needs to fully consider the behavior of her clients, the behavior of the existing and potential competitors to her clients, and the behavior of her clients' customers. The authors show how the environment uncertainty, the capabilit...

  2. MPD thruster research issues, activities, strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The following activities and plans in the MPD thruster development are summarized: (1) experimental and theoretical research (magnetic nozzles at present and high power levels, MPD thrusters with applied fields extending into the thrust chamber, and improved electrode performance); and (2) tools (MACH2 code for MPD and nozzle flow calculation, laser diagnostics and spectroscopy for non-intrusive measurements of flow conditions, and extension to higher power). National strategies are also outlined.

  3. Practice-based Research Network Research Good Practices (PRGPs): Summary of Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Rowena J; Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Daly, Jeanette; Nagykaldi, Zsolt J; O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pamela; Fagnan, Lyle J; Levy, Barcey; Michaels, LeAnn; Louks, Hannah A; Smith, Paul; Aspy, Cheryl B; Patterson, V Beth; Kano, Miria; Sussman, Andrew L; Williams, Robert; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) conduct research in community settings, which poses quality control challenges to the integrity of research, such as study implementation and data collection. A foundation for improving research processes within PBRNs is needed to ensure research integrity. Network directors and coordinators from seven U.S.-based PBRNs worked with a professional team facilitator during semiannual in-person meetings and monthly conference calls to produce content for a compendium of recommended research practices specific to the context of PBRNs. Participants were assigned to contribute content congruent with their expertise. Feedback on the draft document was obtained from attendees at the preconference workshop at the annual PBRN meeting in 2013. A revised document was circulated to additional PBRN peers prior to finalization. The PBRN Research Good Practices (PRGPs) document is organized into four chapters: (1) Building PBRN Infrastructure; (2) Study Development and Implementation; (3) Data Management, and (4) Dissemination Policies. Each chapter contains an introduction, detailed procedures for each section, and example resources with information links. The PRGPs is a PBRN-specific resource to facilitate PBRN management and staff training, to promote adherence to study protocols, and to increase validity and generalizability of study findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of a platform recommending 3D and spectral digitisation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wefers

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the COSCHKR platform is to support cultural heritage experts finding the best suitable recording strategy for their often unique physical cultural heritage object and research question. The platform will support them and will make them aware of the relevant parameters and limitations of the recording strategy with respect to the characteristics of the cultural heritage object, external influences, application, recording devices, and data.

  5. Phenomenology and Symbolic Interactionism: Recommendations for Social Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Commonalities between the philosophical perspectives of Alfred Schatz, a European phenomenologist, and George Herbert Mead, the father of symbolic interactionism, are discussed, and the two men's potential significance in social science research is examined. Both men were concerned with the question of the nature of social action, believing that…

  6. Good Practice and Recommendations for Research Team Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    which makes the junior researcher receptive to branching out. Again, one avenue that facilitates expanding their skill set is the assignment detail...bit of “flavor” can be added by sharing with the audience any surprises, difficulties, or lessons learned along the way. A good team leader should

  7. Research Recommendations for Selected IARC-Classified Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Elizabeth M; Schulte, Paul A; Straif, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There are some common occupational agents and exposure circumstances where evidence of carcinogenicity is substantial but not yet conclusive for humans. The objectives are to identify research gaps and needs for twenty agents prioritized for review based on evidence of widespread huma...

  8. The International Business Research Agenda: Recommendations from Marketing Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, William J.; White, D. Steven; Schuster, Camille P.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 250 American Marketing Association members investigated which international business research topics were seen as having high utility or importance. It also identified five latent factors (global market expansion; international marketing management; management issues in an international context; quality, values, and expectations;…

  9. Behavioral intervention technologies: evidence review and recommendations for future research in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health was charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs refers to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. This study on the findings of the technical expert panel. Videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been well validated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes. Social media such as online support groups have produced disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received little work in mental health. Research focused on understanding reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. Improvements in the collection, storage, analysis and visualization of big data will be required. New theoretical models and evaluation strategies will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recommended research program for improving seismic safety of light-water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Recommendations are presented for research areas concerned with seismic safety. These recommendations are based on an analysis of the answers to a questionnaire which was sent to over 80 persons working in the area of seismic safety of nuclear power plants. In addition to the answers of the 55 questionnaires which were received, the recommendations are based on ideas expressed at a meeting of an ad hoc group of professionals formed by Sandia, review of literature, current research programs, and engineering judgement

  11. Air Force Personnel Research: Recommendations for Improved Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    cornerstone of such work.2 We then used a snowball sampling technique and our knowledge of Air Force personnel research efforts to identify other...importance of this type of data is explained in detail in Chapter Two. 3 Snowball sampling is a technique of using new information collected during a...that the text includes information regarding some organizations we discovered at the end of our snowball sampling period that we did not pursue

  12. Summary report and strategy recommendations for EU citizen science gateway for biodiversity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljo Runnel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an approach of public participation in scientific research which has gained significant momentum in recent years. This is particularly evident in biology and environmental sciences where input from citizen scientists has greatly increased the number of publicly available observation data. However, there are still challenges in effective networking, data sharing and securing data quality. EU BON project has analyzed the citizen science landscape in Europe with regards to biodiversity research and proposes several policy recommendations. One of the recommendations is a Pan-European citizen science gateway for biodiversity data with dedicated tools for data collection and management. The prototypes of the gateway components are part of the EU BON biodiversity portal and described in current report.

  13. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Burningham, Sarah; Ollenberger, Adam; Calder, Kathryn; Du, Li; El Emam, Khaled; Hyde-Lay, Robyn; Isasi, Rosario; Joly, Yann; Kerr, Ian; Malin, Bradley; McDonald, Michael; Penney, Steven; Piat, Gayle; Roy, Denis-Claude; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vercauteren, Suzanne; Verhenneman, Griet; West, Lori; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-02-03

    The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors' clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants' ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that privacy risks associated with cell

  14. Toward a Framework for Resource Efficiency Evaluation in Industry: Recommendations for Research and Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Sfez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a tremendous resource supply challenge. One strategy of regions and nations to address this issue is to encourage research and innovation through funding programs. Most of the time, these programs require that research and innovation projects quantify potential increases in resource efficiency achieved by the projects. However, no consensus exists on how to calculate resource efficiency; therefore, a wide range of approaches is followed. As a result, resource efficiency results are not comparable between projects, and because no rules or guidelines exist to help project developers, the approach followed is not always appropriate. This paper aims to discuss the existing approaches and methods used to evaluate resource efficiency. In this context, resource efficiency is defined as the ratio between the benefits obtained from resources and the impact or amount of resources used. The most challenging step is the determination of this ratio’s denominator because a wide range of methods to quantify resource consumption exist and are being used. They can be classified as gate-to-gate or life cycle based methods and can be subdivided into accounting methods and impact assessment methods. Each method considers different aspects of resources; thus, no single method aims to answer the same research questions. Therefore, project developers must make a well informed choice about which method to use. This paper provides recommendations to support this choice, as well as the overall evaluation and the valorization of the resource efficiency ratio in the framework of research and innovation programs.

  15. Developing longitudinal qualitative designs: lessons learned and recommendations for health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calman, Lynn; Brunton, Lisa; Molassiotis, Alex

    2013-02-06

    Longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in the health service research, but the method and challenges particular to health care settings are not well described in the literature.We reflect on the strategies used in a longitudinal qualitative study to explore the experience of symptoms in cancer patients and their carers, following participants from diagnosis for twelve months; we highlight ethical, practical, theoretical and methodological issues that need to be considered and addressed from the outset of a longitudinal qualitative study. Key considerations in undertaking longitudinal qualitative projects in health research, include the use of theory, utilizing multiple methods of analysis and giving consideration to the practical and ethical issues at an early stage. These can include issues of time and timing; data collection processes; changing the topic guide over time; recruitment considerations; retention of staff; issues around confidentiality; effects of project on staff and patients, and analyzing data within and across time. As longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in health services research, the methodological and practical challenges particular to health care settings need more robust approaches and conceptual improvement. We provide recommendations for the use of such designs. We have a particular focus on cancer patients, so this paper will have particular relevance for researchers interested in chronic and life limiting conditions.

  16. Adapting qualitative research strategies to technology savvy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna Marie; Ide, Bette

    2014-05-01

    To adapt research strategies involving adolescents in a grounded theory qualitative research study by conducting email rather than face-to-face interviews. Adolescent culture relies heavily on text-based communication and teens prefer interactions mediated through technology. Traditional qualitative research strategies need to be rethought when working with adolescents. Adapting interviewing strategies to electronic environments is timely and relevant for researching adolescents. Twenty three adolescents (aged 16-21) were interviewed by email. A letter of invitation was distributed. Potential participants emailed the researcher to convey interest in participating. If the inclusion criteria were met, email interviews were initiated. Participants controlled the interviews through their rate of response to interview questions. A grounded theory methodology was employed. Initial contact with participants reiterated confidentiality and the ability to withdraw from the study at any time. Interviews began with the collection of demographic information and a broad opening based on a semi-structured interview guide. All data were permissible, including text, photos, music, videos or outside media, for example YouTube. The participant was allowed to give direction to the interview after initial questions were posed. Email interviews continued until saturation was reached in the data. Participants were enthusiastic about email interviewing. Attrition did not occur. Email interviewing gave participants more control over the research, decreased power differentials between the adolescent and researcher, allowed the study to be adapted to cultural, linguistic and developmental needs, and maintained confidentiality. As participants said that email communication was slow and they preferred instant messaging, replication in faster-paced media is recommended. Repetition in face-to-face settings is warranted to evaluate how technology may have influenced the findings. Implications for

  17. Use of recommended search strategies in systematic reviews and the impact of librarian involvement: a cross-sectional survey of recent authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Previous research looking at published systematic reviews has shown that their search strategies are often suboptimal and that librarian involvement, though recommended, is low. Confidence in the results, however, is limited due to poor reporting of search strategies the published articles. To more accurately measure the use of recommended search methods in systematic reviews, the levels of librarian involvement, and whether librarian involvement predicts the use of recommended methods. A survey was sent to all authors of English-language systematic reviews indexed in the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) from January 2012 through January 2014. The survey asked about their use of search methods recommended by the Institute of Medicine, Cochrane Collaboration, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and if and how a librarian was involved in the systematic review. Rates of use of recommended methods and librarian involvement were summarized. The impact of librarian involvement on use of recommended methods was examined using a multivariate logistic regression. 1560 authors completed the survey. Use of recommended search methods ranged widely from 98% for use of keywords to 9% for registration in PROSPERO and were generally higher than in previous studies. 51% of studies involved a librarian, but only 64% acknowledge their assistance. Librarian involvement was significantly associated with the use of 65% of recommended search methods after controlling for other potential predictors. Odds ratios ranged from 1.36 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.75) for including multiple languages to 3.07 (95% CI 2.06 to 4.58) for using controlled vocabulary. Use of recommended search strategies is higher than previously reported, but many methods are still under-utilized. Librarian involvement predicts the use of most methods, but their involvement is under-reported within the published article.

  18. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: recommendations for research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.R. [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (USA)

    2002-09-01

    Available studies indicate that indoor air pollution (IAP) from household cooking and space heating apparently causes substantial ill-health in developing countries where the majority of households rely on solid fuels (coal or biomass as wood, crop residues, and dung), but there are many remaining uncertainties. To pin down impacts in order to effectively target interventions, research is particularly needed in three areas: (1) epidemiology: case-control studies for tuberculosis (TB) and cardiovascular disease in women and randomized intervention trials for childhood acute respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes; (2) exposure assessment: techniques and equipment for inexpensive exposure assessment at large scale, including national level surveys; (3) interventions: engineering and dissemination approaches for improved stoves, fuels, ventilation, and behavior that reliably and economically reduce exposure. There are also important potential synergisms between efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and those to reduce health-damaging emissions from solid-fuel stoves. The substitution of biomass by coal being considered in some countries should be pursued with caution because of the known serious health effects of household coal use.

  19. Strategies for research engagement of clinicians in allied health (STRETCH): a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, Sharon; Wenke, Rachel; Weir, Kelly; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Noble, Christy

    2017-09-11

    Allied health professionals (AHPs) report positive attitudes to using research evidence in clinical practice, yet often lack time, confidence and skills to use, participate in and conduct research. A range of multifaceted strategies including education, mentoring and guidance have been implemented to increase AHPs' use of and participation in research. Emerging evidence suggests that knowledge brokering activities have the potential to support research engagement, but it is not clear which knowledge brokering strategies are most effective and in what contexts they work best to support and maintain clinicians' research engagement. This protocol describes an exploratory concurrent mixed methods study that is designed to understand how allied health research fellows use knowledge brokering strategies within tailored evidence-based interventions, to facilitate research engagement by allied health clinicians. Simultaneously, a realist approach will guide a systematic process evaluation of the research fellows' pattern of use of knowledge brokering strategies within each case study to build a programme theory explaining which knowledge brokering strategies work best, in what contexts and why. Learning and behavioural theories will inform this critical explanation. An explanation of how locally tailored evidence-based interventions improve AHPs use of, participation in and leadership of research projects will be summarised and shared with all participating clinicians and within each case study. It is expected that local recommendations will be developed and shared with medical and nursing professionals in and beyond the health service, to facilitate building research capacity in a systematic and effective way. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy in Ireland: context, strategy and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present day situation of sudden awareness about climatic change and announced fossil fuels shortage, Ireland has defined a new strategy for its energy future. Context: Ireland is strongly dependent of oil and gas imports which increase regularly to meet the demand. A small part of the electricity consumed is imported from Ulster. The share of renewable energies remains weak but is increasing significantly. Therefore, from 1990 to 2006, the proportion of renewable energies increased from 1.9% (mainly of hydroelectric origin) to 4.5%. Wind power represents now the main renewable energy source. The transportation sector is the most energy consuming and the biggest source of greenhouse gases. Strategy: the Irish policy is driven by pluri-annual strategic plans which define the objectives and means. Priority is given to the security of supplies at affordable prices: 8.5 billion euros will be invested during the 2007-2013 era for the modernization of existing energy infrastructures and companies, and in a lesser extent for the development of renewable energy sources. During this period, 415 million euros more will be devoted to the research, development and demonstration (RD and D) of new energy solutions. Research: in 2005 the energy RD and D expenses reached 12.8 million euros shared between 54% for R and D and 46% for demonstration projects. Half of the financing is given to higher education schools and is devoted to energy saving purposes (33%) and to renewable energies (29%, mainly wind power and biomass). Academic research gives a particular attention to ocean energy which represents an important potential resource in Ireland and which has already led to the creation of innovative companies. The integration of renewable energy sources to the power grid and the stability of supplies are also the object of active researches. (J.S.)

  2. Strategies for Teachers to Manage Stuttering in the Classroom: A Call for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Jason H; Zaroogian, Lisa; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A

    2016-10-01

    This clinical focus article highlights the need for future research involving ways to assist children who stutter in the classroom. The 4 most commonly recommended strategies for teachers were found via searches of electronic databases and personal libraries of the authors. The peer-reviewed evidence for each recommendation was subsequently located and detailed. There are varying amounts of evidence for the 4 recommended teacher strategies outside of the classroom, but there are no data for 2 of the strategies, and minimal data for the others, in a classroom setting. That is, there is virtually no evidence regarding whether or not the actions put forth influence, for example, stuttering frequency, stuttering severity, participation, or the social, emotional, and cognitive components of stuttering in the classroom. There is a need for researchers and speech-language pathologists in the schools to study the outcomes of teacher strategies in the classroom for children who stutter.

  3. The Future of Public Health Informatics: Alternative Scenarios and Recommended Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Margo; Thorpe, Lorna; Sepulveda, Martin; Bezold, Clem; Ross, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In October 2013, the Public Health Informatics Institute (PHII) and Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to evaluate forces shaping public health informatics (PHI) in the United States, with the aim of identifying upcoming challenges and opportunities. The PHI workshop was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of its larger strategic planning process for public health and primary care. Workshop Context: During the two-day workshop, nine experts from the public and private sectors analyzed and discussed the implications of four scenarios regarding the United States economy, health care system, information technology (IT) sector, and their potential impacts on public health in the next 10 years, by 2023. Workshop participants considered the potential role of the public health sector in addressing population health challenges in each scenario, and then identified specific informatics goals and strategies needed for the sector to succeed in this role. Recommendations and Conclusion: Participants developed recommendations for the public health informatics field and for public health overall in the coming decade. These included the need to rely more heavily on intersectoral collaborations across public and private sectors, to improve data infrastructure and workforce capacity at all levels of the public health enterprise, to expand the evidence base regarding effectiveness of informatics-based public health initiatives, and to communicate strategically with elected officials and other key stakeholders regarding the potential for informatics-based solutions to have an impact on population health. PMID:25848630

  4. Between forwarding and mentoring: a qualitative study of recommending medical doctors for international postdoctoral research positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambunjak, Dario; Marušić, Matko

    2011-06-09

    Young scientists rarely have extensive international connections that could facilitate their mobility. They often rely on their doctoral supervisors and other senior academics, who use their networks to generate opportunities for young scientists to gain international experience and provide the initial trigger for an outward move. To explore the process of informal recommending of young physicians from a small country for postdoctoral research positions in foreign countries, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight senior academics who acted as recommenders and eight physicians who, based on the recommendations of senior academics, spent at least a year working in a laboratory abroad. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by using the framework approach. The findings showed that recommending can take four distinct forms: 1) forwarding information, 2) passive recommending, 3) active recommending, and 4) mentor recommending. These forms differ in their level of commitment and mutual trust among actors, and possible control over the success of the process. Two groups of recommendees--'naive' and 'experienced'--can be distinguished based on their previous scientific experience and research collaboration with the recommender. Crucial for the success of the process is an adequate preparation of recommendees' stay abroad, as well as their return and reintegration. The benefits of recommending extend beyond the individual participants to the scientific community and broader society of the sending country. With a sufficient level of commitment by the actors, informal recommending can be a part of or grow into an all-encompassing developmental relationship equal to mentoring. The importance of senior academics' informal contacts and recommendations in promoting junior scientists' mobility should be acknowledged and encouraged by the research institutions and universities, particularly in developing countries.

  5. Between forwarding and mentoring: a qualitative study of recommending medical doctors for international postdoctoral research positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Matko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young scientists rarely have extensive international connections that could facilitate their mobility. They often rely on their doctoral supervisors and other senior academics, who use their networks to generate opportunities for young scientists to gain international experience and provide the initial trigger for an outward move. Methods To explore the process of informal recommending of young physicians from a small country for postdoctoral research positions in foreign countries, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight senior academics who acted as recommenders and eight physicians who, based on the recommendations of senior academics, spent at least a year working in a laboratory abroad. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by using the framework approach. Results The findings showed that recommending can take four distinct forms: 1 forwarding information, 2 passive recommending, 3 active recommending, and 4 mentor recommending. These forms differ in their level of commitment and mutual trust among actors, and possible control over the success of the process. Two groups of recommendees - 'naive' and 'experienced' - can be distinguished based on their previous scientific experience and research collaboration with the recommender. Crucial for the success of the process is an adequate preparation of recommendees' stay abroad, as well as their return and reintegration. The benefits of recommending extend beyond the individual participants to the scientific community and broader society of the sending country. Conclusions With a sufficient level of commitment by the actors, informal recommending can be a part of or grow into an all-encompassing developmental relationship equal to mentoring. The importance of senior academics' informal contacts and recommendations in promoting junior scientists' mobility should be acknowledged and encouraged by the research institutions and universities, particularly in developing

  6. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Hochhauser, Daniel; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H

    2018-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. Design RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Results Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1: Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2: Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3: Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4: Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5: Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6: Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7: Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8: Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9: Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10: Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11: Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12: Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13: Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14: Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15: Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Conclusion Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC

  7. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Halloran, Stephen P; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hull, Mark A; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Monahan, Kevin J; Näthke, Inke; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H; Tomlinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1 : Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2 : Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3 : Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4 : Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5 : Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6 : Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7 : Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8 : Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9 : Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10 : Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11 : Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12 : Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13 : Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14 : Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15 : Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC disease burden over

  8. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  9. Teacher recommended academic and student engagement strategies for learning disabled students: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Bethel C.

    There has been a push towards the education of students with Learning Disabilities in inclusive educational settings with their non-disabled peers. Zigmond (2003) stated that it is not the placement of students with disabilities in general education setting alone that would guarantee their successes; instead, the strategies teachers use to ensure that these children are being engaged and learning will enable them become successful. Despite the fact that there are several bodies of research on effective teaching of students with learning disabilities, special education teachers continue to have difficulties concerning the appropriate strategies for promoting student engagement and improving learning for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings (Zigmond, 2003). This qualitative study interviewed and collected data from fifteen high performing special education teachers who were employed in a Southern state elementary school district to uncover the strategies they have found useful in their attempts to promote student engagement and attempts to improve student achievement for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive educational settings. The study uncovered strategies for promoting engagement and improving learning outcomes for students with learning disabilities placed in inclusive classrooms. The findings showed that in order to actually reach the students with learning disabilities, special education teachers must go the extra miles by building rapport with the school communities, possess good classroom management skills, and become student advocates.

  10. Refueling strategy at the Budapest research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargitai, Timor

    1998-01-01

    Refueling strategy is very important for nuclear power plants and for highly utilized research reactors with power level in the megawatt range. New core design shall fulfill several demands and needs which can contradict each other sometimes. The loaded uranium quantity should assure the scheduled operation time (energy generation) and the maneuvering capability even at the end of the campaign. On the other hand the built in excess reactivity cannot be too high, because otherwise it would jeopardize the shutdown margin and reactor safety. Moreover the core arrangement should be optimum for in-core irradiation purposes and for the beam port experiments too. Sometimes this demand can be in contradiction with the desired burnup level. The achieved burnup level is very important from the fresh fuel consumption point of view, which has direct economic significance, however the generated spent fuel quantity is an important issue too. The refueling technique presented here allowed us at the Budapest Research Reactor to reach average burnup levels superseding 60%. (author)

  11. Clinical Research Strategies for Fructose Metabolism12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Maren R.; Bantle, John P.; Havel, Peter J.; Parks, Elizabeth; Klurfeld, David M.; Teff, Karen; Maruvada, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Fructose and simple sugars are a substantial part of the western diet, and their influence on human health remains controversial. Clinical studies in fructose nutrition have proven very difficult to conduct and interpret. NIH and USDA sponsored a workshop on 13–14 November 2012, “Research Strategies for Fructose Metabolism,” to identify important scientific questions and parameters to be considered while designing clinical studies. Research is needed to ascertain whether there is an obesogenic role for fructose-containing sugars via effects on eating behavior and energy balance and whether there is a dose threshold beyond which these sugars promote progression toward diabetes and liver and cardiovascular disease, especially in susceptible populations. Studies tend to fall into 2 categories, and design criteria for each are described. Mechanistic studies are meant to validate observations made in animals or to elucidate the pathways of fructose metabolism in humans. These highly controlled studies often compare the pure monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Other studies are focused on clinically significant disease outcomes or health behaviors attributable to amounts of fructose-containing sugars typically found in the American diet. These are designed to test hypotheses generated from short-term mechanistic or epidemiologic studies and provide data for health policy. Discussion brought out the opinion that, although many mechanistic questions concerning the metabolism of monosaccharide sugars in humans remain to be addressed experimentally in small highly controlled studies, health outcomes research meant to inform health policy should use large, long-term studies using combinations of sugars found in the typical American diet rather than pure fructose or glucose. PMID:24829471

  12. Strategies for public health research in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Conceição, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    'Health' is an identifiable theme within the European Union multi-annual research programmes. Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe (PHIRE), led by the European Public Health Association, sought to identify public health research strategies in EU member states. Within PHIRE, national public health associations reviewed structures for health research, held stakeholder workshops and produced reports. This information, supplemented by further web searches, including using assisted translation, was analysed for national research strategies and health research strategies. All countries described general research strategies, outlining organizational and capacity objectives. Thematic fields, including health, are mentioned in some strategies. A health research strategy was identified for 15 EU countries and not for 12. Ministries of health led research strategies for nine countries. Public health research was identified in only three strategies. National research strategies did not refer to the European Union's health research programme. Public health research strategies of European countries need to be developed by ministries of health, working with the research community to achieve the European Research Area.

  13. WE-AB-201-04: The Recommendations of MPPG #5 and Practical Implementation Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, J. [University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-06-15

    . The recommendations of MPPG #5 and practical implementation strategies (Jennifer Smilowitz) The recently published recommendations from Task Group No. 244, Medical Physics Practice Guideline on Commissioning and QA of Treatment Planning Dose Calculations: Megavoltage Photon and Electron Beams will be presented. The recommendations focus on the validation of commissioning data and dose calculations. Tolerance values for non-IMRT beam configurations are summarized based on established criteria and data collected by the IROC. More stringent evaluation criteria for IMRT dose calculations are suggested to test the limitations of the TPS dose algorithms for advanced delivery conditions. The MPPG encourages users to create a suite of validation tests for dose calculation for various conditions for static photon beams, heterogeneities, IMRT/VMAT and electron beams. This test suite is intended to be used for subsequent testing, including TPS software upgrades. In the past, the recommendations of some reports have not been widely implemented due to practical limitations. Implementation strategies, tools and processes developed by multiple centers for efficient and “do-able” MPPG #5 testing will be presented, as well as a discussion on the overall validation experience. Learning Objectives: Identify some of the key documents relevant for TPS commissioning and QA Understand strategies for testing TPS software Gain a practical knowledge of the Gamma test criteria Increase familiarity with the process of commissioning a TPS Learn about the use of Control Charts for TPS QA Review the role of the TPS in the overall planning process Increase awareness of the link between TPS QA and chart checking Gain an increased appreciation for the importance of interdisciplinary communication Understand the new recommendations from MPPG #5 on TPS Dose Algorithm Commissioning and QC/QA Learn practical implementation processes and tools for MPPG #5 validation recommendations.

  14. WE-AB-201-04: The Recommendations of MPPG #5 and Practical Implementation Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilowitz, J.

    2015-01-01

    . The recommendations of MPPG #5 and practical implementation strategies (Jennifer Smilowitz) The recently published recommendations from Task Group No. 244, Medical Physics Practice Guideline on Commissioning and QA of Treatment Planning Dose Calculations: Megavoltage Photon and Electron Beams will be presented. The recommendations focus on the validation of commissioning data and dose calculations. Tolerance values for non-IMRT beam configurations are summarized based on established criteria and data collected by the IROC. More stringent evaluation criteria for IMRT dose calculations are suggested to test the limitations of the TPS dose algorithms for advanced delivery conditions. The MPPG encourages users to create a suite of validation tests for dose calculation for various conditions for static photon beams, heterogeneities, IMRT/VMAT and electron beams. This test suite is intended to be used for subsequent testing, including TPS software upgrades. In the past, the recommendations of some reports have not been widely implemented due to practical limitations. Implementation strategies, tools and processes developed by multiple centers for efficient and “do-able” MPPG #5 testing will be presented, as well as a discussion on the overall validation experience. Learning Objectives: Identify some of the key documents relevant for TPS commissioning and QA Understand strategies for testing TPS software Gain a practical knowledge of the Gamma test criteria Increase familiarity with the process of commissioning a TPS Learn about the use of Control Charts for TPS QA Review the role of the TPS in the overall planning process Increase awareness of the link between TPS QA and chart checking Gain an increased appreciation for the importance of interdisciplinary communication Understand the new recommendations from MPPG #5 on TPS Dose Algorithm Commissioning and QC/QA Learn practical implementation processes and tools for MPPG #5 validation recommendations

  15. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation strategy review recommendations. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In May 1994 the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO)'s Board initiated a comprehensive five month review which purpose was to develop a mission for ANSTO and thus define its role both domestically and internationally. The review took into account the needs of ANSTO stakeholders, analysed ANSTO capabilities as well as available international opportunities. Outcomes of the review included an assessment of the priorities and needs of stakeholders, an understanding of how these needs can be meet, and the resulting resource implications. ANSTO's major mission objectives, as defined in the consultants's report should be: to support the Government's nuclear policies (this objective is paramount), support industrial competitiveness and innovation through technology transfer, as well as to maintain a high quality nuclear science base and to enable academic institutions and other science organizations to perform research by providing access to unique facilities and expertise. The consultants also made recommendations on appropriate management arrangements for ANSTO, an implementation plan, progress milestones and operational targets. Details of the relevance-excellence analysis, commercial customer analysis and justification for recommended activity action imperatives are presented in the appendices. 48 figs

  16. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Buchanan, Robert W; Dickerson, Faith B; Dixon, Lisa B

    2010-01-01

    The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) project has played a significant role in the development and dissemination of evidence-based practices for schizophrenia. In contrast to other clinical guidelines, the Schizophrenia PORT Treatment Recommendations, initially published in 1998 and first revised in 2003, are based primarily on empirical data. Over the last 5 years, research on psychopharmacologic and psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia has continued to evolve, warranting an update of the PORT recommendations. In consultation with expert advisors, 2 Evidence Review Groups (ERGs) identified 41 treatment areas for review and conducted electronic literature searches to identify all clinical studies published since the last PORT literature review. The ERGs also reviewed studies preceding 2002 in areas not covered by previous PORT reviews, including smoking cessation, substance abuse, and weight loss. The ERGs reviewed over 600 studies and synthesized the research evidence, producing recommendations for those treatments for which the evidence was sufficiently strong to merit recommendation status. For those treatments lacking empirical support, the ERGs produced parallel summary statements. An Expert Panel consisting of 39 schizophrenia researchers, clinicians, and consumers attended a conference in November 2008 in which consensus was reached on the state of the evidence for each of the treatment areas reviewed. The methods and outcomes of the update process are presented here and resulted in recommendations for 16 psychopharmacologic and 8 psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia. Another 13 psychopharmacologic and 4 psychosocial treatments had insufficient evidence to support a recommendation, representing significant unmet needs in important treatment domains.

  17. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.

  18. 2004 Space Report: Environment and Strategy for Space Research at NATO's Research and Technology Organisation (RTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the motivation for and a strategy to enhance the NATO Research and Technology Organisation's (RTO) current space research effort to reflect NATO's growing military dependence on space systems. Such systems and services provided by these systems are critical elements of military operations. NATO uses space systems for operational planning and support, communication, radio navigation, multi-sensor and multi-domain demonstrations. Such systems are also used to promote regional stability. A quantitative analysis of work related to space in the NATO RTO showed that during the period of 1998 - 2004, 5% of the research pursued in the NATO RTO has been clearly focused on space applications. Challenging environmental and organizational barriers for increasing RTO space research were identified. In part, these include lack of sufficient space expertise representation on panels, the military sensitivity of space, current panel work loads and the need for specific technical recommendations from peers. A strategy for enhancing space research in the RTO is to create a limited-life Space Advisory Group (SAG) composed of Space Expert Consultants who are panel members with appropriate expertise and additional expertise from the nations. The SAG will recommend and find support in the nations for specific technical activities related to space in the areas of Space Science, Remote Sensing Data Analysis, Spacecraft Systems, Surveillance and Early Warning, Training and Simulation and Policy. An RTO Space Advisory Group will provide an organizational mechanism to gain recognition of RTO as a forum for trans-Atlantic defence space research and to enhance space research activities.

  19. Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee report on recommended fusion program priorities and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee recommends a new program strategy with the following principal features: (1) Initiation in FY86 of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX), a moderate-cost tokamak reactor device (less than $1 B PACE) designed to achieve ignition and long-pulse equilibrium burn. Careful trade-off studies are needed before making key design choices in interrelated technology areas. Cost reductions relative to earlier plans can be realized by exploiting new plasma technology, by locating the TFCX at the TFTR site, and by assigning responsibility for complementary reactor engineering tasks to other sectors of the fusion program. (2) Potential utilization of the MFTF Upgrade to provide a cost-effective means for quasi-steady-state testing of blanket and power-system components, complementary to TFCX. This will depend on future assessments of the data base for tandem mirrors. (3) Vigorous pursuit of the broad US base program in magnetic confinement, including new machine starts, where appropriate, at approximately the present total level of support. (4) Utilization of Development and Technology programs in plasma and magnet technology in support of specific hardware requirements of the TFCX and of other major fusion facilities, so as to minimize overall program cost

  20. Recommendations for the use of PET and PET-CT for radiotherapy planning in research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, E J; Pike, L C; Marsden, P K

    2012-08-01

    With the increasing use of positron emission tomography (PET) for disease staging, follow-up and therapy monitoring in a number of oncological indications there is growing interest in the use of PET and PET-CT for radiation treatment planning. In order to create a strong clinical evidence base for this, it is important to ensure that research data are clinically relevant and of a high quality. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute PET Research Network make these recommendations to assist investigators in the development of radiotherapy clinical trials involving the use of PET and PET-CT. These recommendations provide an overview of the current literature in this rapidly evolving field, including standards for PET in clinical trials, disease staging, volume delineation, intensity modulated radiotherapy and PET-augmented planning techniques, and are targeted at a general audience. We conclude with specific recommendations for the use of PET in radiotherapy planning in research projects.

  1. Four simple recommendations to encourage best practices in research software [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Jiménez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research relies on computer software, yet software is not always developed following practices that ensure its quality and sustainability. This manuscript does not aim to propose new software development best practices, but rather to provide simple recommendations that encourage the adoption of existing best practices. Software development best practices promote better quality software, and better quality software improves the reproducibility and reusability of research. These recommendations are designed around Open Source values, and provide practical suggestions that contribute to making research software and its source code more discoverable, reusable and transparent. This manuscript is aimed at developers, but also at organisations, projects, journals and funders that can increase the quality and sustainability of research software by encouraging the adoption of these recommendations.

  2. Effective teaching strategies and methods of delivery for patient education: a systematic review and practice guideline recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Audrey Jusko; Cosby, Roxanne; Boyko, Susan; Hatton-Bauer, Jane; Turnbull, Gale

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effective teaching strategies and methods of delivery for patient education (PE). A systematic review was conducted and reviews with or without meta-analyses, which examined teaching strategies and methods of delivery for PE, were included. Teaching strategies identified are traditional lectures, discussions, simulated games, computer technology, written material, audiovisual sources, verbal recall, demonstration, and role playing. Methods of delivery focused on how to deliver the teaching strategies. Teaching strategies that increased knowledge, decreased anxiety, and increased satisfaction included computer technology, audio and videotapes, written materials, and demonstrations. Various teaching strategies used in combination were similarly successful. Moreover, structured-, culturally appropriate- and patient-specific teachings were found to be better than ad hoc teaching or generalized teaching. Findings provide guidance for establishing provincial standards for the delivery of PE. Recommendations concerning the efficacy of the teaching strategies and delivery methods are provided.

  3. Prevalence of Recommendations Made Within Dental Research Articles Using Uncontrolled Intervention or Observational Study Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M K; Chestnutt, I G

    2016-03-01

    Evidence to inform clinical practice is reliant on research carried out using appropriate study design. The objectives of this work were to (i) identify the prevalence of articles reporting on human studies using uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs published in peer-reviewed dental journals and (ii) determine the nature of recommendations made by these articles. Six peer-reviewed dental journals were selected. Issues published in January to June 2013 were examined and the types of articles published categorized. Following pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, human studies classified as using uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs were subject to detailed review by two independent investigators, to examine if they presented clinical, policy or research recommendations and if these recommendations were supported by the data presented. 52.9% (n = 156) of studies published during the time period met the inclusion criteria. Studies with uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs comprised a larger proportion of the primary research studies published in the journals with lower impact factors (73.3%; n = 107) compared to the high impact journals (38.9%; n = 49). Analysis showed that 60.9% (n = 95) of the included studies made recommendations for clinical practice/dental policy. In 28.2% (n = 44) of studies, the clinical/policy recommendations made were judged to not be fully supported by the data presented. Many studies published in the current dental literature, which are not considered to produce strong evidence, make recommendations for clinical practice or policy. There were some cases when the recommendations were not fully supported by the data presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Juegos de videos: Investigacion, puntajes y recomendaciones (Video Games: Research, Ratings and Recommendations). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Spanish-language digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders…

  5. 78 FR 37242 - Draft Report and Recommendations Prepared by the Research Committee of the Scientific Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Recommendations Prepared by the Research Committee of the Scientific Working Group on Medicolegal Death... Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Scientific Working Group for Medicolegal Death Investigation will make available to the general public a document entitled, ``Research in Forensic Pathology...

  6. Research on Psychotherapy Integration: Recommendations and Conclusions from an NIMH Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barry E.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) workshop (March 1986) which invited 14 psychotherapy researchers to consider key issues associated with psychotherapy integration. Discusses recommendations developed to initiate a research program encompassing conceptual clarification, efficacy studies of systematic eclectic therapies, the role…

  7. Engaging the private sector in malaria surveillance: a review of strategies and recommendations for elimination settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Adam; Avanceña, Anton L V; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Cotter, Chris; Roberts, Kathryn; Gosling, Roly

    2017-06-14

    In malaria elimination settings, all malaria cases must be identified, documented and investigated. To facilitate complete and timely reporting of all malaria cases and effective case management and follow-up, engagement with private providers is essential, particularly in settings where the private sector is a major source of healthcare. However, research on the role and performance of the private sector in malaria diagnosis, case management and reporting in malaria elimination settings is limited. Moreover, the most effective strategies for private sector engagement in malaria elimination settings remain unclear. Twenty-five experts in malaria elimination, disease surveillance and private sector engagement were purposively sampled and interviewed. An extensive review of grey and peer-reviewed literature on private sector testing, treatment, and reporting for malaria was performed. Additional in-depth literature review was conducted for six case studies on eliminating and neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. The private health sector can be categorized based on their commercial orientation or business model (for-profit versus nonprofit) and their regulation status within a country (formal vs informal). A number of potentially effective strategies exist for engaging the private sector. Conducting a baseline assessment of the private sector is critical to understanding its composition, size, geographical distribution and quality of services provided. Facilitating reporting, referral and training linkages between the public and private sectors and making malaria a notifiable disease are important strategies to improve private sector involvement in malaria surveillance. Financial incentives for uptake of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy should be combined with training and community awareness campaigns for improving uptake. Private sector providers can also be organized and better engaged through social

  8. KEEP Motivational Research: Strategy and Results. Technical Report #24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report briefly summarizes the motivation research strategy and results from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). The rationale behind KEEP's use of on-task behavior to measure student motivation is discussed and the two strategies of motivation enhancement researched are described. These two strategies were: (1) staff training in…

  9. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrary, C.

    1992-03-01

    This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy

  10. Four Years of Farmer Experimentation on Soil Fertility in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Trends in Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijvanger, Richard G.; Veldkamp, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper analyses research strategies followed by farmer groups in Tigray, that were involved in participatory experimentation. Understanding choices made by farmers in such experimentation processes is important to understand reasons why farmers in Tigray often hesitated to adopt recommended practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: A…

  11. Context-Aware Recommender System: A Review of Recent Developmental Process and Future Research Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Haruna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent data handling techniques are beneficial for users; to store, process, analyze and access the vast amount of information produced by electronic and automated devices. The leading approach is to use recommender systems (RS to extract relevant information from the vast amount of knowledge. However, early recommender systems emerged without the cognizance to contextualize information regarding users’ recommendations. Considering the historical methodological limitations, Context-Aware Recommender Systems (CARS are now deployed, which leverage contextual information in addition to the classical two-dimensional search processes, providing better-personalized user recommendations. This paper presents a review of recent developmental processes as a fountainhead for the research of a context-aware recommender system. This work contributes by taking an integrated approach to the complete CARS developmental process, unlike other review papers, which only address a specific aspect of the CARS process. First, an in-depth review is presented pertaining to the state-of-the-art and classified literature, considering the domain of the application models, filters, extraction and evaluation approaches. Second, viewpoints are presented relating to the extraction of literature with analysis on the merit and demerit of each, and the evolving processes between them. Finally, the outstanding challenges and opportunities for future research directions are highlighted.

  12. Research Award: Corporate Strategy and Evaluaon Division

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship allow award ... and developmental evaluaon, to assess and adjust their program strategies? ... Be either currently enrolled at a recognized university at the master's or ...

  13. Should we quit our jobs? Challenges, barriers and recommendations for interdisciplinary energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuitema, Geertje; Sintov, Nicole D.

    2017-01-01

    Many plea for a better integration of social sciences in energy research, which would imply more comprehensive interdisciplinary energy research. We argue that in order to achieve this, institutional barriers and research challenges need to be recognised and addressed. We identify six challenges and barriers, and provide recommendations for working towards solutions. We conclude that to engage in interdisciplinary research implies extra costs and fewer rewards for all researchers, particularly early and mid-career academics. We propose a new conceptualisation of practices and incentive structures among academic institutions, funding agencies, and publication outlets, and urge all energy researchers to join this debate. - Highlights: • Interdisciplinary energy research currently does not reach its full potential. • Social sciences are underutilised in energy research. • Barriers and challenges need to be addressed to stimulate interdisciplinary energy research. • High costs and small rewards for interdisciplinary (early and mid-career) researchers.

  14. Data You May Like: A Recommender System for Research Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, A.; Davy, R.; Hogan, D.

    2016-12-01

    Various data portals been developed to facilitate access to research datasets from different sources. For example, the Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (PANGAEA), the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org), and the National Geoscience Data Centre (NGDC). Due to data quantity and heterogeneity, finding relevant datasets on these portals may be difficult and tedious. Keyword searches based on specific metadata elements or multi-key indexes may return irrelevant results. Faceted searches may be unsatisfactory and time consuming, especially when facet values are exhaustive. We need a much more intelligent way to complement existing searching mechanisms in order to enhance user experiences of the data portals. We developed a recommender system that helps users to find the most relevant research datasets on the CSIRO's Data Access Portal (DAP). The system is based on content-based filtering. We computed the similarity of datasets based on data attributes (e.g., descriptions, fields of research, location, contributors, and provenance) and inference from transaction logs (e.g., the relations among datasets and between queries and datasets). We improved the recommendation quality by assigning weights to data similarities. The weight values are drawn from a survey involving data users. The recommender results for a given dataset are accessible programmatically via a web service. Taking both data attributes and user actions into account, the recommender system will make it easier for researchers to find and reuse data offered through the data portal.

  15. Supporting Knowledge Mobilization and Research Impact Strategies in Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, David; Jensen, Krista E.; Johnny, Michael; Poetz, Anneliese

    2016-01-01

    Each application to the National Science Foundation (NSF) must contain a Broader Impact (BI) strategy. Similarly, grant applications for most research funders in Canada and the UK require strategies to support the translation of research into impacts on society; however, the guidance provided to researchers is too general to inform the specific…

  16. Research requirements for alternative reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop

  17. Recommended Research Directions for Improving the Validation of Complex Systems Models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finley, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Improved validation for models of complex systems has been a primary focus over the past year for the Resilience in Complex Systems Research Challenge. This document describes a set of research directions that are the result of distilling those ideas into three categories of research -- epistemic uncertainty, strong tests, and value of information. The content of this document can be used to transmit valuable information to future research activities, update the Resilience in Complex Systems Research Challenge's roadmap, inform the upcoming FY18 Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) call and research proposals, and facilitate collaborations between Sandia and external organizations. The recommended research directions can provide topics for collaborative research, development of proposals, workshops, and other opportunities.

  18. The Philanthropic Recommendation Research Report: Group Project for Engl317, Writing for Business and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahin, Linda

    2007-01-01

    English 317 is a second writing course designed for business majors primarily but available to all students who need to fulfill the second writing course requirement. The purpose of the philanthropic research recommendation report is to familiarize students with the ways that corporations envision and enact social responsibility as depicted on…

  19. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  20. Recommendations to bridge rural/urban drug-use(r) research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, C G; Edwards, R W

    1999-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed by a group of United States drug-use(r) researchers interested in rural and urban research and practice who met in Lexington, Kentucky, in October 1996. Overall, there was consensus about the importance of better understanding the urban/rural drug and alcohol use/dependency continuum. It was emphasized that drug and alcohol use/dependency are chronic and relapsing disorders. Definitions of rural and urban are most important, and different definitions may be associated with factors that are masked by population density. Specific recommendations are presented in the following areas: Rural Factors, Epidemiology, HIV/AIDS, Treatment and Other Services, Migration, Youth, Protective Factors, Systems Perspective, Measurement, Confidentiality, Criminal Justice, Research, Policy Research, Economic Factors, Service Providers, and Managed Care.

  1. The Augmented Reality Sandtable (ARES) Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    2014. Report No.: ARL-TR-6905. Creswell JW. Research design: qualitative , quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage...an interface designed with UDOP principles. Research should seek to better understand the types of information relevant to certain classes of users...visualization research area, there are at least a few colleagues at ARL who are also conducting research in various types of (and combinations of

  2. A Research on Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Students’ Mastery

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yuan; Liu Bingbing

    2013-01-01

    By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  3. A strategy for building public service motivation research Internationally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Vandenabeele, W.V.

    2010-01-01

    As public service motivation research grows qualitatively and quantitatively, some scholars question its appropriateness for international applications. This essay sets out a strategy of convergence for international research and measurement approaches. Studies that assess commonalities in public

  4. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are ... More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth. Members of the ... Institution. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

  5. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are ... More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth. Members of the ... Institution. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

  6. An Emerging Strategy of "Direct" Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzberg, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Discusses seven basic themes that underlie the author's "direct research" activities. These themes include reliance on research based on description and induction instead of prescription and deduction, and the measurement of many elements in real settings, supported by anecdote, instead of few variables in perceptual terms from a…

  7. Case study of information product for strategy research, planning research, and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yujun; Zou Lin; Liu Qun; Wang Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Soft science research is significant and can directly support the decision-making and development. The strategy research, planning research, and policy research each play an important role in soft science research. As the National Strategy of Informatization being implemented and advanced, some progress are made and some special information tools are produced in the process of strengthening the development research with information technologies. At first, the article introduced some cases of information products application, such as the domestic and overseas information products for energy strategy research and planning research and policy research, the governmental management information system for planning and investment, examination and approval and permission system for the planning of the land for construction, China agriculture decision support system and so on, and also gave a brief analysis on the theories and methods, main functions and application status. And then, with a analysis on the features of the works of development planning of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) development, this article gave some suggestions on how to strengthen the development of information system for the development planning of the CNNC. (authors)

  8. Advances and Future Directions for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research: Recommendations From the 2015 Strategic Planning Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Henske, Elizabeth P; Manning, Brendan D; Ess, Kevin C; Bissler, John J; Klann, Eric; Kwiatkowski, David J; Roberds, Steven L; Silva, Alcino J; Hillaire-Clarke, Coryse St; Young, Lisa R; Zervas, Mark; Mamounas, Laura A

    2016-07-01

    On March 10 to March 12, 2015, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, to assess progress and new opportunities for research in tuberous sclerosis complex with the goal of updating the 2003 Research Plan for Tuberous Sclerosis (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/about_ninds/plans/tscler_research_plan.htm). In addition to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance, participants in the strategic planning effort and workshop included representatives from six other Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research Program, and a broad cross-section of basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex along with representatives from the pharmaceutical industry. Here we summarize the outcomes from the extensive premeeting deliberations and final workshop recommendations, including (1) progress in the field since publication of the initial 2003 research plan for tuberous sclerosis complex, (2) the key gaps, needs, and challenges that hinder progress in tuberous sclerosis complex research, and (3) a new set of research priorities along with specific recommendations for addressing the major challenges in each priority area. The new research plan is organized around both short-term and long-term goals with the expectation that progress toward specific objectives can be achieved within a five to ten year time frame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Research and Design of a Grid Based Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yueling; Nie, Guihua

    2010-01-01

    Current electronic commerce recommendation system is designed for single electronic commerce website and current recommendation technologies have obvious deficiencies Centralized recommendation systems can not resolve the contradiction between high recommendation quality and timely response, as well as that between limited recommendation range and ever rich information on the web. Distributed recommendation systems are expected to improve the recommendation quality while maintaining high perf...

  10. Implications of the Recommendations of the Expert Panel on Federal Support to Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Manning

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada lags behind many of its First World counterparts when it comes to business innovation, and urgently needs to improve its performance if it is to remain competitive and attractive to investment. The Expert Panel Report on Federal Support to Research and Development has recommended several policy initiatives that governments need to enact to close the gap. This paper reviews all six major recommendations made by the Expert Panel and provides thorough assessments of each, with ample consideration given to their implications for the private sector. The two most promising are: (1 the consolidation of research and development spending programs at the federal level and (2 the adoption of smart procurement as a means of spurring innovation in the non-government sector. While some of the other recommendations need refinement and raise concerns about their impact on the economy, the message for government and business is clear: the former can and should facilitate Canadian business innovation by removing tax and regulatory burdens and facilitating better public-private cooperation, while the latter must make innovation a major part of corporate culture. This paper explains the consequences of the Panel’s recommendations for both sectors, identifies the deficiencies, and offers clear-eyed guidance for ameliorating them.

  11. Strategies and directions of Malaysian energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharudin Yatim

    1995-01-01

    Research on energy efficiency could reconcile environmental issues associated with economic development. It could enhance energy supplies, improve the environment and develop alternative energy sources. Author reviews some of Malaysia's best energy R and D programmes

  12. Initiating undergraduate medical students into communities of research practise: what do supervisors recommend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Simon C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been written in the educational literature on the value of communities of practise in enhancing student learning. Here, we take the experience of senior undergraduate medical students involved in short-term research as a member of a team as a paradigm for learning in a community of practise. Based on feedback from experienced supervisors, we offer recommendations for initiating students into the research culture of their team. In so doing, we endeavour to create a bridge between theory and practise through disseminating advice on good supervisory practise, where the supervisor is perceived as an educator responsible for designing the research process to optimize student learning. Methods Using the questionnaire design tool SurveyMonkey and comprehensive lists of contact details of staff who had supervised research projects at the University of Edinburgh during 1995 - 2008, current and previous supervisors were invited to recommend procedures which they had found successful in initiating students into the research culture of a team. Text responses were then coded in the form of derivative recommendations and categorized under general themes and sub-themes. Results Using the chi-square tests of linear trend and association, evidence was found for a positive trend towards more experienced supervisors offering responses (χ2 = 16.833, p 2 = 0.482, p = 0.487, n = 203, respectively. A total of 126 codes were extracted from the text responses of 65 respondents. These codes were simplified to form a complete list of 52 recommendations, which were in turn categorized under seven derivative overarching themes, the most highly represented themes being Connecting the student with others and Cultivating self-efficacy in research competence. Conclusions Through the design of a coding frame for supervisor responses, a wealth of ideas has been captured to make communities of research practise effective mediums for undergraduate

  13. Research in assessment: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuwirth, Lambert; Colliver, Jerry; Gruppen, Larry

    2011-01-01

    educational research, a plethora of methodologies is available to cater to many different research questions. This article contains consensus positions and suggestions on various elements of medical education (assessment) research. Overarching is the position that without a good theoretical underpinning...... and good knowledge of the existing literature, good research and sound conclusions are impossible to produce, and that there is no inherently superior methodology, but that the best methodology is the one most suited to answer the research question unambiguously. Although the positions should...... not be perceived as dogmas, they should be taken as very serious recommendations. Topics covered are: types of research, theoretical frameworks, designs and methodologies, instrument properties or psychometrics, costs/acceptability, ethics, infrastructure and support....

  14. Community-Engaged Strategies to Increase Diversity of Participants in Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Balls-Berry, Joyce; Price, James H; Webb, Fern J

    2016-05-01

    Minorities have historically been underrepresented in health-related research. Several strategies have been recommended to increase the participation of minorities in health-related research. However, most of the recommendations and guidelines apply to research in clinical or laboratory contexts. One of the more prominent methods to enhance minority participation in health-related research that has recently come to the fore is the use of community-engaged strategies. The purpose of this article is to summarize community-engaged outreach efforts that can be translated into useable strategies for health education research teams seeking to diversify the pool of research participants. Also, we provide a succinct overview of the various components of a research endeavor that may influence minority participation in health-related research. Finally, we analyze how health education specialists and SOPHE (Society of Public Health Education) can play a leading role in helping enhance minority participation in health-related research. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Decision Strategy Research and Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies and policy support is: (1) to investigate the decision making process, with all its relevant dimensions, in the context of radiation protection or other nuclear issues (with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness); (2) to disseminate knowledge on decision making and nuclear emergencies, including the organisation of training courses, the contribution to manuals or guidelines, the participation in working groups or discussion forums; (3) to assist the authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available; (4) to participate in and contribute to initiatives related to social sciences and their implementation into SCK-CEN; (5) to co-ordinate efforts of SCK-CEN related to medical applications of ionising radiation. Principal achievements in 2001 are described

  16. Decision Strategy Research and Policy Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, F

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies and policy support is: (1) to investigate the decision making process, with all its relevant dimensions, in the context of radiation protection or other nuclear issues (with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness); (2) to disseminate knowledge on decision making and nuclear emergencies, including the organisation of training courses, the contribution to manuals or guidelines, the participation in working groups or discussion forums; (3) to assist the authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available; (4) to participate in and contribute to initiatives related to social sciences and their implementation into SCK-CEN; (5) to co-ordinate efforts of SCK-CEN related to medical applications of ionising radiation. Principal achievements in 2001 are described.

  17. Research on prisoners - a comparison between the IOM Committee recommendations (2006) and European regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Bernice S; Spaulding, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Ethical Considerations for Revisions to DHHS Regulations for Protection of Prisoners Involved in Research published its report in 2006. It was charged with developing an ethical framework for the conduct of research with prisoners and identifying the safeguards and conditions necessary to ensure that research with prisoners is conducted ethically. The recommendations contained in the IOM report differ from current European regulations in several ways, some being more restrictive and some less so. For example, the IOM report suggests limiting the percentage of prisoners that should be involved in a biomedical study to 50%, a limit that does not exist in Europe. However, the report does not specifically advise against research without a direct benefit to an individual prisoner: the European regulations are more restrictive than the IOM committee recommendations in this respect. The definition of minimal risk varies, as well as the proposed role of the minimal risk requirement and of the principle of subsidiarity (research that can only be done effectively in prisons). The IOM report proposes a number of thoughtful suggestions, which it would be beneficial to implement everywhere, such as registers of research on prisoners. The European regulations offer pragmatic solutions to several thorny issues. In summary, the IOM committee report represents an admirable effort to tackle the present inconsistencies and deficiencies of federal regulations in the US on research on prisoners (45 CFR 46 Subpart C). Nonetheless, before acting on the recommendations, US regulators might consider revisiting international guidelines such as those published by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Science (CIOMS) and the Declaration of Helsinki.

  18. Understanding asphalt compaction: An action research strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Doree, Andries G.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi

    2007-01-01

    In Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) construction, rollers provide the compaction energy required to produce a specified density. However, little is known about the heuristics used by the roller operators. This study forms part of a larger action research project focussing on the improvement of the HMA paving

  19. Key Strategies for Building Research Capacity of University Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenneke, Laura F; Stearns, Diane M; Martinez, Jesse D; Laurila, Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Universities are under pressure to increase external research funding, and some federal agencies offer programs to expand research capacity in certain kinds of institutions. However, conflicts within faculty roles and other aspects of university operations influence the effectiveness of particular strategies for increasing research activity. We review conventional approaches to increasing research, focusing on outcomes for individual faculty members and use one federally-funded effort to build cancer-related research capacity at a public university as an example to explore the impact of various strategies on research outcomes. We close with hypotheses that should be tested in future formal studies.

  20. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. Objectives To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Methods Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. Results A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. Conclusions The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes. PMID:28119991

  1. Examining the relative effectiveness of different message framing strategies for child passenger safety: recommendations for increased comprehension and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Kelli England; Decina, Lawrence E; Maple, Erin L; Perkins, Amy M

    2015-06-01

    Age-appropriate child restraints and rear seating dramatically reduce injury in vehicle crashes. Yet parents and caregivers struggle to comply with child passenger safety (CPS) recommendations, and frequently make mistakes when choosing and installing restraints. The purpose of this research was to evaluate various methods of framing CPS recommendations, and to examine the relative effectiveness on parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to best practices and proper use of child restraints. Emphasis framing is a persuasion technique that involves placing focus on specific aspects of the content in order to encourage or discourage certain interpretations of the content. A 5 (flyer group) X 2 (time) randomized experiment was conducted in which 300 parent participants answered a pre-survey, viewed one of four flyer versions or a no-education control version, and completed a post-survey. Surveys measured CPS knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of efficacy and risk, and behavioral intentions. The four flyers compared in this study all communicated the same CPS recommendations, but several versions were tested which each employed a different emphasis frame: (1) recommendations organized by the natural progression of seat types; (2) recommendations which focused on avoiding premature graduation; (3) recommendations which explained the risk-reduction rationale behind the information given; or (4) recommendations which were organized by age. In a fifth no-education (control) condition, participants viewed marketing materials. Analyses of covariance and pairwise comparisons indicated the risk-reduction rationale flyer outperformed other flyers for many subscales, and significantly differed from no-education control for the most subscales, including restraint selection, back seat knowledge, rear-facing knowledge and attitudes, total efficacy, overall attitudes, and stated intentions. This research provides insight for increasing caregiver understanding

  2. Parkinson's disease-related fatigue: A case definition and recommendations for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Benzi M; Herlofson, Karen; Chou, Kelvin L; Lou, Jau-Shin; Goetz, Christopher G; Lang, Anthony E; Weintraub, Daniel; Friedman, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Since fatigue was first described as a common feature of PD 20 years ago, little progress has been made in understanding its causes or treatment. Importantly, PD patients attending the 2013 World Parkinson Congress voted fatigue as the leading symptom in need of further research. In response, the Parkinson Disease Foundation and ProjectSpark assembled an international team of experts to create recommendations for clinical research to advance this field. The working group identified several areas in which shared standards would improve research quality and foster progress including terminology, diagnostic criteria, and measurement. Terminology needs to (1) clearly distinguish fatigue from related phenomena (eg, sleepiness, apathy, depression); (2) differentiate subjective fatigue complaints from objective performance fatigability; and (3) specify domains affected by fatigue and causal factors. We propose diagnostic criteria for PD-related fatigue to guide participant selection for clinical trials and add rigor to mechanistic studies. Recommendations are made for measurement of subjective fatigue complaints, performance fatigability, and neurophysiologic changes. We also suggest areas in which future research is needed to address methodological issues and validate or optimize current practices. Many limitations in current PD-related fatigue research may be addressed by improving methodological standards, many of which are already being successfully applied in clinical fatigue research in other medical conditions (eg, cancer, multiple sclerosis). © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. SKI's research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    SKI's research is a prerequisite for SKI's ability to fulfil its assignment. Research to support supervision is focused today on a number of strategically important areas such as reactor technology, material and fuel questions, human factors, waste and non-proliferation (safeguards). SKI's intelligence analysis shows that this focus should be maintained over the next few years. Some reallocation of priorities between research areas may be necessary due to changes in the nuclear area. For this research, SKI contracts universities as well as consulting companies. The resources that are of importance for nuclear research are concentrated to a few organisations in Sweden. But the national research resources alone do not cover the existing needs. One reason is that the previously highly competent and well funded Swedish expert organisations within the nuclear power utilities have gradually been phased out or transformed into consulting firms. Changes have also taken place at the Swedish vendor of boiling-water plants, now Westinghouse Atom, and the activities have been down sized considerably in Sweden. There has been a similar trend in other countries. Moreover, countries which previously conducted expensive experiments have themselves increasingly sought international support as their research resources have dwindled. As a result, numerous international projects have or are planned to be started. SKI notes that Swedish nuclear activities are also becoming increasingly dependent on international collaboration. SKI further notes that in order to fulfil its assignment, the Inspectorate needs not only financial resources but also competent personnel. This enables targeted support to be maintained to strategic national infrastructure and to international cooperation including internationally financed projects. With this is meant above all experimental research where small countries such as Sweden can join forces with other countries on to important research

  4. Combating Terrorism. The 9/11 Commission Recommendations and the National Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parachini, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The objective was to have people think like the Jihadists. In the second part of the exercise, participants assessed how the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism prepares the country to contend with possible next moves of the Jihadist movement...

  5. Using exploratory factor analysis in personality research: Best-practice recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Laher

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: This article presents more objective methods to determine the number of factors, most notably parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP. The benefits of rotation are also discussed. The article argues for more consistent use of Procrustes rotation and congruence coefficients in factor analytic studies. Motivation for the study: Exploratory factor analysis is often criticised for not being rigorous and objective enough in terms of the methods used to determine the number of factors, the rotations to be used and ultimately the validity of the factor structure. Research design, approach and method: The article adopts a theoretical stance to discuss the best-practice recommendations for factor analytic research in the field of psychology. Following this, an example located within personality assessment and using the NEO-PI-R specifically is presented. A total of 425 students at the University of the Witwatersrand completed the NEO-PI-R. These responses were subjected to a principal components analysis using varimax rotation. The rotated solution was subjected to a Procrustes rotation with Costa and McCrae’s (1992 matrix as the target matrix. Congruence coefficients were also computed. Main findings: The example indicates the use of the methods recommended in the article and demonstrates an objective way of determining the number of factors. It also provides an example of Procrustes rotation with coefficients of agreement as an indication of how factor analytic results may be presented more rigorously in local research. Practical/managerial implications: It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will have best-practice implications for both researchers and practitioners in the field who employ factor analysis regularly. Contribution/value-add: This article will prove useful to all researchers employing factor analysis and has the potential to set the trend for better use of factor analysis in the South African context.

  6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  7. A literature review on sustainable lifestyles and recommendations for further research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Kate

    2009-03-15

    The report pulls together evidence surrounding sustainable lifestyles, including the tools and methods available to tackle the issue, understanding why we behave the way we do and looking at the issues surrounding production and products, which form an important part of sustainable lifestyles. In doing so it attempts to tackle the issues relating to the global imbalances in wealth and consumption levels that exist. The report is intended to give a concise insight into the research relating to sustainable lifestyles and to identify key evidence gaps and recommendations for future research

  8. Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Philip M; MacKenzie, Scott B; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Podsakoff, Nathan P

    2003-10-01

    Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.

  9. Southern Research Station Global Change Research Strategy 2011-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Zoe Hoyle; Stevin Westcott; Emrys Treasure

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the goals of the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Southern Research Station (SRS) provides the information and technology needed to develop best management practices for the forest lands of the Southern United States, where science-guided actions are needed to sustain ecosystem health,...

  10. New hybrid systems: strategy and research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    This short article gives a status of research and experimental programs concerning new hybrid systems. A hybrid system is made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and of a particle accelerator that delivers a proton beam. The main asset of hybrid systems is to provide a large reactivity margin that would be very valuable to transmute actinide nuclei efficiently. As a consequence hybrid systems could be considered as actinide burner reactors integrated to a large population of classical nuclear reactors dedicated to electricity production. (A.C.)

  11. Infection prevention and control of Clostridium difficile: a global review of guidelines, strategies, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsells, Evelyn; Filipescu, Teodora; Kyaw, Moe H; Wiuff, Camilla; Campbell, Harry; Nair, Harish

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of health care-associated infections. Given the high incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) and the lack of primary prevention through immunization, health care professionals should be aware of the most current guidance, as well as strengths and limitations of the evidence base underpinning this guidance. We identified publicly available national or organizational guidelines related to CDI infection and prevention control (IPC) published between 2000 and 2015 and for any health care setting through an internet search using the Google search engine. We reviewed CDI-targeted IPC recommendations and describe the assessment of evidence in available guidelines. We identified documents from 28 countries/territories, mainly from acute care hospitals in North America, the Western Pacific, and Europe (18 countries). We identified only a few specific recommendations for long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and from countries in South America (Uruguay and Chile), South East Asia (Thailand), and none for Africa or Eastern Mediterranean. Of 10 IPC areas, antimicrobial stewardship was universally recognized as essential and supported by high quality evidence. Five other widely reported "strong" recommendations were: effective environment cleaning (including medical equipment), case isolation, use of personal protective equipment, surveillance, and education. Several unresolved and emerging issues were documented and currently available evidence was classified mainly as of mixed quality. Our review underlines the need for targeted CDI IPC guidelines in several countries and for LTCFs. International harmonisation on the assessment of the evidence for best practices is needed as well as more robust evidence to support targeted recommendations.

  12. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  13. Substantiating Recommendations on the Choice of an Efficient Strategy of the State Regulation for System of Monitoring Economy Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashchaulov Vitalii V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with substantiating recommendations on the choice of an effective strategy of the State regulation for system of monitoring economy branches. To display the financial aspect of the enterprise's strategic positioning in the sectoral environment, a modified ADL matrix was used. A matrix of choosing an optimum variant (scenario of the enterprise's financial strategy has been considered taking into account possibilities of its use in the system of monitoring the development of economic sectors. Disadvantages in the use of modified ADL matrices and in choosing an optimum variant (scenario financial strategy of the enterprise's financial strategy have been identified. Factors of internal and external environment, which affect the strategic choice of enterprises, have been determined and analyzed. The SPACE matrix for building the model of choosing a strategy of financing the development of enterprises in the economy branches has been modified in the context of the system of monitoring the development of economy branches. A description of the strategies proposed by author for financing the development of enterprise has been provided, their advantages and disadvantages have been determined. Individual tools of the proposed models of actions can be accepted as a way of improving the strategic positions with a view to achieving a higher quantitative-qualitative situation as well as adjustment of the existing model of behavior.

  14. Metamethod study of qualitative psychotherapy research on clients' experiences: Review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Pomerville, Andrew; Surace, Francisco I; Grabowski, Lauren M

    2017-11-01

    A metamethod study is a qualitative meta-analysis focused upon the methods and procedures used in a given research domain. These studies are rare in psychological research. They permit both the documentation of the informal standards within a field of research and recommendations for future work in that area. This paper presents a metamethod analysis of a substantial body of qualitative research that focused on clients' experiences in psychotherapy (109 studies). This review examined the ways that methodological integrity has been established across qualitative research methods. It identified the numbers of participants recruited and the form of data collection used (e.g., semistructured interviews, diaries). As well, it examined the types of checks employed to increase methodological integrity, such as participant counts, saturation, reflexivity techniques, participant feedback, or consensus and auditing processes. Central findings indicated that the researchers quite flexibly integrated procedures associated with one method into studies using other methods in order to strengthen their rigor. It appeared normative to adjust procedures to advance methodological integrity. These findings encourage manuscript reviewers to assess the function of procedures within a study rather than to require researchers to adhere to the set of procedures associated with a method. In addition, when epistemological approaches were mentioned they were overwhelmingly constructivist in nature, despite the increasing use of procedures traditionally associated with objectivist perspectives. It is recommended that future researchers do more to explicitly describe the functions of their procedures so that they are coherently situated within the epistemological approaches in use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Practical recommendations to help students bridge the research-implementation gap and promote conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri, Diana M; Gurney, Georgina G; Benitez-Vina, Nancy; Kuklok, Audrey; Maxwell, Sara M; Whiting, Libby; Vina, Michael A; Jenkins, Lekelia D

    2013-10-01

    Seasoned conservation researchers often struggle to bridge the research-implementation gap and promote the translation of their work into meaningful conservation actions. Graduate students face the same problems and must contend with obstacles such as limited opportunities for relevant interdisciplinary training and a lack of institutional support for application of research results. However, students also have a crucial set of opportunities (e.g., access to academic resources outside their degree programs and opportunities to design research projects promoting collaboration with stakeholders) at their disposal to address these problems. On the basis of results of breakout discussions at a symposium on the human dimensions of the ocean, a review of the literature, and our own experiences, we devised recommendations on how graduate students can create resources within their academic institutions, institutionalize resources, and engage with stakeholders to promote real-world conservation outcomes. Within their academic institutions, graduate students should foster links to practitioners and promote knowledge and skill sharing among students. To institutionalize resources, students should cultivate student leaders and faculty sponsors, systematically document their program activities, and engage in strategic planning to promote the sustainability of their efforts. While conducting research, students should create connections to and engage actively with stakeholders in their relevant study areas and disseminate research results both to stakeholders and the broader public. Our recommendations can serve as a template for graduate students wishing to bridge the research-implementation gap, both during their current studies and in their future careers as conservation researchers and practitioners. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  17. Key Strategies for Building Research Capacity of University Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenneke, Laura F.; Stearns, Diane M.; Martinez, Jesse D.; Laurila, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Universities are under pressure to increase external research funding, and some federal agencies offer programs to expand research capacity in certain kinds of institutions. However, conflicts within faculty roles and other aspects of university operations influence the effectiveness of particular strategies for increasing research activity. We…

  18. High Level Thinking and Questioning Strategies. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Higher-order thinking is an instructional strategy supported by research. Often referred to as critical thinking skills, it is more than simple recall of facts or information. It is a function of the interaction between cognitive strategies, meta-cognition, and nonstrategic knowledge when solving problems. Higher-order thinking is based on the…

  19. SCORE A: A Student Research Paper Writing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Lori; Bulls, Jill A.

    1996-01-01

    A mnemonic strategy for writing a research paper is explained. "SCORE A" reminds the student to select a subject, create categories, obtain sources, read and take notes, evenly organize the information, and apply process writing steps. Implementation of the strategy with five eighth graders with learning disabilities is reported. (DB)

  20. Research Paper Writing Strategies of Professional Japanese EFL Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    1995-01-01

    Four Japanese university professors were interviewed on their strategies for writing a research paper in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Results indicate that these writers use strategies similar to those used by skilled native English writers and proficient writers of English as a Second Language. (35 references) (Author/CK)

  1. What Successful Science Teachers Do: 75 Research-Based Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Neal A.; Cheyne, Michele; Yerrick, Randy K.

    2010-01-01

    The experience and science expertise of these award-winning authors makes this easy-to-use guide a teacher's treasure trove. This latest edition to the popular What Successful Teachers Do series describes 75 research-based strategies and outlines best practices for inquiry-oriented science. Each strategy includes a brief description of the…

  2. Toward a Common Understanding of Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Deborah; Webb, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    A review of available books, articles and on-line resources which deal with "Research-Based Instructional Strategies" will produce a plethora of materials which promote the effectiveness of these strategies on student achievement. Also, a perusal of classroom instruction and teacher evaluation instruments will reveal that many of the…

  3. Psychological research with Muslim Americans in the age of Islamophobia: trends, challenges, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona M; Bagasra, Anisah

    2013-04-01

    Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population. This article reviews challenges in conducting research with Muslim Americans in order to offer recommendations for culturally sensitive approaches that can enhance the growth of future scholarship. We first contextualize this endeavor by assessing trends in psychological scholarship pertinent to Muslims in North America over the past two decades. A total of 559 relevant publications were identified through a PsycINFO database search. The 10 years post 9/11 saw a more than 900% increase in the annual number of publications, paralleling a national interest in the Muslim American community subsequent to the World Trade Center attacks. Researchers who conducted these studies faced numerous barriers, including unclear definition of the target sample, unavailability of culturally sensitive measures, sampling difficulties, and obstacles to participant recruitment. To navigate these challenges, we provide a framework for effective research design along the continuum of the research process from study conceptualization to dissemination of results. The challenges and recommendations are illustrated with examples from previous studies.

  4. Interrupted time series analysis in drug utilization research is increasing: systematic review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandoc, Racquel; Burden, Andrea M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lévesque, Linda E; Cadarette, Suzanne M

    2015-08-01

    To describe the use and reporting of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We completed a systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, and reference lists to identify English language articles through to December 2013 that used interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We tabulated the number of studies by publication year and summarized methodological detail. We identified 220 eligible empirical applications since 1984. Only 17 (8%) were published before 2000, and 90 (41%) were published since 2010. Segmented regression was the most commonly applied interrupted time series method (67%). Most studies assessed drug policy changes (51%, n = 112); 22% (n = 48) examined the impact of new evidence, 18% (n = 39) examined safety advisories, and 16% (n = 35) examined quality improvement interventions. Autocorrelation was considered in 66% of studies, 31% reported adjusting for seasonality, and 15% accounted for nonstationarity. Use of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research has increased, particularly in recent years. Despite methodological recommendations, there is large variation in reporting of analytic methods. Developing methodological and reporting standards for interrupted time series analysis is important to improve its application in drug utilization research, and we provide recommendations for consideration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy: challenges and recommendations in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupara, Lucia U; Lubbe, Johanna C

    2016-01-01

    Under-five mortality has been a major public health challenge from time immemorial. In response to this challenge, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund developed the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) strategy and presented it to the whole world as a key approach to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Botswana started to implement the IMCI strategy in 1998. Reductions in the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) have been documented, although the reduction is not on par with the expected Millennium Development Goal 4 predictions. A quantitative study was done to identify the problems IMCI implementers face when tending children under 5 years in the Gaborone Health District of Botswana. The study population was made up of all the IMCI-trained and registered nurses, and systematic sampling was used to randomly select study participants. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The study findings indicated challenges related to low training coverage, health systems, and the unique features of the IMCI strategy. The comprehensive implementation of the IMCI strategy has the potential to significantly influence the U5MR in Botswana.

  6. Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy: challenges and recommendations in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia U. Mupara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under-five mortality has been a major public health challenge from time immemorial. In response to this challenge, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund developed the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI strategy and presented it to the whole world as a key approach to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Botswana started to implement the IMCI strategy in 1998. Reductions in the under-five mortality rate (U5MR have been documented, although the reduction is not on par with the expected Millennium Development Goal 4 predictions. Design: A quantitative study was done to identify the problems IMCI implementers face when tending children under 5 years in the Gaborone Health District of Botswana. The study population was made up of all the IMCI-trained and registered nurses, and systematic sampling was used to randomly select study participants. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Results: The study findings indicated challenges related to low training coverage, health systems, and the unique features of the IMCI strategy. Conclusions: The comprehensive implementation of the IMCI strategy has the potential to significantly influence the U5MR in Botswana.

  7. Strategies to Maintain School District Financial Solvency: Illinois School Business Officials' Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann C.; Kersten, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify financial management strategies that school business officials have found most successful in achieving school district financial stability. To accomplish, 208 Illinois school business officials in six counties: Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties, excluding Chicago School District 299,…

  8. iPrincipals: Innovative Themes, Strategies, and Recommendations of Ten Online University Educational Leadership Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Teri A.; Loose, William V.

    2015-01-01

    This report, the second in a series, provides comparative empirical data on current state and national university trends around the thematic strategies and constructs ten fully online Educational Leadership programs engage within their innovative designs. Our 2014 iPrincipals report provided information on how one California University…

  9. The landscape of research on smartphone medical apps: Coherent taxonomy, motivations, open challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muzammil; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Kiah, M L M; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Abdulnabi, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    To survey researchers' efforts in response to the new and disruptive technology of smartphone medical apps, mapping the research landscape form the literature into a coherent taxonomy, and finding out basic characteristics of this emerging field represented on: motivation of using smartphone apps in medicine and healthcare, open challenges that hinder the utility, and the recommendations to improve the acceptance and use of medical apps in the literature. We performed a focused search for every article on (1) smartphone (2) medical or health-related (3) app, in four major databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and IEEE Xplore. Those databases are deemed broad enough to cover both medical and technical literature. The final set included 133 articles. Most articles (68/133) are reviews and surveys that refer to actual apps or the literature to describe medical apps for a specific specialty, disease, or purpose; or to provide a general overview of the technology. Another group (43/133) carried various studies, from evaluation of apps to exploration of desired features when developing them. Few researchers (17/133) presented actual attempts to develop medical apps, or shared their experiences in doing so. The smallest portion (5/133) proposed general frameworks addressing the production or operation of apps. Since 2010, researchers followed the trend of medical apps in several ways, though leaving areas or aspect for further attention. Regardless of their category, articles focus on the challenges that hinder the full utility of medical apps and do recommend mitigations to them. Research on smartphone medical apps is active and various. We hope that this survey contribute to the understanding of the available options and gaps for other researchers to join this line of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Health policy and systems research training: global status and recommendations for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancred, Tara M; Schleiff, Meike; Peters, David H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the characteristics of health policy and systems research training globally and to identify recommendations for improvement and expansion. Methods We identified institutions offering health policy and systems research training worldwide. In 2014, we recruited participants from identified institutions for an online survey on the characteristics of the institutions and the courses given. Survey findings were explored during in-depth interviews with selected key informants. Findings The study identified several important gaps in health policy and systems research training. There were few courses in central and eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa or Latin America. Most (116/152) courses were instructed in English. Institutional support for courses was often lacking and many institutions lacked the critical mass of trained individuals needed to support doctoral and postdoctoral students. There was little consistency between institutions in definitions of the competencies required for health policy and systems research. Collaboration across disciplines to provide the range of methodological perspectives the subject requires was insufficient. Moreover, the lack of alternatives to on-site teaching may preclude certain student audiences such as policy-makers. Conclusion Training in health policy and systems research is important to improve local capacity to conduct quality research in this field. We provide six recommendations to improve the content, accessibility and reach of training. First, create a repository of information on courses. Second, establish networks to support training. Third, define competencies in health policy and systems research. Fourth, encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. Fifth, expand the geographical and language coverage of courses. Finally, consider alternative teaching formats. PMID:27429488

  11. Research in assessment: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwirth, Lambert; Colliver, Jerry; Gruppen, Larry; Kreiter, Clarence; Mennin, Stewart; Onishi, Hirotaka; Pangaro, Louis; Ringsted, Charlotte; Swanson, David; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Medical education research in general is a young scientific discipline which is still finding its own position in the scientific range. It is rooted in both the biomedical sciences and the social sciences, each with their own scientific language. A more unique feature of medical education (and assessment) research is that it has to be both locally and internationally relevant. This is not always easy and sometimes leads to purely ideographic descriptions of an assessment procedure with insufficient general lessons or generalised scientific knowledge being generated or vice versa. For medical educational research, a plethora of methodologies is available to cater to many different research questions. This article contains consensus positions and suggestions on various elements of medical education (assessment) research. Overarching is the position that without a good theoretical underpinning and good knowledge of the existing literature, good research and sound conclusions are impossible to produce, and that there is no inherently superior methodology, but that the best methodology is the one most suited to answer the research question unambiguously. Although the positions should not be perceived as dogmas, they should be taken as very serious recommendations. Topics covered are: types of research, theoretical frameworks, designs and methodologies, instrument properties or psychometrics, costs/acceptability, ethics, infrastructure and support.

  12. New Product Development and Business Strategy of Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Cheol

    1998-05-01

    The contents of this book are new product development strategy of the top business, commercialization and new product development, development case analysis and framework of new product development, investigation strategy for idea of new product development, case analysis of research as development and goal of new product development, case analysis and planning and management for new product development, innovative item development and technical management against confusion, the map for determination procedure of development, strategy of market and goods and development strategy cases in leading company.

  13. Successive Research: A Strategy for Building on Previous Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Mary Anne

    1979-01-01

    Describes an approach to clinical research used by the author in teaching graduate nursing students, involving replication and expansion of a primary study of hospital intensive care units. This approach provided valuable experience as well as validated data about clinical practice. Discusses advantages and disadvantages in the approach. (MF)

  14. The long term agroecosystem research network - shared research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Timothy Strickland; Peter J.A. Kleinman; Kris Havstad; Thomas B. Moorman; M.Susan Moran; Phil Hellman; Ray B. Bryant; David Huggins; Greg McCarty

    2016-01-01

    While current weather patterns and rapidly accelerated changes in technology often focus attention on short-term trends in agriculture, the fundamental demands on modern agriculture to meet society food, feed, fuel and fiber production while providing the foundation for a healthy environment requires long-term perspective. The Long- Term Agroecoystem Research Network...

  15. Prognosis research strategy (PROGRESS) 4: Stratified medicine research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hingorani (Aroon); D.A.W.M. van der Windt (Daniëlle); R.D. Riley (Richard); D. Abrams; K.G.M. Moons (Karel); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); S. Schroter (Sara); W. Sauerbrei (Willi); D.G. Altman (Douglas); H. Hemingway; A. Briggs (Andrew); N. Brunner; P. Croft (Peter); J. Hayden (Jill); P.A. Kyzas (Panayiotis); N. Malats (Núria); G. Peat; P. Perel (Pablo); I. Roberts (Ian); A. Timmis (Adam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn patients with a particular disease or health condition, stratified medicine seeks to identify thosewho will have the most clinical benefit or least harm from a specific treatment. In this article, thefourth in the PROGRESS series, the authors discuss why prognosis research should form

  16. Methodological issues and research recommendations for prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristman, Vicki L; Borg, Jörgen; Godbolt, Alison K

    2014-01-01

    methodological concerns and knowledge gaps in the literature. Here we report and make recommendations on how to avoid methodological flaws found in prognostic studies of MTBI. Additionally, we discuss issues of MTBI definition and identify topic areas in need of further research to advance the understanding......, Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation Task Force on the prognosis of MTBI. Of 299 relevant studies, 101 were accepted as scientifically admissible. The methodological quality of the research literature on MTBI prognosis has not improved since the 2002 Task Force report. There are still many...... of prognosis after MTBI. Priority research areas include but are not limited to the use of confirmatory designs, studies of measurement validity, focus on the elderly, attention to litigation/compensation issues, the development of validated clinical prediction rules, the use of MTBI populations other than...

  17. Regression-based statistical mediation and moderation analysis in clinical research: Observations, recommendations, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Andrew F; Rockwood, Nicholas J

    2017-11-01

    There have been numerous treatments in the clinical research literature about various design, analysis, and interpretation considerations when testing hypotheses about mechanisms and contingencies of effects, popularly known as mediation and moderation analysis. In this paper we address the practice of mediation and moderation analysis using linear regression in the pages of Behaviour Research and Therapy and offer some observations and recommendations, debunk some popular myths, describe some new advances, and provide an example of mediation, moderation, and their integration as conditional process analysis using the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS. Our goal is to nudge clinical researchers away from historically significant but increasingly old school approaches toward modifications, revisions, and extensions that characterize more modern thinking about the analysis of the mechanisms and contingencies of effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Planning strategies for the avoidance of pitfalls in intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, R H; Privette, A B

    2001-08-01

    With the exception of large clinical trials, few studies in nursing and other social sciences test interventions. The discipline of nursing needs to maintain a full range of research designs for continued knowledge development. Intervention research presents unique opportunities and challenges for the novice as well as the seasoned researcher. Some of these methodological challenges include the complex nature of human subjects and interventions, including many factors that interfere with the study variables. Preliminary studies often reveal challenges that may not always be predicted or reflected in research texts. These challenges may be as important as the study results for success in future research efforts. Difficulties encountered in intervention research and suggested strategies for maintaining the integrity of the study are addressed. These challenges include maintaining an adequate sample size, intervention demands, measuring variables, timing issues, and experiencing unexpected events. Strategies presented include the importance of extensive planning, minimizing subject expectations and rewarding efforts, attention to control group members, incorporating retention strategies, expanding knowledge of variables and the study population, preliminary studies as well as anticipating unexpected events. The need for enhanced communication among nurse researchers, educators and clinicians is addressed. In the current health care arena, nurse researchers must understand organizational dynamics and marketing strategies. Collaborative research efforts can increase the visibility of nursing research as well as funding opportunities.

  19. Effective recruitment strategies in primary care research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngune, Irene; Jiwa, Moyez; Dadich, Ann; Lotriet, Jaco; Sriram, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Patient recruitment in primary care research is often a protracted and frustrating process, affecting project timeframes, budget and the dissemination of research findings. Yet, clear guidance on patient recruitment strategies in primary care research is limited. This paper addresses this issue through a systematic review. Articles were sourced from five academic databases - AustHealth, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Group, EMBASE and PubMed/Medline; grey literature was also sourced from an academic library and the Primary Healthcare Research & Information Service (PHCRIS) website. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) reported empirical research, (3) focused on interventions designed to increase patient recruitment in primary care settings, and (4) reported patient recruitment in primary care settings. Sixty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 23 specifically focused on recruitment strategies and included randomised trials (n = 7), systematic reviews (n = 8) and qualitative studies (n = 8). Of the remaining articles, 30 evaluated recruitment strategies, while 13 addressed the value of recruitment strategies using descriptive statistics and/or qualitative data. Among the 66 articles, primary care chiefly included general practice (n = 30); nursing and allied health services, multiple settings, as well as other community settings (n = 30); and pharmacy (n = 6). Effective recruitment strategies included the involvement of a discipline champion, simple patient eligibility criteria, patient incentives and organisational strategies that reduce practitioner workload. The most effective recruitment in primary care research requires practitioner involvement. The active participation of primary care practitioners in both the design and conduct of research helps to identify strategies that are congruent with the context in which patient care is delivered. This is reported to be the

  20. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  1. Effectiveness of implementation strategies in improving physician adherence to guideline recommendations in heart failure: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Spall, Harriette G C; Shanbhag, Deepti; Gabizon, Itzhak; Ibrahim, Quazi; Graham, Ian D; Harlos, Karen; Haynes, R Brian; Connolly, Stuart J

    2016-03-31

    The uptake of Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) recommendations that improve outcomes in heart failure (HF) remains suboptimal. We will conduct a systematic review to identify implementation strategies that improve physician adherence to class I recommendations, those with clear evidence that benefits outweigh the risks. We will use American, Canadian and European HF guidelines as our reference. We will conduct a literature search in the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, HEALTHSTAR, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Based Practice, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Evidence Based Practice Centres. We will include prospective studies evaluating implementation interventions aimed at improving uptake of class I CPG recommendations in HF. We will extract data in duplicate. We will classify interventions according to their level of application (ie, provider, organisation, systems level) and common underlying characteristics (eg, education, decision-support, financial incentives) using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Taxonomy. We will assess the impact of the intervention on adherence to the CPGs. Outcomes will include proportion of eligible patients who were: prescribed a CPG-recommended pharmacological treatment; referred for device consideration; provided self-care education at discharge; and provided left ventricular function assessment. We will include clinical outcomes such as hospitalisations, readmissions and mortality, if data is available. We will identify the common elements of successful and failing interventions, and examine the context in which they were applied, using the Process Redesign contextual framework. We will synthesise the results narratively and, if appropriate, will pool results for meta-analysis. In this review, we will assess the impact of implementation strategies and contextual factors on physician adherence to HF CPGs. We will explore why some interventions may

  2. Strategies to work with HLA data in human populations for histocompatibility, clinical transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics: HLA-NET methodological recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A; Vidan-Jeras, B; Nunes, J M; Fischer, G; Little, A-M; Bekmane, U; Buhler, S; Buus, S; Claas, F H J; Dormoy, A; Dubois, V; Eglite, E; Eliaou, J F; Gonzalez-Galarza, F; Grubic, Z; Ivanova, M; Lie, B; Ligeiro, D; Lokki, M L; da Silva, B Martins; Martorell, J; Mendonça, D; Middleton, D; Voniatis, D Papioannou; Papasteriades, C; Poli, F; Riccio, M E; Vlachou, M Spyropoulou; Sulcebe, G; Tonks, S; Nevessignsky, M Toungouz; Vangenot, C; van Walraven, A-M; Tiercy, J-M

    2012-12-01

    HLA-NET (a European COST Action) aims at networking researchers working in bone marrow transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics to improve the molecular characterization of the HLA genetic diversity of human populations, with an expected strong impact on both public health and fundamental research. Such improvements involve finding consensual strategies to characterize human populations and samples and report HLA molecular typings and ambiguities; proposing user-friendly access to databases and computer tools and defining minimal requirements related to ethical aspects. The overall outcome is the provision of population genetic characterizations and comparisons in a standard way by all interested laboratories. This article reports the recommendations of four working groups (WG1-4) of the HLA-NET network at the mid-term of its activities. WG1 (Population definitions and sampling strategies for population genetics' analyses) recommends avoiding outdated racial classifications and population names (e.g. 'Caucasian') and using instead geographic and/or cultural (e.g. linguistic) criteria to describe human populations (e.g. 'pan-European'). A standard 'HLA-NET POPULATION DATA QUESTIONNAIRE' has been finalized and is available for the whole HLA community. WG2 (HLA typing standards for population genetics analyses) recommends retaining maximal information when reporting HLA typing results. Rather than using the National Marrow Donor Program coding system, all ambiguities should be provided by listing all allele pairs required to explain each genotype, according to the formats proposed in 'HLA-NET GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING HLA TYPINGS'. The group also suggests taking into account a preliminary list of alleles defined by polymorphisms outside the peptide-binding sites that may affect population genetic statistics because of significant frequencies. WG3 (Bioinformatic strategies for HLA population data storage and analysis) recommends the use of programs capable

  3. The effect of simple nitrogen fertilizer recommendation strategies on product carbon footprint and gross margin of wheat and maize production in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nan; Feike, Til; Back, Hans; Xiao, Haifeng; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-11-01

    Overuse of nitrogen (N) fertilizer constitutes the major issue of current crop production in China, exerting a substantial effect on global warming through massive emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). Despite the ongoing effort, which includes the promotion of technologically sophisticated N management schemes, farmers' N rates maintain at excessive rates. Therefore the current study tests three simple and easily to apply N fertilizer recommendation strategies, which could be implemented on large scale through the existing agricultural advisory system of China, at comparatively low cost. Building on a detailed crop production dataset of 65 winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) producing farm households of the North China Plain, scenario analysis is applied. The effects of the three N strategies under constant and changing yield levels on product carbon footprint (PCF) and gross margin (GM) are determined for the production condition of every individual farm household. The N fixed rate strategy realized the highest improvement potential in PCF and GM in WW; while the N coefficient strategy performed best in SM. The analysis furthermore revealed that improved N management has a significant positive effect on PCF, but only a marginal and insignificant effect on GM. On the other side, a potential 10% yield loss would have only a marginal effect on PCF, but a detrimental effect on farmers' income. With farmers currently applying excessive N rates as "cheap insurance" against potential N limitation, it will be of vital importance to avoid any yield reductions (caused by N limitation) and respective severe financial losses, when promoting and implementing advanced fertilization strategies. To achieve this, it is furthermore recommended to increase the price of fertilizer, improve the agricultural extensions system, and recognize farmers' fertilizer related decision-making processes as key research areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The German government's global health strategy--a strategy also to support research and development for neglected diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Angela; Razum, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neglected tropical infectious diseases as well as rare diseases are characterized by structural research and development (R&D) deficits. The market fails for these disease groups. Consequently, to meet public health and individual patient needs, political decision makers have to develop strategies at national and international levels to make up for this R&D deficit. The German government recently published its first global health strategy. The strategy underlines the German government's commitment to strengthening global health governance. We find, however, that the strategy lacks behind the international public health endeavors for neglected diseases. It fails to make reference to the ongoing debate on a global health agreement. Neither does it outline a comprehensive national strategy to promote R&D into neglected diseases, which would integrate existing R&D activities in Germany and link up to the international debate on sustainable, needs-based R&D and affordable access. This despite the fact that only recently, in a consensus-building process, a National Plan of Action for rare diseases was successfully developed in Germany which could serve as a blueprint for a similar course of action for neglected diseases. We recommend that, without delay, a structured process be initiated in Germany to explore all options to promote R&D for neglected diseases, including a global health agreement.

  5. The German government's global health strategy – a strategy also to support research and development for neglected diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Fehr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical infectious diseases as well as rare diseases are characterized by structural research and development (R&D deficits. The market fails for these disease groups. Consequently, to meet public health and individual patient needs, political decision makers have to develop strategies at national and international levels to make up for this R&D deficit. The German government recently published its first global health strategy. The strategy underlines the German government's commitment to strengthening global health governance. We find, however, that the strategy lacks behind the international public health endeavors for neglected diseases. It fails to make reference to the ongoing debate on a global health agreement. Neither does it outline a comprehensive national strategy to promote R&D into neglected diseases, which would integrate existing R&D activities in Germany and link up to the international debate on sustainable, needs-based R&D and affordable access. This despite the fact that only recently, in a consensus-building process, a National Plan of Action for rare diseases was successfully developed in Germany which could serve as a blueprint for a similar course of action for neglected diseases. We recommend that, without delay, a structured process be initiated in Germany to explore all options to promote R&D for neglected diseases, including a global health agreement.

  6. Recommendations of the International Symposium on Contraceptive Research and Development for the Year 2000 and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The government of Mexico and the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction organized an international symposium on "Contraceptive Research and Development for the Year 2000 and Beyond" that was held March 8-10, 1993 in Mexico City. 11 recommendations were established: 1) reproductive and sexual health should be given priority in both governmental and nongovernmental health research agendas, with coordination and collaboration between public and private sectors, nationally and internationally; 2) more funds should be provided by international donors for such research in developing countries; 3) women's health advocates and potential users should be represented on advisory bodies and in the decision making processes; 4) the existing health infrastructure and family planning services available, method potential, and safeguards concerning safety, effectiveness, and consent should be considered before adopting a new procedure; 5) "basic biomedical, technological, clinical, epidemiological, and social science research" leading to new or improved methods that are safe, effective, affordable, suitable for different age groups and designed in response to user's needs should receive increased support; 6) support should also be increased for "introductory, sociocultural, programmatic, operational, epidemiological, and qualitative research" that improves information, method, or service delivery; 7) research is needed on sexuality, gender roles, and gender relationships in different cultures; in particular, on discrimination and violence against women, sexual behavior, risk taking attitudes toward disease transmission and pregnancy, men's perceived needs, and the reasons for refusal of or inability to use services available; 8) industry, especially in developing countries, should collaborate with national regulatory agencies in order to expedite the process of development; 9) research should be undertaken

  7. Fathers' Perceived Reasons for Their Underrepresentation in Child Health Research and Strategies to Increase Their Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Charles, Jo N; Khandpur, Neha; Nelson, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Examine fathers' perceived reasons for their lack of inclusion in pediatric research and strategies to increase their participation. Description We conducted expert interviews with researchers and practitioners (N = 13) working with fathers to inform the development of an online survey. The survey-which measured fathers' perceived reasons for their underrepresentation in pediatric research, recommended recruitment venues, and research personnel and study characteristics valued by fathers-was distributed online and in-person to fathers. Assessment Respondents included 303 fathers. Over 80 % of respondents reported that fathers are underrepresented in pediatric research because they have not been asked to participate. Frequently recommended recruitment venues included community sports events (52 %), social service programs (48 %) and the internet (60 %). Compared with white fathers, more non-white fathers recommended public transit (19 % vs. 10 %, p = .02), playgrounds (16 % vs. 6 %, p = .007) and barber shops (34 % vs. 14 %, p research may increase if researchers explicitly invite father to participate, target father-focused recruitment venues, clearly communicate the benefits of the research for fathers and their families and adopt streamlined study procedures.

  8. Social Media Strategies in the Retail Sector: Analysis and Recommendations for Three Multi-National Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, R.; Evans, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years (1995-2015), the world of commerce has expanded beyond the traditional brick-and-mortar high street to a global shop front accessible to billions of users via the Worldwide Web (WWW). Consumers are now using the web to immerse themselves in virtual shop fronts, using Social Media (SM) to communicate and share product ideas with friends and family. Retail organisations recognise the need to develop and adapt their strategies to respond to the increasing use of SM. ...

  9. QUALITATIVE STUDIES IN ACCOUNTING: THE ABDUCTIVE. RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia URDARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to accounting researchers and proposes the use of abductive research strategy to improve the quality of accounting research outcomes. We argue that abductive reasoning has developed as a typical research method in all fields of interpretive studies but is still unrecognized by accounting researchers and practitioners. Therefore, this study aims to raise awareness on the benefits obtained through the implementation of abduction as a research strategy. Starting from Peirce (1903 and Blaikie (1993, we explore two types of abduction designs and discuss the advantages of building accounting research on grounded concepts. While this is a conceptual paper that only describes the bridge abduction reasoning can build between studying the reality and new theory emergence, we do not tackle any ethnographical case studies, social survey, or other exploratory field analyses.

  10. Recommendations for the future of translational radiobiology research: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of molecular medicine is now merging into clinical practice with the advent of molecular targeting agents, molecular pathology and molecular imaging for both diagnosis and treatment response. Radiation oncologists must therefore gain expertise in utilizing this information to drive new treatment protocols. Recognizing the importance of this issue, the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists (CARO) charged a Task Force in Translational Radiobiology to: (1) critically assess training programs and research infrastructure in relation to current and future translational radiobiology requirements; and (2) make specific recommendations to accelerate the implementation of translational science into day-to-day practice. Selected Task Force recommendations included the principle that universities and departmental Chairs increase the opportunities for academic promotion, funding, and tenure track positions of radiobiologists and translational radiation oncologists. The dedication of 4 to 5 national centers as translational 'hubs', can serve as an interface between clinicians, clinical specimens and radiobiological sciences within the context of correlative clinical trials. The model of the clinician-scientist was encouraged as an important adjunct to good clinical care to be associated with strong enticement, training and mentoring programs and 75%-protected research time. Finally, an integrated model of radiobiological training programs and mutual continuing education between clinicians and basic scientists can be facilitated through a new national radiobiology meeting sponsored by CARO. These recommendations have been accepted by the national radiation oncology membership. Such a framework may serve useful for national programs wishing to develop rapid conduits from the lab to the clinic as a means of integrating molecular biology and the day-to-day practice of radiation oncology

  11. A systematic review of the implementation of recommended psychological interventions for schizophrenia: Rates, barriers, and improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Paul; Haddock, Gillian; Tai, Sara

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review of the literature exploring if the UK recommendations for psychological interventions for schizophrenia were being met was carried out. Rates of implementation for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and family intervention (FI) were compared. The barriers against implementation and described strategies aimed at improving implementation were reviewed. A literature search of electronic bibliography databases (Psychinfo, Medline, Pubmed, AMED, CINHAL, and EMBASE), reference and citation lists, the Evaluation and Review of NICE Implementation (ERNIE) database, a manual search of Clinical Psychology Forum, governmental reports, charity, and service user group reports was conducted. Twenty-six articles met the inclusion criteria, 11 provided data on implementation rates, 13 explored the barriers to implementation, and 10 gave information about improvement strategies. Rates of implementation varied from 4% to 100% for CBT and 0% to 53% for FI, and studies varied in the methodology used and quality of the articles. Previously reported barriers to implementation were found, with organisational barriers being most commonly followed by barriers met by staff members and service users. Implementation strategies discovered included training packages for CBT, FI, and psychosocial interventions as well as empirical evidence suggesting methods for engagement with service users. Rates of implementation for CBT and FI are still below recommended levels with wide variation of rates found. This suggests inequalities in the provision of psychological interventions for schizophrenia are still present. Previously identified barriers to implementation were confirmed. Attempted implementation strategies have been met with modest success. Inequalities in the provision of psychological therapies for schizophrenia persist. Good quality cognitive behavioural therapy and FI training do not ensure implementation. Collaboration at all levels of healthcare is needed for

  12. Recommended Immunological Strategies to Screen for Botulinum Neurotoxin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs cause the life-threatening neurological illness botulism in humans and animals and are divided into seven serotypes (BoNT/A–G, of which serotypes A, B, E, and F cause the disease in humans. BoNTs are classified as “category A” bioterrorism threat agents and are relevant in the context of the Biological Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection, quantification and discrimination capabilities of 23 expert laboratories from the health, food and security areas. Here we describe three immunological strategies that proved to be successful for the detection and quantification of BoNT/A, B, and E considering the restricted sample volume (1 mL distributed. To analyze the samples qualitatively and quantitatively, the first strategy was based on sensitive immunoenzymatic and immunochromatographic assays for fast qualitative and quantitative analyses. In the second approach, a bead-based suspension array was used for screening followed by conventional ELISA for quantification. In the third approach, an ELISA plate format assay was used for serotype specific immunodetection of BoNT-cleaved substrates, detecting the activity of the light chain, rather than the toxin protein. The results provide guidance for further steps in quality assurance and highlight problems to address in the future.

  13. Recommended Immunological Strategies to Screen for Botulinum Neurotoxin-Containing Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stéphanie; Fiebig, Uwe; Liu, Yvonne; Tierney, Rob; Dano, Julie; Worbs, Sylvia; Endermann, Tanja; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Volland, Hervé; Sesardic, Dorothea; Dorner, Martin B

    2015-11-26

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the life-threatening neurological illness botulism in humans and animals and are divided into seven serotypes (BoNT/A-G), of which serotypes A, B, E, and F cause the disease in humans. BoNTs are classified as "category A" bioterrorism threat agents and are relevant in the context of the Biological Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT) was conducted to evaluate detection, quantification and discrimination capabilities of 23 expert laboratories from the health, food and security areas. Here we describe three immunological strategies that proved to be successful for the detection and quantification of BoNT/A, B, and E considering the restricted sample volume (1 mL) distributed. To analyze the samples qualitatively and quantitatively, the first strategy was based on sensitive immunoenzymatic and immunochromatographic assays for fast qualitative and quantitative analyses. In the second approach, a bead-based suspension array was used for screening followed by conventional ELISA for quantification. In the third approach, an ELISA plate format assay was used for serotype specific immunodetection of BoNT-cleaved substrates, detecting the activity of the light chain, rather than the toxin protein. The results provide guidance for further steps in quality assurance and highlight problems to address in the future.

  14. Understanding patient willingness to recommend and return: a strategy for prioritizing improvement opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, T E; Davies, A R; Cira, J C; Dunagan, W C

    1999-06-01

    Beginning in April 1995, an ongoing, comprehensive measurement system has been developed and refined at BJC Health System, a regional integrated delivery and financing system serving the St Louis metropolitan area, mid-Missouri, and Southern Illinois, to assess patient satisfaction with inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, outpatient surgery, and emergency care. This system has provided the mechanism for identifying opportunities, setting priorities, and monitoring the impact of improvement initiatives. Satisfaction with key components of the care process among 23,361 patients (7,083 inpatients, 8,885 patients undergoing outpatient tests/procedures, 5,356 patients undergoing outpatient surgery, and 2,037 patients receiving emergency care) at 15 BJC Health System facilities was assessed through weekly surveys administered in April 1995 through December 1996. Structural equation models were developed to identify the key predictors of patient advocation-willingness to return for or recommend care. Across all venues of care the compassion provided to patients had the strongest relationship to patient advocation. Within each venue of care, however, a slightly different set of secondary factors emerged. The resulting models provided important information to help prioritize competing improvement opportunities in BJC Health System. In one hospital, a general medicine unit working for several years with little success to improve its patient satisfaction decided to focus on two primary factors predicting patient advocation: nursing care delivery and compassionate care. Root cause analysis was used to determine why two items-staff willingness to help with questions/concerns and clear explanation about tests and procedures-were rated low. On the basis of feedback from phone interviews with discharged patients, the care delivery process was changed to encourage patients to ask questions. Across the next two quarters, this unit experienced significant improvements in both

  15. Tidal extension and sea-level rise: recommendations for a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Sea-level rise is pushing freshwater tides upstream into formerly non-tidal rivers. This tidal extension may increase the area of tidal freshwater ecosystems and offset loss of ecosystem functions due to salinization downstream. Without considering how gains in ecosystem functions could offset losses, landscape-scale assessments of ecosystem functions may be biased toward worst-case scenarios of loss. To stimulate research on this concept, we address three fundamental questions about tidal extension: Where will tidal extension be most evident, and can we measure it? What ecosystem functions are influenced by tidal extension, and how can we measure them? How do watershed processes, climate change, and tidal extension interact to affect ecosystem functions? Our preliminary answers lead to recommendations that will advance tidal extension research, enable better predictions of the impacts of sea-level rise, and help balance the landscape-scale benefits of ecosystem function with costs of response.

  16. Recommendations for research design and reporting in computer-assisted diagnosis to facilitate meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Leila H; Taylor, Paul; Gibson, Adam P

    2012-04-01

    Computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) describes a diverse, heterogeneous range of applications rather than a single entity. The aims and functions of CAD systems vary considerably and comparing studies and systems is challenging due to methodological and design differences. In addition, poor study quality and reporting can reduce the value of some publications. Meta-analyses of CAD are therefore difficult and may not provide reliable conclusions. Aiming to determine the major sources of heterogeneity and thereby what CAD researchers could change to allow this sort of assessment, this study reviews a sample of 147 papers concerning CAD used with imaging for cancer diagnosis. It discusses sources of variability, including the goal of the CAD system, learning methodology, study population, design, outcome measures, inclusion of radiologists, and study quality. Based upon this evidence, recommendations are made to help researchers optimize the quality and comparability of their trial design and reporting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Source terms: an investigation of uncertainties, magnitudes, and recommendations for research. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, S.; Kaiser, G. D.; Arcieri, W. C.; Firstenberg, H.; Fulford, P. J.; Lam, P. S.; Ritzman, R. L.; Schmidt, E. R.

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to assess the state of knowledge and expert opinions that exist about fission product source terms from potential nuclear power plant accidents. This is so that recommendations can be made for research and analyses which have the potential to reduce the uncertainties in these estimated source terms and to derive improved methods for predicting their magnitudes. The main reasons for writing this report are to indicate the major uncertainties involved in defining realistic source terms that could arise from severe reactor accidents, to determine which factors would have the most significant impact on public risks and emergency planning, and to suggest research and analyses that could result in the reduction of these uncertainties. Source terms used in the conventional consequence calculations in the licensing process are not explicitly addressed.

  18. Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Philip M; MacKenzie, Scott B; Podsakoff, Nathan P

    2012-01-01

    Despite the concern that has been expressed about potential method biases, and the pervasiveness of research settings with the potential to produce them, there is disagreement about whether they really are a problem for researchers in the behavioral sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the current state of knowledge about method biases. First, we explore the meaning of the terms "method" and "method bias" and then we examine whether method biases influence all measures equally. Next, we review the evidence of the effects that method biases have on individual measures and on the covariation between different constructs. Following this, we evaluate the procedural and statistical remedies that have been used to control method biases and provide recommendations for minimizing method bias.

  19. The problem of measurement model misspecification in behavioral and organizational research and some recommended solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Scott B; Podsakoff, Philip M; Jarvis, Cheryl Burke

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the distinction between formative- and reflective-indicator measurement models, articulate a set of criteria for deciding whether measures are formative or reflective, illustrate some commonly researched constructs that have formative indicators, empirically test the effects of measurement model misspecification using a Monte Carlo simulation, and recommend new scale development procedures for latent constructs with formative indicators. Results of the Monte Carlo simulation indicated that measurement model misspecification can inflate unstandardized structural parameter estimates by as much as 400% or deflate them by as much as 80% and lead to Type I or Type II errors of inference, depending on whether the exogenous or the endogenous latent construct is misspecified. Implications of this research are discussed. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Parenting dimensions and styles: a brief history and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G

    2013-08-01

    Over the last decade, researchers have uncovered relationships between general parenting styles and children's obesity. This is an emerging area of research, and there currently is a great deal of interest in the parent's role. This review was written to provide researchers entering this area with a historical introduction to parenting research and to point to some directions for future inquiry. Over the last 75 years, considerable insight has been gained into individual differences in parenting behavior, especially regarding the dimensions underlying individual differences in general parenting approach, and parenting styles resulting from individual differences on these dimensions. The history of empirical attempts to identify parenting dimensions and styles is reviewed briefly, followed by a review of more recent studies of parenting styles. Next is a discussion of data analytic approaches to measuring parenting, with a particular emphasis on variable-centered versus person-centered approaches. Because investigators have often disagreed about which of these approaches is the most appropriate, the advantages and disadvantages of each are considered, along with recommendations for future research.

  1. Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D; Jacob, S; Grosche, B; Dehos, A; Hornhardt, S; Ziegelberger, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out. (review)

  2. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: An Overview and Methodological Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Carley J.; Mazmanian, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that a relationship exists between breastfeeding and postpartum depression; however, the direction and precise nature of this relationship are not yet clear. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression as it has been examined in the empirical literature. Also, the potential mechanisms of action that have been implicated in this relationship are also explored. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched using the keywords: breastfeeding with postpartum depression, perinatal depression, postnatal depression. Results of this search showed that researchers have examined this relationship in diverse ways using diverse methodology. In particular, researchers have examined the relationships between postpartum depression and breastfeeding intention, initiation, duration, and dose. Due to a number of methodological differences among past studies we make some recommendations for future research that will better facilitate an integration of findings. Future research should (1) use standardized assessment protocols; (2) confirm diagnosis through established clinical interview when possible; (3) provide a clear operationalized definition for breastfeeding variables; (4) clearly define the postpartum period interval assessed and time frame for onset of symptoms; (5) be prospective or longitudinal in nature; and (6) take into consideration other potential risk factors identified in the empirical literature. PMID:27148457

  3. Breastfeeding and Postpartum Depression: An Overview and Methodological Recommendations for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley J. Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research suggests that a relationship exists between breastfeeding and postpartum depression; however, the direction and precise nature of this relationship are not yet clear. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum depression as it has been examined in the empirical literature. Also, the potential mechanisms of action that have been implicated in this relationship are also explored. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched using the keywords: breastfeeding with postpartum depression, perinatal depression, postnatal depression. Results of this search showed that researchers have examined this relationship in diverse ways using diverse methodology. In particular, researchers have examined the relationships between postpartum depression and breastfeeding intention, initiation, duration, and dose. Due to a number of methodological differences among past studies we make some recommendations for future research that will better facilitate an integration of findings. Future research should (1 use standardized assessment protocols; (2 confirm diagnosis through established clinical interview when possible; (3 provide a clear operationalized definition for breastfeeding variables; (4 clearly define the postpartum period interval assessed and time frame for onset of symptoms; (5 be prospective or longitudinal in nature; and (6 take into consideration other potential risk factors identified in the empirical literature.

  4. Microplastics in seawater: Recommendations from the Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in marine systems across the globe. The legacy of microplastics pollution in the marine environment today may remain for years to come due to the persistence of these materials. Microplastics are emerging contaminants of potential concern and as yet there are few recognised approaches for monitoring. In 2008, the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC included microplastics as an aspect to be measured. Here we outline the approach as discussed by the European Union expert group on marine litter, the technical Subgroup on Marine litter (TSG-ML, with a focus on the implementation of monitoring microplastics in seawater in European seas. It is concluded that harmonization and coherence is needed to achieve reliable monitoring.

  5. Creating and connecting recommended practices for reproducible research through collaborative culture and consensus in the Research Data Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Yarmey, L.; Dillo, I.

    2017-12-01

    Data are the foundation of a robust, efficient, and reproducible scientific enterprise. The Research Data Alliance (RDA) is a community-driven, action-oriented, virtual organization committed to enabling open sharing and reuse of data by building social and technical bridges. The international RDA community includes almost 6000 members bringing diverse perspectives, domain knowledge, and expertise to a common table for identification of common challenges and holistic solutions. RDA members work together to identify common interests and form exploratory Interest Groups and outcome-oriented Working Groups. Participants exchange knowledge, share discoveries, discuss barriers and potential solutions, articulate policies, and align standards to enhance and facilitate global data sharing within and across domains and communities. With activities defined and led by members, RDA groups have organically been addressing issues across the full research cycle with community-ratified Recommendations and other outputs that begin to create the components of a global, data-sharing infrastructure. This paper examines how multiple RDA Recommendations can be implemented together to improve data and information discoverability, accessibility, and interconnection by both people and machines. For instance, the Persistent Identifier Types can support moving data across platforms through the Data Description Registry Interoperability framework following the RDA/WDS Publishing Data Workflows model. The Scholix initiative connects scholarly literature and data across numerous stakeholders can draw on the Practical Policy best practices for machine-actionable data policies. Where appropriate, we use a case study approach built around several flagship data sets from the Deep Carbon Observatory to examine how multiple RDA Recommendations can be implemented in actual practice.

  6. Assessing energy business cases implemented in the North Sea Region and strategy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bing; Nayak, Amar; Gray, David; Ouenniche, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose an integrated MCDA-based framework to benchmark DSM energy business cases. • Address interests from various stakeholders, different forms of data, both fuzzy and crisp relations. • Contract optimisation and offering reserve capacity strategies works well. • Lack of strong incentives for firms to implement energy solutions on a larger scale. • Need to design attractive incentive programmes to attract more industry engagement. - Abstract: e-harbours is a unique European project that was set out to identify viable energy business cases on the exploitation of energy flexibility, which optimise their operations to match energy demand and supply while taking account of the additional volatility in supply caused by renewable energy sources, improve energy efficiency, and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this paper, we propose an integrated multi-criteria decision analysis based framework to assess the relative performance of 21 energy business cases, which implemented different demand-side management strategies. Our proposed methodology has the ability to address complex problems involving multiple conflicting interests from various stakeholders, different forms of data, and different fuzzy and crisp relations. We find that business cases based on contract optimisation and offering reserve capacity were ranked relatively high, while those based on trading on the wholesale market or hybrid approaches fared less well. Despite finding viable pilot business cases, e-harbours found that there was little enthusiasm among industrial partners to scale up the pilots. Consequently, EU governments should consider offering attractive incentive programmes for industry engagement in achieving their objectives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, improving energy supply security, diversifying energy supplies, and improving Europe’s industrial competitiveness.

  7. Engaging workplace representatives in research: what recruitment strategies work best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coole, C; Nouri, F; Narayanasamy, M; Baker, P; Khan, S; Drummond, A

    2018-05-23

    Workplaces are key stakeholders in work and health but little is known about the methods used to recruit workplace representatives (WRs), including managers, occupational health advisers and colleagues, to externally funded healthcare research studies. To detail the strategies used in recruiting WRs from three areas of the UK to a qualitative study concerning their experience of employees undergoing hip or knee replacement, to compare the strategies and inform recruitment methods for future studies. Six strategies were used to recruit WRs from organizations of different sizes and sectors. Data on numbers approached and responses received were analysed descriptively. Twenty-five WRs were recruited. Recruitment had to be extended outside the main three study areas, and took several months. It proved more difficult to recruit from non-service sectors and small- and medium-sized enterprises. The most successful strategies were approaching organizations that had participated in previous research studies, or known professionally or personally to team members. Recruiting a diverse sample of WRs to healthcare research requires considerable resources and persistence, and a range of strategies. Recruitment is easier where local relationships already exist; the importance of building and maintaining these relationships cannot be underestimated. However, the potential risks of bias and participant fatigue need to be acknowledged and managed. Further studies are needed to explore how WRs can be recruited to health research, and to identify the researcher effort and costs involved in achieving unbiased and representative samples.

  8. First Publications in Refereed English Journals: Difficulties, Coping Strategies, and Recommendations for Student Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Ling

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the first attempts by applied linguistics doctoral students in Hong Kong to publish their work in a refereed journal in English. Interviews were conducted with students to learn about their experience in the publication process. The interview data indicate that the applied linguistics doctoral students adopted specific…

  9. Strategies for Research, Education, and Innovation, A University's Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob Steen

    2004-01-01

    Engineering (BYG•DTU) at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) to this challenge are described: The Department has been reorganised and a new strategy has been adopted. The strategy was developed in collaboration with industry partners. The Strategy focuses on a) analysis and design of safe and economic......It is argued that the building and construction sector will maintain and even increase its economic and societal importance. In spite of this the private R&D effort in the sector is relatively modest, which in turn makes public research more important. The responds of the Department of Civil...

  10. Strategies for addressing barriers to publishing pediatric quality improvement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Jeanne; Dougherty, Denise; Perrin, James M

    2011-09-01

    Advancing the science of quality improvement (QI) requires dissemination of the results of QI. However, the results of few QI interventions reach publication. To identify barriers to publishing results of pediatric QI research and provide practical strategies that QI researchers can use to enhance publishability of their work. We reviewed and summarized a workshop conducted at the Pediatric Academic Societies 2007 meeting in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, on conducting and publishing QI research. We also interviewed 7 experts (QI researchers, administrators, journal editors, and health services researchers who have reviewed QI manuscripts) about common reasons that QI research fails to reach publication. We also reviewed recently published pediatric QI articles to find specific examples of tactics to enhance publishability, as identified in interviews and the workshop. We found barriers at all stages of the QI process, from identifying an appropriate quality issue to address to drafting the manuscript. Strategies for overcoming these barriers included collaborating with research methodologists, creating incentives to publish, choosing a study design to include a control group, increasing sample size through research networks, and choosing appropriate process and clinical quality measures. Several well-conducted, successfully published QI studies in pediatrics offer guidance to other researchers in implementing these strategies in their own work. Specific, feasible approaches can be used to improve opportunities for publication in pediatric, QI, and general medical journals.

  11. Modeling of novel diagnostic strategies for active tuberculosis - a systematic review: current practices and recommendations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Zwerling

    Full Text Available The field of diagnostics for active tuberculosis (TB is rapidly developing. TB diagnostic modeling can help to inform policy makers and support complicated decisions on diagnostic strategy, with important budgetary implications. Demand for TB diagnostic modeling is likely to increase, and an evaluation of current practice is important. We aimed to systematically review all studies employing mathematical modeling to evaluate cost-effectiveness or epidemiological impact of novel diagnostic strategies for active TB.Pubmed, personal libraries and reference lists were searched to identify eligible papers. We extracted data on a wide variety of model structure, parameter choices, sensitivity analyses and study conclusions, which were discussed during a meeting of content experts.From 5619 records a total of 36 papers were included in the analysis. Sixteen papers included population impact/transmission modeling, 5 were health systems models, and 24 included estimates of cost-effectiveness. Transmission and health systems models included specific structure to explore the importance of the diagnostic pathway (n = 4, key determinants of diagnostic delay (n = 5, operational context (n = 5, and the pre-diagnostic infectious period (n = 1. The majority of models implemented sensitivity analysis, although only 18 studies described multi-way sensitivity analysis of more than 2 parameters simultaneously. Among the models used to make cost-effectiveness estimates, most frequent diagnostic assays studied included Xpert MTB/RIF (n = 7, and alternative nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs (n = 4. Most (n = 16 of the cost-effectiveness models compared new assays to an existing baseline and generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER.Although models have addressed a small number of important issues, many decisions regarding implementation of TB diagnostics are being made without the full benefits of insight from mathematical

  12. Tobacco control recommendations identified by LGBT Atlantans in a community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence; Damarin, Amanda K; Marshall, Zack

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are increasingly aware that disproportionately high smoking rates severely impact the health of their communities. Motivated to make a change, a group of LGBT community members, policymakers, and researchers from Atlanta carried out a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. This formative research study sought to identify recommendations for culturally relevant smoking prevention and cessation interventions that could improve the health of Atlanta's LGBT communities. Data presented here come from four focus groups with 36 participants and a community meeting with 30 participants. Among study participants, the most favored interventions were providing LGBT-specific cessation programs, raising awareness about LGBT smoking rates, and getting community venues to go smoke-free. Participants also suggested providing reduced-cost cessation products for low-income individuals, using LGBT "role models" to promote cessation, and ensuring that interventions reach all parts of the community. Findings reinforce insights from community-based research with other marginalized groups. Similarities include the importance of tailoring cessation programs for specific communities, the need to acknowledge differences within communities, and the significance of community spaces in shaping discussions of cessation. Further, this study highlights the need for heightened awareness. The Atlanta LGBT community is largely unaware that high smoking rates affect its health, and is unlikely to take collective action to address this problem until it is understood.

  13. Development of a journal recommendation tool based upon co-citation analysis of journals cited in Wageningen UR research articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veller, van M.G.P.; Gerritsma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Wageningen UR Library has developed a tool based upon co-citation analysis to recommend alternative journals to researchers for a journal they look up in the tool. The journal recommendations can be tuned in such a way to include citation preferences for each of the five science groups that comprise

  14. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  15. Managing scientists leadership strategies in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Sapienza, Alice M

    1995-01-01

    Managing Scientists Leadership Strategies in Research and Development Alice M. Sapienza "I found ...this book to be exciting ...Speaking as someone who has spent 30 years grappling with these issues, I certainly would be a customer." -Robert I. Taber, PhD Senior Vice President of Research & Development Synaptic Pharmaceutical Corporation In today's climate of enormous scientific and technologic competition, it is more crucial than ever that scientists involved in research and development be managed well. Often trained as individual researchers, scientists can find integration into teams difficult. Managers, from both scientific and nonscientific backgrounds, who are responsible for these teams frequently find effective team building a long and challenging process. Managing Scientists offers strategies for fostering communication and collaboration among scientists. It shows how to build cohesive, productive, and focused teams to succeed in the competitive research and development marketplace. This book wil...

  16. Women Entrepreneurship in the Western Romania. Research Results and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca DODESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research performed in the AntrES project, between 5.01.2009 - 4.01.2011, in the Western Romania, referring to the existence of obvious gender gaps regarding the start up of new businesses and the ownership of the businesses; the characteristics, the motivations, and the difficulties of the women entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; the successful women entrepreneurs' perceptions on the sex equality in the field of entrepreneurship - this paper presents arguments and recommendations of specific policies meant to support the potential women entrepreneurship in Romania, as an engine to overcome the economic crisis and to reconnect to the regional development mechanism facilitated by the European Union's regional policy.

  17. Recommendations for the role of social science research in One Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Funk, Julie A; Moccia, Lauren T

    2015-03-01

    The social environment has changed rapidly as technology has facilitated communication among individuals and groups in ways not imagined 20 years ago. Communication technology increasingly plays a role in decision-making about health and environmental behaviors and is being leveraged to influence that process. But at its root is the fundamental need to understand human cognition, communication, and behavior. The concept of 'One Health' has emerged as a framework for interdisciplinary work that cuts across human, animal, and ecosystem health in recognition of their interdependence and the value of an integrated perspective. Yet, the science of communication, information studies, social psychology, and other social sciences have remained marginalized in this emergence. Based on an interdisciplinary collaboration, this paper reports on a nascent conceptual framework for the role of social science in 'One Health' issues and identifies a series of recommendations for research directions that bear additional scrutiny and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistics Anxiety Update: Refining the Construct and Recommendations for a New Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Peter K H; Dillon, Denise B

    2014-03-01

    Appreciation of the importance of statistics literacy for citizens of a democracy has resulted in an increasing number of degree programs making statistics courses mandatory for university students. Unfortunately, empirical evidence suggests that students in nonmathematical disciplines (e.g., social sciences) regard statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing course in their degree programs. Although a literature review exists for statistics anxiety, it was done more than a decade ago, and newer studies have since added findings for consideration. In this article, we provide a current review of the statistics anxiety literature. Specifically, related variables, definitions, and measures of statistics anxiety are reviewed with the goal of refining the statistics anxiety construct. Antecedents, effects, and interventions of statistics anxiety are also reviewed to provide recommendations for statistics instructors and for a new research agenda. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Measures of outcome for stimulant trials: ACTTION recommendations and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D; Carroll, Kathleen M; Duhig, Amy; Falk, Daniel E; Kampman, Kyle; Lai, Shengan; Litten, Raye Z; McCann, David J; Montoya, Ivan D; Preston, Kenzie L; Skolnick, Phil; Weisner, Constance; Woody, George; Chandler, Redonna; Detke, Michael J; Dunn, Kelly; Dworkin, Robert H; Fertig, Joanne; Gewandter, Jennifer; Moeller, F Gerard; Ramey, Tatiana; Ryan, Megan; Silverman, Kenneth; Strain, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    The development and approval of an efficacious pharmacotherapy for stimulant use disorders has been limited by the lack of a meaningful indicator of treatment success, other than sustained abstinence. In March, 2015, a meeting sponsored by Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) was convened to discuss the current state of the evidence regarding meaningful outcome measures in clinical trials for stimulant use disorders. Attendees included members of academia, funding and regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and healthcare organizations. The goal was to establish a research agenda for the development of a meaningful outcome measure that may be used as an endpoint in clinical trials for stimulant use disorders. Based on guidelines for the selection of clinical trial endpoints, the lessons learned from prior addiction clinical trials, and the process that led to identification of a meaningful indicator of treatment success for alcohol use disorders, several recommendations for future research were generated. These include a focus on the validation of patient reported outcome measures of functioning, the exploration of patterns of stimulant abstinence that may be associated with physical and/or psychosocial benefits, the role of urine testing for validating self-reported measures of stimulant abstinence, and the operational definitions for reduction-based measures in terms of frequency rather than quantity of stimulant use. These recommendations may be useful for secondary analyses of clinical trial data, and in the design of future clinical trials that may help establish a meaningful indicator of treatment success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recommendations for Nanomedicine Human Subjects Research Oversight: An Evolutionary Approach for an Emerging Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Leili; Wolf, Susan M.; McCullough, Jeffrey; Hall, Ralph; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Jones, Cortney; Campbell, Stephen A.; Dresser, Rebecca S.; Erdman, Arthur G.; Haynes, Christy L.; Hoerr, Robert A.; Hogle, Linda F.; Keane, Moira A.; Khushf, George; King, Nancy M.P.; Kokkoli, Efrosini; Marchant, Gary; Maynard, Andrew D.; Philbert, Martin; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Siegel, Ronald A.; Wickline, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, “active,” and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an occasion to think systematically about appropriate oversight, especially early in the evolution of a technology, when hazard and risk information may remain incomplete. This paper presents the consensus recommendations of a multidisciplinary, NIH-funded project group, to ensure a science-based and ethically informed approach to HSR issues in nanomedicine, and integrate HSR analysis with analysis of occupational, bystander, and environmental concerns. We recommend creating two bodies, an interagency Human Subjects Research in Nanomedicine (HSR/N) Working Group and a Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Nanomedicine (SAC/N). HSR/N and SAC/N should perform 3 primary functions: (1) analysis of the attributes and subsets of nanomedicine interventions that raise HSR challenges and current gaps in oversight; (2) providing advice to relevant agencies and institutional bodies on the HSR issues, as well as federal and federal-institutional coordination; and (3) gathering and analyzing information on HSR issues as they emerge in nanomedicine. HSR/N and SAC/N will create a home for HSR analysis and coordination in DHHS (the key agency for relevant HSR oversight), optimize federal and institutional approaches, and allow HSR review to evolve with greater knowledge about nanomedicine interventions and greater clarity about attributes of concern. PMID:23289677

  2. Potential health benefits of simulated laughter: a narrative review of the literature and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ripoll, Ramon

    2011-06-01

    Scientific research has shown that laughter may have both preventive and therapeutic values. Health-related benefits of laughter are mainly reported from spontaneous laughter interventional studies. While the human mind can make a distinction between simulated and spontaneous laughter, the human body cannot. Either way health-related outcomes are deemed to be produced. Simulated laughter is thus a relatively under-researched treatment modality with potential health benefits. The aim of this review was firstly to identify, critically evaluate and summarize the laughter literature; secondly to assess to which extent simulated laughter health-related benefits are currently sustained by empirical evidence; and lastly to provide recommendations and future directions for further research. A comprehensive laughter literature search was performed. A list of inclusion and exclusion criteria was identified. Thematic analysis was applied to summarize laughter health-related outcomes, relationships, and general robustness. Laughter has shown different physiological and psychological benefits. Adverse effects are very limited and laughter is practically lacking in counter-indications. Despite the limited number of publications, there is some evidence to suggest that simulated laughter has also some effects on certain aspects of health, though further well-designed research is warranted. Simulated laughter techniques can be easily implemented in traditional clinical settings for health and patient care. Their effective use for therapeutic purposes needs to be learned, practiced, and developed as any other medical strategy. Practical guidelines and further research are needed to help health care professionals (and others) implement laughter techniques in their health care portfolio. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is There a Consensus on Consensus Methodology? Descriptions and Recommendations for Future Consensus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jane; Carline, Jan D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    The authors of this article reviewed the methodology of three common consensus methods: nominal group process, consensus development panels, and the Delphi technique. The authors set out to determine how a majority of researchers are conducting these studies, how they are analyzing results, and subsequently the manner in which they are reporting their findings. The authors conclude with a set of guidelines and suggestions designed to aid researchers who choose to use the consensus methodology in their work.Overall, researchers need to describe their inclusion criteria. In addition to this, on the basis of the current literature the authors found that a panel size of 5 to 11 members was most beneficial across all consensus methods described. Lastly, the authors agreed that the statistical analyses done in consensus method studies should be as rigorous as possible and that the predetermined definition of consensus must be included in the ultimate manuscript. More specific recommendations are given for each of the three consensus methods described in the article.

  4. An Overview of Research Infrastructures in Europe - and Recommendations to LIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Lossau

    2012-04-01

    . Research libraries’ engagement with RIs has been low. While this could be understandable in 2005 when the first priorities for RI investments were defined, it now represents a big gap in the European strategy. Key initiatives such as the ESFRI Research Infrastructures involve no participation by research libraries, except for DARIAH. Participation in EC-funded projects (through LIBER or directly through institutions focused (with a few exceptions on the areas of digitization, cultural heritage and publications. Research libraries need to become visible actors in strategic discussions on RIs and should actively explore their engagement in research data infrastructures. Open Access, open science (data, research data infrastructures and management are the catalysts to get research libraries back into the awareness of researchers beyond the humanities and social sciences. ‘Open Access is global — but implementation is local’. This is a popular slogan of the OpenAIRE project and gives local research libraries an important role in the European context. Research data are discipline-specific, but policies, workflows and standards also need to be implemented at the local level. Creating participatory infrastructures by involving institutional, national and disciplinary actors has been identified by the EC as a key task for the current decade. The term ‘participatory’ is also considered to be of fundamental relevance for European policy strategy, as it matches well with national and European coordination for cost efficiency and is instrumental in avoiding duplication of work. The primary challenges to building a coherent, fundable and sustainable ecosystem do not lie in ICT technology, but rather in governance, law, organization, socio- cultural aspects, trust, and, of course, costs.

  5. Developing a matrix to identify and prioritise research recommendations in HIV Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coates Bob

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention continues to be problematic in the UK, as it does globally. The UK Department of Health has a strategic direction with greater focus on prevention as part of its World Class Commissioning Programme. There is a need for targeted evidence-based prevention initiatives. This is an exploratory study to develop an evidence mapping tool in the form of a matrix: this will be used to identify important gaps in contemporary HIV prevention evidence relevant to the UK. It has the potential to aid prioritisation in future research. Methods Categories for prevention and risk groups were developed for HIV prevention in consultation with external experts. These were used as axes on a matrix tool to map evidence. Systematic searches for publications on HIV prevention were undertaken using electronic databases for primary and secondary research undertaken mainly in UK, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2006-9. Each publication was screened for inclusion then coded. The risk groups and prevention areas in each paper were counted: several publications addressed multiple risk groups. The counts were exported to the matrix and clearly illustrate the concentrations and gaps of literature in HIV prevention. Results 716 systematic reviews, randomised control trials and other primary research met the inclusion criteria for HIV prevention. The matrix identified several under researched areas in HIV prevention. Conclusions This is the first categorisation system for HIV prevention and the matrix is a novel tool for evidence mapping. Some important yet under-researched areas have been identified in HIV prevention evidence: identifying the undiagnosed population; international adaptation; education; intervention combinations; transgender; sex-workers; heterosexuals and older age groups. Other research recommendations: develop the classification system further and investigate transferability of the matrix to other prevention areas

  6. Organisational Information Security Strategy: Review, Discussion and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Horne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on information, including for some of the world’s largest organisations such as governments and multi-national corporations, has grown rapidly in recent years. However, reports of information security breaches and their associated consequences indicate that attacks are escalating on organisations conducting these information-based activities. Organisations need to formulate strategy to secure their information, however gaps exist in knowledge. Through a thematic review of academic security literature, (1 we analyse the antecedent conditions that motivate the adoption of a comprehensive information security strategy, (2 the conceptual elements of strategy and (3 the benefits that are enjoyed post-adoption. Our contributions include a definition of information security strategy that moves from an internally-focussed protection of information towards a strategic view that considers the organisation, its resources and capabilities, and its external environment. Our findings are then used to suggest future research directions.

  7. ENSI research strategy; Forschungsstrategie des Eidgenoessischen Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorats ENSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    This brief report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) reviews the inspectorate's activities and the strategy being followed. The basic principles involved in the institute's research and its financing are discussed, as are six basic aims being followed. The criteria used for the support of various research projects are examined and the methods used to control and monitor work on regulatory safety research are described. Interaction with the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA is discussed and four-year programs concerning research subjects are noted.

  8. RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF MARKETING RESEARCH ACTIVITY IN ROMANIAN MICROCREDIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savescu Roxana Florenta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As they mature, microcredit organizations in Romania are becoming aware of the importance of marketing in their current activities. Although marketing interventions should be considered important on all types of markets, the reality is that micro-credit companies in Romania have a limited institutional capacity to develop and implement marketing programs. This implies that marketing efforts should be focused and marketing needs should be prioritized, according to the appropriate level of market development (developing markets, growth markets and mature markets. The paper presents the results of an exploratory marketing research study regarding the marketing activity performed by microfinance institutions in Romania. The purpose of the research was to identify courses of action to institutionalize marketing research in the current activity of the subjects analyzed. It has been our intention to give a very practical dimension to the recommendations regarding the marketing information useful for microcredit organizations and categories of marketing research needing to be conducted regularly, making them applicable within the specific Romanian environment. Given the fact that on a national level scientific concerns about microfinance in Romania, in general or about marketing in the field of microfinance in particular are almost nonexistent, this thesis can be regarded as an innovation. This conclusion comes both from the investigation of existing literature and from the author's interviews with managers of microfinance institutions who have argued that this was the first time when Romanian academic institutions got interested in this sector. Potential beneficiaries of the results of this study are: managers of microcredit organizations interested in the development and sustainability of the institutions they manage; various national and international organizations interested in designing technical assistance programs in the areas identified as being

  9. Risk to researchers in qualitative research on sensitive topics: issues and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Swift, Virginia; James, Erica L; Kippen, Sandra; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, risk assessments in research have been limited to examining the risks to the research participants. Although doing so is appropriate and important, there is growing recognition that undertaking research can pose risks to researchers as well. A grounded theory study involving a range of researchers who had undertaken qualitative health research on a sensitive topic was completed. Analysis of the in-depth, face-to-face unstructured individual interviews with 30 Australian public health researchers provided evidence that researchers do confront a number of physical and emotional risks when undertaking research. Training, preparation, and supervision must be taken into account so that the risk to researchers can be minimized. Researchers need to consider occupational health and safety issues in designing research projects that deal with physical and emotional risks. Recommendations for professional supervision, policy development, and minimum training standards for researchers are provided.

  10. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  11. Identification of potent orally active factor Xa inhibitors based on conjugation strategy and application of predictable fragment recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tsukasa; Koga, Yuji; Iwatsuki, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Fukushi

    2015-01-15

    Anticoagulant agents have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic drugs for the treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. We investigated a series of novel orally active factor Xa inhibitors designed using our previously reported conjugation strategy to boost oral anticoagulant effect. Structural optimization of anthranilamide derivative 3 as a lead compound with installation of phenolic hydroxyl group and extensive exploration of the P1 binding element led to the identification of 5-chloro-N-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-3-hydroxy-2-{[4-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)benzoyl]amino}benzamide (33, AS1468240) as a potent factor Xa inhibitor with significant oral anticoagulant activity. We also reported a newly developed Free-Wilson-like fragment recommender system based on the integration of R-group decomposition with collaborative filtering for the structural optimization process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ESL Learners' Online Research and Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, Noridah; Bown, Andy; Fluck, Andrew; Kebble, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance second language (L2) acquisition, English as a Second Language (ESL) students are encouraged to exploit the abundant information and opportunities for authentic language use afforded by the Internet. This study investigated the online research and comprehension strategies employed by ESL learners in a public university in…

  13. A Critical Look at Communication Strategies: Possibilities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Like general theories of human communication, previous research into second language (L2) communication strategies (CSs) has also been characterized on either interactional conceived account or cognitively conceived one. However, this paper is a critical attempt to show that CSs' full significance can only be understood if the domain of CSs…

  14. Advanced Marginality as a comparative research strategy in praxis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Troels Schultz

    2018-01-01

    and homology. These concepts are applied as the foundation of a comparative research design comprising three necessary and interconnected analytical moments linking reflexivity, theory and empirical analysis. Empirically this strategy and design is confronted in the case of four Danish “Grey belt” housing...

  15. Commentary: Building Web Research Strategies for Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents web research strategies for teachers and students to use in building Dramatic Event, Historical Biography, and Influential Literature wiki pages for history/social studies learning. Dramatic Events refer to milestone or turning point moments in history. Historical Biographies and Influential Literature pages feature…

  16. Empowering Youth Work Supervisors with Action Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Supervising youth workers is a challenging, demanding job in a complex field. Too frequently youth workers get mired in reacting to the everyday crises that dominate their work, finding it difficult to rise above the daily demands to reach a place where reflection can help guide their work. Strategies based in action research can empower youth…

  17. Improving Reading Instruction through Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Vickie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…

  18. Stakeholders' Perspectives on Stakeholder-engaged Research (SER): Strategies to Operationalize Patient-centered Outcomes Research Principles for SER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Thomas I; Sheldrick, Radley C; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Saunders, Tully; Rojas, Erick G; Leslie, Laurel K

    2017-01-01

    US federal funding agencies increasingly incentivize stakeholder-engaged research which represents a paradigm shift toward incorporating a range of stakeholders in research design, conduct, and dissemination. We use qualitative methods to capture experience-based recommendations on how to operationalize 4 Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) principles in stakeholder-engaged research, specifically: (1) reciprocal relationships; (2) colearning; (3) partnership; and (4) trust, transparency, and honesty. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of a stakeholder panel who participated in a 2-year comparative effectiveness study of cholesterol screening and treatment among young adults. Participants included 8 young adults and parent panelists and 11 professional panelists (clinicians, researchers, policy developers, and disseminators). The interview guide included questions about the 4 PCOR principles and queried preferred strategies to attain them. Interview transcripts were analyzed using an a priori and emergent coding structure. Participants provided strategies to promote the 4 PCOR principles. Although some stakeholder-identified strategies were complementary, others conflicted due to (1) competing ideologies identified among the principles, and (2) distinct stakeholder preferences. Illustrative of competing ideologies, participants simultaneously preferred receiving relevant articles before calls (to facilitate colearning) but also minimal outside reading (to achieve partnership). Illustrative of distinct stakeholder preferences, young adult and parent panelists generally preferred calls to occur on weekends/evenings, whereas professional panelists preferred mid-week work hours. Our exploratory study provides stakeholder-identified strategies to achieve the 4 PCOR principles, and demonstrates the need to identify, acknowledge, and address potentially conflicting strategies due to the potential for competing ideologies or variation in stakeholder

  19. A Pragmatic Approach to Guide Implementation Evaluation Research: Strategy Mapping for Complex Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis K. Huynh

    2018-05-01

    for producing valid and reliable process evaluation data, mapping implementation strategies has informed development of a pragmatic blueprint for implementation and longitudinal analyses and evaluation activities.DiscussionWe update recent recommendations on specification of implementation strategies by considering the implications for multi-strategy frameworks and propose an approach for mapping the use of implementation strategies within complex, multi-level interventions, in support of rigorous evaluation. Developing pragmatic tools to aid in operationalizing the conduct of implementation and evaluation activities is essential to enacting sound implementation research.

  20. Are current coaching recommendations for cricket batting technique supported by biomechanical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Melissa J; Spratford, Wayne

    2012-09-01

    Coaching manuals are an invaluable tool for coaches, used in player skill and technique development, especially at grass-roots level. Commonly developed by former players and coaches, this information is generally based on anecdotal evidence and in general lacks the scientific rigour of a peer-reviewed journal. Thus there is a need to establish the level of agreement and support between the coaching and biomechanical literature. In doing so, evidence-based coaching practices can be optimally developed. Moreover, this will ensure the technique and skill development practices implemented at grass-roots level are supported by successful performance in the later stages of player development. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the latest batting biomechanics research, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date insight into the kinematic and kinetic aspects of batting in cricket. Furthermore, this review compared and contrasted this research with a selection of coaching literature, establishing a strong level of support and agreement between the coaching and biomechanical literature in recommendations for cricket batting technique. Although the ambiguity in a number of coaching concepts still exists, coaches and players can be confident in the successful implementation of both sources of information in a player's technical development.

  1. The Confounded Self-Efficacy Construct: Review, Conceptual Analysis, and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy is central to health behaviour theories due to its robust predictive capabilities. In this paper we present and review evidence for a self-efficacy-as-motivation argument in which standard self-efficacy questionnaires—i.e., ratings of whether participants “can do” the target behaviour—reflect motivation rather than perceived capability. The potential implication is that associations between self-efficacy ratings (particularly those that employ a “can do” operationalization) and health-related behaviours simply indicate that people are likely to do what they are motivated to do. There is some empirical evidence for the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument, with three studies demonstrating causal effects of outcome expectancy on subsequent self-efficacy ratings. Three additional studies show that—consistent with the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument—controlling for motivation by adding the phrase “if you wanted to” to the end of self-efficacy items decreases associations between self-efficacy ratings and motivation. Likewise, a qualitative study using a thought-listing procedure demonstrates that self-efficacy ratings have motivational antecedents. The available evidence suggests that the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument is viable, although more research is needed. Meanwhile, we recommend that researchers look beyond self-efficacy to identify the many and diverse sources of motivation for health-related behaviours. PMID:25117692

  2. Curricular priorities for business ethics in medical practice and research: recommendations from Delphi consensus panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Kraus, Elena M; Gursahani, Kamal; Mikulec, Anthony; Bakanas, Erin

    2014-11-15

    No published curricula in the area of medical business ethics exist. This is surprising given that physicians wrestle daily with business decisions and that professional associations, the Institute of Medicine, Health and Human Services, Congress, and industry have issued related guidelines over the past 5 years. To fill this gap, the authors aimed (1) to identify the full range of medical business ethics topics that experts consider important to teach, and (2) to establish curricular priorities through expert consensus. In spring 2012, the authors conducted an online Delphi survey with two heterogeneous panels of experts recruited in the United States. One panel focused on business ethics in medical practice (n = 14), and 1 focused on business ethics in medical research (n = 12). Panel 1 generated an initial list of 14 major topics related to business ethics in medical practice, and subsequently rated 6 topics as very important or essential to teach. Panel 2 generated an initial list of 10 major topics related to business ethics in medical research, and subsequently rated 5 as very important or essential. In both domains, the panel strongly recommended addressing problems that conflicts of interest can cause, legal guidelines, and the goals or ideals of the profession. The Bander Center for Medical Business Ethics at Saint Louis University will use the results of the Delphi panel to develop online curricular resources for each of the highest rated topics.

  3. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...... the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations...

  4. Starting Off on the Best Foot: A Review of Message Framing and Message Tailoring, and Recommendations for the Comprehensive Messaging Strategy for Sustained Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J Paige; Pelletier, Luc; Guertin, Camille

    2018-09-01

    Health promotion programs represent a salient means through which physical activity promoters can cultivate positive health behavior change and maintenance. The messages communicated within these programs serve as an essential component as they are often used to convey valuable information, resources, or tools that facilitate health behavior initiation and sustained engagement. Identifying the most effective way to communicate health promotion information is, therefore, of considerable importance to ensuring that people not only attend to these messages, but also connect with and internalize the information conveyed within them. This paper was written to (1) summarize and evaluate the most prominent reviewed research approaches of message framing and tailoring to message design; and (2) offer a comprehensive messaging strategy to promote sustained health behavior change. A review of the literature demonstrated that a messaging strategy that has consistently led to healthy behavior change has yet to be identified. Furthermore, scholars have articulated that a multi-theoretical approach that places emphasis on facilitating motivation and healthy behavior change needs to be employed. Thus, this paper proposes and provides recommendations for employing the Comprehensive Messaging Strategy for Sustained Behavior Change (CMSSBC), which advocates tailoring messages to peoples' stage of change and framing them to focus on self-determined motives and intrinsic goals.

  5. Behavioral Recommendations in Health Research News as Cues to Action: Self-Relevancy and Self-Efficacy Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chingching

    2016-08-01

    This study argues that behavioral recommendations in health news function as cues to action. A proposed self-oriented model seeks to explore the impacts of behavioral recommendations in health research news as cues to action through their influences on self-relevancy and self-efficacy. A content analysis (Study 1) first establishes that health research news commonly features behavioral recommendations. A message experiment (Study 2) then explores the utility of behavioral recommendations as cues to action by demonstrating a self-relevancy effect: Health research news with, as opposed to without, behavioral recommendations increases the self-relevancy of advocated health behaviors, which then improve people's attitudes toward and intentions to adopt those behaviors. A second message experiment (Study 3) tests whether varying presentations of behavioral recommendations alter their effectiveness as cues to action and thus people's behavioral intentions through a dual effect process. In addition to the previously demonstrated self-relevancy effect, this experiment shows that concrete, as opposed to abstract, behavioral recommendations trigger a self-efficacy effect, increasing perceived self-efficacy and further improving behavioral intentions.

  6. Research Strategies in Science-based Start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    develop a contingency view on complex problem solving which structures the argument into three steps:1) Characterising the problem architectures addressed by different types of DBFs;2) Testing and confirming that DBFs form requisite research strategies, by which we refer to problem solving approaches......Although biotech start-ups fail or succeed based on their research few attempts have been made to examine if and how they strategize in this core of their activity. Popular views on Dedicated Biotech Firms (DBFs) see the inherent uncertainty of research as defying notions of strategizing, directing...

  7. The implementation of research recommendations at the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martie Mearns

    2009-09-01

    of the ideals of environmental conservation after their visit to the garden. Secondly, the study determined the spatial preferences of visitors to the garden which was thirdly correlated to the time that they spent at each area. A number of recommendations were made and a comparative study followed twelve years after the initial study in which the implementation of the resultant findings was determined through observation and a comparison of information pamphlets and garden layout maps. It was found that large-scale changes took place in line with the recommendations made after the initial study. These included the demolition of unsuccessful theme gardens and their replacement by topical theme gardens such as water-wise gardens and a garden that attracts butterflies and birds. The educational function of the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden was greatly improved by adding more information plaques throughout the garden, a new interpretative centre and many additional information pamphlets that had been absent during the initial study. Major structural changes were made, such as the building of an amphitheatre which reduced the negative impact of noise and disturbance surrounding the nests of the Verreaux’s eagles that breed successfully in the garden. The changes undertaken at the garden show innovative improvements in line with the con servation principles outlined by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI. The evidence of the implementation of research recommendations from the initial study could play a direct role in improving the visitor experience, which would facilitate the economic viability of the Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden in its endeavours to reach its conservation goals. Further research is suggested to continuously determine the areas of preference of visitors in the evolving landscape of the garden to ensure renewed interest of visitors to the garden. If botanical gardens want to succeed in their goal to increase

  8. Bioanalytical outsourcing strategy at Janssen Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The times when all bioanalytical work was supported in-house are long behind us. In the modern bioanalytical laboratory, workload is divided between in-house support and outsourcing to contract research organizations. This paper outlines the outsourcing strategy of the Janssen-regulated bioanalytical group. Keeping the knowledge of the assay and the compound internally is a cornerstone of this strategy and is a driver for balancing the workload between the internal laboratory and contract laboratories. The number of contract laboratories that are being used is limited and criteria for selecting laboratories are discussed. Special attention is paid to the experience with outsourcing clinical studies to China.

  9. Research on E-Commerce Platform-Based Personalized Recommendation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at data sparsity and timeliness in traditional E-commerce collaborative filtering recommendation algorithms, when constructing user-item rating matrix, this paper utilizes the feature that commodities in E-commerce system belong to different levels to fill in nonrated items by calculating RF/IRF of the commodity’s corresponding level. In the recommendation prediction stage, considering timeliness of the recommendation system, time weighted based recommendation prediction formula is adopted to design a personalized recommendation model by integrating level filling method and rating time. The experimental results on real dataset verify the feasibility and validity of the algorithm and it owns higher predicting accuracy compared with present recommendation algorithms.

  10. Toxic-metabolic Risk Factors in Pediatric Pancreatitis: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Management, and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sohail Z; Morinville, Veronique; Pohl, John; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Bellin, Melena D; Freedman, Steve; Hegyi, Peter; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Ooi, Chee Y; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Usatin, Danielle; Uc, Aliye

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatitis in children can result from metabolic and toxic risk factors, but the evidence linking these factors is sparse. We review the evidence for association or causality of these risk factors in pancreatitis, discuss management strategies, and their rationale. We conducted a review of the pediatric pancreatitis literature with respect to the following risk factors: hyperlipidemia, hypercalcemia, chronic renal failure, smoking exposure, alcohol, and medications. Areas of additional research were identified. Hypertriglyceridemia of 1000 mg/dL or greater poses an absolute risk for pancreatitis; persistent elevations of calcium are predisposing. Further research is necessary to determine whether end-stage renal disease leads to increased pancreatitis in children similar to adults. It is unknown whether cigarette smoking exposure, which clearly increases risk in adults, also increases risk in children. The role of alcohol in pediatric pancreatitis, whether direct or modifying, needs to be elucidated. The evidence supporting most cases of medication-induced pancreatitis is poor. Drug structure, improper handling of drug by host, and bystander status may be implicated. Other pancreatitis risk factors must be sought in all cases. The quality of evidence supporting causative role of various toxic and metabolic factors in pediatric pancreatitis is variable. Careful phenotyping is essential, including search for other etiologic risk factors. Directed therapy includes correction/removal of any agent identified, and general supportive measures. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of these pancreatitis risk factors in children.

  11. Toxic-Metabolic Risk Factors in Pediatric Pancreatitis: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Management and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sohail Z.; Morinville, Veronique; Pohl, John; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Bellin, Melena D.; Freedman, Steve; Hegyi, Peter; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Ooi, Chee Y.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Usatin, Danielle; Uc, Aliye

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatitis in children can result from metabolic and toxic risk factors, but the evidence linking these factors is sparse. We review the evidence for association or causality of these risk factors in pancreatitis, discuss management strategies and their rationale. Methods We conducted a review of the pediatric pancreatitis literature with respect to the following risk factors: (a) hyperlipidemia, (b) hypercalcemia, (c) chronic renal failure, (d) smoking exposure, (e) alcohol, and (f) medications. Areas of additional research were identified. Results Hypertriglyceridemia of 1000 mg/dl or greater poses an absolute risk for pancreatitis; persistent elevations of calcium are predisposing. Further research is necessary to determine whether end stage renal disease leads to increased pancreatitis in children similar to adults. It is unknown whether cigarette smoking exposure, which clearly increases risk in adults, also increases risk in children. The role of alcohol in pediatric pancreatitis, whether direct or modifying, needs to be elucidated. The evidence supporting most cases of medication-induced pancreatitis is poor. Drug structure, improper handling of drug by host, and by-stander status may be implicated. Other pancreatitis risk factors must be sought in all cases. Conclusions The quality of evidence supporting causative role of various toxic and metabolic factors in pediatric pancreatitis is variable. Careful phenotyping is essential, including search for other etiologic risk factors. Directed therapy includes correction/ removal of any agent identified, and general supportive measures. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of these pancreatitis risk factors in children. PMID:26594832

  12. Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

  13. Strategy for Danish wind energy research; Startegi for dansk vindenergiforskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the strategy for Danish wind energy research is to support future prioritizations - primarily as regards publicly funded programs. Most recent energy political objectives formulated in 2004 by the Danish Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs state: 'The objective of the governmental energy policy is to create efficient energy markets within a framework that secures cost efficiency, security of supplies, environmental considerations and efficient use of energy. The markets must be transparent and the competition must be fair. This will secure the energy consumers the lowest possible energy prices.' The wind energy strategy mirrors user needs and is, among other things, based upon a number of interviews with interested parties and a hearing on the strategy draft. (BA)

  14. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  15. Nuclear Power : The roles, functions and opportunities for research institutes - An overview and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2010-01-01

    Shifting nuclear power from being the Last Option to a new energy mix for Malaysia has significant implications and requires specific actions, responses and support from critical stake holders including Government, Utility, Education Sectors and Research Institutes. This paper aims to briefly outline the roles and functions of these stake holders, but spotlighting on that of research institute. Presently the role of research and development (R and D) within a nuclear power programme is a controversial subject. Opinions range from assigning a continuing priority role in this area, to considering it a somewhat questionable effort at the present state of development of proven reactor types, in particular for countries which have not yet started or are at the earlier stages of the nuclear power programmes. As such Nuclear Malaysia may be facing a similar challenge in its quest to identify the most effective role and function for the agency to undertake for the 1st NPP. Thus it is within this context that his paper aims offer an overview of the activities and work scope required to support a Nuclear Power Programme (NPP) with the view that this will enable management and the scientific and research community to formulate strategies and work plan, in particular in terms of HRD and R and D plans, to further enhance its readiness to support Malaysia's first Nuclear Power programme, earmarked by the Government for the year 2020. Additionally it is hoped that this would contribute to the identification of an effective role, function and opportunities for Nuclear Malaysia in supporting Malaysia's first NPP. (author)

  16. Mentoring K scholars: strategies to support research mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Ellen L; Schiro, Stephanie; Fleming, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to present strategies utilized to support K scholar research mentors. K scholars are generally assistant professors who are close to developing independent research programs. Of all the various types of mentees, K scholars offer the greatest challenges, as well as the greatest rewards, for research mentors. To see one's mentee achieve independent PI status and become an established investigator is one of the great joys of being a research mentor. Research mentors for K scholars, however, may not directly benefit from their mentoring relationship, neither in terms of obtaining data to support their research program or laboratory, nor in assistance with grants or scientific papers. There is a pressing need for the research community to address the workload, institutional expectations, and reward system for research mentors. The dearth of research mentors and role models in clinical translational science parallels the decreasing number of physicians choosing careers in clinical research. While there is limited empirical information on the effectiveness of mentor support mechanisms, this white paper concludes that providing mentor support is critical to expanding the available pool of mentors, as well as providing training opportunities for K scholars. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Observations and recommendations for further research regarding environmentally assisted fatigue evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, G.L.; Tregoning, R.L. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    strength, component testing (rather than small-scale specimen testing), ASME Code cumulative usage factor (CUF) calculation methods, and the effect of neutron irradiation on fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels. This paper describes those observations and provides recommendations for further research efforts.

  18. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology : Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.-E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U.; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural

  19. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; Ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural

  20. New Informatization Strategy in the Romanian Research and Educational System

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan

    2006-01-01

    There are defined the objectives, the means, the principles and the directions that must be followed by a strategy for the education and research system in Romania. There are identified the system components and the stages that must be accomplished, in order to obtain an adequate behaviour that will allow all graduate persons to become an efficient actor in the information society and to help create the basis for the new society, the knowledge oriented society.

  1. New Informatization Strategy in the Romanian Research and Educational System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ivan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There are defined the objectives, the means, the principles and the directions that must be followed by a strategy for the education and research system in Romania. There are identified the system components and the stages that must be accomplished, in order to obtain an adequate behaviour that will allow all graduate persons to become an efficient actor in the information society and to help create the basis for the new society, the knowledge oriented society.

  2. Identifying optimal postmarket surveillance strategies for medical and surgical devices: implications for policy, practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Umoquit, Muriah; Lehoux, Pascale; Ross, Sue; Ducey, Ariel; Urbach, David R

    2013-03-01

    Non-drug technologies offer many benefits, but have been associated with adverse events, prompting calls for improved postmarket surveillance. There is little empirical research to guide the development of such a system. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal postmarket surveillance strategies for medical and surgical devices. Qualitative methods were used for sampling, data collection and analysis. Stakeholders from Canada and the USA representing different roles and perspectives were first interviewed to identify examples and characteristics of different surveillance strategies. These stakeholders and others they recommended were then assembled at a 1-day nominal group meeting to discuss and prioritise the components of a postmarket device surveillance system, and research needed to achieve such a system. Consultations were held with 37 participants, and 47 participants attended the 1-day meeting. They recommended a multicomponent system including reporting by facilities, clinicians and patients, supported with some external surveillance for validation and real-time trials for high-risk devices. Many considerations were identified that constitute desirable characteristics of, and means by which to implement such a system. An overarching network was envisioned to broker linkages, establish a shared minimum dataset, and support communication and decision making. Numerous research questions were identified, which could be pursued in tandem with phased implementation of the system. These findings provide unique guidance for establishing a device safety network that is based on existing initiatives, and could be expanded and evaluated in a prospective, phased fashion as it was developed.

  3. Assessment Report on the national research strategy for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report was issued in 2009 by the French Parliament commission in charge of evaluating the scientific and technological choices of France's research in the field of energy. With environmental, economical and national independence concerns in view, the objective of the report is to assess the national research strategy for energy and to propose some directions for its future development. The scientific priority given in France to nuclear energy, petroleum, photovoltaic energy, second generation bio fuels and energy storage should be maintained. Mass energy storage should be considered as an essential condition for the development of renewable energies, such as offshore wind farms and storage systems

  4. RE-AIM in Clinical, Community, and Corporate Settings: Perspectives, Strategies, and Recommendations to Enhance Public Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Harden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The RE-AIM Framework is a planning and evaluation model that has been used in a variety of settings to address various programmatic, environmental, and policy innovations for improving population health. In addition to the broad application and diverse use of the framework, there are lessons learned and recommendations for the future use of the framework across clinical, community, and corporate settings. The purposes of this article are to: (A provide a brief overview of the RE-AIM Framework and its pragmatic use for planning and evaluation; (B offer recommendations to facilitate the application of RE-AIM in clinical, community, and corporate settings; and (C share perspectives and lessons learned about employing RE-AIM dimensions in the planning, implementation, and evaluation phases within these different settings. In this article, we demonstrate how the RE-AIM concepts and elements within each dimension can be applied by researchers and practitioners in diverse settings, among diverse populations and for diverse health topics.

  5. Recommendations for the Return of Research Results to Study Participants and Guardians: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Conrad V.; Ruccione, Kathleen; Wells, Robert J.; Long, Jay B.; Pelletier, Wendy; Hooke, Mary C.; Pentz, Rebecca D.; Noll, Robert B.; Baker, Justin N.; O'Leary, Maura; Reaman, Gregory; Adamson, Peter C.; Joffe, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Children's Oncology Group (COG) strongly supports the widely recognized principle that research participants should be offered a summary of study results. The mechanism by which to do so in a cooperative research group setting has not been previously described. Methods On the basis of a review of the available empirical and theoretic literature and on iterative, multidisciplinary discussion, a COG Return of Results Task Force (RRTF) offered detailed recommendations for the return of results to research study participants. Results The RRTF established guidelines for the notification of research participants and/or their parents/guardians about the availability of research results, a mechanism for and timing of sharing results via registration on the COG public Web site, the scope of the research to be shared, the target audience, and a process for creating and vetting lay summaries of study results. The RRTF recognized the challenges in adequately conveying complex scientific results to audiences with varying levels of health literacy and recommended that particularly sensitive or complex results be returned using direct personal contact. The RRTF also recommended evaluation of the cost, effectiveness, and impact of sharing results. Conclusion These recommendations provide a framework for the offering and returning of results to participants. They can be used by individual investigators, multi-investigator research collaboratives, and large cooperative groups. PMID:23109703

  6. Treatment Recommendations for Single-Unit Crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S.; Louis, David R.; Litaker, Mark S.; Minyé, Helena M.; Mungia, Rahma; Gordan, Valeria V.; Marshall, Don G.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Objectives were to: (1) quantify practitioner variation in likelihood to recommend a crown; and (2) test whether certain dentist, practice, and clinical factors are significantly associated with this likelihood. Methods Dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a questionnaire about indications for single-unit crowns. In four clinical scenarios, practitioners ranked their likelihood of recommending a single-unit crown. These responses were used to calculate a dentist-specific “Crown Factor” (CF; range 0–12). A higher score implies a higher likelihood to recommend a crown. Certain characteristics were tested for statistically significant associations with the CF. Results 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists responded (83%). Practitioners were most likely to recommend crowns for teeth that were fractured, cracked, endodontically-treated, or had a broken restoration. Practitioners overwhelmingly recommended crowns for posterior teeth treated endodontically (94%). Practice owners, Southwest practitioners, and practitioners with a balanced work load were more likely to recommend crowns, as were practitioners who use optical scanners for digital impressions. Conclusions There is substantial variation in the likelihood of recommending a crown. While consensus exists in some areas (posterior endodontic treatment), variation dominates in others (size of an existing restoration). Recommendations varied by type of practice, network region, practice busyness, patient insurance status, and use of optical scanners. Practical Implications Recommendations for crowns may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. A concern for tooth fracture -- whether from endodontic treatment, fractured teeth, or large restorations -- prompted many clinicians to recommend crowns. PMID:27492046

  7. Are we done yet? An assessment of the remaining barriers to increasing compact fluorescent lamp installations and recommended program strategies for reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Tami; Canseco, Jennifer [KEMA Inc., Sustainable Market Strategies Group (United States); Rubin, Rob [San Diego Gas and Electric Company (United States); Teja, Anu [Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Residential energy efficiency lighting programs in active regions of the United States have been successful in dramatically increasing compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) purchases over the last decade - where currently a majority of households have one or more CFLs installed. However, in these regions CFLs are used in less than 10 percent of residential lamp sockets, and much untapped energy savings potential remains. Consumers in these active regions with CFLs already installed could expand their existing CFL installations by a factor of five. The reasons that they are not doing so include waiting for incandescent bulbs to burn out, issues with CFL performance, the need for specialty CFLs (which are expensive and not widely available) and the higher cost of CFLs.Programs in these active regions should consider the following recommendations for increasing CFL installations: encourage consumers to retrofit more CFLs and not to wait for incandescent bulbs to burn out; track and address CFL performance issues for the range of CFL products; broaden program strategies to address specialty CFLs; expand incentives to year-round and to more stores and products; and track market barriers at both the household and lamp socket level.In regions of the United States or countries with emerging residential CFL programs, program planners should consider the following recommendations: research the lighting market and introduce program strategies within existing market channels; focus first on the most basic style of CFLs that are designed to replace standard incandescent bulbs and move to specialty CFLs later; and track and monitor product quality from program inception.

  8. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tesche, F.M. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)); Vance, E.F. (Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation's power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation's electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  9. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States); Vance, E.F. [Vance (E.F.), Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  10. Research on intelligent recommendation algorithm of e-commerce based on association rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiajie; Cheng, Xianyi

    2017-09-01

    As the commodities of e-commerce are more and more rich, more and more consumers are willing to choose online shopping, because of these rich varieties of commodity information, customers will often appear aesthetic fatigue. Therefore, we need a recommendation algorithm according to the recent behavior of customers including browsing and consuming to predicate and intelligently recommend goods which the customers need, thus to improve the satisfaction of customers and to increase the profit of e-commerce. This paper first discusses recommendation algorithm, then improves Apriori. Finally, using R language realizes a recommendation algorithm of commodities. The result shows that this algorithm provides a certain decision-making role for customers to buy commodities.

  11. Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Frattaroli, Shannon; Appelbaum, Paul S; Bonnie, Richard J; Grilley, Anna; Horwitz, Joshua; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Webster, Daniel W

    2014-11-01

    Recent mass shootings have prompted a national dialogue around mental illness and gun policy. To advance an evidence-informed policy agenda on this controversial issue, we formed a consortium of national gun violence prevention and mental health experts. The consortium agreed on a guiding principle for future policy recommendations: restricting firearm access on the basis of certain dangerous behaviors is supported by the evidence; restricting access on the basis of mental illness diagnoses is not. We describe the group's process and recommendations.

  12. Ranking of integration factors within supply chains of forward and backward types - recommendations from researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Hentschel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integration trends are one of main determinants of the development of modern logistics. After the period of interest focused mainly on supply chains realizing one-way flows only, at present there is a time for supply chains characterized by two-way flows, realizing at the same time both forward and backward flows. The possibility of various configurations of such chains requires identification of integration factors and determination of their influence on the results of the whole supply chain. Experiences of the science as well as the practice of supply chains show the urgent need of learning of reasons of the integration within supply chains of the two-way type.  Material and methods: The researches on modeling and simulation of integration processes within supply chains of forward and backward type were carried out in the environment of iGrafx Process 2013 for Six Sigma. The empirical material obtained in these researches was put to the statistical analysis by the used of Minitab 17. The identification of the significance of differences was made with the help of analysis of variance ANOVA. Additionally the analysis of differences in form of absolute averages was made.  The following measures are main ones for the evaluation of the integration of a supply chain of forward and backward types: cashflow, profitability, service level.  Results: 8 192 simulation experiments were made for 6 integration factors: accessibility of recycled materials, production planning, stock management, integration of transport, unification of packing materials and optimization of the material flow. Based on the analysis of the significance and values of differences, the results of the influence of each integration factor on global results of supply chains of forward and backward type were obtained. They were used to prepare the ranking of integration factors. The main factors, forming the integration shape of two-way supply chains were: stock

  13. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; Farrar, John T; Fillingim, Roger B; Gilron, Ian; Markman, John D; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Polydefkis, Michael J; Raja, Srinivasa N; Robinson, James P; Woolf, Clifford J; Ziegler, Dan; Ashburn, Michael A; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; George, Steven Z; Goli, Veeraindar; Graff, Ole X; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Katz, Joel; Kehlet, Henrik; Kitt, Rachel A; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Steigerwald, Ilona; Tobias, Jeffrey; Walco, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (ie, chronic postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (ie, surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic or noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials.

  14. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  15. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  16. Big Data Analytics and Machine Intelligence Capability Development at NASA Langley Research Center: Strategy, Roadmap, and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Manjula Y.; Yagle, Jeremy J.; Reith, William; McLarney, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a team of researchers, engineers and information technology specialists at NASA Langley Research Center developed a Big Data Analytics and Machine Intelligence Strategy and Roadmap as part of Langley's Comprehensive Digital Transformation Initiative, with the goal of identifying the goals, objectives, initiatives, and recommendations need to develop near-, mid- and long-term capabilities for data analytics and machine intelligence in aerospace domains. Since that time, significant progress has been made in developing pilots and projects in several research, engineering, and scientific domains by following the original strategy of collaboration between mission support organizations, mission organizations, and external partners from universities and industry. This report summarizes the work to date in Data Intensive Scientific Discovery, Deep Content Analytics, and Deep Q&A projects, as well as the progress made in collaboration, outreach, and education. Recommendations for continuing this success into future phases of the initiative are also made.

  17. Including People with Dementia in Research: An Analysis of Australian Ethical and Legal Rules and Recommendations for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M; Thompson, Katie A; Lowe, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules. We contend that this legislative variation precludes a consistent approach to research governance and participation and hinders research that seeks to include people with impaired capacity. In this paper, we present key ethical principles, provide a comprehensive review of applicable legal rules in Australian states and territories, and highlight significant differences and ambiguities. Our analysis includes recommendations for reform to improve clarity and consistency in the law and reduce barriers that may exclude persons with dementia from participating in ethically approved research. Our recommendations seek to advance the national decision-making principles recommended by the Australian Law Reform Commission, which emphasize the rights of all adults to make their own decisions and for those with impaired capacity to have access to appropriate supports to help them make decisions that affect their lives.

  18. DOE FY 2010 Budget Request and Recovery Act Funding for Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment: Analysis and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    short-term. Energy storage may play a crucial role in the future of the power and transportation systems, which together consume two thirds of primary energy in the United States. A recent National Academy of Science report recommended carrying out detailed scenario assessments of the penetration of unconventional fuels from coal and coal and biomass with CCS. And the research plan provided for nuclear fission does not justify spending as many funds as were requested. The proposed funding for FY 2010 and the resources from ARRA, however, do not guarantee that the United States will finally enjoy the predictable and consistent publicly-funded energy technology innovation effort that it needs. The Obama administration must put in place a comprehensive energy technology innovation strategy that will ensure that an expanded ERD3 effort is both sustainable and efficient. This commission would be charged with, inter alia, developing a strategy that optimizes the integration of the various stages of innovation (research, development, demonstration, early deployment), as well as integrates efforts across technology areas. The database upon which this analysis is based may be downloaded in Excel format at: http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/19119/ .

  19. Proceedings of the 15th nuclear safety research association symposium ICRP's 2005 Recommendations on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This is the document of the Symposium in the title, held in Tokyo, 2003. The document contains the greeting by chairperson (Toshiso Kosako, International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) member, Tokyo University): lecture 1; for the title subject presented as ''ICRP's 2005 Recommendations on Radiological Protection'' with its slides entitled ''The Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection-The Justification for ICRP's 2005 Recommendations'' by L.-E. Holm (ICRP Vice-Chairman, Swedish Radiation Protection Authority): lecture 2; ''Protection of the Environment: from Ethics to Genetics''' with slides, ''Ionising Radiation and the Environment'', by R. J. Pentreath (ICRP member, The University of Reading, the United Kingdom (UK)): respectively followed by discussion with 3 Japanese panelists for each lecture: and chairperson's summary. The chair's greeting is about the rise of interest in environmental radiation protection, its background, and related trends in The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). L-EH's presentation involves sections of the background of the recommendations and protection of the environment, mentioning some of the proposed changes in the Commission's recommendations for its 2005 Recommendations. RJP's presentation involves sections of a philosophical platform, environmental management, relevance to radiation and its effects, points of reference and discussion where the impact of radionuclides and radiation in environment on various biological systems is mentioned in view for future. (R.T.)

  20. The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltsey Stirman Shannon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of evidence-based programs and practices into healthcare settings has been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. While a number of studies have examined initial implementation efforts, less research has been conducted to determine what happens beyond that point. There is increasing recognition that the extent to which new programs are sustained is influenced by many different factors and that more needs to be known about just what these factors are and how they interact. To understand the current state of the research literature on sustainability, our team took stock of what is currently known in this area and identified areas in which further research would be particularly helpful. This paper reviews the methods that have been used, the types of outcomes that have been measured and reported, findings from studies that reported long-term implementation outcomes, and factors that have been identified as potential influences on the sustained use of new practices, programs, or interventions. We conclude with recommendations and considerations for future research. Methods Two coders identified 125 studies on sustainability that met eligibility criteria. An initial coding scheme was developed based on constructs identified in previous literature on implementation. Additional codes were generated deductively. Related constructs among factors were identified by consensus and collapsed under the general categories. Studies that described the extent to which programs or innovations were sustained were also categorized and summarized. Results Although "sustainability" was the term most commonly used in the literature to refer to what happened after initial implementation, not all the studies that were reviewed actually presented working definitions of the term. Most study designs were retrospective and naturalistic. Approximately half of the studies relied on self-reports to assess

  1. The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of evidence-based programs and practices into healthcare settings has been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. While a number of studies have examined initial implementation efforts, less research has been conducted to determine what happens beyond that point. There is increasing recognition that the extent to which new programs are sustained is influenced by many different factors and that more needs to be known about just what these factors are and how they interact. To understand the current state of the research literature on sustainability, our team took stock of what is currently known in this area and identified areas in which further research would be particularly helpful. This paper reviews the methods that have been used, the types of outcomes that have been measured and reported, findings from studies that reported long-term implementation outcomes, and factors that have been identified as potential influences on the sustained use of new practices, programs, or interventions. We conclude with recommendations and considerations for future research. Methods Two coders identified 125 studies on sustainability that met eligibility criteria. An initial coding scheme was developed based on constructs identified in previous literature on implementation. Additional codes were generated deductively. Related constructs among factors were identified by consensus and collapsed under the general categories. Studies that described the extent to which programs or innovations were sustained were also categorized and summarized. Results Although "sustainability" was the term most commonly used in the literature to refer to what happened after initial implementation, not all the studies that were reviewed actually presented working definitions of the term. Most study designs were retrospective and naturalistic. Approximately half of the studies relied on self-reports to assess sustainability or elements that

  2. Recommendations concerning the new U.S. National Institutes of Health initiative to balance the sex of cells and animals in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Umans, Jason G

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced last May that steps will be taken to address the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. To further address this announcement, in September 2014, scientists with varying perspectives came together at Georgetown University to discuss the following questions. (1) What metrics should the NIH use to assess tangible progress on policy changes designed to address the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research? (2) How effective can education be in reducing the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research and what educational initiatives sponsored by the NIH would most likely effect change? (3) What criteria should the NIH use to determine rigorously defined exceptions to the future proposal requirement of a balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies? (4) What additional strategies in addition to proposal requirements should NIH use to reduce the overreliance of male cells and animals in preclinical research? The resulting consensus presented herein includes input from researchers not only from diverse disciplines of basic and translational science including biology, cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, neuroscience, cardiology, endocrinology, nephrology, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology, but also from recognized experts in publishing, industry, advocacy, science policy, clinical medicine, and population health. We offer our recommendations to aid the NIH as it selects, implements, monitors, and optimizes strategies to correct the over-reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. © FASEB.

  3. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  4. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T. Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin M.; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics.

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility: Outreach Tools and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, L.; Jundt, R.

    2009-12-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Energy, the ARM Climate Research Facility is a global scientific user facility for the study of climate change. To publicize progress and achievements and to reach new users, the ACRF uses a variety of Web 2.0 tools and strategies that build off of the program’s comprehensive and well established News Center (www.arm.gov/news). These strategies include: an RSS subscription service for specific news categories; an email “newsletter” distribution to the user community that compiles the latest News Center updates into a short summary with links; and a Facebook page that pulls information from the News Center and links to relevant information in other online venues, including those of our collaborators. The ACRF also interacts with users through field campaign blogs, like Discovery Channel’s EarthLive, to share research experiences from the field. Increasingly, field campaign Wikis are established to help ACRF researchers collaborate during the planning and implementation phases of their field studies and include easy to use logs and image libraries to help record the campaigns. This vital reference information is used in developing outreach material that is shared in highlights, news, and Facebook. Other Web 2.0 tools that ACRF uses include Google Maps to help users visualize facility locations and aircraft flight patterns. Easy-to-use comment boxes are also available on many of the data-related web pages on www.arm.gov to encourage feedback. To provide additional opportunities for increased interaction with the public and user community, future Web 2.0 plans under consideration for ACRF include: evaluating field campaigns for Twitter and microblogging opportunities, adding public discussion forums to research highlight web pages, moving existing photos into albums on FlickR or Facebook, and building online video archives through YouTube.

  6. Ethical Issues in Designing Internet-Based Research: Recommendations for Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an overview of internet-based research, highlighting the absence of a standard terminology to define and classify such research. The label internet-based research or online research can cover a diverse range of research designs and methods, involving different degrees of ethical concern regarding privacy, transparency,…

  7. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  8. Human Pathogens on Plants: Designing a Multidisciplinary Strategy for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2014-10-15

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  9. Human pathogens on plants: designing a multidisciplinary strategy for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  10. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews administrator work activity studies which follow the research of Henry Mintzberg. It discusses directions for future research using qualitative and quantitative methods and discourages research that relies solely on Mintzberg's structure. (Author/JAZ)

  11. Utilization of Compliance-Gaining Strategies: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglan, Thomas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the use of compliance-gaining strategies among a group of environmentalists. Results indicated that prosocial strategies were used more often than anti-social strategies across all situations. (SRT)

  12. Maintaining Professional Relationships in an Interdisciplinary Setting: Strategies for Navigating Nonbehavioral Treatment Recommendations for Individuals with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhead, Matthew T

    2015-05-01

    Due to an increase in research and clinical application of behavior analysis with individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one setting a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) may work within is an interdisciplinary setting, where multiple disciplines collaborate to improve the outcomes of individuals with ASD. In some cases, nonbehavioral colleagues could recommend nonbehavioral treatments, setting the occasion for the BCBA to offer an alternative treatment to or question the nonbehavioral treatment. However, excessive questioning or critiques of nonbehavioral treatments by the BCBA may unintentionally erode professional relationships between the BCBA and their nonbehavioral colleagues. Because an erosion of professional relationships may occur when a BCBA questions a nonbehavioral treatment, a decision-making model for determining whether or not the proposed nonbehavioral treatment is worth addressing may be useful. The purpose of this paper is to outline such a decision-making model in order to assist the BCBA in assessing nonbehavioral treatments while maintaining an ethical balance between professional relationships and the well-being and safety of the individual with ASD. Such a model could assist the BCBA in becoming familiar with the proposed treatment, understanding the perspective of the nonbehavioral colleague and assessing the negative impacts the treatment could have on the individual with ASD. With this information, the BCBA will be in a better position to decide whether or not addressing the nonbehavioral treatment is worth the possibility of eroding a professional relationship.

  13. Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monica R; Cook, Nakela; Wong, Renee; Hsue, Priscilla; Ridker, Paul; Currier, Judith; Shurin, Susan

    2015-02-24

    The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 4Ps medicine of the fatty liver: the research model of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-recommendations for facing obesity, fatty liver and fibrosis epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca Maria; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between adipose tissue and fatty liver, and its possible evolution in fibrosis, is supported by clinical and research experience. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatments for various contributory risk factors have been proposed; however, there is no single validated therapy or drug association recommended for all cases which can stand alone. Mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance are displayed along with recommendations and position points. Evidences and practice can get sustainable and cost-benefit valuable outcomes by participatory interventions. These recommendations can be enhanced by comprehensive research projects, addressed to societal issues and innovation, market appeal and industry development, cultural acceptance and sustainability. The basis of participatory medicine is a greater widespread awareness of a condition which is both a disease and an easy documented and inclusive clue for associated diseases and unhealthy lifestyle. This model is suitable for addressing prevention and useful for monitoring improvement, worsening and adherence with non-invasive imaging tools which allow targeted approaches. The latter include health psychology and nutritional and physical exercise prescription expertise disseminated by continuous medical education but, more important, by concrete curricula for training undergraduate and postgraduate students. It is possible and recommended to do it by early formal teaching of ultrasound imaging procedures and of practical lifestyle intervention strategies, including approaches aimed to healthier fashion suggestions. Guidelines and requirements of research project funding calls should be addressed also to NAFLD and allied conditions and should encompass the goal of training by research and the inclusion of participatory medicine topics. A deeper awareness of ethics of competences in health professionals

  15. What successful math teachers do, grades 6-12 80 research-based strategies for the common core-aligned classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Jaye, Daniel I

    2013-01-01

    The math teacher's go-to resource-now updated for the Common Core! What works in math and why has never been the issue; the research is all out there. Where teachers struggle is the "how." That's the big service What Successful Math Teachers Do provides.  It's a powerful portal to what the best research looks like in practice strategy by strategy-now aligned to both the Common Core and the NCTM Standards. For each of the book's 80 strategies, the authors present A brief description A summary of supporting research The corresponding NCTM and Common Core Standards Classroom applications Possible pitfalls Recommended reading and research.

  16. Physical and Psychological Health Following Military Sexual Assault: Recommendations for Care, Research, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    costs and benefits of disclosure and made an informed deci- sion that it was not in their personal best interest. The emotional trauma of forensic...forensic services, (3) advocacy and emotional support, and (4) mental health and psy- chiatric care. In each subsection, the review focuses primarily...al., 1996). The WHO guidelines recommend that victims who present for services within five days of the assault be offered emergency contraception

  17. Teaching with research: a strategy for students of postgraduation in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria das Graças Villela; Gonçalves, Manuel Domingos da Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Promoting a scientific activity of research to students of a graduation program as a reflexive tool of teacher and formative practice of necessary activities to construction of a research in medical education. Graduation students of surgery at UFRJ did a research, randomly interviewing a population of medical teachers who acts at Medicine Universities of Rio de Janeiro. The study was structured in three steps: definition of the investigative content; realization of 150 interviews before field research and discussion about the results. The majority of interviewees (85%) assert to know the recent trends of education, but when they express their thoughts they leave doubts about the real knowledge of the subject. The expositive classes were used by 90% of the interviewees; only 10% of them utilized strategies of teaching to transmit the contents. Just 52% of the doctors said that they had already heard about the Resolution CNE/CES N° 4/2001. The teaching with research challenged the students as investigators preparing them to the research and construction of the necessary scientific attitudes in the graduation and assisting them in solving the investigated problem. The results highlighted that the found peaces of information in the research were not accurate to feature a real dimension of the update, showing that it is recommended new studies.

  18. Life Strategies of Young People: Sociological Research Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov’ Borisovna Osipova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern reality is the world of formation of various life prospects of a young person. The relevance of the topic depends, firstly, on insufficient sociological research into the mechanism of formation and realization of life strategies of modern youth; and, secondly, on the need to substantiate the sociological concept of youth life strategies in terms of professional self-determination with regard to its social and group characteristics. In this context, young people as the most active social group are of great interest to the authors who consider them a research target. Due to the transitivity of a social status and the incomplete processes of social maturity formation young people need a targeted design of their future. The sociological analysis of the issue involves a clarification of the concept of “life strategy” at the conceptual level (A.A. Volokitin, S.N. Ikonnikova, E.I. Golovakha, Yu.A. Zubok, V.T. Lisovsky, M.N. Rutkevich, G.V. Leonidova, K.A. Ustinova, etc.. The article presents the author’s definition of “life strategies”, which is a dynamic system of perspective individual orientation aimed at designing one’s life in the future. At the same time the results of the author’s sociological research are presented, including a standardized interview, questionnaires, which provide an opportunity to form an idea about the living choices of young people living in Yugra. The declining influence of social institutions and the emerging opportunities for developing their life prospects on their own challenges young people to select their life targets and ways of their implementation independently. The article justifies the necessity of intensified activation of new forms of young students’ management when planning their life trajectory. Life strategies disclose its content in specific life situations associated with choice. The key choice is the career choice of young people which directly depends on the socio

  19. Transformation and communication research strategies: language - society – culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Forkosh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Main research strategies in the humanitarian sphere, connected with the transformation-communicative approach by K.-O. Apel, have been studied in the article. This approach is based on I. Kant’s classic transcendental method, but has much wider sphere of application. Syncretic tendencies in humanitarian sciences cause the search of criteria or generalizing principles, which would allow not only combining basic research strategies, but also covering variable forms of the social-dynamics. Language in its various forms becomes the common ground, where it is possible not only to describe, but to explain disparate elements of the society’s functioning. These elements, when developed, cause the formation of culture. The basis for the analysis of the interdisciplinary communication features are relevant branches of philosophy. Specific realities of the research activity are understood by the methodologist as the deep interrelation of language tools and specific features of scientific knowledge’s changes. In fact, the researcher simultaneously performs double task: interprets scientific texts, improves his/her understanding of their structural characteristics, and also studies social, cultural, humanistic priorities of the available practices. Based on the characteristics of the modern culture (rapidity of development, lack of self-awareness and «maturation» vector, non-manifestation of methodological tools, sociological and linguistic sciences become to be a model in the humanitarian area. At the same time, awareness of the structural maturation of such knowledge is low. The development of linguistic sciences has more advanced conceptual design and it resonates with the evolution of the language philosophy. That’s why, considering the socio-cultural transformations of the globalization era, grounds of clarification of the specific methodological potential, which are accumulated in the contemporary linguistics, should be considered. In this

  20. Energy in Ireland: context, strategy and research; Energie en Irlande: contexte, strategie et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A

    2008-01-15

    In the present day situation of sudden awareness about climatic change and announced fossil fuels shortage, Ireland has defined a new strategy for its energy future. Context: Ireland is strongly dependent of oil and gas imports which increase regularly to meet the demand. A small part of the electricity consumed is imported from Ulster. The share of renewable energies remains weak but is increasing significantly. Therefore, from 1990 to 2006, the proportion of renewable energies increased from 1.9% (mainly of hydroelectric origin) to 4.5%. Wind power represents now the main renewable energy source. The transportation sector is the most energy consuming and the biggest source of greenhouse gases. Strategy: the Irish policy is driven by pluri-annual strategic plans which define the objectives and means. Priority is given to the security of supplies at affordable prices: 8.5 billion euros will be invested during the 2007-2013 era for the modernization of existing energy infrastructures and companies, and in a lesser extent for the development of renewable energy sources. During this period, 415 million euros more will be devoted to the research, development and demonstration (RD and D) of new energy solutions. Research: in 2005 the energy RD and D expenses reached 12.8 million euros shared between 54% for R and D and 46% for demonstration projects. Half of the financing is given to higher education schools and is devoted to energy saving purposes (33%) and to renewable energies (29%, mainly wind power and biomass). Academic research gives a particular attention to ocean energy which represents an important potential resource in Ireland and which has already led to the creation of innovative companies. The integration of renewable energy sources to the power grid and the stability of supplies are also the object of active researches. (J.S.)

  1. Strategies for involving undergraduates in mentored research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Early engagement in research can transform the undergraduate experience and has a positive effect on minority student recruitment to graduate school. Multiple strategies used to involve undergraduates in research at a large R1 university are presented. During my first four years as an assistant professor, my lab has hosted 14 undergraduates, 9 of them women and 4 of them Hispanic. Institutional support has been critical for undergraduate student involvement. UW supports a research program for incoming underrepresented students. An advantage of this program is very early research participation, with the opportunity for long-term training. One disadvantage is that many first year students have not yet identified their interests. The Biology major also requires students to complete an independent project, which culminates in a research symposium. Competitive research fellowships and grants are available for students to conduct work under faculty mentorship. We have been successful at keeping students on even when their majors are very different from our research discipline, mainly by providing flexibility and a welcoming lab environment. This mentoring culture is strongly fostered by graduate student interest and involvement with all undergraduates as well as active mentor training. By offering multiple pathways for involvement, we can accommodate students' changing schedules and priorities as well as changing lab needs. Students can volunteer, receive course credit, conduct an independent project or honors thesis, contribute to an existing project, do lab work or write a literature review, work with one mentor or on multiple projects. We often provide employment over the summer and subsequent semesters for continuing students. Some will increase their commitment over time and work more closely with me. Others reduce down to a few hours a week as they gain experience elsewhere. Most students stay multiple semesters and multiple years because they 'enjoy being in the

  2. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Researcher Mobility at a US Research-Intensive University: Implications for Research and Internationalization Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Jane G.; Lan, George; Arasu, Prema

    2018-01-01

    This study offers a unique lens on the patterns, productivity, and impact of researcher mobility at a US research-intensive university. Bibliometric data for Washington State University (WSU) was extracted from Elsevier's Scopus database and analyzed for the 10-year period from 2002 to 2012. We grouped researchers into four categories based on…

  4. Curating research data practical strategies for your digital repository

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Lisa R

    2017-01-01

    Volume One of Curating Research Data explores the variety of reasons, motivations, and drivers for why data curation services are needed in the context of academic and disciplinary data repository efforts. Twelve chapters, divided into three parts, take an in-depth look at the complex practice of data curation as it emerges around us. Part I sets the stage for data curation by describing current policies, data sharing cultures, and collaborative efforts currently underway that impact potential services. Part II brings several key issues, such as cost recovery and marketing strategy, into focus for practitioners when considering how to put data curation services in action. Finally, Part III describes the full lifecycle of data by examining the ethical and practical reuse issues that data curation practitioners must consider as we strive to prepare data for the future.

  5. Brushless DC motor speed control strategy of simulation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the brushless DC motor speed regulation problem, an ideal control strategy is designed. Through the model and analysis of Brushless DC motor, the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor is obtained. By comparing three control strategies of PID control strategy, fuzzy control strategy and fuzzy PID control strategy, PID controller, fuzzy controller and fuzzy PID controller are designed respectively for simulation test. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID controller has good control effect.

  6. Meta-analysis constrained by data: Recommendations to improve relevance of nutrient management research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five research teams received funding through the North American 4R Research Fund to conduct meta-analyses of the air and water quality impacts of on-farm 4R nutrient management practices. In compiling or expanding databases for these analyses on environmental and crop production effects, researchers...

  7. Advice for acute low back pain: a comparison of what research supports and what guidelines recommend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew L; Lin, Chung-Wei C; de Carvalho, Flavia A; Phan, Kevin; Koes, Bart; Maher, Chris G

    2017-10-01

    Advice is widely considered an effective treatment for acute low back pain (LBP); however, details on what and how to deliver this intervention is less clear. We assessed and compared clinical trials that test advice for acute LBP with practice guidelines for their completeness of reporting and concordance on the content, method of delivery, and treatment regimen of advice interventions. Systematic review. Advice randomized controlled trials were identified through a systematic search. Guidelines were taken from recent overviews of guidelines for LBP. Completeness of reporting was assessed using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist. Thematic analysis was used to characterize advice interventions into topics across the aspects of content, method of delivery, and regimen. Concordance between clinical trials and guidelines was assessed by comparing the number of trials that found a statistically significant treatment effect for an intervention that included a specific advice topic with the number of guidelines recommending that topic. The median (interquartile range) completeness of reporting for clinical trials and guidelines was 8 (7-9) and 3 (2-4) out of nine items on the Template for Intervention Description and Replication checklist, respectively. Guideline recommendations were discordant with clinical trials for 50% of the advice topics identified. Completeness of reporting was less than ideal for randomized controlled trials and extremely poor for guidelines. The recommendations made in guidelines of advice for acute LBP were often not concordant with the results of clinical trials. Taken together, these findings mean that the potential clinical value of advice interventions for patients with acute LBP is probably not being realized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recommended HVAC standard of the Florida Radon Research Program. Final report, Mar-Sep 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) section of the 'Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation.' It deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. Its primary intent is to prevent pressure differentials in houses that can increase the transport of radon into houses. Three pathways of compliance are available to meet the requirements of the HVAC portion of the standards. The first is purely prescriptive. The second is a performance and prescriptive approach. The third is a marketplace approach

  9. Mentoring advanced practice nurses in research: recommendations from a pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris; Widger, Kimberley; Howell, Doris; Nelson, Sioban; Molassiotis, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) need research skills to develop and advance their practice and, yet, many have limited access to research training and support following completion of their advanced degree. In this paper we report on the development, delivery, and evaluation of an innovative pilot program that combined research training and one-to-one mentorship for nine APNs in conducting research relevant to their practice. The program was organized within an academic institution and its affiliated hospitals in Toronto, Canada. Our experience with this program may assist those in other organizations to plan and deliver a similar program for APN research mentorship.

  10. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea: a summary of research evidence and recommendations for public health following a national policy forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, A; MacLaren, D J; Kaleva, W; Millan, J; Tommbe, R; Marape, W; Manineng, C; Buchanan, H; Amos, A; Frank, R; Kelly, A; Kupul, M; Aeno, H; Trowalle, E; John, L N; Redman-Maclaren, M L; Ryan, C; Browne, K; Tynan, A; Hill, P S; Gray, R T; Murray, J; Wilson, D P; Law, G; Siba, P; McBride, W J H; Farley, T; Kaldor, J M

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a clinical trial in South Africa found that circumcision of young men could reduce their risk of acquiring HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection by over 60%. In the following year, two more trials in Africa confirmed this finding, leading the World Health Organization to recommend male circumcision as a public health strategy for HIV prevention in high-incidence countries. In order to inform public health policy in Papua New Guinea (PNG), two major research projects were initiated with the goals of investigating the status of penile cutting practices and assessing understandings, acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention. In addition, behavioural surveillance surveys systematically asked questions on penile cutting practices and an ethnographic literature review informed historical perspectives of penile cutting in PNG. Key findings from these research activities were presented at a National Policy Forum on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention held in Port Moresby in November 2011. The Forum made three key recommendations: (1) the formation of a joint National Department of HealthlNational AIDS Council Secretariat Policy Committee on male circumcision; (2) the establishment of an integrated harm reduction program; and (3) that future policy on wide-scale roll-out of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG be informed by a combination of data from (a) male circumcision intervention pilot programs and (b) research on the potential protective effect of other forms of penile cutting.

  11. Research Strategy for Modeling the Complexities of Turbine Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a NASA research program, known as the Coolant Flow Management Program, which focuses on the interaction between the internal coolant channel and the external film cooling of a turbine blade and/or vane in an aircraft gas turbine engine. The turbine gas path is really a very complex flow field. The combination of strong pressure gradients, abrupt geometry changes and intersecting surfaces, viscous forces, rotation, and unsteady blade/vane interactions all combine to offer a formidable challenge. To this, in the high pressure turbine, we add the necessity of film cooling. The ultimate goal of the turbine designer is to maintain or increase the high level of turbine performance and at the same time reduce the amount of coolant flow needed to achieve this end. Simply stated, coolant flow is a penalty on the cycle and reduces engine thermal efficiency. Accordingly, understanding the flow field and heat transfer associated with the coolant flow is a priority goal. It is important to understand both the film cooling and the internal coolant flow, particularly their interaction. Thus, the motivation for the Coolant Flow Management Program. The paper will begin with a brief discussion of the management and research strategy, will then proceed to discuss the current attack from the internal coolant side, and will conclude by looking at the film cooling effort - at all times keeping sight of the primary goal the interaction between the two. One of the themes of this paper is that complex heat transfer problems of this nature cannot be attacked by single researchers or even groups of researchers, each working alone. It truly needs the combined efforts of a well-coordinated team to make an impact. It is important to note that this is a government/industry/university team effort.

  12. Discovery of the "RNA continent" through a contrarian's research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2011-01-01

    The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium completed the decoding of the human genome sequence in 2003. Readers will be aware of the paradigm shift which has occurred since then in the field of life science research. At last, mankind has been able to focus on a complete picture of the full extent of the genome, on which is recorded the basic information that controls all life. Meanwhile, another genome project, centered on Japan and known as the mouse genome encyclopedia project, was progressing with participation from around the world. Led by our research group at RIKEN, it was a full-length cDNA project which aimed to decode the whole RNA (transcriptome) using the mouse as a model. The basic information that controls all life is recorded on the genome, but in order to obtain a complete picture of this extensive information, the decoding of the genome alone is far from sufficient. These two genome projects established that the number of letters in the genome, which is the blueprint of life, is finite, that the number of RNA molecules derived from it is also finite, and that the number of protein molecules derived from the RNA is probably finite too. A massive number of combinations is still involved, but we are now able to understand one section of the network formed by these data. Once an object of study has been understood to be finite, establishing an image of the whole is certain to lead us to an understanding of the whole. Omics is an approach that views the information controlling life as finite and seeks to assemble and analyze it as a whole. Here, I would like to present our transcriptome research while making reference to our unique research strategy.

  13. Using existing health care systems to respond to the AIDS epidemic: research and recommendations for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, L H; Smith, H L; Lake, E T

    1997-01-01

    Chile is a country with a relatively low prevalence of HIV infection, where successful prevention has the potential to change the future course of the epidemic. A controversial national prevention strategy based upon public education has emerged in response to characterizations of the epidemic as well-dispersed with a growing involvement of heterosexuals. This characterization is not consistent with the observed facts. There is a comparatively well-organized health care system in Santiago that is doing a good job of detecting HIV infection and already has in place the elements of a targeted intervention scheme. Chile should place priority on the use of the existing health care infrastructure for implementing both the traditional public health interventions for sexually transmitted diseases (contact tracing and partner notification) and the AIDS-necessitated strategy of focused counseling and education.

  14. Instrumentation and control strategies for power plants. Volume 2: Problem definition and recommendations. Final report, December 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The I and C systems now in service are largely based on process technology from the 50s and 60s. Replacement parts are becoming unavailable and the infrastructure of designers, engineers and manufacturers to support the existing obsolete I and C technology is disappearing. Without the stimulus of new plant orders, there has been little incentive to develop new nuclear plant I and C technology. State-of-the-art I and C systems can provide highly analyzed status information, can control complex functions in a more refined way, are more reliable, and more economical. Modern I and C technology takes full advantage of both analog and digital capabilities, using each to its best advantage. EPRI is expanding its efforts to bridge the gap that had developed between the U.S. power industry and state-of-the-art I and C technology. In March of 1990 EPRI sponsored an I and C workshop to solicit utility industry views as to how this effort could most productively proceed. The material of the workshop, which is described in this report (Volumes 1 and 2), covered where we are in I and C technology, where we need to go, and provided input toward defining a strategy for I and C research and development. (author)

  15. Instruction of Research-Based Comprehension Strategies in Basal Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilonieta, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Research supports using research-based comprehension strategies; however, comprehension strategy instruction is not highly visible in basal reading programs or classroom instruction, resulting in many students who struggle with comprehension. A content analysis examined which research-based comprehension strategies were presented in five…

  16. Teaching reading comprehension to learners with autism spectrum disorder: Discrepancies between teacher and research-recommended practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Amy L; Finnegan, Elizabeth G

    2017-11-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorder have been found to experience difficulty with reading comprehension despite intact decoding and word recognition. This identified need for targeted reading comprehension remediation results in a need for teachers to utilize research-based practices and to individualize instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder; however, teachers report a lack of access to such practices. This study utilized survey methodology to gather perceptions and experiences of teachers and to compare teacher preparedness to use effective instructional practices emerging from the extant research to teacher-reported effective practices in the classroom. Study findings, based on 112 participants, reveal a discrepancy between teacher-reported effective practices, and the practices identified as effective through research, indicating a research to practice gap. Implications for practice include professional development recommendations, and the need for increased communication between researchers and teachers.

  17. Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed against Teachers: Recommendations for a National Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy; Anderman, Eric M.; Brown, Veda Evanell; Jones, Abraham; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; McMahon, Susan D.; Reddy, Linda A.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2013-01-01

    Violence directed against K-12 teachers is a serious problem that demands the immediate attention of researchers, providers of teacher pre-service and in-service training, school administrators, community leaders, and policymakers. Surprisingly, little research has been conducted on this growing problem despite the broad impact teacher…

  18. Recommendations for Replication Research in Special Education: A Framework of Systematic, Conceptual Replications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Michael D.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Special education researchers conduct studies that can be considered replications. However, they do not often refer to them as replication studies. The purpose of this article is to consider the potential benefits of conceptualizing special education intervention research within a framework of systematic, conceptual replication. Specifically, we…

  19. Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

  20. Money Matters: Recommendations for Financial Stress Research in Occupational Health Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Cheung, Janelle H

    2016-08-01

    Money is arguably the most important resource derived from work and the most important source of stress for contemporary employees. A substantial body of research supports the relationship between access to financial resources and health and well-being, both at individual and aggregated (e.g. national) levels of analysis. Yet, surprisingly little occupational health psychology research has paid attention to financial issues experienced specifically by those in the labour force. With these issues in mind, the overarching goal of the present paper was to address conceptual and measurement issues in the study of objective and subjective aspects of financial stress and review several assessment options available to occupational health psychology researchers for both aspects of financial stress. Where appropriate, we offer guidance to researchers about choices among various financial stress measures and identify issues that require further research attention. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Research on Energy Management Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the fuel economy and reduce emissions of hybrid electric vehicles, energy management strategy has received high attention. In this paper, by analyzing the deficiency of existing energy management strategy for hybrid cars, it not only puts forward the minimal equivalent fuel consumption adaptive strategy, but also is the first time to consider the driving dynamics target simultaneously, and to explain the future development direction of China’s hybrid energy management strategy.

  2. A Strategy for Nuclear Energy Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Ralph G.

    2008-01-01

    The United States is facing unprecedented challenges in climate change and energy security. President-elect Obama has called for a reduction of CO2 emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, with a further 80% reduction by 2050. Meeting these aggressive goals while gradually increasing the overall energy supply requires that all non-emitting technologies must be advanced. The development and deployment of nuclear energy can, in fact, help the United States meet several key challenges: (1) Increase the electricity generated by non-emitting sources to mitigate climate change, (2) Foster the safe and proliferation-resistant use of nuclear energy throughout the world, (3) Reduce the transportation sector's dependence on imported fossil fuels, and (4) Reduce the demand on natural gas for process heat and hydrogen production. However, because of the scale, cost, and time horizons involved, increasing nuclear energy's share will require a coordinated research effort-combining the efforts of industry and government, supported by innovation from the research community. This report outlines the significant nuclear energy research and development (R and D) necessary to create options that will allow government and industrial decision-makers to set policies and create nuclear energy initiatives that are decisive and sustainable. The nuclear energy R and D strategy described in this report adopts the following vision: Safe and economical nuclear energy in the United States will expand to address future electric and non-electric needs, significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide energy diversity, while providing leadership for safe, secure and responsible expansion of nuclear energy internationally

  3. Recommendations for the Involvement of Patient Research Partners (PRP) in OMERACT Working Groups. A Report from the OMERACT 2014 Working Group on PRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; de Wit, Maarten; Bingham, Clifton O; Kirwan, John R; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn M; Montie, Pam; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Patient participation in research is increasing; however, practical guidelines to enhance this participation are lacking. Specifically within the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) organization, although patients have participated in OMERACT meetings since 2002, consensus about the procedures for involving patients in working groups has not been formalized. The objective is to develop a set of recommendations regarding patient research partner (PRP) involvement in research working groups. We conducted a systematic literature review on recommendations/guidelines of PRP involvement in research; elaborated a structured consensus process involving multiple participants to develop a set of recommendations; and sought endorsement of recommendations by OMERACT. In the 18 articles included in the literature review, there was general agreement on the broad concepts for recommendations covering PRP involvement in research although they were heterogeneous in detail. Most considered PRP involvement in all phases of research with early engagement, training, and support important, but details on the content were scarce. This review informed a larger consensus-building process regarding PRP inclusion in OMERACT research. Three overarching principles and 8 recommendations were developed, discussed, and refined at OMERACT 2014. The guiding principles were endorsed during the OMERACT plenary session. These recommendations for PRP involvement in OMERACT research reinforce the importance of patient participation throughout the research process as integral members. Although the applicability of the recommendations in other research contexts should be assessed, the generalizability is expected to be high. Future research should evaluate their implementation and their effect on outcome development.

  4. Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy, 2009-2019 Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Solomon; Richard A. Birdsey; Linda A. Joyce

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with the research goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the climate change strategy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the climate change framework of the Forest Service, this Forest Service Global Change Research Strategy, 2009-2019 Implementation Plan (hereafter called the Research Plan), was written by Forest Service Research...

  5. Physician-based smoking intervention: a rededication to a five-step strategy to smoking research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, J K; Zapka, J G

    1997-01-01

    It is well established that physicians can have a significant effect on the smoking behavior of their patients. To do this, attention must be paid to putting in place multiple strategies or mechanisms in the organization where the physician practices, as well as in the macroenvironment (i.e., social and public policy). It has been questioned whether or not there is stagnation in the field of clinical smoking intervention requiring a rededication to basic research regarding smoking. With respect to physician-based smoking intervention, we alternatively suggest that recommitment to all phases of research is essential for moving forward physician-based smoking interventions in the rapidly changing health services and social environment. In this article, we first review the essential framework of the National Cancer Institute's research science approach to cancer prevention and control. Evidence concerning physician-based interventions is then reviewed, followed by a schematic of a comprehensive framework for thinking about the process and intervention components needed for physician-based smoking intervention to take place in the health-care setting, the impact they have, and the eventual outcome of such interventions. There is a discussion of the challenges for the delivery of smoking-cessation services presented by the rapidly changing healthy delivery system of the 1990s. Finally, we present recommendations concerning research priorities for physician-based smoking intervention and the research funding process.

  6. Definition, diagnosis and treatment strategies for opioid-induced bowel dysfunction-Recommendations of the Nordic Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Asbjørn M; Munkholm, Pia; Simrén, Magnus; Breivik, Harald; Kongsgaard, Ulf E; Hatlebakk, Jan G; Agreus, Lars; Friedrichsen, Maria; Christrup, Lona L

    2016-04-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is an increasing problem due to the common use of opioids for pain worldwide. It manifests with different symptoms, such as dry mouth, gastro-oesophageal reflux, vomiting, bloating, abdominal pain, anorexia, hard stools, constipation and incomplete evacuation. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is one of its many symptoms and probably the most prevalent. The current review describes the pathophysiology, clinical implications and treatment of OIBD. The Nordic Working Group was formed to provide input for Scandinavian specialists in multiple, relevant areas. Seven main topics with associated statements were defined. The working plan provided a structured format for systematic reviews and included instructions on how to evaluate the level of evidence according to the GRADE guidelines. The quality of evidence supporting the different statements was rated as high, moderate or low. At a second meeting, the group discussed and voted on each section with recommendations (weak and strong) for the statements. The literature review supported the fact that opioid receptors are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. When blocked by exogenous opioids, there are changes in motility, secretion and absorption of fluids, and sphincter function that are reflected in clinical symptoms. The group supported a recent consensus statement for OIC, which takes into account the change in bowel habits for at least one week rather than focusing on the frequency of bowel movements. Many patients with pain receive opioid therapy and concomitant constipation is associated with increased morbidity and utilization of healthcare resources. Opioid treatment for acute postoperative pain will prolong the postoperative ileus and should also be considered in this context. There are no available tools to assess OIBD, but many rating scales have been developed to assess constipation, and a few specifically address OIC. A clinical treatment strategy for OIBD

  7. Ethical dilemmas in community-based participatory research: recommendations for institutional review boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-07-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of "knowledge production" is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework more

  8. Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of “knowledge production” is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework

  9. Integrity of the marriage and family therapy research literature: perceptions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Gregory W; Whiting, Jason B; Matern, Brianne; Fife, Stephen T

    2009-04-01

    Reports of falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, and other violations of research integrity across the sciences are on the increase. Joining with other disciplines to actively protect the integrity of the marriage and family therapy (MFT) research literature is of utmost importance to both the discipline and the future of the profession. To inform the issues raised, results are presented of an informal survey among MFT clinical members on their perceptions about the literature together with their preferences for how best to protect its integrity. This article initiates an important discussion about the honesty of MFT research.

  10. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  11. Project Access: Strategies to improve care for children and youth with epilepsy: illustrations of recommendations in the IOM report on the epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janelle L; Levisohn, Paul M; Onufer, Charles N; Uchegbu, Gloria C; Fletcher, Linda; Zupanc, Mary; Browne, Mimi

    2013-10-01

    Project Access (PA), funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), provided grants to state and local agencies to improve awareness, provide education, design, test, pilot and evaluate system changes, and improve quality of services and access to early diagnosis and comprehensive, coordinated health care and related services for children and youth with epilepsy residing in rural and medically underserved areas. In 2011, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM) published a series of 13 recommendations addressing unmet psychosocial, medical, and public health needs of individuals with epilepsy, including children and youth. This paper examines the synergy between these two projects showing how the strategies utilized in the PA demonstration projects can address the IOM recommendations and how these recommendations can inform future initiatives for improving care for children and youth with epilepsy. © 2013.

  12. The research strategy of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    In its directive to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate for 2001 and 2002, the Government asked for a report on SKI's future research strategy. This report is meant to describe future needs for SKI's regulatory and supervisory work, the need for expertise in Sweden and the possibility of international co-operation. SKI's research currently focuses on a number of strategically important areas such as reactor technology, materials and fuel issues, human factors, nuclear waste and nuclear safeguards. Over the past decade, the nuclear infrastructure has changed considerably. The nuclear power companies' previous organisations with specialist expertise and resources have been successively closed down or converted into consulting companies. Furthermore, education and research in the nuclear area at universities have been considerably reduced and expertise, resources and interest in the area have thereby decreased. A review of the availability of expertise in Sweden shows that, in many areas, resources are adequate, but that SKI, in certain cases, needs to provide focused support in order to maintain the expertise that SKI needs for its regulatory and supervisory activities. The analysis highlights two areas without any real education and research: 'Materials testing and control' and 'Management, control and organisation'. Education and research in the latter area lacks a safety perspective. SKI intends to take the initiative to conduct work within both of these areas. Since national research resources are limited, SKI has, for a long time, actively participated in international research. SKI is prioritising co-operation on research conducted in the OECD/NEA and is participating in a large number of projects organised within this framework. Since Sweden joined the EU, the importance of joint European work has increased. SKI is itself also actively participating and supporting Swedish organisations participating in European Commission projects and intends to support

  13. Conducting multinational, cross-cultural research in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: issues and recommendations. A Rome Foundation working team report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, A D; Gwee, K A; Hungin, A P; Corazziari, E; Fukudo, S; Gerson, C; Ghoshal, U C; Kang, J-Y; Levy, R L; Schmulson, M; Dumitrascu, D; Gerson, M-J; Chen, M; Myung, S-J; Quigley, E M M; Whorwell, P J; Zarzar, K; Whitehead, W E

    2014-11-01

    Cross-cultural, multinational research can advance the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Cross-cultural comparative research can make a significant contribution in areas such as epidemiology, genetics, psychosocial modulators, symptom reporting and interpretation, extra-intestinal co-morbidity, diagnosis and treatment, determinants of disease severity, health care utilisation, and health-related quality of life, all issues that can be affected by geographical region, culture, ethnicity and race. To identify methodological challenges for cross-cultural, multinational research, and suggest possible solutions. This report, which summarises the full report of a working team established by the Rome Foundation that is available on the Internet, reflects an effort by an international committee of FGID clinicians and researchers. It is based on comprehensive literature reviews and expert opinion. Cross-cultural, multinational research is important and feasible, but has barriers to successful implementation. This report contains recommendations for future research relating to study design, subject recruitment, availability of appropriate study instruments, translation and validation of study instruments, documenting confounders, statistical analyses and reporting of results. Advances in study design and methodology, as well as cross-cultural research competence, have not matched technological advancements. The development of multinational research networks and cross-cultural research collaboration is still in its early stages. This report is intended to be aspirational rather than prescriptive, so we present recommendations, not guidelines. We aim to raise awareness of these issues and to pose higher standards, but not to discourage investigators from doing what is feasible in any particular setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  15. MORECare research methods guidance development: recommendations for ethical issues in palliative and end-of-life care research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysels, M.; Evans, C.J.; Lewis, P.; Speck, P.; Benalia, H.; Preston, N.J.; Grande, G.E.; Short, V.; Owen-Jones, E.; Todd, C.J.; Higginson, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is little guidance on the particular ethical concerns that research raises with a palliative care population. Aim: To present the process and outcomes of a workshop and consensus exercise on agreed best practice to accommodate ethical issues in research on palliative care. Design:

  16. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  17. Characterizing researchers by strategies used for retaining minority participants: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Quinn, Sandra C; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Thomas, Stephen B

    2013-09-01

    Limited attention has been given to the optimal strategies for retaining racial and ethnic minorities within studies and during the follow-up period. High attrition limits the interpretation of results and reduces the ability to translate findings into successful interventions. This study examined the retention strategies used by researchers when retaining minorities in research studies. From May to August 2010, we conducted an online survey with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) and examined their use of seven commonly used retention strategies. The number and type of retention strategies used, how these strategies differ by researcher type, and other characteristics (e.g., funding) were explored. We identified three clusters of researchers: comprehensive retention strategy researchers - utilized the greatest number of retention strategies; moderate retention strategy researchers - utilized an average number of retention strategies; and limited retention strategy researchers - utilized the least number of retention strategies. The comprehensive and moderate retention strategy researchers were more likely than the limited retention strategy researchers to conduct health outcomes research, work with a community advisory board, hire minority staff, use steps at a higher rate to overcome retention barriers, develop new partnerships with the minority community, modify study materials for the minority population, and allow staff to work flexible schedules. This study is a novel effort to characterize researchers, without implying a value judgment, according to their use of specific retention strategies. It provides critical information for conducting future research to determine the effectiveness of using a combination of retention strategies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. An evaluation of microorganisms for unconventional food regeneration schemes in CELSS - Research recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, B. O.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits and deficiencies of various candidates for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) for manned spacecraft missions of at least 3-14 yr are discussed. Conventional plants are considered unacceptable due to their inefficient production of foodstuffs and overproduction of stems and leafy matter. The alternate concepts are algae and/or bacteria or chemical synthesis of food. Microorganisms are considered the most promising because of their direct use of CO2 and possible utilization of waste streams. Yeasts are cited as the most viable candidates, since a large data base and experience already exists in the commercial food industry. The addition of hydrogen bactria and solar-grown algae is recommended, together with genetic manipulation experiments to tailor the microorganisms to production of foodstuffs closer to the 70 percent carbohydrate, 20 percent protein, and 10 percent lipid optimal food currently accepted. The yeast strain, Hansenula polymorpha, has been successfully grown in methanol and encouraged to produce a 55 percent carbohydrate content.

  19. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  20. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC. PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5. Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  1. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. European Fusion Materials Research Program - Recent Results and Future Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.; Andreani, R.; Laesser, R.; Schaaf, B. van der

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the objectives and the status of the current EU long-term materials program. It highlights recent results, discusses some of the key issues and major existing problems to be resolved and presents an outlook on the R and D planned for the next few years. The main objectives of the Materials Development program are the development and qualification of reduced activation structural materials for the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER and of low activation structural materials resistant to high fluence neutron irradiation for in-vessel components such as breeding blanket, divertor and first wall in DEMO. The EU strategy assumes: (i) ITER operation starting in 2015 with DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules to be installed from day one of operation, (ii) IFMIF operation in 2017 and (iii) DEMO final design activities in 2022 to 2025. The EU candidate structural material EUROFER for TBMs has to be fully code qualified for licensing well before 2015. In parallel, research on materials for operation at higher temperatures is conducted following a logical sequence, by supplementing EUROFER with the oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels and, thereafter, with fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (SiC f /SiC). Complementary, tungsten alloys are developed as structural material for high temperature applications such as gas-cooled divertors

  3. 76 FR 20672 - Recommendations on In Vitro Ocular Safety Testing Methods and Strategies and Routine Use of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...) to identify some types of substances that will not cause sufficient injury to require eye hazard... and refine the use of animals for assessing the ocular hazard potential of chemicals and products are now available. ICCVAM recommended a pain management procedure that should always be used to avoid pain...

  4. Testing painted wood : past practices at the Forest Products Laboratory and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2009-01-01

    A brief history of paint research at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin, sets the stage for a discussion of testing paint on wood and wood products. Tests include laboratory and outdoor tests, and I discuss them in terms of several degradation mechanisms (loss of gloss and fading, mildew growth, extractives bleed, and cracking, flaking, and...

  5. Positioning Mentoring as a Coach Development Tool: Recommendations for Future Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Sarah; Davis, Louise; Nash, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking in coach education advocates mentoring as a development tool to connect theory and practice. However, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the effectiveness of mentoring as a coach development tool. Business, education, and nursing precede the coaching industry in their mentoring practice, and research findings offered in…

  6. Evidence-Based Assessment of Child Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Recommendations for Clinical Practice and Treatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents heterogeneously and can be difficult to assess in youth. This review focuses on research-supported assessment approaches for OCD in childhood. Content areas include pre-visit screening, diagnostic establishment, differential diagnosis, assessment of comorbid psychiatric conditions, tracking symptom…

  7. Science and Policy Issues: A Report of Citizen Concerns and Recommendations for American Agricultural Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Two areas which will have far reaching consequences for the future of United States agriculture are discussed: (1) biotechnology; and (2) critical economic research in world trade and commodity supply management. Topics in the first area include: controversies related to biotechnology; the relative importance of health, safety, and environmental…

  8. Recommendations for Using the Case Study Method in International Business Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissak, Tiia

    2010-01-01

    The case study method has not been as frequently used in international business (IB) research as quantitative methods. Moreover, it has been sometimes misused and quite often criticized. Still, it can be very useful for understanding such complex phenomena as the internationalization process or the management of multinational enterprises. Based on…

  9. Research in assessment: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuwirth, L.; Colliver, J.; Gruppen, L.; Kreiter, C.; Mennin, S.; Onishi, H.; Pangaro, L.; Ringsted, C.; Swanson, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Wagner-Menghin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical education research in general is a young scientific discipline which is still finding its own position in the scientific range. It is rooted in both the biomedical sciences and the social sciences, each with their own scientific language. A more unique feature of medical education (and

  10. Evidence-Based Technology Design and Commercialisation: Recommendations Derived from Research in Education and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of mobile technologies and apps raises questions for researchers in the field of educational technology. Many apps are marketed as having impact on learning or therapeutic outcome in populations with additional support needs. This paper briefly outlines three possible academic responses to the rise of therapeutic technologies for…

  11. Assessment of Teaching Effectiveness: Lack of Alignment between Instructors, Institutions, and Research Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra; Dancy, Melissa; Chapman, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    Ideally, instructors and their institutions would have a shared set of metrics by which they determine teaching effectiveness. And, ideally, these metrics would overlap with research findings on measuring teaching effectiveness. Unfortunately, the current situation at most institutions is far from this ideal. As part of a larger interview study,…

  12. Methods for Practising Ethics in Research and Innovation : A Literature Review, Critical Analysis and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, Wessel; Wright, David; Brey, Philip; Weber, Karsten; Rodrigues, Rowena; O’Sullivan, Declan; Gordijn, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic literature review, analysis and discussion of methods that are proposed to practise ethics in research and innovation (R&I). Ethical considerations concerning the impacts of R&I are increasingly important, due to the quickening pace of technological innovation and

  13. Cognitive functioning, aging, and work: A review and recommendations for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gwenith G; Chaffee, Dorey S; Tetrick, Lois E; Davalos, Deana B; Potter, Guy G

    2017-07-01

    There is a larger proportion and number of older adults in the labor force than ever before. Furthermore, older adults in the workforce are working until later ages. Although a great deal of research has examined physical health and well-being of working older adults, less research has focused on cognitive functioning. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad contemporary and multidisciplinary review of the intersection between cognitive functioning, aging, and work as a follow-up to a paper previously written by Fisher et al. (2014). We begin by providing definitions and background about cognitive functioning and how it changes over the life span. Next we discuss theories relevant to the intersection of cognitive functioning and work, including the use-it-or-lose-it hypothesis, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, hypotheses regarding environmental influences on intellectual functioning, and the job-demands-resources model. Then we summarize recent research about the effects of work on cognitive functioning, as well as ways that cognitive functioning may influence work motivation, learning, development, training, and safety. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of person-environment fit, suggesting avenues for future research, and discussing practical implications for the field of occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  15. Recommendations arising from an analysis of changes to the Australian agricultural research, development and extension system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, Warren; Birch, Colin; Vanclay, Frank; Coutts, Jeff

    The business of agricultural research, development and extension (RD&E) has undergone considerable change in Australia since the late 1980s, moving from a domain largely dominated by government departments to a situation of multiple actors, and where rural industries now directly contribute funds

  16. [Sex and gender equity in research: rationale for the SAGER guidelines and recommended use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shirin; Babor, Thomas F; De Castro, Paola; Tort, Sera; Curno, Mirjam

    2018-05-03

    Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. A panel of 13 experts representing nine countries developed the guidelines through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop. An internet survey of 716 journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was conducted as well as a literatura search on sex and gender policies in scientific publishing. The Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines are a comprehensive procedure for reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analyses, results and interpretation of findings. The SAGER guidelines are designed primarily to guide authors in preparing their manuscripts, but they are also useful for editors, as gatekeepers of science, to integrate assessment of sex and gender into all manuscripts as an integral part of the editorial process. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Observing Al Qaeda Through the Lens of Complexity Theory: Recommendations for the National Strategy to Defeat Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beech, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... To defeat al Qaeda or other complex global terrorist networks traditional military strategies reliant on nation state frameworks and determination of centers of gravity and decisive points may not be...

  18. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  19. Advancing Pre-Health Humanities as Intensive Research Practice: Principles and Recommendations from a Cross-Divisional Baccalaureate Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sarah Ann; Weed, Kym; Edwell, Jennifer; Jack, Jordynn; Thrailkill, Jane F

    2017-12-01

    This essay argues that pre-health humanities programs should focus on intensive research practice for baccalaureate students and provides three guiding principles for implementing it. Although the interdisciplinary nature of health humanities permits baccalaureate students to use research methods from the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, pre-health humanities coursework tends to force students to adopt only one of many disciplinary identities. Alternatively, an intensive research approach invites students to critically select and combine methods from multiple (and seemingly opposing) disciplines to ask and answer questions about health problems more innovatively. Using the authors' experiences with implementing health humanities baccalaureate research initiatives at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the authors contend that pre-health humanities programs should teach and study multiple disciplinary research methods and their values; examine how health humanities research might transfer across disciplines; and focus on mentoring opportunities for funding, presenting, and publishing research. These recommendations have the potential to create unprecedented research experiences for baccalaureate students as they prepare to enter careers within and beyond the allied health professions.

  20. Boosting disability research in the engineering sciences. The recommendations of the National Observatory for Training, Research and Innovation on Disability (ONFRIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaud, J-F; Boissonnat, V

    2011-02-01

    In 2005, the National Observatory for Training, Research and Innovation on Disability (ONFRIH) was established by French law (Law 2005-102). The mission of ONFRIH is to provide an overview and recommendations for research, training and prevention in the field of disability. In this paper, the authors, respectively the Chairman and Rapporteur of the ONFRIH Working Group "Research and Innovation", present the Observatory's conclusions reached in its 2009 report about engineering sciences research and innovation. After introducing the ONFRIH and recalling the stakes and working methods, they highlight the current state of French research in this area and their thoughts about innovation chain. They evoke the broad outlines of their working group's analysis of this inventory. They conclude by identifying four action plans that express the Observatory's recommendations and were submitted to the responsible ministers. The four main objectives proposed are: (1) to consolidate disability as a major challenge for engineering sciences applications; (2) to reinforce the cooperation between operators at all levels of research and innovation; (3) to encourage the expression of needs within the research and innovation process, and (4) to facilitate the access of disabled people to technological innovations that promote their autonomy and social inclusion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Recommendations for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources in industry, medicine, research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The use of radiation sources of various types and activities is widespread in industry, medicine, research and teaching, and is increasing yearly. The safety record has been admirable, although incidents have occurred where loss of control of radiation sources has given rise to unplanned exposures to workers, medical patients and members of the public, sometimes with fatal results, while in other situations exposure may not have been as low as reasonably achievable. This publication is intended as a practical aid for all concerned with operational radiation protection connected with the use of radiation sources in industry, medicine, research and teaching, from the point of view of both the user of such sources and the regulatory bodies. Refs, figs

  2. Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Luke; Pierce, Robin; Winkler, Sabune; Cohen, I Glenn; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E

    2017-03-01

    The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for privacy and investigator transparency as key norms governing social media recruitment; and, finally, analyzing three relatively novel aspects of social media recruitment: (i) the ethical significance of compliance with website "terms of use"; (ii) the ethics of recruiting from the online networks of research participants; and (iii) the ethical implications of online communication from and between participants. Two checklists aimed at guiding investigators and IRBs through the ethical issues are included as appendices.

  3. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: Key principles and implications for research design, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eRippon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, neuroimaging (NI technologies have had an increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which s/he develops and functions. The study of the relationship between sex and gender could offer a valuable example of such research. We identify here four main principles that should inform NI research. First, the principle of overlap, arising from evidence of significant overlap of female/male distributions on measures of many gendered behaviours. Second, the principle of mosaicism, arising from evidence that for both behaviour and brain, each individual manifests a complex and idiosyncratic combination of feminine and masculine characteristics. Third, the principle of contingency, arising from evidence that female/male behavioural differences are contingent on time, place, social group and context. Fourth, the principle of entanglement, arising from an awareness that the neural phenotypes that NI techniques measure are a function of the interactive and reciprocal influence of biology and environment. These important principles have emerged and become well-established over the past few decades, but their implications are often not reflected in the design and interpretation of NI sex/gender research. We therefore offer a set of guidelines for researchers to ensure that NI sex/gender research is appropriately designed and interpreted. We hope this ‘toolkit’ will also be of use to editorial boards and journal reviewers, as well as those who view, communicate and interpret such research.

  4. Recommendations for the Interagency Ship Structure Committee’s Fiscal 1985 Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    of the World War II 70 ship fracture problems. For over 30 years, the SSC has undertaken ,merous efforts to study the problem of brittle fracture. An...Research & Development Company, Houston, TX Prof. N. A. Hamlin, Webb Institute of Naval Architecture, Glen Cove, NY Prof. W. H. C. Maxwell...Institute of Naval Architecture, Glen Cove, NY OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to determine sloshing loads on the boundaries, swash bulkheads, and

  5. Towards a 21st-century roadmap for biomedical research and drug discovery: consensus report and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Gillian R; Adcock, Ian M; Busquet, François; Crofton, Kevin M; Csernok, Elena; Giese, Christoph; Heinonen, Tuula; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Landesmann, Brigitte; Marshall, Lindsay J; McIvor, Emily; Muotri, Alysson R; Noor, Fozia; Schutte, Katrin; Seidle, Troy; van de Stolpe, Anja; Van Esch, Hilde; Willett, Catherine; Woszczek, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research. Following an international workshop attended by experts from academia, government institutions, research funding bodies, and the corporate and non-governmental organisation (NGO) sectors, in this consensus report, we analyse, as case studies, five disease areas with major unmet needs for new treatments. In view of the scientifically driven transition towards a human pathways-based paradigm in toxicology, a similar paradigm shift appears to be justified in biomedical research. There is a pressing need for an approach that strategically implements advanced, human biology-based models and tools to understand disease pathways at multiple biological scales. We present recommendations to help achieve this. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers--systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Promote Research Uptake in Child Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving health care globally: a critical review of the necessity of family medicine research and recommendations to build research capacity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van; Rosser, W.W.

    2004-01-01

    An invitational conference led by the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca) involving selected delegates from 34 countries was held in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, March 8 to12, 2003. The conference theme was "Improving Health Globally: The Necessity of Family Medicine Research." Guiding

  9. Formulation of Higher Education Institutional Strategy Using Operational Research Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Ashraf; Read, Martin; Gladstone-Millar, Charlotte; Tonge, Richard; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a framework is proposed for the formulation of a higher education institutional (HEI) strategy. This work provides a practical example, through a case study, to demonstrate how the proposed framework can be applied to the issue of formulation of HEI strategy. The proposed hybrid model is based on two operational research…

  10. Countering Recommendation from CICR on Social Impact of FDI in Liberia: Strategies for Sime Darby to Overcome the Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rizal Mohd Yusof; Zarina Othman; A.B. Shamsul; Mohamed Abu Bakar Kassim

    2014-01-01

    Liberia has initiated a paradigm shift to develop its agriculture sector through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). An investment from Sime Darby Plantations has created social impact towards the local, culture and land use. Center for International Conflict Resolution or CICR has seen these problems as a threat to social development in Liberia. Eleven recommendations have been delivered to Sime Darby as a solution to cater all problems that should conserve the local, culture and the land use. ...

  11. Evidence-based guideline recommendations on treatment strategies for localized Ewing's sarcoma of bone following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werier, Joel; Yao, Xiaomei; Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; di Primio, Gina; Ghert, Michelle; Gupta, Abha A; Kandel, Rita; Verma, Shailendra

    2016-06-01

    (1) To provide recommendations regarding the choice of surgery, radiation therapy (RT), or the combination of surgery plus RT in patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma of bone following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (2) To determine the appropriate surgical planning imaging (pre-chemotherapy magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or post-chemotherapy MRI) to identify optimal resection margins in patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma who undergo surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library (1999 to February 2015), main guideline websites, and relevant annual meeting abstracts (2012 to January 2015) were searched. Internal and external reviews were conducted. 1. Recommendation (1) - In patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma of bone following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: (a) Surgery alone or RT alone are two reasonable treatment options; the combination of surgery plus RT is not recommended as an initial treatment option. (b) The local treatment for an individual patient should be decided by a multidisciplinary tumour board together with the patient after consideration of the following: (1) patient characteristics (e.g., age, tumour location, tumour size, response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and existing comorbidities), (2) the potential benefit weighed against the potential complications from surgery and/or toxicities associated with RT, and (3) patient preferences. 2. Recommendation (2) - In patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma who will undergo surgery: (a) Both pre-chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy MRI scans should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. In certain anatomic locations with good chemotherapy response, the post-chemotherapy MRI may be the appropriate imaging modality to plan surgical resection margins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing a spinal cord injury research strategy using a structured process of evidence review and stakeholder dialogue. Part II: Background to a research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragge, P; Piccenna, L; Middleton, J; Williams, S; Creasey, G; Dunlop, S; Brown, D; Gruen, R

    2015-10-01

    Literature review/semi-structured interviews. To develop a spinal cord injury (SCI) research strategy for Australia and New Zealand. Australia. The National Trauma Research Institute Forum approach of structured evidence review and stakeholder consultation was employed. This involved gathering from published literature and stakeholder consultation the information necessary to properly consider the challenge, and synthesising this into a briefing document. A research strategy 'roadmap' was developed to define the major steps and key planning questions to consider; next, evidence from published SCI research strategy initiatives was synthesised with information from four one-on-one semi-structured interviews with key SCI research stakeholders to create a research strategy framework, articulating six key themes and associated activities for consideration. These resources, combined with a review of SCI prioritisation literature, were used to generate a list of draft principles for discussion in a structured stakeholder dialogue meeting. The research strategy roadmap and framework informed discussion at a structured stakeholder dialogue meeting of 23 participants representing key SCI research constituencies, results of which are published in a companion paper. These resources could also be of value in other research strategy or planning exercises. This project was funded by the Victorian Transport Accident Commission and the Australian and New Zealand Spinal Cord Injury Network.

  13. The ROOTS study: a 10-year review of findings on adolescent depression, and recommendations for future longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Jones, Peter B; Goodyer, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review longitudinal findings on adolescent mental health from the 'ROOTS study', and provide directions and recommendations for future longitudinal research. To do this, we discuss relevant findings from the ROOTS study, and review its strengths and limitations. We examined all publications from the ROOTS study up to July 2015, selected those examining adolescent mental health, and classified them as investigating (a) childhood risk factors for adolescent depression, (b) genetic and cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence, (c) genetic markers, childhood adversities, and neuroendophenotypes, (d) morning cortisol and depression, (e) physical activity and depression symptoms, and (f) the underlying structure of mental health in adolescence. We reviewed the strengths and limitations of the ROOTS study, and how they feed into recommendations for future longitudinal research. There was evidence supporting a putative hormonal biomarker for the emergence of depression in boys. Environmental pathways from child adversity to adolescent depression were confirmed in girls, partly accounted for by negative life events in early adolescence. The preceding role of automatic cognitive biases assessed using behavioural tasks was substantiated, with evidence for genetic susceptibility. Novel latent statistical models of child adversity, depression, anxiety, and psychotic experiences were produced, with concurrent and prospective validity. Our experiences conducting the ROOTS study resulted in a set of strengths, limitations, and recommendations for future longitudinal studies. The ROOTS study has advanced knowledge on the aetiology of adolescent depression by investigating environmental, genetic, hormonal, and neural risk factors. Findings provide a foundation for future research integrating cognitive neuroscience with epidemiology.

  14. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  15. Recommendations for clinical practice and research in severe brain injury in intensive rehabilitation: the Italian Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tanti, A; Zampolini, M; Pregno, S

    2015-02-01

    The paper reports the final statements of the jury of a National Consensus Conference organized in November 2010 at Salsomaggiore (Parma) to draw up recommendations on the rehabilitation programs for acquired brain injury (sABI) patients in the intensive hospital phase. Because of the few clinical studies of good quality found by means of the literature research we choose a mixed approach: a systematic review of the published studies and a consensus conference in order to obtain recommendations that come from the clinical evidence and the expert opinion. The final recommendations of the jury, based on the best available evidence combined with clinical expertise and the experience of persons with disabilities and other stakeholders, cover 13 topics: 1) Management of paroxysmal manifestations (sympathetic storms); 2) management of neuroendocrine problems; 3) nutrition; 4) swallowing; 5) ventilation/respiration, 6) clinical and instrument diagnosis and prognosis of vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS), 7) rehabilitative and pharmacological facilitation of renewed contact with surroundings; 8) neurosurgical complications and hydrocephalus; 9) sensorimotor impairment and disability; 10) rehabilitation methods; 11) assessment and treatment of cognitive-behavioural impairment and disability; 12) methodology and organization of care; 13) involving family and caregivers in rehabilitation.

  16. A research agenda on patient safety in primary care. Recommendations by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Wim; Gaal, Sander; Bowie, Paul; Parker, Diane; Lainer, Miriam; Valderas, Jose M.; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Healthcare can cause avoidable serious harm to patients. Primary care is not an exception, and the relative lack of research in this area lends urgency to a better understanding of patient safety, the future research agenda and the development of primary care oriented safety programmes. Objective: To outline a research agenda for patient safety improvement in primary care in Europe and beyond. Methods: The LINNEAUS collaboration partners analysed existing research on epidemiology and classification of errors, diagnostic and medication errors, safety culture, and learning for and improving patient safety. We discussed ideas for future research in several meetings, workshops and congresses with LINNEAUS collaboration partners, practising GPs, researchers in this field, and policy makers. Results: This paper summarizes and integrates the outcomes of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care. It proposes a research agenda on improvement strategies for patient safety in primary care. In addition, it provides background information to help to connect research in this field with practicing GPs and other healthcare workers in primary care. Conclusion: Future research studies should target specific primary care domains, using prospective methods and innovative methods such as patient involvement. PMID:26339841

  17. A research agenda on patient safety in primary care. Recommendations by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Wim; Gaal, Sander; Bowie, Paul; Parker, Diane; Lainer, Miriam; Valderas, Jose M; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez

    2015-09-01

    Healthcare can cause avoidable serious harm to patients. Primary care is not an exception, and the relative lack of research in this area lends urgency to a better understanding of patient safety, the future research agenda and the development of primary care oriented safety programmes. To outline a research agenda for patient safety improvement in primary care in Europe and beyond. The LINNEAUS collaboration partners analysed existing research on epidemiology and classification of errors, diagnostic and medication errors, safety culture, and learning for and improving patient safety. We discussed ideas for future research in several meetings, workshops and congresses with LINNEAUS collaboration partners, practising GPs, researchers in this field, and policy makers. This paper summarizes and integrates the outcomes of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care. It proposes a research agenda on improvement strategies for patient safety in primary care. In addition, it provides background information to help to connect research in this field with practicing GPs and other healthcare workers in primary care. Future research studies should target specific primary care domains, using prospective methods and innovative methods such as patient involvement.

  18. Half-time strategies to enhance second-half performance in team-sports players: a review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; West, Daniel J; Harper, Liam D; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-03-01

    A number of intermittent team sports require that two consecutive periods of play (lasting for ~30-45 min) are separated by a 10-20 min half-time break. The half-time practices employed by team-sports players generally include returning to the changing rooms, temporarily relaxing from the cognitive and physical demands of the first half, rehydration and re-fuelling strategies, addressing injury or equipment concerns, and receiving tactical instruction and coach feedback. However, the typically passive nature of these actions has been associated with physiological changes that impair performance during the second half. Both physical and cognitive performances have been found to decline in the initial stages of subsequent exercise that follows half-time. An increased risk of injury has also been observed during this period. Therefore, half-time provides sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches with an opportunity to optimise second-half performance. An overview of strategies thought to benefit team-sports athletes is presented; specifically, the efficacy of heat maintenance strategies (including passive and active methods), post-activation potentiation, hormonal priming, and modified hydro-nutritional practices are discussed. A theoretical model of applying these strategies in a manner that compliments current practice is also offered.

  19. Research on Taxi Driver Strategy Game Evolution with Carpooling Detour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of taxi carpooling detour, this paper studies driver strategy choice with carpooling detour. The model of taxi driver strategy evolution with carpooling detour is built based on prospect theory and evolution game theory. Driver stable strategies are analyzed under the conditions of complaint mechanism and absence of mechanism, respectively. The results show that passenger’s complaint mechanism can effectively decrease the phenomenon of driver refusing passengers with carpooling detour. When probability of passenger complaint reaches a certain level, the stable strategy of driver is to take carpooling detour passengers. Meanwhile, limiting detour distance and easing traffic congestion can decrease the possibility of refusing passengers. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to formulating taxi policy.

  20. Developing online research strategies for library users at Sokoine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wanyenda

    SNAL develop effective online search strategies that help them make effective use of ... “trained in the application of information resources of their work”. ... However, the library has now migrated to an integrated web-based library automation.

  1. Nodding syndrome since 2012: recent progress, challenges and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebunders, R; Post, R; O'Neill, S; Haesaert, G; Opar, B; Lakwo, T; Laudisoit, A; Hendy, A

    2015-02-01

    We aim to review the current epidemiology of nodding syndrome (NS) and discuss relevant gaps in research. NS and convulsive epilepsy of unknown aetiology are clustered within the same villages and families in onchocerciasis-endemic areas. They are therefore potentially different clinical expressions of the same disease. It has been difficult to perform full autopsies on NS patients who die in remote villages. Adequate fixation of tissue immediately after death is critical for the examination of brain tissue. Therefore, post-mortem transsphenoidal brain biopsies, performed immediately after death by trained nurses, will provide the best option for obtaining tissue for analysis. We suspect that certain blackflies in onchocerciasis-endemic areas may transmit a novel pathogen that could cause NS and epilepsy. This is supported by a recent drop in the number of new NS cases coinciding with vector control activities aimed at reducing blackfly populations in northern Uganda. We propose that metagenomic studies of human samples, blackflies and microfilariae are conducted to screen for pathogens, and that a clinical trial is planned to evaluate the impact of larviciding against NS and epilepsy epidemics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Hydration and cognition: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R

    2007-10-01

    The limited literature on the effects of dehydration on human cognitive function is contradictory and inconsistent. Although it has been suggested that decrements in cognitive performance are present in the range of a 2 to 3% reduction in body weight, several dose-response studies indicate dehydration levels of 1% may adversely affect cognitive performance. When a 2% or more reduction in body weight is induced by heat and exercise exposure, decrements in visual-motor tracking, short-term memory and attention are reported, but not all studies find behavioral effects in this range. Future research should be conducted using dose-response designs and state-of-the-art behavioral methods to determine the lowest levels of dehydration that produce substantive effects on cognitive performance and mood. Confounding factors, such as caffeine intake and the methods used to produce dehydration, need to be considered in the design and conduct of such studies. Inclusion of a positive control condition, such as alcohol intake, a hypnotic drug, or other treatments known to produce adverse changes in cognitive performance should be included in such studies. To the extent possible, efforts to blind both volunteers and investigators should be an important consideration in study design.

  3. Lifestyle intervention to prevent obesity during pregnancy: Implications and recommendations for research and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Moran, Lisa J; Harrison, Paul; Huang, Terry T-K; Teede, Helena; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-06-01

    Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are significant contributors to the global obesity epidemic. However, isolated lifestyle interventions to address this in pregnancy appear to have only modest benefit and responses can be variable. This paper aims to address the question of why the success of lifestyle interventions to prevent excessive GWG is suboptimal and variable. We suggest that there are inherent barriers to lifestyle change within pregnancy as a life stage, including the short window available for habit formation; the choice for women not to prioritise their weight; competing demands including physiological, financial, relationship, and social situations; and lack of self-efficacy among healthcare professionals on this topic. In order to address this problem, we propose that just like all successful public health approaches seeking to change behaviour, individual lifestyle interventions must be provided in the context of a supportive environment that enables, incentivises and rewards healthy changes. Future research should focus on a systems approach that integrates the needs of individuals with the context within which they exist. Borrowing from the social marketing principle of 'audience segmentation', we also need to truly understand the needs of individuals to design appropriately tailored interventions. This approach should also be applied to the preconception period for comprehensive prevention approaches. Additionally, relevant policy needs to reflect the changing evidence-based climate. Interventions in the clinical setting need to be integrally linked to multipronged obesity prevention efforts in the community, so that healthy weight goals are reinforced throughout the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced energy design and operation technologies research: Recommendations for a US Department of Energy multiyear program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Crawley, D.B.; Hostetler, D.D.; Stratton, R.C.; Addision, M.S.; Deringer, J.J.; Hall, J.D.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1988-12-01

    This document describes recommendations for a multiyear plan developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project. The plan is an outgrowth of earlier planning activities conducted for DOE as part of design process research under the Building System Integration Program (BSIP). The proposed research will produce intelligent computer-based design and operation technologies for commercial buildings. In this document, the concept is explained, the need for these new computer-based environments is discussed, the benefits are described, and a plan for developing the AEDOT technologies is presented for the 9-year period beginning FY 1989. 45 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. A Scoping Review of Frailty and Acute Care in Middle-Aged and Older Individuals with Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, David B.; Maxwell, Colleen J.; Afilalo, Jonathan; Arora, Rakesh C.; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Basran, Jenny; Bergman, Howard; Bronskill, Susan E.; Carter, Caitlin A.; Dixon, Elijah; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Madden, Kenneth; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rolfson, Darryl; Stelfox, Henry T.; Tam-Tham, Helen; Wunsch, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    There is general agreement that frailty is a state of heightened vulnerability to stressors arising from impairments in multiple systems leading to declines in homeostatic reserve and resiliency, but unresolved issues persist about its detection, underlying pathophysiology, and relationship with aging, disability, and multimorbidity. A particularly challenging area is the relationship between frailty and hospitalization. Based on the deliberations of a 2014 Canadian expert consultation meeting and a scoping review of the relevant literature between 2005 and 2015, this discussion paper presents a review of the current state of knowledge on frailty in the acute care setting, including its prevalence and ability to both predict the occurrence and outcomes of hospitalization. The examination of the available evidence highlighted a number of specific clinical and research topics requiring additional study. We conclude with a series of consensus recommendations regarding future research priorities in this important area. PMID:28396706

  6. Thoughts on implementation of the recommendations of the GBIF Task Group on a Global Strategy and Action Plan for Mobilisation of Natural History Collections Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas King

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF has a mandate to facilitate free and open access to primary biodiversity data worldwide. This Special Issue of Biodiversity Informatics publishes the findings of the recent GBIF Task Group on a Global Strategy and Action Plan for Mobilisation of Natural History Collections Data (GSAP-NHC. The GSAP-NHC Task Group has made three primary recommendations dealing with discovery, capture, and publishing of natural history collections data. This overview article provides insight on various activities initiated by GBIF to date to assist with an early uptake and implementation of these recommendations. It calls for proactive participation by all relevant players and stakeholder communities. Given recent technological progress and growing recognition and attention to biodiversity science worldwide, we think rapid progress in discovery, publishing and access to large volumes of useful collection data can be achieved for the immediate benefit of science and society.

  7. Interface design recommendations for computerised clinical audit and feedback: Hybrid usability evidence from a research-led system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin; Balatsoukas, Panos; Williams, Richard; Sperrin, Matthew; Buchan, Iain

    2016-10-01

    Audit and Feedback (A&F) is a widely used quality improvement technique that measures clinicians' clinical performance and reports it back to them. Computerised A&F (e-A&F) system interfaces may consist of four key components: (1) Summaries of clinical performance; (2) Patient lists; (3) Patient-level data; (4) Recommended actions. There is a lack of evidence regarding how to best design e-A&F interfaces; establishing such evidence is key to maximising usability, and in turn improving patient safety. To evaluate the usability of a novel theoretically-informed and research-led e-A&F system for primary care (the Performance Improvement plaN GeneratoR: PINGR). (1) Describe PINGR's design, rationale and theoretical basis; (2) Identify usability issues with PINGR; (3) Understand how these issues may interfere with the cognitive goals of end-users; (4) Translate the issues into recommendations for the user-centred design of e-A&F systems. Eight experienced health system evaluators performed a usability inspection using an innovative hybrid approach consisting of five stages: (1) Development of representative user tasks, Goals, and Actions; (2) Combining Heuristic Evaluation and Cognitive Walkthrough methods into a single protocol to identify usability issues; (3) Consolidation of issues; (4) Severity rating of consolidated issues; (5) Analysis of issues according to usability heuristics, interface components, and Goal-Action structure. A final list of 47 issues were categorised into 8 heuristic themes. The most error-prone heuristics were 'Consistency and standards' (13 usability issues; 28% of the total) and 'Match between system and real world' (n=10, 21%). The recommended actions component of the PINGR interface had the most usability issues (n=21, 45%), followed by patient-level data (n=5, 11%), patient lists (n=4, 9%), and summaries of clinical performance (n=4, 9%). The most error-prone Actions across all user Goals were: (1) Patient selection from a list; (2) Data

  8. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  9. Radioactivity in the aquatic environment. A review of UK research 1994-1997 and recommendations for future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    areas where research could usefully be carried out. The availability of funds for any of the areas identified will depend on the objectives and priorities of funding bodies and therefore it cannot be guaranteed that any of the recommended studies will be undertaken

  10. Language learning strategy research and modern foreign language teaching and learning in England

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses language learner strategy research. It arises from two sources: firstly, an individual background in research and writing about Language Learning Strategy research in the context of Modern Foreign Language Learning and Teaching in the UK over the past decades; secondly, a newly constituted British based interest group dedicated to this area of applied linguistics - UK Project on Language Learner Strategies (UKPOLLS). The aim of this SIG paper is to introduce and present t...

  11. Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: A Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Badr, M. Safwan; Belenky, Gregory; Bliwise, Donald L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Buysse, Daniel; Dinges, David F.; Gangwisch, James; Grandner, Michael A.; Kushida, Clete; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for optimal health. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and Sleep Research Society (SRS) developed a consensus recommendation for the amount of sleep needed to promote optimal health in adults, using a modified RAND Appropriateness Method process. The recommendation is summarized here. A manuscript detailing the conference proceedings and evidence supporting the final recommendation statement will be published in SLEEP and the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

  12. Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

    2011-01-01

    In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

  13. Strategies for addressing adherence problems in patients with serious and persistent mental illness: recommendations from the expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velligan, Dawn I; Weiden, Peter J; Sajatovic, Martha; Scott, Jan; Carpenter, Daniel; Ross, Ruth; Docherty, John P

    2010-09-01

    Poor adherence to medication can have devastating consequences for patients with serious mental illness. The literature review and recommendations in this article are reprinted from The Expert Consensus Guideline Series: Adherence Problems in Patients with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness, published in 2009. The expert consensus survey (39 questions, 521 options) on adherence problems in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder was completed by 41 experts in 2008. This article first reviews the literature on interventions aimed at improving adherence. It then presents the experts' recommendations for targeting factors that can contribute to nonadherence and relates them to the literature. The following psychosocial/programmatic and pharmacologic interventions were rated first line for specific problems that can lead to nonadherence: ongoing symptom/ side-effect monitoring for persistent symptoms or side effects; services targeting logistic problems; medication monitoring/environmental supports (e.g., Cognitive Adaptation Training, assertive community treatment) for lack of routines or cognitive deficits; and adjusting the dose or switching to a different oral antipsychotic for persistent side effects (also high second-line for persistent symptoms). Among pharmacologic interventions, the experts gave high second-line ratings to switching to a long-acting antipsychotic when lack of insight, substance use, persistent symptoms, logistic problems, lack of routines, or lack of family/ social support interfere with adherence and to simplifying the treatment regimen when logistic problems, lack of routines, cognitive deficits, or lack of family/social support interfere with adherence. Psychosocial/programmatic interventions that received high second-line ratings in a number of situations included medication monitoring/environmental supports, patient psychoeducation, more frequent and/or longer visits if possible, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), family-focused therapy

  14. Malaria prevention strategies and recommendations, from chemoprophylaxis to stand-by emergency treatment: a 10-year prospective study in a Swiss Travel Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Rim; Hérard Fossati, Annie; Meige, Pierrette; Mialet, Catherine; Ngarambe Buffat, Chantal; Rochat, Jacynthe; Souvannaraj-Blanchant, Manisinh; Uwanyiligira, Mediatrice; Widmer, Francine; Payot, Sylvie; Rochat, Laurence; de Vallière, Serge; D'Acremont, Valérie; Genton, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    There are several possible malaria prevention strategies for travellers. In Switzerland, chemoprophylaxis (CP) is recommended for persons visiting areas highly endemic for malaria and stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) for areas with moderate to low risk. To describe the type of malaria prevention prescribed to travel clinic attendees with a specific focus on changes over time following adaptation of recommendations. All pre-travel first consultation data recorded between November 2002 and December 2012 were included. Country-specific malaria preventive recommendations provided and medicines prescribed over time were analysed. In total, 64 858 client-trips were recorded. 91% of travellers planned to visit a malaria endemic country. Among those clients, 42% were prescribed an antimalarial medicine as CP only, 36% as SBET only, and 3% both. Between 2002 and 2012, there was a 16% drop of CP prescription ( P  travellers receiving CP, the proportion of those prescribed mefloquine dropped from 82% in 2002 to 46% in 2012 while those prescribed atovaquone-proguanil (AP) increased from 7% to 39%. For those prescribed SBET, the proportion dropped from 46% to 30% for AP and increased from 2% to 61% for artemether-lumefantrine. CP prescription for travellers to India fell from 62% to 5% and SBET prescription increased from 40% to 88% after the change of recommendation from CP to SBET in 2005 for this country. Comparatively, CP prescription for travellers to Senegal, for which no change of recommendation occurred, remained relatively stable between 88% in 2002 and 89% in 2012. This study shows the considerable decline of antimalarial prescription for chemoprophylaxis that occurred over the 10-year period in favour of SBET. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Review of the federal strategy for nanotechnology-related environmental, health, and safety research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee for Review of the Federal Strategy to Address Environmental Health and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials; Committee on Toxicology; National Research Council

    .... The book recommends a robust national strategic plan for addressing nanotechnology-related EHS risks, which will need to focus on promoting research that can assist all stakeholders, including...

  16. Repetitive concussions in adolescent athletes – translating clinical and experimental research into perspectives on rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette D Semple

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions amongst professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally-timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management.

  17. Repetitive Concussions in Adolescent Athletes – Translating Clinical and Experimental Research into Perspectives on Rehabilitation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Lee, Sangmi; Sadjadi, Raha; Fritz, Nora; Carlson, Jaclyn; Griep, Carrie; Ho, Vanessa; Jang, Patrice; Lamb, Annick; Popolizio, Beth; Saini, Sonia; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.; Prins, Mayumi L.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussions are particularly common during adolescence, a time when even mild brain injuries may disrupt ongoing brain maturation and result in long-term complications. A recent focus on the consequences of repetitive concussions among professional athletes has prompted the development of several new experimental models in rodents, as well as the revision of guidelines for best management of sports concussions. Here, we consider the utility of rodent models to understand the functional consequences and pathobiology of concussions in the developing brain, identifying the unique behavioral and pathological signatures of concussive brain injuries. The impact of repetitive concussions on behavioral consequences and injury progression is also addressed. In particular, we focus on the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence underlying current recommendations for physical and cognitive rest after concussion, and highlight key areas in which further research is needed. Lastly, we consider how best to promote recovery after injury, recognizing that optimally timed, activity-based rehabilitative strategies may hold promise for the adolescent athlete who has sustained single or repetitive concussions. The purpose of this review is to inform the clinical research community as it strives to develop and optimize evidence-based guidelines for the concussed adolescent, in terms of both acute and long-term management. PMID:25883586

  18. Heart Rate Variability and Cardiac Vagal Tone in Psychophysiological ResearchRecommendations for Experiment Planning, Data Analysis, and Data Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Mosley, Emma; Thayer, Julian F.

    2017-01-01

    Psychophysiological research integrating heart rate variability (HRV) has increased during the last two decades, particularly given the fact that HRV is able to index cardiac vagal tone. Cardiac vagal tone, which represents the contribution of the parasympathetic nervous system to cardiac regulation, is acknowledged to be linked with many phenomena relevant for psychophysiological research, including self-regulation at the cognitive, emotional, social, and health levels. The ease of HRV collection and measurement coupled with the fact it is relatively affordable, non-invasive and pain free makes it widely accessible to many researchers. This ease of access should not obscure the difficulty of interpretation of HRV findings that can be easily misconstrued, however, this can be controlled to some extent through correct methodological processes. Standards of measurement were developed two decades ago by a Task Force within HRV research, and recent reviews updated several aspects of the Task Force paper. However, many methodological aspects related to HRV in psychophysiological research have to be considered if one aims to be able to draw sound conclusions, which makes it difficult to interpret findings and to compare results across laboratories. Those methodological issues have mainly been discussed in separate outlets, making difficult to get a grasp on them, and thus this paper aims to address this issue. It will help to provide psychophysiological researchers with recommendations and practical advice concerning experimental designs, data analysis, and data reporting. This will ensure that researchers starting a project with HRV and cardiac vagal tone are well informed regarding methodological considerations in order for their findings to contribute to knowledge advancement in their field. PMID:28265249

  19. Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symposium Title: Social Determinants of Health, Environmental Exposures, and Disproportionately Impacted Communities: What We Know and How We Tell Others Topic 3: Community Engagement and Research Translation Title: Translation of EPA Research: Data Interpretation and Communicati...

  20. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda.

  1. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda. PMID:27833362

  2. Apparel Merchandising Students Learn Customer Service Strategies while Conducting Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Apparel merchandising students participated in a cooperative research project in which they observed customer service techniques by posing as customers in retail stores. The project taught research processes, collaboration, and principles of customer service. (SK)

  3. Report on Implementing the Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In December 2011 the NSTC released Trustworthy Cyberspace: Strategic Plan for the Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Program, outlining a vision for the...

  4. Instructional Design-Based Research on Problem Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…

  5. Strategies To Enhance Memory Based on Brain-Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banikowski, Alison K.; Mehring, Teresa A.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on three aspects of memory: (1) an information processing model of memory (including the sensory register, attention, short-term memory, and long-term memory); (2) instructional strategies designed to enhance memory (which stress gaining students' attention and active involvement); and (3) reasons why…

  6. Research-Based Strategies and Best Practices for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Jay

    2009-01-01

    The National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been at the forefront of identifying model dropout prevention programs and promoting the use of best practices to increase the graduation rates in schools since 1986. The structure for these varied interventions and solutions takes the form of effective strategies, model…

  7. Epp's energy strategy keys on conversation, efficiency research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    While energy industry players on both sides of the border were busy last week digesting the long-awaited United States National Energy Strategy, Canadian Energy Minister Jake Epp was unveiling his own plans to curb this country's appetite for hydrocarbons

  8. An Action Research on Deep Word Processing Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limei

    2010-01-01

    For too long a time, how to memorize more words and keep them longer in mind has been a primary and everlasting problem for vocabulary teaching and learning. This study focused on deep processing as a word memorizing strategy in contextualizing, de- and re- contextualizing learning stages. It also examined possible effects of such pedagogy on…

  9. Complexity Science Applications to Dynamic Trajectory Management: Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Bruce; Herriot, James; Holmes, Bruce J.; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The promise of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is strongly tied to the concept of trajectory-based operations in the national airspace system. Existing efforts to develop trajectory management concepts are largely focused on individual trajectories, optimized independently, then de-conflicted among each other, and individually re-optimized, as possible. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time are valuable, though perhaps could be greater through alternative strategies. The concept of agent-based trajectories offers a strategy for automation of simultaneous multiple trajectory management. The anticipated result of the strategy would be dynamic management of multiple trajectories with interacting and interdependent outcomes that satisfy multiple, conflicting constraints. These constraints would include the business case for operators, the capacity case for the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), and the environmental case for noise and emissions. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time might be improved over those possible under individual trajectory management approaches. The proposed approach relies on computational agent-based modeling (ABM), combinatorial mathematics, as well as application of "traffic physics" concepts to the challenge, and modeling and simulation capabilities. The proposed strategy could support transforming air traffic control from managing individual aircraft behaviors to managing systemic behavior of air traffic in the NAS. A system built on the approach could provide the ability to know when regions of airspace approach being "full," that is, having non-viable local solution space for optimizing trajectories in advance.

  10. Best Practice in Using Business Intelligence to Determine Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John; Rutherford, Scott; Turner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The authors recognise that there is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to implementing business intelligence strategy within universities. Elements of best practice have been taken from a case study of Imperial College, which may be applied across other institutions. The process starts with implementing and developing systems that capture…

  11. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  12. Research Review: Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers – a systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and scope This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. PMID:23061830

  13. Modeling in the quality by design environment: Regulatory requirements and recommendations for design space and control strategy appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica

    2017-11-30

    Mathematical models can be used as an integral part of the quality by design (QbD) concept throughout the product lifecycle for variety of purposes, including appointment of the design space and control strategy, continual improvement and risk assessment. Examples of different mathematical modeling techniques (mechanistic, empirical and hybrid) in the pharmaceutical development and process monitoring or control are provided in the presented review. In the QbD context, mathematical models are predominantly used to support design space and/or control strategies. Considering their impact to the final product quality, models can be divided into the following categories: high, medium and low impact models. Although there are regulatory guidelines on the topic of modeling applications, review of QbD-based submission containing modeling elements revealed concerns regarding the scale-dependency of design spaces and verification of models predictions at commercial scale of manufacturing, especially regarding real-time release (RTR) models. Authors provide critical overview on the good modeling practices and introduce concepts of multiple-unit, adaptive and dynamic design space, multivariate specifications and methods for process uncertainty analysis. RTR specification with mathematical model and different approaches to multivariate statistical process control supporting process analytical technologies are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. What research tells us about knowledge transfer strategies to improve public health in low-income countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siron, Stéphanie; Dagenais, Christian; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the current state of research on knowledge transfer strategies to improve public health in low-income countries, to identify the knowledge gaps on this topic. In this scoping review, a descriptive and systematic process was used to analyse, for each article retained, descriptions of research context and methods, types of knowledge transfer activities and results reported. 28 articles were analysed. They dealt with the evaluation of transfer strategies that employed multiple activities, mostly targeting health professionals and women with very young children. Most often these studies used quantitative designs and measurements of instrumental use with some methodological shortcomings. Results were positive and suggested recommendations for improving professional practices, knowledge and health-related behaviours. The review highlights the great diversity of transfer strategies used, strategies and many conditions for knowledge use. The review provides specific elements for understanding the transfer processes in low-income countries and highlights the need for systematic evaluation of the conditions for research results utilization.

  15. The Health and Safety Executive's strategy for nuclear safety research 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This brochure illustrates HSE's nuclear safety research strategy for 1996. It is divided into two parts. The first part presents HSE's overall strategy. The second contains short strategy statements for the individual areas detailed above, providing a rationale and objectives for the particular safety issues in the NRI, where greater detail can be found. (author)

  16. Clinical versus actuarial geographic profiling strategies : A Review of the Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennell, Craig; Taylor, Paul; Snook, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Geographic profiling predictions can be produced using a variety of strategies. Some predictions are made using an equation or mechanical aid (actuarial strategy) while others are made by human judges drawing on experience or heuristic principles (clinical strategy). We review research that bears

  17. Proceedings from the Third National Institutes of Health International Congress on Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research: comprehensive review, conference summary and future recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, James H.; Parrott, Estella C.; Nagel, Joan D.; Guo, Xiaoxiao Catherine; Gao, Xiaohua; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Pinn, Vivian W.; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic tumors in women of reproductive age yet the etiology and pathogenesis of these lesions remain poorly understood. Age, African ancestry, nulliparity and obesity have been identified as predisposing factors for uterine fibroids. Symptomatic tumors can cause excessive uterine bleeding, bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain, as well as associated reproductive disorders such as infertility, miscarriage and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Currently, there are limited noninvasive therapies for fibroids and no early intervention or prevention strategies are readily available. This review summarizes the advances in basic, applied and translational uterine fibroid research, in addition to current and proposed approaches to clinical management as presented at the ‘Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research: 3rd NIH International Congress’. Congress recommendations and a review of the fibroid literature are also reported. METHODS This review is a report of meeting proceedings, the resulting recommendations and a literature review of the subject. RESULTS The research data presented highlights the complexity of uterine fibroids and the convergence of ethnicity, race, genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle and possible socioeconomic parameters on disease manifestation. The data presented suggest it is likely that the majority of women with uterine fibroids will have normal pregnancy outcomes; however, additional research is warranted. As an alternative to surgery, an effective long-term medical treatment for uterine fibroids should reduce heavy uterine bleeding and fibroid/uterine volume without excessive side effects. This goal has not been achieved and current treatments reduce symptoms only temporarily; however, a multi-disciplined approach to understanding the molecular origins and pathogenesis of uterine fibroids, as presented in this report, makes our quest for identifying novel

  18. The adoption of e-commerce in small and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam : recommendations for building an e-commerce strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Huong

    2013-01-01

    It is highly recommended for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to integrate e-commerce into their business operations because it is an opportunity to increase profitability, enhance effectiveness, and increase corporate values. However, the number of Vietnamese SMEs adopting e-commerce is insignificant due to lack of understanding of the process of integrating it into business operations. This research is conducted for the purpose of providing SMEs attempting to move towards the e-com...

  19. Media ratings for movies, music, video games, and television: a review of the research and recommendations for improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Humphrey, Jeremy; Walsh, David A

    2005-06-01

    This article review is organized by studies that are relevant for testing the reliability and validity of ratings systems. Specifically, the interrater reliability, consistency, temporal stability, content validity, construct validity, and criterion validity of media ratings systems are reviewed. Data that are related to testing the "forbidden fruit" and "tainted fruit" hypotheses also are reviewed. Several changes are recommended to improve the ratings systems, including the creation of a universal ratings system that could be applied equally to all media. The research reviewed here can provide a guide for how to construct a reliable, valid, and more useful ratings system. This is important because the decisions that parents make regarding their children's media use can be only as good as the information to which the parents have access.

  20. [Complexity, law and science: Reflections on the UNESCO Recommendation on the status and responsibility of the scientific researcher].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2017-10-13

    The analysis of the complexity and interactivity in the production of social norms between science and technology, on the one hand, and between law and ethics, on the other hand, must be our first concern because without a lucid and in deep assessment of the fragmented and even opposed realities that make up our world, not only do we lose all forms of collective freedom but above all we favor reductive totalitarianism and warlike confrontation.It is with this in mind that it is necessary to examine whether the revision of the 1974 Recommendation on the Status and Responsibility of the Scientific Researcher is likely to provide relevant elements for responding to these changes.