WorldWideScience

Sample records for research station setting

  1. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring system. 4 figs

  2. Antarctica's Princess Elisabeth research station setting new standards in renewable energy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The first zero emission research platform that was recently inaugurated in Antarctica. The Princess Elisabeth research station, which is operated by the International Polar Foundation (IPF), is the only polar base to operate entirely on renewable energy. It was commissioned by the Belgian government to better understand the mechanism of climate change. The research station sets new standards in advanced design methodology. It demonstrates that the techniques and technology being used in extreme conditions could be a model for both commercial and domestic applications in more temperate areas around the world. Renewable energy sources are used along with passive housing techniques, optimization of energy consumption and best waste management practices. Solar energy provides about 30 per cent of the station's electricity supply through PV solar panels. Solar energy also provides hot water through solar thermal panels. Newly developed vacuum tube thermal panels reduce conducted heat loss and convert 70 per cent of the solar energy into useable thermal energy. The station's water treatment unit will recycle 100 per cent of its water and reuse 75 per cent of it using technology developed for future spaceships. After purification and neutralization, the recycled water is allocated to a second use for showers, toilets and washing machines. The research station uses passive building techniques. Its insulation, shape, orientation and window disposition allow comfortable ambient temperature to be maintained inside the building with little energy input. Wind power is responsible for about 70 per cent of the station's total electricity requirement. This is provided by 9 wind turbines that are designed to withstand the harsh conditions in Antarctica. This article also described the advanced power management system at the station, with particular reference to its SCADA human interface, the three-phase AC, the battery grid, evacuation of surplus energy and wiring

  3. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  4. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  5. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  6. Station Set Residual: Event Classification Using Historical Distribution of Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Mike; Lewis, Jennifer; Young, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Analysts working at the International Data Centre in support of treaty monitoring through the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization spend a significant amount of time reviewing hypothesized seismic events produced by an automatic processing system. When reviewing these events to determine their legitimacy, analysts take a variety of approaches that rely heavily on training and past experience. One method used by analysts to gauge the validity of an event involves examining the set of stations involved in the detection of an event. In particular, leveraging past experience, an analyst can say that an event located in a certain part of the world is expected to be detected by Stations A, B, and C. Implicit in this statement is that such an event would usually not be detected by Stations X, Y, or Z. For some well understood parts of the world, the absence of one or more "expected" stations—or the presence of one or more "unexpected" stations—is correlated with a hypothesized event's legitimacy and to its survival to the event bulletin. The primary objective of this research is to formalize and quantify the difference between the observed set of stations detecting some hypothesized event, versus the expected set of stations historically associated with detecting similar nearby events close in magnitude. This Station Set Residual can be quantified in many ways, some of which are correlated with the analysts' determination of whether or not the event is valid. We propose that this Station Set Residual score can be used to screen out certain classes of "false" events produced by automatic processing with a high degree of confidence, reducing the analyst burden. Moreover, we propose that the visualization of the historically expected distribution of detecting stations can be immediately useful as an analyst aid during their review process.

  7. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  8. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  9. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealin...

  10. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealin...

  11. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  12. Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbiting laboratory whose goals include advancing science and technology research. Completion of ISS assembly ushered a new era focused on utilization, encompassing multiple disciplines such as Biology and Biotechnology, Physical Sciences, Technology Development and Demonstration, Human Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Educational Activities. The research complement planned for upcoming ISS Expeditions 45&46 includes several investigations in the new field of omics, which aims to collectively characterize sets of biomolecules (e.g., genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic products) that translate into organismic structure and function. For example, Multi-Omics is a JAXA investigation that analyzes human microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem by evaluating data from immune dysregulation biomarkers, metabolic profiles, and microbiota composition. The NASA OsteoOmics investigation studies gravitational regulation of osteoblast genomics and metabolism. Tissue Regeneration uses pan-omics approaches with cells cultured in bioreactors to characterize factors involved in mammalian bone tissue regeneration in microgravity. Rodent Research-3 includes an experiment that implements pan-omics to evaluate therapeutically significant molecular circuits, markers, and biomaterials associated with microgravity wound healing and tissue regeneration in bone defective rodents. The JAXA Mouse Epigenetics investigation examines molecular alterations in organ specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight. Lastly, Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), NASA's first foray into human omics research, applies integrated analyses to assess biomolecular responses to physical, physiological, and environmental stressors associated

  13. Southern Research Station Global Change Research Strategy 2011-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Zoe Hoyle; Stevin Westcott; Emrys Treasure

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the goals of the Research and Development agenda of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Southern Research Station (SRS) provides the information and technology needed to develop best management practices for the forest lands of the Southern United States, where science-guided actions are needed to sustain ecosystem health,...

  14. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  15. Nutrition Research: Basis for Station Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Shuttle program, all understanding of nutritional needs in space came from Skylab metabolic research. Because Shuttle flights were short, most less than 14 days, research focused on major nutritional issues: energy (calories), protein and amino acids, water and electrotypes, with some more general physiology studies that related to iron and calcium. Using stable isotope tracer studies and diet intake records, we found that astronauts typically did not consume adequate calories to meet energy expenditure. To monitor energy and nutrient intake status and provide feedback to the flight surgeon and the astronauts, the International Space Station (ISS) program implemented a weekly food frequency questionnaire and routine body mass measurements. Other Shuttle investigations found that protein turnover was higher during flight, suggesting there was increased protein degradation and probably concurrent increase in protein synthesis, and this occurred even in cases of adequate protein and caloric intake. These results may partially explain some of the loss of leg muscle mass. Fluid and electrolyte flight studies demonstrated that water intake, like energy intake, was lower than required. However, sodium intakes were elevated during flight and likely related to other concerns such as calcium turnover and other health-related issues. NASA is making efforts to have tasty foods with much lower salt levels to reduce sodium intake and to promote fluid intake on orbit. Red blood cell studies conducted on the Shuttle found decreased erythrogenesis and increased serum ferritin levels. Given that the diet is high in iron there may be iron storage health concerns, especially related to the role of iron in oxidative damage, complicated by the stress and radiation. The Shuttle nutrition research lead to new monitoring and research on ISS. These data will be valuable for future NASA and commercial crewed missions.

  16. Epigenetics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a state-of-the orbiting laboratory focused on advancing science and technology research. Experiments being conducted on the ISS include investigations in the emerging field of Epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to stably heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype (the transcriptional potential of a cell) resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations to the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence (the genetic code), which are caused by external or environmental factors, such as spaceflight microgravity. Molecular mechanisms associated with epigenetic alterations regulating gene expression patterns include covalent chemical modifications of DNA (e.g., methylation) or histone proteins (e.g., acetylation, phorphorylation, or ubiquitination). For example, Epigenetics ("Epigenetics in Spaceflown C. elegans") is a recent JAXA investigation examining whether adaptations to microgravity transmit from one cell generation to another without changing the basic DNA of the organism. Mouse Epigenetics ("Transcriptome Analysis and Germ-Cell Development Analysis of Mice in Space") investigates molecular alterations in organ-specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight, as well as assessing changes in offspring DNA. NASA's first foray into human Omics research, the Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), includes investigations evaluating differential epigenetic effects via comprehensive whole genome analysis, the landscape of DNA and RNA methylation, and biomolecular changes by means of longitudinal integrated multi-omics research. And the inaugural Genes in Space student challenge experiment (Genes in Space-1) is aimed at understanding how epigenetics plays a role in immune system dysregulation by assaying DNA methylation in immune cells

  17. 2008 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    This report highlights significant research findings and accomplishments by scientists at the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station during fiscal year 2008. The mission of the PNW Research Station is to generate and communicate scientific knowledge that helps people understand and make informed choices about people, natural resources, and the environment. The work...

  18. 2010 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, station researchers provided land managers and policymakers with critical information related to ecological processes, environmental threats, forest management, and use of natural resources. The station also capitalized on opportunities to expand its research in these arenas. The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was one such opportunity that has...

  19. 2014 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2015-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2014 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  20. 2013 Science Accomplishments Report of the Pacific Northwest Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2014-01-01

    Communicating the scientific knowledge generated by the Pacific Northwest Research Station is integral to our mission. The 2013 Science Accomplishments reports highlights the breadth of the station’s research, the relevance of our science findings, and the application of these findings. The photographs throughout the report showcase the region where we work and how...

  1. Bringing Seismological Research into the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary goals of educational seismology programs is to bring inquiry-based research to the middle- and high-school classroom setting. Although it is often stated as a long-term goal of science outreach programs, in practice there are many barriers to research in the school setting, among them increasing emphasis on test-oriented training, decreasing interest and participation in science fairs, limited teacher confidence and experience for mentoring research, insufficient student preparedness for research projects, and the short term of university involvement (typically limited to brief one-day encounters). For the past three+ years we have tried to address these issues through a focused outreach program we have called the PEPP Research Fellows Program. This is treated as an honors program in which high school teachers in our group nominate students with interests in science careers. These students are invited to participate in the program, and those who elect to take part participate in a one-day education and training session in the fall. Rather than leave research projects completely open, we direct the students at toward one of two specific, group-oriented projects (in our case, one focusing on local recordings of mining explosions, and a second on teleseismic body-wave analysis), but we encourage them to act as independent researchers and follow topics of interest. The students then work on seismic data from the local educational network or from the IRIS facilities. Following several months of informal interaction with teachers and students (email, web conferencing, etc.), we bring the students and teachers to our university for a weekend research symposium in the spring. Students present their work in oral or poster form and prizes are given for the best papers. Projects range from highly local projects (records of seismic noise at school X) to larger-scale regional projects (analysis of teleseismic P-wave delays at PEPP network stations) From 20 to

  2. The setting for ground based augmentation system station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yude; Liu, Ruihua

    2007-11-01

    Based on the minimum field strength requirement within the whole GBAS service volume, this paper performs nominal link power budget for GBAS VHF data broadcast (VDB) system, and the required power transmitted from VDB system is derived. The paper elaborates the requirement of Desired-to-Undesired (D/U) signal ratio for a specific VHF airborne receiver to ensure the normal operation by the test, and presents the experimental method and results for acquiring the D/U signal ratios. The minimum geographical separations among GBAS, VOR and ILS stations are calculated according to the specifications of these three kinds of navigation systems.

  3. Accounting Research in the Japanese Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas J. Skinner

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary I offer some thoughts on the possibilities for accounting research that uses the Japanese setting. I argue that the uniqueness of the Japanese setting offers many opportunities for researchers, and hope that we can encourage more researchers to take advantage of this setting to advance the literature on financial reporting and disclosure.

  4. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  5. NREL Research Takes Off for International Space Station | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    hydrogen. Research has proven that nitrate starvation triggers C. vulgaris to go into lipid production mode NREL Research Takes Off for International Space Station NREL Research Takes Off for International the other, Chlorella vulgaris, will make lipids. NREL research dating back to the late 1970s opened

  6. Space Station life science research facility - The vivarium/laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Arno, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research opportunities possible with the Space Station are discussed. The objective of the research program will be study gravity relationships for animal and plant species. The equipment necessary for space experiments including vivarium facilities are described. The cost of the development of research facilities such as the vivarium/laboratory and a bioresearch centrifuge is examined.

  7. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  8. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2012-2013 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass Cairns

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the...

  9. Ethics of conducting research in conflict settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Edward J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humanitarian agencies are increasingly engaged in research in conflict and post-conflict settings. This is justified by the need to improve the quality of assistance provided in these settings and to collect evidence of the highest standard to inform advocacy and policy change. The instability of conflict-affected areas, and the heightened vulnerability of populations caught in conflict, calls for careful consideration of the research methods employed, the levels of evidence sought, and ethical requirements. Special attention needs to be placed on the feasibility and necessity of doing research in conflict-settings, and the harm-benefit ratio for potential research participants.

  10. Research in a dental practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardal, Oystein

    2004-09-01

    There is a shortage of research from dental practice. The aim of this article is to stimulate more interest in dental research. This is done by explaining the basic principles of doing research in a dental practice setting. Examples are taken from the author's own practice. Emphasis is placed on the following points: how to develop and research ideas; factors specific to dental practice; how articles and journals are rated; making a protocol for the study; examiners' reliability and statistical analysis.

  11. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  12. New directions in research priority-setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Velsing

    2017-01-01

    The way governments set priorities for research and innovation in Europe is changing. The new focus on responsible research and innovation (RRI) emphasises broader inclusion, increased dialogue, and a focus on societal challenges. The case of RESEARCH2015 in Denmark is one of the first European...... priority-setting processes to incorporate such criteria. This paper develops a theoretical model to explore how RESEARCH2015 contributes to mutual responsiveness among actors, a main objective of RRI. Studying mutual responsiveness means going beyond the often-stated focus on policy impact to look...... at the creation of trust, interdependence and mutual understanding among participants. The study finds that mutual responsiveness is an important precondition for priority-setting, but that the process's contribution to mutual responsiveness is limited, due to the limited attention to social impacts. Still...

  13. Setting stroke research priorities: The consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangvatanakul, Pukkaporn; Hillege, Sharon; Lalor, Erin; Levi, Christopher; Hill, Kelvin; Middleton, Sandy

    2010-12-01

    To test a method of engaging consumers in research priority-setting using a quantitative approach and to determine consumer views on stroke research priorities for clinical practice recommendations with lower levels of evidence (Level III and Level IV) and expert consensus opinion as published in the Australian stroke clinical practice guidelines. Survey Urban community Eighteen stroke survivors (n = 12) and carers (n = 6) who were members of the "Working Aged Group - Stroke" (WAGS) consumer support group. Phase I: Participants were asked whether recommendations were "worth" researching ("yes" or "no"); and, if researched, what potential impact they likely would have on patient outcomes. Phase II: Participants were asked to rank recommendations rated by more than 75% of participants in Phase I as "worth" researching and "highly likely" or "likely" to generate research with a significant effect on patient outcomes (n = 13) in order of priority for future stroke research. All recommendations were rated by at least half (n = 9, 50%) of participants as "worth" researching. The majority (67% to 100%) rated all recommendations as "highly likely" or "likely" that research would have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Thirteen out of 20 recommendations were ranked for their research priorities. Recommendations under the topic heading Getting to hospital were ranked highest and Organization of care and Living with stroke were ranked as a lower priority for research. This study provided an example of how to involve consumers in research priority setting successfully using a quantitative approach. Stroke research priorities from the consumer perspective were different from those of health professionals, as published in the literature; thus, consumer opinion should be considered when setting research priorities. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Setting research priorities for Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadsby, R; Snow, R; Daly, A C; Crowe, S; Matyka, K; Hall, B; Petrie, J

    2012-10-01

    Research priorities are often set by academic researchers or the pharmaceutical industry. The interests of patients, carers and clinicians may therefore be overlooked and research questions that matter may be neglected. The aims of this study were to collect uncertainties about the treatment of Type 1 diabetes from patients, carers and health professionals, and to collate and prioritize these uncertainties to develop a top 10 list of research priorities, using a structured priority-setting partnership of patients, carers, health professionals and diabetes organizations, as described by the James Lind Alliance. A partnership of interested organizations was set up, and from this a steering committee of 10 individuals was formed. An online and paper survey was used to identify uncertainties. These were collated, and the steering group carried out an interim priority-setting exercise with partner organizations. This group of uncertainties was then voted on to give a smaller list that went forward to the final priority-setting workshop. At this meeting, a final list of the top 10 research priorities was agreed. An initial 1141 uncertainties were described. These were reduced to 88 indicative questions, 47 of which went out for voting. Twenty-four were then taken forward to a final priority-setting workshop. This workshop resulted in a list of top 10 research priorities in Type 1 diabetes. We have shown that it is possible using the James Lind Alliance process to develop an agreed top 10 list of research priorities for Type 1 diabetes from health professionals, patients and carers. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  15. Research on application of knowledge engineering to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Takeo; Kiyohashi, Satoshi

    1990-01-01

    Recently, the research on the software and hardware regarding knowledge engineering has been advanced eagerly. Especially the applicability of expert systems is high. When expert systems are introduced into nuclear power stations, it is necessary to make the plan for introduction based on the detailed knowledge on the works in nuclear power stations, and to improve the system repeatedly by adopting the opinion and request of those in charge upon the trial use. Tohoku Electric Power Co. was able to develop the expert system of practically usable scale 'Supporting system for deciding fuel movement procedure'. The survey and analysis of the works in nuclear power stations, the selection of the system to be developed and so on are reported. In No. 1 plant of Onagawa Nuclear Power Station of BWR type, up to 1/3 of the fuel is replaced at the time of the regular inspection. Some fuel must be taken to outside for ensuring the working space. The works of deciding fuel movement procedure, the development of the system and its evaluation are described. (K.I.)

  16. Lewis Research Center space station electric power system test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Martin, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center facilities were developed to support testing of the Space Station Electric Power System. The capabilities and plans for these facilities are described. The three facilities which are required in the Phase C/D testing, the Power Systems Facility, the Space Power Facility, and the EPS Simulation Lab, are described in detail. The responsibilities of NASA Lewis and outside groups in conducting tests are also discussed.

  17. Setting Research Priorities for Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer M; Bhatt, Jaimin; Avery, Jonathan; Laupacis, Andreas; Cowan, Katherine; Basappa, Naveen S; Basiuk, Joan; Canil, Christina; Al-Asaaed, Sohaib; Heng, Daniel Y C; Wood, Lori; Stacey, Dawn; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Jewett, Michael A S

    2017-12-01

    Defining disease-specific research priorities in cancer can facilitate better allocation of limited resources. Involving patients and caregivers as well as expert clinicians in this process is of value. We undertook this approach for kidney cancer as an example. The Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada sponsored a collaborative consensus-based priority-setting partnership that identified ten research priorities in the management of kidney cancer. These are discussed in the context of current initiatives and gaps in knowledge. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yoga in school settings: a research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany

    2016-06-01

    Research on the efficacy of yoga for improving mental, emotional, physical, and behavioral health characteristics in school settings is a recent but growing field of inquiry. This systematic review of research on school-based yoga interventions published in peer-reviewed journals offers a bibliometric analysis that identified 47 publications. The studies from these publications have been conducted primarily in the United States (n = 30) and India (n = 15) since 2005, with the majority of studies (n = 41) conducted from 2010 onward. About half of the publications were of studies at elementary schools; most (85%) were conducted within the school curriculum, and most (62%) also implemented a formal school-based yoga program. There was a high degree of variability in yoga intervention characteristics, including overall duration, and the number and duration of sessions. Most of these published research trials are preliminary in nature, with numerous study design limitations, including limited sample sizes (median = 74; range = 20-660) and relatively weak research designs (57% randomized controlled trials, 19% uncontrolled trials), as would be expected in an infant research field. Nevertheless, these publications suggest that yoga in the school setting is a viable and potentially efficacious strategy for improving child and adolescent health and therefore worthy of continued research. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Multipurpose epithermal neutron beam on new research station at MARIA research reactor in Swierk-Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryzinski, M.A.; Maciak, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    MARIA reactor is an open-pool research reactor what gives the chance to install uranium fission converter on the periphery of the core. It could be installed far enough not to induce reactivity of the core but close enough to produce high flux of fast neutrons. Special design of the converter is now under construction. It is planned to set the research stand based on such uranium converter in the near future: in 2015 MARIA reactor infrastructure should be ready (preparation started in 2013), in 2016 the neutron beam starts and in 2017 opening the stand for material and biological research or for medical training concerning BNCT. Unused for many years, horizontal channel number H2 at MARIA research rector in Poland, is going to be prepared as a part of unique stand. The characteristics of the neutron beam will be significant advantage of the facility. High flux of neutrons at the level of 2x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} will be obtainable by uranium neutron converter located 90 cm far from the reactor core fuel elements (still inside reactor core basket between so called core reflectors). Due to reaction of core neutrons with converter U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} material it will produce high flux of fast neutrons. After conversion neutrons will be collimated and moderated in the channel by special set of filters and moderators. At the end of H2 channel i.e. at the entrance to the research room neutron energy will be in the epithermal energy range with neutron intensity at least at the level required for BNCT (2x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). For other purposes density of the neutron flux could be smaller. The possibility to change type and amount of installed filters/moderators which enables getting different properties of the beam (neutron energy spectrum, neutron-gamma ratio and beam profile and shape) is taken into account. H2 channel is located in separate room which is adjacent to two other empty rooms under the preparation for research laboratories (200 m2). It is

  1. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  2. Internal emitter research and standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

  3. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) 2009 Crew Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Cusack, Stacy L.; Garvin, Christy; Kramer, Walter Vernon; Palaia, Joseph E., IV; Shiro, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A crew of six "astronauts" inhabited the Mars Society s Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) for the month of July 2009, conducting a simulated Mars exploration mission. In addition to the various technical achievements during the mission, the crew learned a vast amount about themselves and about human factors relevant to a future mission to Mars. Their experiences, detailed in their own words, show the passion of those with strong commitment to space exploration and detail the human experiences for space explorers including separation from loved ones, interpersonal conflict, dietary considerations, and the exhilaration of surmounting difficult challenges.

  4. Space Station Centrifuge: A Requirement for Life Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur H.; Fuller, Charles A.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Winget, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A centrifuge with the largest diameter that can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom is required to conduct life science research in the microgravity environment of space. (This was one of the findings of a group of life scientists convened at the University of California, Davis, by Ames Research Center.) The centrifuge will be used as a research tool to understand how gravity affects biological processes; to provide an on-orbit one-g control; and to assess the efficacy of using artificial gravity to counteract the deleterious biological effect of space flight. The rationale for the recommendation and examples of using ground-based centrifugation for animal and plant acceleration studies are presented. Included are four appendixes and an extensive bibliography of hypergravity studies.

  5. International Space Station Research and Facilities for Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara M.

    2009-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station is nearing completion in fall of 2010. Although assembly has been the primary objective of its first 11 years of operation, early science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. Laboratory facilities outfitting has increased dramatically 2008-2009 with the European Space Agency s Columbus and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency s Kibo scientific laboratories joining NASA s Destiny laboratory in orbit. In May 2009, the ISS Program met a major milestone with an increase in crew size from 3 to 6 crewmembers, thus greatly increasing the time available to perform on-orbit research. NASA will launch its remaining research facilities to occupy all 3 laboratories in fall 2009 and winter 2010. To date, early utilization of the US Operating Segment of the ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting international and US partner research. With a specific focus on life sciences research, this paper will summarize the science accomplishments from early research aboard the ISS- both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. We will also look ahead to the full capabilities for life sciences research when assembly of ISS is complete in 2010.

  6. The International Space Station Research Opportunities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the International Space Station (ISS) construction and assembly was completed to become a world-class scientific research laboratory. We are now in the era of utilization of this unique platform that facilitates ground-breaking research in the microgravity environment. There are opportunities for NASA-funded research; research funded under the auspice of the United States National Laboratory; and research funded by the International Partners - Japan, Europe, Russia and Canada. The ISS facilities offer an opportunity to conduct research in a multitude of disciplines such as biology and biotechnology, physical science, human research, technology demonstration and development; and earth and space science. The ISS is also a unique resource for educational activities that serve to motivate and inspire students to pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Even though we have just commenced full utilization of the ISS as a science laboratory, early investigations are yielding major results that are leading to such things as vaccine development, improved cancer drug delivery methods and treatment for debilitating diseases, such as Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy. This paper

  7. Research on the International Space Station - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations November 1998 to November 2000 it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence. Since that time and simultaneous with the complicated task of ISS construction and overcoming impacts from the tragic Columbia accident science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. As of this writing, over 162 experiments have been operated on the ISS, supporting research for hundreds of ground-based investigators from the U.S. and international partners. This report summarizes the experimental results collected to date. Today, NASA's priorities for research aboard the ISS center on understanding human health during long-duration missions, researching effective countermeasures for long-duration crewmembers, and researching and testing new technologies that can be used for future exploration crews and spacecraft. Through the U.S. National Laboratory designation, the ISS is also a platform available to other government agencies. Research on ISS supports new understandings, methods or applications relevant to life on Earth, such as understanding effective protocols to protect against loss of bone density or better methods for producing stronger metal alloys. Experiment results have already been used in applications as diverse as the manufacture of solar cell and insulation materials for new spacecraft and the verification of complex numerical models for behavior of fluids in fuel tanks. A synoptic publication of these results will be forthcoming in 2009. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities were tripled with the addition of ESA's Columbus and JAXA's Kibo scientific modules joining NASA's Destiny Laboratory. All three

  8. Informed consent comprehension in African research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph U; McGrath, Nuala; Larson, Heidi J; Bojang, Kalifa; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, EthxWeb and Bioethics Literature Database (BELIT). We also examined African Index Medicus and Google Scholar for relevant publications on informed consent comprehension in clinical studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria; meta-analysis was possible in 21 studies. We further conducted a direct comparison of participants' comprehension on domains of informed consent in all eligible studies. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent varies considerably from country to country and depends on the nature and complexity of the study. Meta-analysis showed that 47% of a total of 1633 participants across four studies demonstrated comprehension about randomisation (95% CI 13.9-80.9%). Similarly, 48% of 3946 participants in six studies had understanding about placebo (95% CI 19.0-77.5%), while only 30% of 753 participants in five studies understood the concept of therapeutic misconception (95% CI 4.6-66.7%). Measurement tools for informed consent comprehension were developed with little or no validation. Assessment of comprehension was carried out at variable times after disclosure of study information. No uniform definition of informed consent comprehension exists to form the basis for development of an appropriate tool to measure comprehension in African participants. Comprehension of key concepts of informed consent is poor among study participants across Africa. There is a vital need to develop a uniform definition for

  9. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a

  10. Report on terrestrial biology research and logistics at Baia Terra Nova Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Imura

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available From December 4,1998 to January 15,1999,the author stayed at Baia Terra Nova Station (Italy in Antarctica, as an exchange scientist. To compare the biodiversity between Syowa Station and the Baia Terra Nova Station area, many samples of mosses, lichens, algae and micro animals in the soil were collected, and the structure of moss vegetation was studied in various fields around the station. Some characteristic features of logistics at the station were also researched.

  11. Ebola 2014: Setting up a port health screening programme at an international train station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Vivien; Wynne-Evans, Edward; Freed, James; Fleet, Katie; Thorn, Simone; Turbitt, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) began in Guinea in December 2013 and was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization in August 2014. In October, the UK government tasked Public Health England (PHE) to set up EVD screening at key ports. The key aim of port-of-entry screening was to identify passengers coming from areas with high risk of EVD, and give them advice to raise their awareness of symptoms and what actions to take. Direct flights from Sierra Leone, Guinea or Liberia had all been cancelled, so intelligence on passenger numbers and routes was used to identify the most commonly used routes from the affected countries into the UK. One of these was St Pancras International train station. Screening had never previously been implemented at a UK train station so had to be set up from scratch. Key to the success of this was excellent multi-agency working between PHE, the UK Border Force, Eurostar, Network Rail and the Cabinet Office. This paper gives an overview of the activation of EVD screening at St Pancras International and the subsequent decommissioning.

  12. Research on station management in subway operation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiman

    2017-10-01

    The management of subway station is an important part of the safe operation of urban subway. In order to ensure the safety of subway operation, it is necessary to study the relevant factors that affect station management. In the protection of subway safety operations on the basis of improving the quality of service, to promote the sustained and healthy development of subway stations. This paper discusses the influencing factors of subway operation accident and station management, and analyzes the specific contents of station management security for subway operation, and develops effective suppression measures. It is desirable to improve the operational quality and safety factor for subway operations.

  13. Psychosocial Research on the International Space Station: Special Privacy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Ritsher, J.; Grund, E.; Weiss, D.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.

    Conducting psychosocial research with astronauts and cosmonauts requires special privacy and confidentiality precautions due to the high profile nature of the subject population and to individual crewmember perception of the risks inherent in divulging sensitive psychological information. Sampling from this small population necessitates subject protections above and beyond standard scientific human subject protocols. Many of these protections have relevance for psychosocial research on the International Space Station. In our previous study of psychosocial issues involving crewmembers on the Mir space station, special precautions were taken during each phase of the missions. These were implemented in order to gain the trust necessary to ameliorate the perceived risks of divulging potentially sensitive psychological information and to encourage candid responses. Pre-flight, a standard confidentiality agreement was provided along with a special layman's summary indicating that only group-level data would be presented, and subjects chose their own ID codes known only to themselves. In-flight, special procedures and technologies (such as encryption) were employed to protect the data during the collection. Post-flight, an analytic strategy was chosen to further mask subject identifiers, and draft manuscripts were reviewed by the astronaut office prior to publication. All of the eligible five astronauts and eight cosmonauts who flew joint US/Russian missions on the Mir were successfully recruited to participate, and their data completion rate was 76%. Descriptive analyses of the data indicated that there was sufficient variability in all of the measures to indicate that thoughtful, discriminating responses were being provided (e.g., the full range of response options was used in 63 of the 65 items of the Profile of Mood States measure, and both true and false response options were used in all 126 items of the Group Environment and the Work Environment measures). This

  14. Habitability research priorities for the International Space Station and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M; Adolf, J A; Woolford, B J

    2000-09-01

    Advanced technology and the desire to explore space have resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on the ability of humans to adapt and function in microgravity environments. In addition, studies conducted in analogous environments, such as winter-over expeditions in Antarctica, have complemented the scientific understanding of human performance in LDSF. These findings indicate long duration missions may take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically, with potential impacts on performance. Significant factors in any manned LDSF are habitability, workload and performance. They are interrelated and influence one another, and therefore necessitate an integrated research approach. An integral part of this approach will be identifying and developing tools not only for assessment of habitability, workload, and performance, but also for prediction of these factors as well. In addition, these tools will be used to identify and provide countermeasures to minimize decrements and maximize mission success. The purpose of this paper is to identify research goals and methods for the International Space Station (ISS) in order to identify critical factors and level of impact on habitability, workload, and performance, and to develop and validate countermeasures. Overall, this approach will provide the groundwork for creating an optimal environment in which to live and work onboard ISS as well as preparing for longer planetary missions.

  15. RETHINKING RESEARCH ETHICS FOR MEDIATED SETTINGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaulieu, Anne; Estalella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of e-research is the increased mediation of research practices, which changes not only the objects and tools of research, but also the relation between researcher and object, between researchers, and between researchers and their constituencies and stakeholders. This article

  16. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  17. Rodent Research on the International Space Station - A Look Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, A. B.; Smithwick, M.; Wigley, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent Research on the International Space Station (ISS) is one of the highest priority science activities being supported by NASA and is planned for up to two flights per year. The first Rodent Research flight, Rodent Research-1 (RR-1) validates the hardware and basic science operations (dissections and tissue preservation). Subsequent flights will add new capabilities to support rodent research on the ISS. RR-1 will validate the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 30 days, video downlink to support animal health checks and scientific analysis, on-orbit dissections, sample preservation in RNA. Later and formalin, sample transfer from formalin to ethanol (hindlimbs), rapid cool-down and subsequent freezing at -80 of tissues and carcasses, sample return and recovery. RR-2, scheduled for SpX-6 (Winter 20142015) will add the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 60 days, RFID chip reader for individual animal identification, water refill and food replenishment, anesthesia and recovery, bone densitometry, blood collection (via cardiac puncture), blood separation via centrifugation, soft tissue fixation in formalin with transfer to ethanol, and delivery of injectable drugs that require frozen storage prior to use. Additional capabilities are also planned for future flights and these include but are not limited to male mice, live animal return, and the development of experiment unique equipment to support science requirements for principal investigators that are selected for flight. In addition to the hardware capabilities to support rodent research the Crew Office has implemented a training program in generic rodent skills for all USOS crew members during their pre-assignment training rotation. This class includes training in general animal handling, euthanasia, injections, and dissections. The dissection portion of this training focuses on the dissection of the spleen, liver, kidney with adrenals, brain, eyes, and hindlimbs. By achieving and

  18. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Shawn; Frazier, Natalie; Lehman, John

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400?C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  19. Setting the research agenda for governmental communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vos

    2006-01-01

    The Research Group for Governmental Communication has carried out a trend study of governmental communication within The Netherlands (1). Research topics were: the major tasks for communication, current issues, profiling the communication department, and policy plans for communication. Another study

  20. Empirical Requirements Analysis for Mars Surface Operations Using the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Lee, Pascal; Sierhuis, Maarten; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Living and working on Mars will require model-based computer systems for maintaining and controlling complex life support, communication, transportation, and power systems. This technology must work properly on the first three-year mission, augmenting human autonomy, without adding-yet more complexity to be diagnosed and repaired. One design method is to work with scientists in analog (mars-like) setting to understand how they prefer to work, what constrains will be imposed by the Mars environment, and how to ameliorate difficulties. We describe how we are using empirical requirements analysis to prototype model-based tools at a research station in the High Canadian Arctic.

  1. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) 2009 Expedition Crew Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy; Ferrone, Kristine; Garvin, Christy; Kramer, W. Vernon; Palaia, Joseph, IV; Shiro, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS), located on the rim of the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, is a simulated Mars habitat that provides operational constraints similar to those which will be faced by future human explorers on Mars. In July 2009, a six-member crew inhabited the isolated habitation module and conducted the twelfth FMARS mission. The crew members conducted frequent EVA operations wearing mock space suits to conduct field experiments under realistic Mars-like conditions. Their scientific campaign spanned a wide range of disciplines and included many firsts for Mars analog research. Among these are the first use of a Class IV medical laser during a Mars simulation, helping to relieve crew stress injuries during the mission. Also employed for the first time in a Mars simulation at FMARS, a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was used by the space-suited explorers, aiding them in their search for mineral resources. Sites identified by the UAV were then visited by geologists who conducted physical geologic sampling. For the first time, explorers in spacesuits deployed passive seismic equipment to monitor earthquake activity and characterize the planet's interior. They also conducted the first geophysical electromagnetic survey as analog Mars pioneers to search for water and characterize geological features under the surface. The crew collected hydrated minerals and attempted to produce drinkable water from the rocks. A variety of equipment was field tested as well, including new cameras that automatically geotag photos, data-recording GPS units, a tele-presence rover (operated from Florida), as well as MIT-developed mission planning software. As plans develop to return to the Moon and go on to Mars, analog facilities like FMARS can provide significant benefit to NASA and other organizations as they prepare for robust human space exploration. The authors will present preliminary results from these studies as well as their

  2. Was Einstein wrong? Space station research may find out

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiments using ultra-precise clocks on the International Space Station will attempt to check if Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity is correct. Future experiments may also yield evidence of string theory (1 page).

  3. Electromagnetic impact by microcellular base stations: analysis and guidelines for a correct setting up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Reggiani, M.; Silvi, A.M.; Zari, A.; Ricci, A.

    2002-01-01

    During the last few years the development of mobile communications has required ever increasing number of base stations for both existing mobile operators and new ones. More and more users ask for a higher quality services so new technological solutions have been studied and applied to assure effective coverage for given geographical areas, as in squares or narrow streets, characterized by a very high traffic demand or where coverage by usual macro cells is very difficult. On the other side, modern societies of developed countries ask for a better and better quality of life and appropriate government policies. Several studies of national and international scientific organizations have been performed and are still in progress to establish any possible adverse effects on human health of non-ionizing radiation exposure. So, many governments, forced by public opinion pressure, have produced specific standards in agreement with scientific organization guidelines and prudent avoidance politics too. Nowadays, designing their networks, mobile operators have to respect requirements contained in these standards. So a hierarchical cellular system have been recently proposed to comply more easily with both coverage requirements and lower exposure limits. This new coverage strategy of geographical areas requires the presence of microcells beside the usual macro cells. In this paper the study of the distribution of the electromagnetic field levels produced by microcellular base stations characterized by different features and configurations is presented, in order to define a few guidelines for the correct setting up of antennas in compliance with current standard requirements. This is obtained comparing results of theoretical modeling, based on the radio electrical characteristics of each sources, and measurements data. Results achieved by measurements performed on a preliminary sample of microcells have been presented in this work

  4. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  5. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  6. Setting the scene: Why research matters

    OpenAIRE

    Vossler, Andreas; Moller, Naomi; Cooper, Mick

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the current field of research in counselling and psychotherapy. It first takes a historical perspective in describing the strong move in British psychotherapy and counselling towards ‘evidence-based’ practice. This shift is illustrated through a discussion of the focus on therapies that are evidence-based in the NICE guidelines and the NHS/IAPT context. The increasing emphasis on research in training curricula for counselling and psychotherapy programmes is considered ...

  7. The Need and Opportunity for an Integrated Research, Development and Testing Station in the Alaskan High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, J. O.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Cahill, C. F.; Bendure, A.; Lucero, D. A.; Roesler, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation will make the case for development of a permanent integrated research and testing station at Oliktok Point, Alaska; taking advantage of existing assets and infrastructure, controlled airspace, an active UAS program and local partnerships. Arctic research stations provide critical monitoring and research on climate change for conditions and trends in the Arctic. The US Chair of the Arctic Council has increased awareness of gaps in our understanding of Artic systems, scarce monitoring, lack of infrastructure and readiness for emergency response. Less sea ice brings competition for commercial shipping and resource extraction. Search and rescue, pollution mitigation and safe navigation need real-time, wide-area monitoring to respond to events. Multi-national responses for international traffic will drive a greater security presence to protect citizens and sovereign interests. To address research and technology gaps, there is a national need for a High Arctic Station with an approach that partners stakeholders from science, safety and security to develop comprehensive solutions. The Station should offer year-round use, logistic support and access to varied ecological settings; phased adaptation to changing needs; and support testing of technologies such as multiple autonomous platforms, renewable energies and microgrids, and sensors in Arctic settings. We propose an Arctic Station at Oliktok Point, Alaska. Combined with the Toolik Field Station and Barrow Environmental Observatory, they form a US network of Arctic Stations. An Oliktok Point Station can provide complementary and unique assets that include: ocean access, and coastal and terrestrial systems; road access; controlled airspaces on land and ocean; nearby air facilities, medical and logistic support; atmospheric observations from an adjacent ARM facility; connections to Barrow and Toolik; fiber-optic communications; University of Alaska Fairbanks UAS Test Facility partnership; and an airstrip

  8. Setting research priorities by applying the combined approach matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul

    2009-04-01

    Priority setting in health research is a dynamic process. Different organizations and institutes have been working in the field of research priority setting for many years. In 1999 the Global Forum for Health Research presented a research priority setting tool called the Combined Approach Matrix or CAM. Since its development, the CAM has been successfully applied to set research priorities for diseases, conditions and programmes at global, regional and national levels. This paper briefly explains the CAM methodology and how it could be applied in different settings, giving examples and describing challenges encountered in the process of setting research priorities and providing recommendations for further work in this field. The construct and design of the CAM is explained along with different steps needed, including planning and organization of a priority-setting exercise and how it could be applied in different settings. The application of the CAM are described by using three examples. The first concerns setting research priorities for a global programme, the second describes application at the country level and the third setting research priorities for diseases. Effective application of the CAM in different and diverse environments proves its utility as a tool for setting research priorities. Potential challenges encountered in the process of research priority setting are discussed and some recommendations for further work in this field are provided.

  9. Goal setting in sport and exercise: research and practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg,Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to briefly review the major theoretical and empirical research in goal setting related to sport and develop applications for best practice. Different types of goals were discussed and Locke's theory of goal setting provided the foundation for future research. After briefly reviewing the goal setting literature in sport and organizational settings, principles for how to apply goal setting to enhance performance were developed. The development and implementations o...

  10. Advances in Rodent Research Missions on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Ronca, A.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Gong, C.; Stube, K.; Pletcher, D.; Wigley, C.; Beegle, J.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical Problems. The expression levels of select genes including albumin, catalase, GAPDH, HMGCoA Reductase, and IGF1 were determined using RNA isolated from the livers by qPCR and no significant differences by one factor ANOVA were found between flight and ground control groups. In addition, some of the liver samples were analyzed for transcriptomic, epigenomic and proteomic profiles; some of the data sets are now available to the scientific community through GeneLabs open science data website. A second long duration mission, Rodent Research-2 (RR-2) was completed on the ISS in 2015; 20 female C57BL6J mice were successfully maintained on the ISS for various durations, with the last group of 5 animals living on-orbit for 54 days. Furthermore, we continue to expand the ISSs capabilities by introducing new on-orbit technologies including blood collection and separation, bone densitometry scanning, muscle grip strength and anesthesia with recovery. In addition, series of ground-based verification testing to fly male mice and increase the total number of mice on-orbit from 20 to 40. Subsequent missions will provide the capability to return live mice from the ISS animals to evaluate recovery on Earth, further expanding operational and science capabilities of the RR project on the ISS.

  11. Reusable Rack Interface Controller Common Software for Various Science Research Racks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, George C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the EXPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station) rack project is to provide a set of predefined interfaces for scientific payloads which allow rapid integration into a payload rack on International Space Station (ISS). VxWorks' was selected as the operating system for the rack and payload resource controller, primarily based on the proliferation of VME (Versa Module Eurocard) products. These products provide needed flexibility for future hardware upgrades to meet everchanging science research rack configuration requirements. On the International Space Station, there are multiple science research rack configurations, including: 1) Human Research Facility (HRF); 2) EXPRESS ARIS (Active Rack Isolation System); 3) WORF (Window Observational Research Facility); and 4) HHR (Habitat Holding Rack). The RIC (Rack Interface Controller) connects payloads to the ISS bus architecture for data transfer between the payload and ground control. The RIC is a general purpose embedded computer which supports multiple communication protocols, including fiber optic communication buses, Ethernet buses, EIA-422, Mil-Std-1553 buses, SMPTE (Society Motion Picture Television Engineers)-170M video, and audio interfaces to payloads and the ISS. As a cost saving and software reliability strategy, the Boeing Payload Software Organization developed reusable common software where appropriate. These reusable modules included a set of low-level driver software interfaces to 1553B. RS232, RS422, Ethernet buses, HRDL (High Rate Data Link), video switch functionality, telemetry processing, and executive software hosted on the FUC computer. These drivers formed the basis for software development of the HRF, EXPRESS, EXPRESS ARIS, WORF, and HHR RIC executable modules. The reusable RIC common software has provided extensive benefits, including: 1) Significant reduction in development flow time; 2) Minimal rework and maintenance; 3) Improved reliability; and 4) Overall

  12. Construction of research wind-solar monitoring station 'North-East Bulgaria'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, Z.; Filipov, A.; Filipov, V.

    2008-01-01

    The rising energy prices, the lack of conventional energy sources, as well as the growing ecological problems, imposing the development of a new energy strategy of Bulgaria, are the prerequisites for the thorough researches in the field of wind-solar resources and the construction of experimental bases with modern equipment for the detailed investigations on the specificities of these resources with the view of their optimal utilization. The lack of homogenous covering of the territory of the country with meteorological stations, as well as the rather specific microclimatic conditions in the diverse physical-geographic localities in the country make the necessity of building experimental stations for meteo-monitoring under specific local conditions still more indispensable. This work presents the monitoring parameters of wind-solar resources in a real physical-geographic environment, for carrying out scientific-research, applied-practical and educational-training activity. A broad spectrum of scientific methods and approaches - instrumental, topographic, terrain, mathematical-statistical, numerical modeling, cartographic, educational and team-working, are envisaged for attaining the set objective. (author)

  13. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  14. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  15. Core outcome sets for research and clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Ostelo, Raymond W.; Turk, Dennis C.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Boers, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Background This masterclass introduces the topic of core outcome sets, describing rationale and methods for developing them, and providing some examples that are relevant for clinical research and practice. Method A core outcome set is a minimum consensus-based set of outcomes that should be

  16. Music Research in Inclusive School Settings: 1975 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellison, Judith A.; Draper, Ellary A.

    2015-01-01

    A search for music research in inclusive music school settings (1975-2013) resulted in 22 descriptive and experimental studies that can be classified and coded according to settings, participants, research variables, measures of generalization, and effectiveness of the interventions. Half of the studies reported data from both students with…

  17. International Space Station Research for the Next Decade: International Coordination and Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Sabbagh, Jean

    2011-01-01

    During 2011, the International Space Station reached an important milestone in the completion of assembly and the shift to the focus on a full and continuous utilization mission in space. The ISS partnership itself has also met a milestone in the coordination and cooperation of utilization activities including research, technology development and education. We plan and track all ISS utilization activities jointly and have structures in place to cooperate on common goals by sharing ISS assets and resources, and extend the impacts and efficiency of utilization activities. The basic utilization areas on the ISS include research, technology development and testing, and education/outreach. Research can be categorized as applied research for future exploration, basic research taking advantage of the microgravity and open space environment, and Industrial R&D / commercial research focused at industrial product development and improvement. Technology development activities range from testing of new spacecraft systems and materials to the use of ISS as an analogue for future exploration missions to destinations beyond Earth orbit. This presentation, made jointly by all ISS international partners, will highlight the ways that international cooperation in all of these areas is achieved, and the overall accomplishments that have come as well as future perspectives from the cooperation. Recently, the partnership has made special efforts to increase the coordination and impact of ISS utilization that has humanitarian benefits. In this context the paper will highlight tentative ISS utilization developments in the areas of Earth remote sensing, medical technology transfer, and education/outreach.

  18. AFSC/ABL: Little Port Walter Marine Research Station Supply Run Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In November, 2006, Oceanographic observations were initiated during the resupply cruises to the Little Port Walter Research Station on lower Baranof Island,...

  19. NASA/FAA North Texas Research Station Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    NTX Research Staion: NASA research assets embedded in an interesting operational air transport environment. Seven personnel (2 civil servants, 5 contractors). ARTCC, TRACON, Towers, 3 air carrier AOCs(American, Eagle and Southwest), and 2 major airports all within 12 miles. Supports NASA Airspace Systems Program with research products at all levels (fundamental to system level). NTX Laboratory: 5000 sq ft purpose-built, dedicated, air traffic management research facility. Established data links to ARTCC, TRACON, Towers, air carriers, airport and NASA facilities. Re-configurable computer labs, dedicated radio tower, state-of-the-art equipment.

  20. Impacts and societal benefits of research activities at Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. L.; Burkhart, J. F.; Courville, Z.; Dibb, J. E.; Koenig, L.; Vaughn, B. H.

    2017-12-01

    Summit Station began as the site for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core in 1989. Since then, it has hosted both summer campaign science, and since 1997, year-round observations of atmospheric and cryospheric processes. The station has been continuously occupied since 2003. While most of the science activities at the station are supported by the US NSF Office of Polar Programs, the station also hosts many interagency and international investigations in physical glaciology, atmospheric chemistry, satellite validation, astrophysics and other disciplines. Summit is the only high elevation observatory north of the Arctic circle that can provide clean air or snow sites. The station is part of the INTER-ACT consortium of Arctic research stations with the main objective to identify, understand, predict and respond to diverse environmental changes, and part of the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) that coordinates Arctic research activities and provides a networked, observations-based view of the Arctic. The Summit Station Science Summit, sponsored by NSF, assembled a multidisciplinary group of scientists to review Summit Station science, define the leading research questions for Summit, and make community-based recommendations for future science goals and governance for Summit. The impact of several on-going observation records was summarized in the report "Sustaining the Science Impact of Summit Station, Greenland," including the use of station data in weather forecasts and climate models. Observations made at the station as part of long-term, year-round research or during shorter summer-only campaign seasons contribute to several of the identified Social Benefit Areas (SBAs) outlined in the International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework published by the IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute and Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks as an outcome of the 2016 Arctic Science Ministerial. The SBAs supported by research

  1. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  2. Priority setting and health policy and systems research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health policy and systems research (HPSR has been identified as critical to scaling-up interventions to achieve the millennium development goals, but research priority setting exercises often do not address HPSR well. This paper aims to (i assess current priority setting methods and the extent to which they adequately include HPSR and (ii draw lessons regarding how HPSR priority setting can be enhanced to promote relevant HPSR, and to strengthen developing country leadership of research agendas. Priority setting processes can be distinguished by the level at which they occur, their degree of comprehensiveness in terms of the topic addressed, the balance between technical versus interpretive approaches and the stakeholders involved. When HPSR is considered through technical, disease-driven priority setting processes it is systematically under-valued. More successful approaches for considering HPSR are typically nationally-driven, interpretive and engage a range of stakeholders. There is still a need however for better defined approaches to enable research funders to determine the relative weight to assign to disease specific research versus HPSR and other forms of cross-cutting health research. While country-level research priority setting is key, there is likely to be a continued need for the identification of global research priorities for HPSR. The paper argues that such global priorities can and should be driven by country level priorities.

  3. Joint research for innovative turbo machines in power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedermann, Alexander [MAN Diesel und Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany). AG Turbo; Jeschke, Peter [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). AG Turbo; Goldschmidt, Dirk [SIEMENS AG, Muelheim a.d. Ruhr (Germany). AG Turbo

    2013-04-01

    AG Turbo, established about 25 years ago, is a platform where pre-competitive, application-oriented turbo machinery research in Germany is agreed and coordinated. Focus of the research is on turbo machines which are responsible for energy conversion in conventional fossil-fired or combined cycle power plants (CCGT), as well as compressor trains for capturing and transporting the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. At all stages of the technical process - from gas compression through combustion in gas turbine combustors to expansion in the turbine - innovations are needed to actually meet the targets for efficiency, reliability, as well as protection of the climate and environment. Research results achieved will be presented using selected examples and an outlook at future activities will be given.

  4. Research on leakage detection of nuclear power station primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Shengquan; Yang Jicai; Li Jianjun; Dong Zhijuan; Ren Juyan; Zhang Pinyuan

    1993-01-01

    The sensor of leak-detection system is a special humidity-sensitive element. In this system, the collection and treatment of detected data, and the leakage alarm are controlled by a simple board computer. The three parameters A, B and C are set up in this system, and the alarm will give out when signal surpasses values of B and C at the same time. The effects of environment humidity and temperature on collection of detected data are considered, and the leakage alarm is reliable. When the leakage rate of water at 320 degree C and 12.2 MPa is 0.3 g/min, the alarm signal will sent out within 5 s

  5. A solar observing station for education and research in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaname, José Iba, Ishitsuka; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Trigoso Avilés, Hugo; Takashi, Sakurai; Yohei, Nishino; Miyazaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Kazunari; Ueno, Satoru; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Maeda, George

    2007-12-01

    Since 1937 Carnegie Institution of Washington made observations of active regions of the Sun with a Hale type spectro-helioscope in Huancayo observatory of the Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP). IGP has contributed significantly to geophysical and solar sciences in the last 69 years. Now IGP and the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA) are planning to refurbish the coelostat at the observatory with the support of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. It is also planned to install a solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) at UNICA, from Hida observatory of Kyoto University. Along with the coelostat, the FMT will be useful to improve scientific research and education.

  6. Rocky Mountain Research Station 2008-2012 National Fire Plan Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika Gallegos

    2013-01-01

    This report highlights selected accomplishments by the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Wildland Fire and Fuels Research & Development projects in support of the National Fire Plan from 2008 through 2012. These projects are examples of the broad range of knowledge and tools developed by National Fire Plan funding beginning in 2008.

  7. Research on Application of Automatic Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyun, Chen; Yunfan, Sun; Chunyan, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the Internet of Things is briefly introduced, and then its application in the weather station is studied. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on NB-iot communication mode is proposed, Introduction of Internet of things technology, Sensor digital and independent power supply as the technical basis, In the construction of Automatic To realize the intelligent interconnection of the automatic weather station, and then to form an automatic weather station based on the Internet of things. A network structure of automatic weather station based on Internet of things technology is constructed to realize the independent operation of intelligent sensors and wireless data transmission. Research on networking data collection and dissemination of meteorological data, through the data platform for data analysis, the preliminary work of meteorological information publishing standards, networking of meteorological information receiving terminal provides the data interface, to the wisdom of the city, the wisdom of the purpose of the meteorological service.

  8. Research on comprehensive decision-making of PV power station connecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Erxiong; Xin, Chaoshan; Ma, Botao; Cheng, Kai

    2018-04-01

    In allusion to the incomplete indexes system and not making decision on the subjectivity and objectivity of PV power station connecting system, based on the combination of improved Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC) as well as grey correlation degree analysis (GCDA) is comprehensively proposed to select the appropriate system connecting scheme of PV power station. Firstly, indexes of PV power station connecting system are divided the recursion order hierarchy and calculated subjective weight by the improved AHP. Then, CRITIC is adopted to determine the objective weight of each index through the comparison intensity and conflict between indexes. The last the improved GCDA is applied to screen the optimal scheme, so as to, from the subjective and objective angle, select the connecting system. Comprehensive decision of Xinjiang PV power station is conducted and reasonable analysis results are attained. The research results might provide scientific basis for investment decision.

  9. Fire social science research from the Pacific Southwest research station: studies supported by national fire plan funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; James D. Absher; Patricia L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    Fire events often have a large impact on recreation and tourism, yet these issues had not been addressed from a social science perspective. To address his, the Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Work Unit (RWU) of the Pacific Southwest Research Station acquired funding through the National Fire Plan within the community assistance topic area. The three...

  10. Setting priorities for space research: An experiment in methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Space Studies Board created the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research to determine whether scientists should take a role in recommending priorities for long-term space research initiatives and, if so, to analyze the priority-setting problem in this context and develop a method by which such priorities could be established. After answering the first question in the affirmative in a previous report, the task group set out to accomplish the second task. The basic assumption in developing a priority-setting process is that a reasoned and structured approach for ordering competing initiatives will yield better results than other ways of proceeding. The task group proceeded from the principle that the central criterion for evaluating a research initiative must be its scientific merit -- the value of the initiative to the proposing discipline and to science generally. The group developed a two-stage methodology for priority setting and constructed a procedure and format to support the methodology. The first of two instruments developed was a standard format for structuring proposals for space research initiatives. The second instrument was a formal, semiquantitative appraisal procedure for evaluating competing proposals. This report makes available complete templates for the methodology, including the advocacy statement and evaluation forms, as well as an 11-step schema for a priority-setting process. From the beginning of its work, the task group was mindful that the issue of priority setting increasingly pervades all of federally supported science and that its work would have implications extending beyond space research. Thus, although the present report makes no recommendations for action by NASA or other government agencies, it provides the results of the task group's work for the use of others who may study priority-setting procedures or take up the challenge of implementing them in the future.

  11. Transit Station Congestion Index Research Based on Pedestrian Simulation and Gray Clustering Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A congestion phenomenon in a transit station could lead to low transfer efficiency as well as a hidden danger. Effective management of congestion phenomenon shall help to reduce the efficiency decline and danger risk. However, due to the difficulty in acquiring microcosmic pedestrian density, existing researches lack quantitative indicators to reflect congestion degree. This paper aims to solve this problem. Firstly, platform, stair, transfer tunnel, auto fare collection (AFC machine, and security check machine were chosen as key traffic facilities through large amounts of field investigation. Key facilities could be used to reflect the passenger density of a whole station. Secondly, the pedestrian density change law of each key traffic facility was analyzed using pedestrian simulation, and the load degree calculating method of each facility was defined, respectively, afterwards. Taking pedestrian density as basic data and gray clustering evaluation as algorithm, an index called Transit Station Congestion Index (TSCI was constructed to reflect the congestion degree of transit stations. Finally, an evaluation demonstration was carried out with five typical transit transfer stations in Beijing, and the evaluation results show that TSCI can objectively reflect the congestion degree of transit stations.

  12. Setting Priorities for Space Research: Opportunities and Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, John A.; Abelson, Philip H.; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Bishop, William P.; Byerly, Radford, Jr.; Crowe, Lawson; Dews, Peter; Garriott, Owen K.; Lunine, Jonathan; Macauley, Molly K.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents the first phase of a study by a task group convened by the Space Studies Board to ascertain whether it should attempt to develop a methodology for recommending priorities among the various initiatives in space research (that is, scientific activities concerned with phenomena in space or utilizing observations from space). The report argues that such priority statements by the space research community are both necessary and desirable and would contribute to the formulation and implementation of public policy. The report advocates the establishment of priorities to enhance effective management of the nation's scientific research program in space. It argues that scientific objectives and purposes should determine how and under what circumstances scientific research should be done. The report does not take a position on the controversy between advocates of manned space exploration and those who favor the exclusive use of unmanned space vehicles. Nor does the report address questions about the value or appropriateness of Space Station Freedom or proposals to establish a permanent manned Moon base or to undertake a manned mission to Mars. These issues lie beyond the charge to the task group.

  13. Research into Practice: Listening Strategies in an Instructed Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…

  14. Recreation settings, scenery, and visitor experiences: a research assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2007-01-01

    A core task of recreation research is to understand the relation between settings, scenery, and visitor experiences. This paper uses environmental psychology to describe four conceptual models underlying these relations: inherent/aesthetic, opportunity/goal-directed, symbolic, and expressive. The paper then describes some challenges to applying results to recreation...

  15. Spectrum of the cosmic background radiation: early and recent measurements from the White Mountain Research Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, G.F.

    1985-09-01

    The White Mountain Research Station has provided a support facility at a high, dry, radio-quiet site for measurements that have established the blackbody character of the cosmic microwave background radiation. This finding has confirmed the interpretation of the radiation as a relic of the primeval fireball and helped to establish the hot Big Bang theory as the standard cosmological model

  16. AEC sets five year nuclear safety research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research by the government for the establishment of means of judging the adequacy of safety measures incorporated in nuclear facilities, including setting safety standards and collecting documents of general criteria, and the research by the industry on safety measures and the promotion of safety-related technique are stated in the five year program for 1976-80 reported by subcommittees, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Four considerations on the research items incorporated in the program are 1) technical programs relating to the safety of nuclear facilities and the necessary criteria, 2) priority of the relevant items decided according to their impact on circumstances, urgency, the defence-indepth concept and so on, 3) consideration of all relevant data and documents collected, and research subjects necessary to quantify safety measurement, and 4) consideration of technological actualization, the capability of each research body, the budget and the time schedule. In addition, seven major themes decided on the basis of these points are 1) reactivity-initiated accident, 2) LOCA, 3) fuel behavior, 4) structural safety, 5) radioactive release, 6) statistical method of safety evaluation, and 7) seismic characteristics. The committee has deliberated the appropriate division of researches between the government and the industry. A set of tables showing the nuclear safety research plan for 1976-80 are attached. (Iwakiri, K.)

  17. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  18. Compatibility of the Space Station Freedom life sciences research centrifuge with microgravity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is developing a Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility for Space Station Freedom. In includes a 2.5-meter artificial gravity Bioresearch Centrifuge (BC), which is perhaps the most critical single element in the life sciences space research program. It rotates continuously at precise selectable rates, and utilizes advanced reliable technologies to reduce vibrations. Three disturbance types are analyzed using a current Space Station Freedom dynamic model in the 0.0 to 5.0 Hz range: sinusoidal, random, and transient. Results show that with proper selection of proven design techniques, BC vibrations are compatible with requirements.

  19. Life Sciences Research Facility automation requirements and concepts for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the methods and preliminary results of a study on prospects for the automation of the NASA Space Station's Life Sciences Research Facility. In order to remain within current Space Station resource allocations, approximately 85 percent of planned life science experiment tasks must be automated; these tasks encompass specimen care and feeding, cage and instrument cleaning, data acquisition and control, sample analysis, waste management, instrument calibration, materials inventory and management, and janitorial work. Task automation will free crews for specimen manipulation, tissue sampling, data interpretation and communication with ground controllers, and experiment management.

  20. The space station window observational research facility; a high altitude imaging laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runco, Susan K.; Eppler, Dean B.; Scott, Karen P.

    1999-01-01

    Earth Science will be one of the major research areas to be conducted on the International Space Station. The facilities from which this research will be accomplished are currently being constructed and will be described in this paper. By April 1999, the International Space Station nadir viewing research window fabrication will be completed and ready for installation. The window will provide a 20 inch (51 cm) diameter clear aperture. The three fused silica panes, which make up the window are fabricated such that the total peak-to-valley wavefront error in transmission through the three panes over any six inch diameter aperture does not exceed λ/7 where the reference wavelength is 632.8 nm. The window will have over 90% transmission between about 400 and 750, above 50% transmission between about 310 nm and 1375 nm and 40% transmission between 1386 nm and 2000 nm. The Window Operational Research Facility (WORF) is designed to accommodate payloads using this research window. The WORF will provide access to the International Space Station utilities such as data links, temperature cooling loops and power. Emphasis has been placed on the factors which will make this facility an optimum platform for conducting Earth science research

  1. Setting research strategy on electromagnetic-field pollution of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    General population and occupational groups are being exposed to electromagnetic field (EMF) nonionizing radiation that come from all electric or electronic equipment that work either with extremely low frequency (ELF) or radiofrequency (RF) fields. This preoccupation has generated research and regulation plans in some countries int he world, in order to set a clear configuration of bioeffects and other environmental implications derived from exposures to ELF/RF EMF

  2. Life Sciences Space Station planning document: A reference payload for the Life Sciences Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station, projected for construction in the early 1990s, will be an orbiting, low-gravity, permanently manned facility providing unprecedented opportunities for scientific research. Facilities for Life Sciences research will include a pressurized research laboratory, attached payloads, and platforms which will allow investigators to perform experiments in the crucial areas of Space Medicine, Space Biology, Exobiology, Biospherics and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). These studies are designed to determine the consequences of long-term exposure to space conditions, with particular emphasis on assuring the permanent presence of humans in space. The applied and basic research to be performed, using humans, animals, and plants, will increase our understanding of the effects of the space environment on basic life processes. Facilities being planned for remote observations from platforms and attached payloads of biologically important elements and compounds in space and on other planets (Exobiology) will permit exploration of the relationship between the evolution of life and the universe. Space-based, global scale observations of terrestrial biology (Biospherics) will provide data critical for understanding and ultimately managing changes in the Earth's ecosystem. The life sciences community is encouraged to participate in the research potential the Space Station facilities will make possible. This document provides the range and scope of typical life sciences experiments which could be performed within a pressurized laboratory module on Space Station.

  3. Incorporating current research into formal higher education settings using Astrobites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan E.; Kohler, Susanna; Faesi, Chris; Villar, Ashley; Zevin, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A primary goal of many undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the physical sciences is to prepare students to engage in scientific research or to prepare students for careers that leverage skillsets similar to those used by research scientists. Even for students who may not intend to pursue a career with these characteristics, exposure to the context of applications in modern research can be a valuable tool for teaching and learning. However, a persistent barrier to student participation in research is familiarity with the technical language, format, and context that academic researchers use to communicate research methods and findings with each other: the literature of the field. Astrobites, an online web resource authored by graduate students, has published brief and accessible summaries of more than 1300 articles from the astrophysical literature since its founding in 2010. This article presents three methods for introducing students at all levels within the formal higher education setting to approaches and results from modern research. For each method, we provide a sample lesson plan that integrates content and principles from Astrobites, including step-by-step instructions for instructors, suggestions for adapting the lesson to different class levels across the undergraduate and graduate spectrum, sample student handouts, and a grading rubric.

  4. Simulation of Martian EVA at the Mars Society Arctic Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, V.; Zubrin, R.; Quinn, K.

    The Mars Society has established a Mars Arctic Research Station (M.A.R.S.) on Devon Island, North of Canada, in the middle of the Haughton crater formed by the impact of a large meteorite several million years ago. The site was selected for its similarities with the surface of the Mars planet. During the Summer 2001, the MARS Flashline Research Station supported an extended international simulation campaign of human Mars exploration operations. Six rotations of six person crews spent up to ten days each at the MARS Flashline Research Station. International crews, of mixed gender and professional qualifications, conducted various tasks as a Martian crew would do and performed scientific experiments in several fields (Geophysics, Biology, Psychology). One of the goals of this simulation campaign was to assess the operational and technical feasibility of sustaining a crew in an autonomous habitat, conducting a field scientific research program. Operations were conducted as they would be during a Martian mission, including Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) with specially designed unpressurized suits. The second rotation crew conducted seven simulated EVAs for a total of 17 hours, including motorized EVAs with All Terrain Vehicles, to perform field scientific experiments in Biology and Geophysics. Some EVAs were highly successful. For some others, several problems were encountered related to hardware technical failures and to bad weather conditions. The paper will present the experiment programme conducted at the Mars Flashline Research Station, the problems encountered and the lessons learned from an EVA operational point of view. Suggestions to improve foreseen Martian EVA operations will be discussed.

  5. Meteorological observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, 2009 by the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhei Sugaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the results of meteorological observations carried out by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 at Syowa Station from February 2009 to January 2010. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by JARE-50 were similar to those used by JARE-49.  The most notable results are as follows.  1 Class-A blizzards, the heaviest storm class, were recorded 13 times. This frequency is the same as in 1978, which was the highest on record. A total of 29 blizzards (of various classes occurred in 2009, which is close to normal.  2 The maximum sustained wind speed of 47.4 m/s was recorded on 21 February 2009.  3 Tropospheric temperatures for May-July over Syowa Station were higher than normal, but temperatures in the lower stratosphere for August-October were lower than normal.  4 Total ozone over Syowa Station was less than 220 m atm-cm between the middle of August and the end of October. The minimum value in 2009 was 135 m atm-cm. Total ozone increased rapidly in November 2009 when the ozone-hole area decreased around Syowa Station.

  6. Meteorological observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, 2008 by the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideshi Yoshimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the result of meteorological observations at Syowa Station by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-49 during the period 1 February 2008 to 27 January 2009. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by the JARE-49 team are nearly the same as those used by the JARE-48 observation team. Remarkable weather phenomena observed during the period of JARE-49 are as follows. 1 On 1 September 2008, the record minimum temperature for September was observed in the upper atmosphere (pressure greater than 175 hPa. 2 The monthly mean temperature at Syowa Station during October 2008 was -17.5°C; this is the lowest monthly mean October temperature recorded at Syowa Station. 3 The total ozone over Syowa Station was less than or equal to 220 m atm-cm during the period from late August to late November, and was close to minimum levels during the period from mid-September to mid-October. The lowest total ozone in 2008, recorded on 16 October 2008, was 140 m atm-cm.

  7. Characterization and evaluation of five jaboticaba accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit of five Jaboticaba (Myrciaria caulifloria) cultivars ‘MC-05-06’, ‘MC-05-14’, ‘MC-05-12’, ‘MC-06-15,’ and ‘MC-06-14’ were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clona...

  8. Setting research priorities for patients on or nearing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Lillie, Erin; Dip, Sally Crowe P G; Cyr, Annette; Gladish, Michael; Large, Claire; Silverman, Howard; Toth, Brenda; Wolfs, Wim; Laupacis, Andreas

    2014-10-07

    With increasing emphasis among health care providers and funders on patient-centered care, it follows that patients and their caregivers should be included when priorities for research are being established. This study sought to identify the most important unanswered questions about the management of kidney failure from the perspective of adult patients on or nearing dialysis, their caregivers, and the health care professionals who care for these patients. Research uncertainties were identified through a national Canadian survey of adult patients on or nearing dialysis, their caregivers, and health care professionals. Uncertainties were refined by a steering committee that included patients, caregivers, researchers, and clinicians to assemble a short-list of the top 30 uncertainties. Thirty-four people (11 patients; five caregivers; eight physicians; six nurses; and one social worker, pharmacist, physiotherapist, and dietitian each) from across Canada subsequently participated in a workshop to determine the top 10 research questions. In total, 1570 usable research uncertainties were received from 317 respondents to the survey. Among these, 259 unique uncertainties were identified; after ranking, these were reduced to a short-list of 30 uncertainties. During the in-person workshop, the top 10 research uncertainties were identified, which included questions about enhanced communication among patients and providers, dialysis modality options, itching, access to kidney transplantation, heart health, dietary restrictions, depression, and vascular access. These can be used alongside the results of other research priority-setting exercises to guide researchers in designing future studies and inform health care funders. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindson, Nicola; Richards-Doran, Dan; Heath, Laura; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for tobacco cessation and prevention interventions. In 2016 TAG conducted a priority-setting, stakeholder engagement project to identify where further research is needed in the areas of tobacco control and smoking cessation. The project comprised two surveys and a workshop. A range of stakeholders participated, including members of the public (smokers and ex-smokers), clinicians, researchers, research funders, health-care commissioners and public health organizations. The first survey phase identified unanswered research questions in the field of tobacco control. The second phase asked participants to rank these, with overall rankings calculated by combining scores across participants. The workshop allowed attendees to discuss prioritization of topics and questions in more depth. Workshop discussions were transcribed and analysed thematically, and a final voting activity at the close of the workshop allowed participants to choose topics to prioritize and to de-prioritize. A total of 304 stakeholders (researchers, health professionals, smokers and ex-smokers, guideline developers, research funders and policymakers, representing 28 countries) identified 183 unanswered research questions. These were categorized into 15 research categories. A total of 175 participants prioritized categories and questions in the second survey phase, with 'electronic cigarettes'; 'addressing inequalities'; and 'mental health and other substance abuse' prioritized as the top three categories. Forty-three stakeholders attended the workshop and discussed reasons for and against category prioritization. Prioritized research categories largely mirrored those in the survey stage, although 'treatment delivery' also emerged as a key category. Five cross-cutting themes emerged: efficacy; relative efficacy; cost effectiveness; addressing inequalities; and different types of evidence. There are many unanswered

  10. Online Communication Settings and the Qualitative Research Process: Acclimating Students and Novice Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine

    2018-06-01

    In the last 20 years, qualitative research scholars have begun to interrogate methodological and analytic issues concerning online research settings as both data sources and instruments for digital methods. This article examines the adaptation of parts of a qualitative research curriculum for understanding online communication settings. I propose methodological best practices for researchers and educators that I developed while teaching research methods to undergraduate and graduate students across disciplinary departments and discuss obstacles faced during my own research while gathering data from online sources. This article confronts issues concerning the disembodied aspects of applying what in practice should be rooted in a humanistic inquiry. Furthermore, as some approaches to online qualitative research as a digital method grow increasingly problematic with the development of new data mining technologies, I will also briefly touch upon borderline ethical practices involving data-scraping-based qualitative research.

  11. In-space research, technology and engineering experiments and Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Richard; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Space Station will serve as a technology research laboratory, a payload-servicing facility, and a large structure fabrication and assembly facility. Space structures research will encompass advanced structural concepts and their dynamics, advanced control concepts, sensors, and actuators. Experiments dealing with fluid management will gather data on such fundamentals as multiphase flow phenomena. As requirements for power systems and thermal management grow, experiments quantifying the performance of energy systems and thermal management concepts will be undertaken, together with expanded efforts in the fields of information systems, automation, and robotics.

  12. Design and development of a Space Station proximity operations research and development mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity operations (Prox-Ops) on-orbit refers to all activities taking place within one km of the Space Station. Designing a Prox-Ops control station calls for a comprehensive systems approach which takes into account structural constraints, orbital dynamics including approach/departure flight paths, myriad human factors and other topics. This paper describes a reconfigurable full-scale mock-up of a Prox-Ops station constructed at Ames incorporating an array of windows (with dynamic star field, target vehicle(s), and head-up symbology), head-down perspective display of manned and unmanned vehicles, voice- actuated 'electronic checklist', computer-generated voice system, expert system (to help diagnose subsystem malfunctions), and other displays and controls. The facility is used for demonstrations of selected Prox-Ops approach scenarios, human factors research (work-load assessment, determining external vision envelope requirements, head-down and head-up symbology design, voice synthesis and recognition research, etc.) and development of engineering design guidelines for future module interiors.

  13. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  14. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  15. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B; Galsdorf, D; Herbst, K; Gieseler, J; Labrenz, J; Schwerdt, C; Walter, M; Benadé, G; Fuchs, R; Krüger, H; Moraal, H

    2015-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  16. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station - A New Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011 (Expeditions 0 through 30). International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results. From 2000-2011 is a collection of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/iss- science) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated by cooperation and linking with the results tracking activities of each partner. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. This content is obtained through extensive and regular journal and patent database searches, and input provided by the ISS international partners ISS scientists themselves. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It rejects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a

  17. Research on applicability of optical and digital technologies to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, Motonori

    1990-01-01

    Recently, the development of electronic technology represented by optical multiple transmission technology and digital technology is remarkable, and it is expected that this tendency advances further hereafter. The improvement of the reliability, operational performance and maintainability of nuclear power stations by applying these most advanced technologies to them has been desired. In this research, it was found that by the application of optical multiple transmission and digital technology to nuclear power stations, their operation by a small number of operators, the automation of work management and so on can be realized. Besides, it was found that as the major technologies of hereafter, the advance of artificial intelligence technology, rapid and large capacity information processing, the network of the computers of different types and others is necessary. Further, if these technologies are completed, the clarification of the requirement when those are actually applied to nuclear power stations is necessary, and it was found also that as the matters to be considered at that time, the extent of improvement of reliability, the reduction of risk at the time of the troubles of equipment and other fundamental matters must be clarified hereafter. (K.I.)

  18. Research on the Effects of Heterogeneity on Pedestrian Dynamics in Walkway of Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoling Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is to study the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics in walkway of subway station. We analyze the observed data of the selected facility and find that walking speed and occupied space were varied in the population. In reality, pedestrians are heterogeneous individuals with different attributes. However, the research on how the heterogeneity affects the pedestrian dynamics in facilities of subway stations is insufficient. The improved floor field model is therefore presented to explore the effects of heterogeneity. Pedestrians are classified into pedestrians walking in pairs, fast pedestrians, and ordinary pedestrians. For convenience, they are denoted as P-pedestrians, F-pedestrians, and O-pedestrians, respectively. The proposed model is validated under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. Three pedestrian compositions are simulated to analyze the effects of heterogeneity on pedestrian dynamics. The results show that P-pedestrians have negative effect and F-pedestrians have positive effect. All of the results in this paper indicate that the capacity of walkway is not a constant value. It changes with different component proportions of heterogeneous pedestrians. The heterogeneity of pedestrian has an important influence on the pedestrian dynamics in the walkway of the subway station.

  19. Rapid research and implementation priority setting for wound care uncertainties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trish A Gray

    Full Text Available People with complex wounds are more likely to be elderly, living with multimorbidity and wound related symptoms. A variety of products are available for managing complex wounds and a range of healthcare professionals are involved in wound care, yet there is a lack of good evidence to guide practice and services. These factors create uncertainty for those who deliver and those who manage wound care. Formal priority setting for research and implementation topics is needed to more accurately target the gaps in treatment and services. We solicited practitioner and manager uncertainties in wound care and held a priority setting workshop to facilitate a collaborative approach to prioritising wound care-related uncertainties.We recruited healthcare professionals who regularly cared for patients with complex wounds, were wound care specialists or managed wound care services. Participants submitted up to five wound care uncertainties in consultation with their colleagues, via an on-line survey and attended a priority setting workshop. Submitted uncertainties were collated, sorted and categorised according professional group. On the day of the workshop, participants were divided into four groups depending on their profession. Uncertainties submitted by their professional group were viewed, discussed and amended, prior to the first of three individual voting rounds. Participants cast up to ten votes for the uncertainties they judged as being high priority. Continuing in the professional groups, the top 10 uncertainties from each group were displayed, and the process was repeated. Groups were then brought together for a plenary session in which the final priorities were individually scored on a scale of 0-10 by participants. Priorities were ranked and results presented. Nominal group technique was used for generating the final uncertainties, voting and discussions.Thirty-three participants attended the workshop comprising; 10 specialist nurses, 10 district

  20. Rapid research and implementation priority setting for wound care uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumville, Jo C.; Christie, Janice; Cullum, Nicky A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction People with complex wounds are more likely to be elderly, living with multimorbidity and wound related symptoms. A variety of products are available for managing complex wounds and a range of healthcare professionals are involved in wound care, yet there is a lack of good evidence to guide practice and services. These factors create uncertainty for those who deliver and those who manage wound care. Formal priority setting for research and implementation topics is needed to more accurately target the gaps in treatment and services. We solicited practitioner and manager uncertainties in wound care and held a priority setting workshop to facilitate a collaborative approach to prioritising wound care-related uncertainties. Methods We recruited healthcare professionals who regularly cared for patients with complex wounds, were wound care specialists or managed wound care services. Participants submitted up to five wound care uncertainties in consultation with their colleagues, via an on-line survey and attended a priority setting workshop. Submitted uncertainties were collated, sorted and categorised according professional group. On the day of the workshop, participants were divided into four groups depending on their profession. Uncertainties submitted by their professional group were viewed, discussed and amended, prior to the first of three individual voting rounds. Participants cast up to ten votes for the uncertainties they judged as being high priority. Continuing in the professional groups, the top 10 uncertainties from each group were displayed, and the process was repeated. Groups were then brought together for a plenary session in which the final priorities were individually scored on a scale of 0–10 by participants. Priorities were ranked and results presented. Nominal group technique was used for generating the final uncertainties, voting and discussions. Results Thirty-three participants attended the workshop comprising; 10 specialist nurses

  1. Melding Research and Education in a Zoological Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Dustin

    The first zoo was opened in London in 1828 and was intended for scientific study, but was eventually opened to the public in 1847. Since then, public dogma has dictated the development, role, and standards concerning the use of animals across the zoological community. Too often there is disconnect between research programs, captive propagation, and public education. In the fight against human driven extinction of earth's flora and fauna, it is vital that these areas be aligned. Thus in an effort to unite research and education in a zoological setting, East Carolina University (ECU) and Sylvan Heights Bird Park (SHBP) have partnered for a collaborative project involving the study of evolution in the African brood parasitic finches (Viduidae), specifically he Pin-tailed Whydah (Vidua macroura). I attempt to quantify the educational impact of Avian Pirates and SHBP, and assess basic demographic factors that will allow insights into what areas of exhibit design pertain to education. It is important to understand what aspects of zoos facilitate visitor learning in areas of conservation and biodiversity. This is vital as Zoos are under new pressure to substantiate claims of education during visits.

  2. Lessons learned from setting up the NOWESP research data base: Experiences in an interdisciplinary research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radach, Günther; Gekeler, Jens

    1996-09-01

    Research carried out within the framework of the MAST project NOWESP (North-West European Shelf Programme) was based on a multi-parameter data set of existing marine data, relevant for estimating trends, variability and fluxes on the Northwest European Shelf. The data sets were provided by the partners of the project. Additional data sets were obtained from several other institutions. During the project, the data were organized in the NOWESP Research Data Base (NRDB), for which a special data base scheme was defined that was capable of storing different types of marine data. Data products, like time series and interpolated fields, were provided to the partners for analysis (Radach et al. [1997]). After three years of project time, the feasibility of such an approach is discussed. Ways of optimizing data access and evaluation are proposed. A project-oriented Research Data Base is a useful tool because of its flexibility and proximity to the research being carried out. However, several requirements must be met to derive optimum benefits from this type of service unit. Since this task usually is carried out by a limited number of staff, an early start of project data management is recommended. To enable future projects to succeed in an analogous compilation of relevant data for their use, as performed in NOWESP, the task of organizing the data sets for any short-term project should be shared between a research data base group and a national or international data centre whose experience and software could be used. It must be ensured that only quality controlled data sets from the individual data-produ cing projects are delivered to the national data centres. It is recommended that data quality control should be performed by the originators and/or data centres before delivering any data sets to the research data base. Delivery of the (full) data sets should be checked and their quality should be approved by authorized data centres.

  3. The Use of Water During the Crew 144, Mars Desert Research Station, Utah Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Well. from November 29th to December 14th, 2014, the author conducted astrobiological and geological surveys, as analog astronaut member of the international Crew 144, at the site of the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station, located at a remote location in the Utah desert, United States. The use of water for drinking, bathing, cleaning, etc., in the crew was a major issue for consideration for a human expedition to the planet Mars in the future. The author would like to tell about the factors of the rationalized use of water.

  4. Trend on research and development of maintenance robot for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Shoichi

    1990-01-01

    The expectations for nuclear power supply will increase more and more in future. In the field of maintenance, a robot was introduced in the early stages effecting the decrease of personal exposure, shortening of plantoutage, etc., which has significantly contributed to the stable power generation by nuclear power stations. Recently, a robot is expected to handle new applications for man-like maintenance work, too. The research and development for realization of robots having high-grade specified functions or multi-purpose is now being proceeded. This paper presents the recent situation of robots and the tendency of studies on advanced basic technology of robotics. (author)

  5. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  6. Data Collected in 1959 by English Research Vessels at Serial and Surface Hydrographic Stations (NODC Accession 6900852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present volume contains data collected in 1959 by English research vessels at serial and surface hydrographic stations. The data list are preceded by a number of...

  7. Congestion Quantification Using the National Performance Management Research Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia P. Sisiopiku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of transportation system performance is a key element of any transportation operation and planning strategy. Estimation of dependable performance measures relies on analysis of large amounts of traffic data, which are often expensive and difficult to gather. National databases can assist in this regard, but challenges still remain with respect to data management, accuracy, storage, and use for performance monitoring. In an effort to address such challenges, this paper showcases a process that utilizes the National Performance Management Research Data Set (NPMRDS for generating performance measures for congestion monitoring applications in the Birmingham region. The capabilities of the relational database management system (RDBMS are employed to manage the large amounts of NPMRDS data. Powerful visual maps are developed using GIS software and used to illustrate congestion location, extent and severity. Travel time reliability indices are calculated and utilized to quantify congestion, and congestion intensity measures are developed and employed to rank and prioritize congested segments in the study area. The process for managing and using big traffic data described in the Birmingham case study is a great example that can be replicated by small and mid-size Metropolitan Planning Organizations to generate performance-based measures and monitor congestion in their jurisdictions.

  8. Considering Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level for Anticipatable Incidental Findings from Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Osorno, Alberto Betto; Ehler, Linda A; Brooks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Determining what constitutes an anticipatable incidental finding (IF) from clinical research and defining whether, and when, this IF should be returned to the participant have been topics of discussion in the field of human subject protections for the last 10 years. It has been debated that implementing a comprehensive IF-approach that addresses both the responsibility of researchers to return IFs and the expectation of participants to receive them can be logistically challenging. IFs have been debated at different levels, such as the ethical reasoning for considering their disclosure or the need for planning for them during the development of the research study. Some authors have discussed the methods for re-contacting participants for disclosing IFs, as well as the relevance of considering the clinical importance of the IFs. Similarly, other authors have debated about when IFs should be disclosed to participants. However, no author has addressed how the "actionability" of the IFs should be considered, evaluated, or characterized at the participant's research setting level. This paper defines the concept of "Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level" (APRSL) for anticipatable IFs from clinical research, discusses some related ethical concepts to justify the APRSL concept, proposes a strategy to incorporate APRSL into the planning and management of IFs, and suggests a strategy for integrating APRSL at each local research setting. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Life Sciences Research in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Plaut, Karen; Meeker, Gabrielle B.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Centrifuge Accommodation Module (CAM) will be the home of the fundamental biology research facilities on the International Space Station (ISS). These facilities are being built by the Biological Research Project (BRP), whose goal is to oversee development of a wide variety of habitats and host systems to support life sciences research on the ISS. The habitats and host systems are designed to provide life support for a variety of specimens including cells, bacteria, yeast, plants, fish, rodents, eggs (e.g., quail), and insects. Each habitat contains specimen chambers that allow for easy manipulation of specimens and alteration of sample numbers. All habitats are capable of sustaining life support for 90 days and have automated as well as full telescience capabilities for sending habitat parameters data to investigator homesite laboratories. The habitats provide all basic life support capabilities including temperature control, humidity monitoring and control, waste management, food, media and water delivery as well as adjustable lighting. All habitats will have either an internal centrifuge or are fitted to the 2.5-meter diameter centrifuge allowing for variable centrifugation up to 2 g. Specimen chambers are removable so that the specimens can be handled in the life sciences glovebox. Laboratory support equipment is provided for handling the specimens. This includes a compound and dissecting microscope with advanced video imaging, mass measuring devices, refrigerated centrifuge for processing biological samples, pH meter, fixation and complete cryogenic storage capabilities. The research capabilities provided by the fundamental biology facilities will allow for flexibility and efficiency for long term research on the International Space Station.

  10. Gaseous Non-Premixed Flame Research Planned for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Dennis P.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Hickman, J. Mark; Suttles, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, studies of gaseous diffusion flames on the International Space Station (ISS) have been limited to research conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in mid-2009 and early 2012. The research was performed with limited instrumentation, but novel techniques allowed for the determination of the soot temperature and volume fraction. Development is now underway for the next experiments of this type. The Advanced Combustion via Microgravity Experiments (ACME) project consists of five independent experiments that will be conducted with expanded instrumentation within the stations Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). ACMEs goals are to improve our understanding of flame stability and extinction limits, soot control and reduction, oxygen-enriched combustion which could enable practical carbon sequestration, combustion at fuel lean conditions where both optimum performance and low emissions can be achieved, the use of electric fields for combustion control, and materials flammability. The microgravity environment provides longer residence times and larger length scales, yielding a broad range of flame conditions which are beneficial for simplified analysis, e.g., of limit behaviour where chemical kinetics are important. The detailed design of the modular ACME hardware, e.g., with exchangeable burners, is nearing completion, and it is expected that on-orbit testing will begin in 2016.

  11. Research on the waiting time of passengers and escalator energy consumption at the railway station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wei-wu; Liu, Xiao-yan; Li, Liqing; Shi, Xiangnan; Zhou, Chenn Q. [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Based on the Little Formula and the classical queuing model of multi-channel M vertical stroke D vertical stroke n, the relation of the average queue length, the maximum waiting time and the escalator service intensity were identified and the waiting time simulation model was established. With the passenger delivery data at A railway station in China and the probability distribution model of waiting time, a detailed analysis was made on the escalator allocation, power and energy consumption on holidays, ordinary working days and the largest-passengers-volume days; meanwhile, the fixed and variable energy consumption were compared and studied when the waiting time are 5, 10 and 30 s. The result shows that the waiting time settings affect the allocation and the energy consumption of the escalators and the fixed energy consumption takes 70%. (author)

  12. Cacao genetic resources research at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current USDA ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station’s (TARS) cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, consists of 262 clonally propagated accessions. Each accession is represented by six individual trees grafted onto a common ‘Amelonado’ seedling rootstock and planted ...

  13. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  14. Setting up charging electric stations within residential communities in current China: Gaming of government agencies and property management companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tian; Ma, Lin; Mao, Zhonggen; Ou, Xunmin

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of charging electric vehicles (EVs) is now hindering their further development. Governments generally choose to build stations for home charging (including piles) within residential communities. Given the conflict of interest between various government agencies and property management companies, constructing a charging station within residential communities would result in welfare loss for the property management companies and therefore lead to the principal–agent problem. This paper constructs a two-period imperfect information game theory model to study the moral hazard involved in this issue and government agencies' optimal choice. In the analytic solution of the model, we find that the optimal choice for a farsighted government agency is to constantly improve the incentive mechanism and introduce charging stations only when the conflict of interest is eliminated. Any benefits derived from government regulations by force would prove short-lived. The government should focus on long-term returns in the development of EVs, and its optimal mechanism should be designed to mitigate the principal–agent problem of property management companies, thereby accelerate the progress of EV charging infrastructure and improve overall social welfare. - Highlights: • The charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is hindering their use. • A game theory model is used for analysis of EV charging station construction. • Charging stations are in residential communities in China. • Government agencies are constantly improving incentive mechanisms

  15. A Solar Station for Education and Research on Solar Activity at a National University in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, J. K.

    2006-11-01

    pepe@geo.igp.gob.pe Beginning in 1937, the Carnegie Institution of Washington made active regional observations with a spectro-helioscope at the Huancayo Observatory. In 1957, during the celebration of the International Geophysical Year Mutsumi Ishitsuka arrived at the Geophysical Institute of Peru and restarted solar observations from the Huancayo Observatory. Almost 69 years have passed and many contributions for the geophysical and solar sciences have been made. Now the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), in cooperation with the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA), and with the support of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, are planning to construct a solar station refurbishing a coelostat that worked for many years at the Huancayo Observatory. A 15 cm refractor telescope is already installed at the university, for the observation of sunspots. A solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) from Hida Observatory of Kyoto University could be sent to Peru and installed at the solar station at UNICA. As the refurbished coelostat, FMT will become a good tool to improve education and research in sciences.

  16. Thermohydraulic and safety analysis on China advanced research reactor under station blackout accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan; Liu Xingmin; Zhang Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    A thermohydraulic and safety analysis code-TSACC has been developed using Fortran90 language to evaluate the transient thermohydraulic behavior of the China advanced research reactor (CARR) under station blackout accident (SBA). For the development of TSACC, a series of corresponding mathematical and physical models were applied. Point reactor neutron kinetics model was adopted for solving the reactor power. All possible flow and heat transfer conditions under station blackout accident were considered and the optional correlations were supplied. The usual finite difference method was abandoned and the integral technique was adopted to evaluate the temperature field of the plate type fuel elements. A new simple and convenient equation was proposed for the resolution of the transient behaviors of the main pump instead of the complicated four-quadrant model. Gear method and Adams method were adopted alternately for a better solution to the stiff differential equations describing the dynamic behavior of the CARR. The computational result of TSACC showed the adequacy of the safety margin of CARR under SBA. For the purpose of Verification and Validation (V and V), the simulated results of TSACC were compared with those of RELAP5/MOD3 and a good agreement was obtained. The adoption of modular programming techniques enables TASCC to be applied to other reactors by easily modifying the corresponding function modules

  17. Seminar | "Managing Italian research stations at the Poles" by Roberto Sparapani | 19 February

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Polar areas are an ideal place to study climate change and other research fields. However, living and working at the Poles is a challenge for all the researchers involved. This presentation by Roberto Sparapani, who led the Italian research station Dirigibile Italia at Ny-Ålesund from 1997 to 2014, will take a short trip through the research and history of polar science - with a focus on the human factor, which makes a difference in a natural environment that leaves no room for improvisation.   The seminar will be held on 19 February at 4.30 p.m. in the Main Auditorium. It will be followed by a screening of Paola Catapano’s documentary for RAIWORLD “A Nord di Capo nord” (North of Cape North), in Italian with English subtitles. The documentary was given the "Artistic Direction Special Award" at the Rome Scientific Documentary Festival in December 2014. Ny-Ålesund is a small international research village located in the northwest ...

  18. Saving a Unique Data Set for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, D.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian/US International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program included the four satellites Alouette 1 and 2, ISIS 1 and 2 launched in 1962, 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively and in operation for 10, 10, 21, and 19 years, respectively. The core experiment on these satellites was a topside sounder that could determine the ionospheric electron density from the orbit altitude down to about 250-500 km near where the ionosphere reaches its point of highest density, the F-peak. The mission was long lasting and highly successful, producing a wealth of information about the topside ionosphere in the form of analog ionosphere soundings on 7-track tapes. The analysis process required a tedious manual scaling of ionogram traces that could then, with appropriate software, be converted into electron density profiles. Even with the combined effort involving ionospheric groups from many countries only a relatively small percentage of the huge volume of recorded ionograms could be converted to electron density profiles. Even with this limited number significant new insights were achieved documented by the many Alouette/ISIS-related papers published in the 1960s and 1970s. Recognizing the importance of this unique data set for space weather research a new effort was undertaken in the late Nineties to analyze more of the Alouette/ISIS ionograms. The immediate cause for action was the threat to the more than 100,000 analog telemetry tapes in storage in Canada because of space limitations and storage costs. We were able to have nearly 20,000 tapes shipped to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for analog-to-digital conversion and succeeded in developing software that automatically scales and converts the ionograms to electron density profiles. This rescue effort is still ongoing and has already produced a significant increase in the information available for the topside ionosphere and has resulted in numerous publications. The data have led to improvements of the

  19. Ethical issues in family violence research in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Eija; Lepistö, Sari; Flinck, Aune

    2014-02-01

    Research ethics is always important. However, it is especially crucial with sensitive research topics such as family violence. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some crucial issues regarding intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, based on the authors' own research experiences. We focus on and discuss examples concerning the definition of family violence, research design, ethical approval, participant recruitment and safety and data collection and processing. During the research process, the significance of teamwork is emphasized. Support provided by the participants to each other and support given by experienced researchers within the team is very important for high ethical standards.

  20. Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera ; Chrysomelidae) in the Campus and Agricultural Research Stations of Chiang Mai University, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, S; Tayutivutukul, J; Nakamura, H

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative surveys of leaf beetles were conducted at 5 survey sites (Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Staion, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb of Chiang Mai City) in Chiang Mai, Thailand using sweeping and beating methods from October 19th to October 30th, 2003. A total of 24 species of 8 subfamilies was collected from five survey sites ; 11 species, 3 species, 2 species, 11 species, 4 species from Chiang Mai University, Mae Hia Station, Chang Kien Station, Nong Hoi Station, Suburb...

  1. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacint Balaguer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes, brand, location (latitude and longitude, and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016, “Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity” [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses.

  2. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  3. Causes of Rabbit Mortality at Mankon Research Station, Cameroon (1983-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nfi, AN.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the causes of mortality in rabbits raised at the Institute of Zootechnical and Veterinary Research Station (IRZV Mankon between 1983-1987. Three breeds of rabbits the Californian, the New Zealand White and their crosses with local rabbits were used in the study. Within the period under review, all dead animals were necropsied and faecal and gastro-intestinal tract samples were examined in the laboratory. It was shown that high mortalities in rabbits were due to snuffles, pneumonia, mucoid enteritis, coccidiosis, mange, enterotoxaemia and Tyzzer's disease. 3060 rabbits died of various diseases comprising 1591 (52 % kittens, 1220 (39.7 % fryers and 280 (9.2 % adults. Kitten mortality compared to fryer and adult was highest ail through the period of study.

  4. Evaluation of speech recognizers for use in advanced combat helicopter crew station research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army Crew Station Research and Development Facility uses vintage 1984 speech recognizers. An evaluation was performed of newer off-the-shelf speech recognition devices to determine whether newer technology performance and capabilities are substantially better than that of the Army's current speech recognizers. The Phonetic Discrimination (PD-100) Test was used to compare recognizer performance in two ambient noise conditions: quiet office and helicopter noise. Test tokens were spoken by males and females and in isolated-word and connected-work mode. Better overall recognition accuracy was obtained from the newer recognizers. Recognizer capabilities needed to support the development of human factors design requirements for speech command systems in advanced combat helicopters are listed.

  5. Technology development activities for housing research animals on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeffrey W.; Garin, Vladimir M.; Nguyen, Frank D.

    1991-01-01

    The development and design of animal facilities are described in terms of the technological needs for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory. Animal habitats are presented with illustrations which encompass waste-collection techniques for microgravity conditions that reduce the need for crew participation. The technology is intended to be highly compatible with animal morphology, and airflow is employed as the primary mechanism of waste control. The airflow can be utilized in the form of localized high-speed directed flow that simultaneously provides a clean animal habitat and low airflow rates. The design of an animal-habitat testbed is presented which capitalizes on contamination-control mechanisms and suitable materials for microgravity conditions. The developments in materials and technologies represent significant contributions for the design of the centrifuge facilities for the Space Station Freedom.

  6. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  7. Research culture in a regional allied health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Research evidence is required to guide best practice, inform policy and improve the health of communities. Current indicators consider allied health research culture to be low. This study aimed to measure the allied health research culture and capacity in a Victorian regional health service. The Research Capacity and Culture tool was used to evaluate research capacity and culture across individual, team and organisation domains. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences between allied health professions, whereas responses to open-ended questions were themed using open coding. One hundred thirty-six allied health professionals completed the survey. There were statistically significant differences in the organisation domain between social work, physiotherapy and occupational therapy professions; in the team domain, between social work and all other professions. Motivators for conducting research included providing a high-quality service, developing skills and increasing job satisfaction. Barriers included other work roles taking priority, a lack of time and limited research skills. Multi-layered strategies including establishing conjoint research positions are recommended to increase allied health research culture in this regional area.

  8. Ready! Set! Go! An Action Research Agenda for Software Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Schougaard, Kari Rye

    2008-01-01

    Software architecture practice is highly complex. Software architects interact with business as well as technical aspects of systems, often embedded in large and changing organizations. We first make an argument that an appropriate research agenda for understanding, describing, and changing...... architectural practice in this context is based on an action research agenda in which researchers use ethnographic techniques to understand practice and engages directly with and in practice when proposing and designing new practices. Secondly, we present an overview of an ongoing project which applies action...... research techniques to understand and potentially change architectural practice in four Danish software companies....

  9. A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Lebre Direito, M.S.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Marees, A.; Staats, M.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Humankind's innate curiosity makes us wonder whether life is or was present on other planetary bodies such as Mars. The EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign was organized at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) to perform multidisciplinary astrobiology research. MDRS in southeast Utah is situated in a cold

  10. Water shortage and drought monitoring in Bačka region (Vojvodina, North Serbia: Setting-up measurement stations network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and drought, as the most important hydro-climatic hazards, cause significant damages in case of most continents including SE Europe. An experimental field established in Bačka region (Vojvodina Autonomous Province, North Serbia for the purpose of droughts/water shortage monitoring and remote sensing under ongoing IPA project 'Water shortage hazard and adaptive water management strategies in the Hungarian-Serbian cross-border region' (WAHASTRAT. The main objective of this project is to determine water shortage con­flicts on a local and regional level, and to reveal the frequency, extent and severity of future hydro-cli­matic hazards. The locations of eight measurement stations selected on the principle of representativeness in term of terrain configuration and soil cover. An area in which measurement stations were placed, covers about 1000 km2 (12% of total area of Bačka and includes geomorphic units which reliable represent the relief of the whole Bačka region. Measurement stations were placed on 4 out of 5 most common soil types in the Bačka and Vojvodina: chernozem, alluvial soils, smonitza and saline and alkali soils. A measurement equipment system was constructed for the requirements of the WAHASTRAT project. The aim was to design a user-friendly and affordable IT solution, which would enable continuous re­mote monitoring of meteorological parameters and soil moisture. Independent solar-powered meas­urement stations are able to automatically measure air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind di­rection, precipitation and soil moisture.

  11. Cyber-Bullying in School Settings: A Research Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research on the topic of cyber-bullying has proliferated over the past decade, particularly on its impact on school-aged children. Thus, it would be of interest to examine the scope and extent of research interest in the topic in scholarly publications. This paper reports on a reference citation analysis of the database PsycINFO, using…

  12. Biodiversity research sets sail: showcasing the diversity of marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J

    2009-04-23

    The World Congress on Marine Biodiversity was held in the City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia, from 10 to 15 November 2008, showcasing research on all aspects of marine biodiversity from basic taxonomic exploration to innovative conservation strategies and methods to integrate research into environmental policy.

  13. A solar station in Ica - Mutsumi Ishitsuka: a research center to improve education at the university and schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Ramos, Raúl

    2012-07-01

    The San Luis Gonzaga National University of Ica has built a solar station, in collaboration with the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and the Hida Observatory. The Solar Station has the following equipment: a digital Spectrograph Solar Refractor Telescope Takahashi 15 cm aperture, 60 cm reflector telescope aperture, a magnetometer-MAGDAS/CPNM and a Burst Monitor Telescope Solar-FMT (Project CHAIN). These teams support the development of astronomical science and Ica in Peru, likewise contributing to science worldwide. The development of basic science will be guaranteed when university students, professors and researchers work together. The Solar Station will be useful for studying the different levels of university education and also for the general public. The Solar Station will be a good way to spread science in the region through public disclosure.

  14. Personal care products and steroid hormones in the Antarctic coastal environment associated with two Antarctic research stations, McMurdo Station and Scott Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emnet, Philipp; Gaw, Sally; Northcott, Grant; Storey, Bryan; Graham, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are a major source of micropollutants to the aquatic environment. Despite intense research on the fate and effects of PPCPs in temperate climates, there is a paucity of data on their presence in polar environments. This study reports the presence of selected PPCPs in sewage effluents from two Antarctic research stations, the adjacent coastal seawater, sea ice, and biota. Sewage effluents contained bisphenol-A, ethinylestradiol, estrone, methyl triclosan, octylphenol, triclosan, and three UV-filters. The maximum sewage effluent concentrations of 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor, benzophenone-1, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and octylphenol exceeded concentrations previously reported. Coastal seawaters contained bisphenol-A, octylphenol, triclosan, three paraben preservatives, and four UV-filters. The sea ice contained a similar range and concentration of PPCPs as the seawater. Benzophenone-3 (preferential accumulation in clams), estradiol, ethinylestradiol, methyl paraben (preferential accumulation in fish, with concentrations correlating negatively with fillet size), octylphenol, and propyl paraben were detected in biota samples. PPCPs were detected in seawater and biota at distances up to 25 km from the research stations WWTP discharges. Sewage effluent discharges and disposal of raw human waste through sea ice cracks have been identified as sources of PPCPs to Antarctic coastal environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL in the United States (US and United Kingdom (UK was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1 refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2 HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3 developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest.

  16. Social Relations of Fieldwork: Giving Back in a Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The project of this special issue emerged from the guest editors' experiences as field researchers in sub-Saharan Africa. During this time both researchers faced the difficult question of "giving back" to the communities in which, and with whom, they worked—communities that were often far less privileged than the researchers were in terms of wealth, mobility, education, and access to health care. Returning from their field sites, both researchers felt a combination of guilt and frustration that they had not done enough or had not done things right. Thus emerged the idea of bringing together a group of researchers, from a range of disciplines, to discuss the topic of giving back in field research. This editorial describes the idea and process that led to the present collection of articles. The guest editors situate the project in the literature on feminist studies and briefly summarize each of the four thematic sections in this special issue. They conclude by emphasizing that their collection is not a guide to giving back. Rather than lay out hard and fast rules about what, how much, and to whom field researchers should give, their collection offers a series of examples and considerations for giving back in fieldwork.

  17. Innovations in research ethics governance in humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopper, Doris; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross; Ahmad, Aasim; Jesani, Amar; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Segelid, Michael J; Sheel, Sunita; Singh, Jerome

    2015-02-26

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is one of the world's leading humanitarian medical organizations. The increased emphasis in MSF on research led to the creation of an ethics review board (ERB) in 2001. The ERB has encouraged innovation in the review of proposals and the interaction between the ERB and the organization. This has led to some of the advances in ethics governance described in this paper. We first update our previous work from 2009 describing ERB performance and then highlight five innovative practices: • A new framework to guide ethics review • The introduction of a policy exempting a posteriori analysis of routinely collected data • The preapproval of "emergency" protocols • General ethical approval of "routine surveys" • Evaluating the impact of approved studies. The new framework encourages a conversation about ethical issues, rather than imposing quasi-legalistic rules, is more engaged with the specific MSF research context and gives greater prominence to certain values and principles. Some of the innovations implemented by the ERB, such as review exemption or approval of generic protocols, may run counter to many standard operating procedures. We argue that much standard practice in research ethics review ought to be open to challenge and revision. Continued interaction between MSF researchers and independent ERB members has allowed for progressive innovations based on a trustful and respectful partnership between the ERB and the researchers. In the future, three areas merit particular attention. First, the impact of the new framework should be assessed. Second, the impact of research needs to be defined more precisely as a first step towards being meaningfully assessed, including changes of impact over time. Finally, the dialogue between the MSF ERB and the ethics committees in the study countries should be enhanced. We hope that the innovations in research ethics governance described may be relevant for other organisations carrying out

  18. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  19. Feasibility of Conducting Autism Biomarker Research in the Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sices, Laura; Pawlowski, Katherine; Farfel, Laura; Phillips, Deirdre; Howe, Yamini; Cochran, David M; Choueiri, Roula; Forbes, Peter W; Brewster, Stephanie J; Frazier, Jean A; Neumeyer, Ann; Bridgemohan, Carolyn

    2017-09-01

    Recruitment and completion of research activities during regular clinical care has the potential to increase research participation in complex neurodevelopmental disorders. We evaluated the feasibility, and effect on clinical care, of conducting biomarker research within a subspecialty clinical visit for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children, aged 5 to 10 years, were recruited by providers in ASD clinics at 5 institutions. Biomarkers collected were growth measurements, head circumference, neurologic and dysmorphology examinations, digit ratio (2D:4D) measurement, and platelet serotonin and urinary melatonin sulfate excretion levels. Parents completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community and a medical/demographic questionnaire. Cognitive level was abstracted from the medical record. Parents and clinicians completed surveys on the effect of the study on the clinical visit. Eighty-three children and their caregivers participated. Factors limiting participation included difficulty reaching families by phone and parent concern about the study blood draw requirement. All children completed at least 4 of 7 planned research activities. Demographic factors, educational placement, and child behavior were not associated with completion of study activities. Lower nonverbal cognitive function was weakly associated with fewer activities completed. Forty-four percent of clinicians reported an effect of the research study on the clinical visit. However, neither parent-reported nor clinician-reported effect was associated with the degree of study activity completion. Recruiting study participants in the context of scheduled ASD clinical visits required significant effort. However, once recruited, participants completed most study activities, regardless of behavioral symptom severity. Research activities did not adversely affect the clinical visit.

  20. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  1. Negotiating Peer Mentoring Roles in Undergraduate Research Lab Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Becky W.; Marciano, Vincenza N.; Payne, Jessica M.; Bledzki, Leszek A.; Woodard, Craig T.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research is viewed as an important catalyst for educational engagement and persistence, with an emphasis on the faculty mentoring relationship. Despite the common practice of having multi-tiered lab teams composed of newer undergraduates and more seasoned undergraduates serving as peer mentors, less is understood about the experience…

  2. Case Studies of Action Research in Various Adult Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)

  3. Accelerating String Set Matching in FPGA Hardware for Bioinformatics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Shane C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes techniques for accelerating the performance of the string set matching problem with particular emphasis on applications in computational proteomics. The process of matching peptide sequences against a genome translated in six reading frames is part of a proteogenomic mapping pipeline that is used as a case-study. The Aho-Corasick algorithm is adapted for execution in field programmable gate array (FPGA devices in a manner that optimizes space and performance. In this approach, the traditional Aho-Corasick finite state machine (FSM is split into smaller FSMs, operating in parallel, each of which matches up to 20 peptides in the input translated genome. Each of the smaller FSMs is further divided into five simpler FSMs such that each simple FSM operates on a single bit position in the input (five bits are sufficient for representing all amino acids and special symbols in protein sequences. Results This bit-split organization of the Aho-Corasick implementation enables efficient utilization of the limited random access memory (RAM resources available in typical FPGAs. The use of on-chip RAM as opposed to FPGA logic resources for FSM implementation also enables rapid reconfiguration of the FPGA without the place and routing delays associated with complex digital designs. Conclusion Experimental results show storage efficiencies of over 80% for several data sets. Furthermore, the FPGA implementation executing at 100 MHz is nearly 20 times faster than an implementation of the traditional Aho-Corasick algorithm executing on a 2.67 GHz workstation.

  4. The "Martian" flora: new collections of vascular plants, lichens, fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria from the Mars Desert Research Station, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freebury, Colin E.; Hamilton, Paul B.; Saarela, Jeffery M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on the endolithic chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the identification of a fungal genus also based on these collections. Altogether, we recorded 38 vascular plant species from 14 families, 13 lichen species from seven families, six algae taxa including both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and one fungal genus from the station and surrounding area. We discuss this floristic diversity in the context of the ecology of the nearby San Rafael Swell and the desert areas of Wayne and Emery counties in southeastern Utah. PMID:27350765

  5. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. T. Nguyen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS, northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3 might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10–30 nm in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those

  6. Impact of human activities on the concentration of indoor air particles in an antarctic research station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Coelho Pagel

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main characteristics of Antarctic buildings is the fact that they are designed mostly with a focus on energy efficiency. Although human activity is a major source of pollution, indoor air quality is not a matter of significant concern during building planning. This study examines the relationship between indoor activities in an Antarctic Research Station and the size distribution of particulate matter. Real-time particle size distribution data is used in conjunction with time-activity data. The activity number ratio is calculated using the mean number of particles found in each size range during each activity divided by the average number of particles found during a period characterized by the absence of human activities. Cooking, the use of cosmetics, waste incineration and exhaust from light vehicles were responsible for significant deterioration of indoor air related to the presence of fine and ultrafine particles. Cleaning, physical exercise and the movement of people were responsible for the emission of coarse particles. This article emphasizes the importance of post-occupancy evaluation of buildings, generating results relevant to the planning and layout of new buildings, especially regarding better indoor air quality.

  7. Research on dose setting for radiation sterilization of medical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongcheng; Liu Qingfang; Zhong Hongliang; Mi Zhisu; Wang Chunlei; Jiang Jianping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish the radiation sterilization dose for medical devices using data of bioburden on the medical device. Methods: Firstly determination of recovery ratio and correction coefficient of the microbiological test method was used according to ISO11737 standard, then determination of bioburden on the products, finally the dose setting was completed based on the Method 1 in ISO11137 standard. Results: Fifteen kinds of medical devices were tested. Bioburden range was from 8.6-97271.2 CFU/device, recovery ration range 54.6%-100%, correction co-efficiency range 1.00-1.83, D 10 distribution from 1.40 to 2.82 kGy, verification dose (dose at SAL = 10 -2 ) range 5.1-17.6 kGy and sterilization dose (dose at SAL 10 -6 ) range 17.5-32.5 kGy. Conclusion: One hundred samples of each kind of product were exposed to the pre-determined verification dose and then the sterility test was performed. Each sterility test showed positive number was not greater than two. This indicated that the sterilization dose established for each kind of product was statistically acceptable

  8. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-08-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to innovate research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. A year into the life of this cooperative agreement, we note the following achievements: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (A) Software and hardware upgrades to the data logger for the prototype vertical line array, including enhanced programmable gains, increased sampling rates, improved surface communications, (B) Cabling upgrade to allow installation of positioning sensors, (C) Adaptation of SDI's Angulate program to use acoustic slant ranges and DGPS data to compute and map the bottom location of the vertical array, (D) Progress in T''0'' delay and timing issues for improved control in data recording, (E) Successful deployment and recovery of the VLA twice during an October, 2003 cruise, once in 830m water, once in 1305m water, (F) Data collection and recovery from the DATS

  9. Socialization into science: An ethnographic study in a field research station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calovini, Theresa Ann

    While the place of language in building the tasks and activities of the science classroom has received attention in the education literature, how students do the work of affiliation building through language remains poorly understood. This dissertation is based on ethnographic research in an apprenticeship learning situation at a biological field research station. I carried out this research with five undergraduates apprentices. I focus on how the language used in this apprenticeship situation positioned the apprentices with science. Issues of access and diversity in science education have motivated this research but this point can be missed because the five apprentices were all fairly successful in university science. They had all secured their job for the summer as paid research assistants. Yet, even with these successful students, science had a complicated place in their lives. I draw on Gee's (1999) notion of Discourse to understand this complexity. I focus on four Discourses--- Science, Knowing about the Animals, Senior Projects and RAships, and Relationships ---which were important in the apprentices' learning about and socialization with science. I try to understand the inter-workings of these four Discourses through a detailed analysis of three conversations involving one of the participants, Michelle. Michelle's use of narrative emerged as a linguistic resource which she used to explore dilemmas she experienced in the tensions between these four Discourses. Michelle was in many ways an ideal apprentice. She did her job well and she sought and received expert advice on her Senior project. Nonetheless, Michelle faced obstacles in her pursuit of a career in science and these obstacles related to language use and her use of narrative. I show how her use of narrative either facilitated or impeded her learning, depending on the context of the interaction. My analysis of Discourse points to important issues in language use by both students and teachers, with

  10. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  11. Experimental research of variable rotation speed ICE-based electric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing variable rotation speed ICE-based stand-alone electric power stations which can supply distant regions and autonomous objects with electricity are of scientific interest due to the insufficient study. The relevance of developing such electric power stations is determined by their usage is to provide a significant fuel saving as well as increase ICE motor service life. The article describes the electric station of autonomous objects with improved fuel economy. The article describes multivariate characteristic. Multivariate characteristic shows the optimal frequency of rotation of the internal combustion engine. At this rotational speed there is the greatest fuel economy.

  12. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme

  13. Morphological and physio-chemical characterization of five Canistel accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit of five canistel cultivars, 'Fairchild','E11', 'Keisau', 'TREC#3' and 'TREC 3680' were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clonal accessions during July and August, ...

  14. Rocky Mountain Research Station Part 2 [U.S. Forest Service scientists continue work with the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Rawlinson

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) is studying the effects of fuels reduction treatments on Mexican Spotted Owls and their prey in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. One challenge facing Forest Service managers is that much of the landscape is dominated by overstocked stands resulting from years of fire suppression.

  15. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily

  16. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B [Instrument Department, College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily.

  17. Mind-sets, low-level exposures, and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Much of our environmental policy is based on the notion that carcinogenic agents are harmful at even minuscule doses. From where does this thinking come? What is the scientific evidence that supports such policy? Moreover, why is the public willing to buy into this? Or is it the other way around: Has the scientific community bought into a paradigm that has its origins in public imagery? Or, most likely, are there interactions between the two? It is essential that we find out whether or not there are risks associated with low-level exposures to radiation. The author can see three obvious areas where the future depends on better information: The increasing radiation exposures resulting from the use of medical diagnostic and therapeutic practices need to be properly evaluated for safety; Environmental policies, which direct enormous resources to the reduction of small radiation exposures, needs to be put on a firmer scientific basis; The future of nuclear energy, dependent as it is on public acceptance, may well rely upon a better understanding of low-dose effects. Nuclear energy could provide an important solution of global warming and other possible environmental hazards, but will probably not be implemented as long as fear of low-dose radiation persists. Although an established paradigm has great resilience, it cannot resist the onslaught of inconsistent scientific observations or of the social value system that supports it. Only new research will enable us to determine if a paradigm shift is in order here

  18. Research on Layout Optimization of Urban Circle Solid Waste Transfer and Disposal Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Xuhui Li; Gangyan Li; Guowen Sun; Huiping Shi; Bao’an Yang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Systematic Layout Planning theory and the analysis of transfer stations’ technological processes, a layout optimization model for solid waste transfer and disposal stations was made. The operating units’ layout of the solid waste transfer and disposal stations was simulated and optimized using the genetic algorithm, which could achieve reasonable technological processes, the smallest floor space and the lowest construction cost. The simulation result can also direct t...

  19. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses. PMID:28074189

  20. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Ballesteros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.

  1. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Jose Luis; Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.

  2. Setting of cesium residual ratio of molten solidified waste produced in Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No.2 Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    JNES investigated the appropriateness of a view of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. on cesium residual content and the radioactivity measurement precision regarding the molten solidified (with lowered inorganic salt used) radioactive wastes which were produced from Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No. 2 Power Stations. Based on the written performance report from the request and past disposal confirmation experience, a view of the JNFC is confirmed as appropriate that setting of 15% cesium residual ratio for molten solidified with volume ratio larger than 4% and less than 10% cases. (S. Ohno)

  3. Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion.

  4. Biomolecular Analysis Capability for Cellular and Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinart-Ramirez, Y.; Cooley, V. M.; Love, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) assembly complete ushered a new era focused on utilization of this state-of-the-art orbiting laboratory to advance science and technology research in a wide array of disciplines, with benefits to Earth and space exploration. ISS enabling capability for research in cellular and molecular biology includes equipment for in situ, on-orbit analysis of biomolecules. Applications of this growing capability range from biomedicine and biotechnology to the emerging field of Omics. For example, Biomolecule Sequencer is a space-based miniature DNA sequencer that provides nucleotide sequence data for entire samples, which may be used for purposes such as microorganism identification and astrobiology. It complements the use of WetLab-2 SmartCycler"TradeMark", which extracts RNA and provides real-time quantitative gene expression data analysis from biospecimens sampled or cultured onboard the ISS, for downlink to ground investigators, with applications ranging from clinical tissue evaluation to multigenerational assessment of organismal alterations. And the Genes in Space-1 investigation, aimed at examining epigenetic changes, employs polymerase chain reaction to detect immune system alterations. In addition, an increasing assortment of tools to visualize the subcellular distribution of tagged macromolecules is becoming available onboard the ISS. For instance, the NASA LMM (Light Microscopy Module) is a flexible light microscopy imaging facility that enables imaging of physical and biological microscopic phenomena in microgravity. Another light microscopy system modified for use in space to image life sciences payloads is initially used by the Heart Cells investigation ("Effects of Microgravity on Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Human Cardiovascular Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery"). Also, the JAXA Microscope system can perform remotely controllable light, phase-contrast, and fluorescent observations. And upcoming confocal microscopy

  5. Evaluation of soil fertility status of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Tarahara, Sunsari, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility evaluation of an area or region is most basic decision making tool for the sustainable soil nutrient management. In order to evaluate the soil fertility status of the Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Tarahara, Susari, Nepal. Using soil sampling auger 81 soil samples (0-20 cm were collected based on the variability of land. The collected samples were analyzed for their texture, structure, colour, pH, OM, N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn status. The Arc-GIS 10.1 software was used for the preparation of soil fertility maps. The soil structure was granular to sub-angular blocky and varied between brown- dark grayish brown and dark gray in colour. The sand, silt and clay content were 30.32±1.4%, 48.92±0.89% and 20.76±0.92%, respectively and categorized as loam, clay loam, sandy loam, silt loam and silty clay loam in texture. The soil was moderately acidic in pH (5.98±0.08. The available sulphur (2.15±0.21 ppm, available boron (0.08±0.01 ppm and available zinc (0.35±0.03 ppm status were very low, whereas extractable magnesium (44.33±6.03 ppm showed low status. Similarly, organic matter (2.80±0.07%, total nitrogen (0.09±0.004 %, extractable calcium (1827.90±45.80 ppm and available copper (1.15±0.04 ppm were medium in content. The available phosphorus (39.77±5.27 ppm, extractable potassium (134.12±4.91 ppm, and available manganese (18.15±1.15 ppm exhibits high status, while available iron (244.7±19.70 ppm was very high. The fertilizer recommendation can be done based on determined soil fertility status to economize crop production. Furthermore, research farm should develop future research strategy accordance with the prepared soil data base.

  6. 77 FR 47797 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Set Asides for Research and Development Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Small Business Set Asides for Research and Development Contracts AGENCY: Department of... when the market research conducted in accordance with FAR part 10 indicates there are small businesses... officer can proceed with a small business set-aside for research and development. FAR 19.502-2(b...

  7. Using Distributed Operations to Enable Science Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathew, Ann S.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Lochmaier, Geoff D.; Rodriquez, Rick C.; Simpson, Donna

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of the International Space Station (ISS) program, and as the organization structure was being internationally agreed upon and documented, one of the principal tenets of the science program was to allow customer-friendly operations. One important aspect of this was to allow payload developers and principle investigators the flexibility to operate their experiments from either their home sites or distributed telescience centers. This telescience concept was developed such that investigators had several options for ISS utilization support. They could operate from their home site, the closest telescience center, or use the payload operations facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) processes and structures were put into place to allow these different options to its customers, while at the same time maintain its centralized authority over NASA payload operations and integration. For a long duration space program with many scientists, researchers, and universities expected to participate, it was imperative that the program structure be in place to successfully facilitate this concept of telescience support. From a payload control center perspective, payload science operations require two major elements in order to make telescience successful within the scope of the ISS program. The first element is decentralized control which allows the remote participants the freedom and flexibility to operate their payloads within their scope of authority. The second element is a strong ground infrastructure, which includes voice communications, video, telemetry, and commanding between the POIC and the payload remote site. Both of these elements are important to telescience success, and both must be balanced by the ISS program s documented requirements for POIC to maintain its authority as an integration and control center. This paper describes both elements of distributed payload

  8. Soil Fertility Assessment and Mapping of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility assessment is a key for sustainable planning of a particular area. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the soil fertility status of the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. The study area is situated at the latitude 27°4’40.9’’N and longitude 84°56’9.85”E at 75masl altitude. Altogether 76 soil samples were collected based on the variability of land at 0-20 cm depth. The texture, pH, OM, total N, available P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn content in the samples were determined following standard analytical methods. Arc-GIS 10.1 was used for soil fertility mapping. The soil structure was angular blocky, and varied between grayish brown (10YR 5/2 and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2 in color. The sand, silt and clay content were 24.41±0.59%, 54.57±0.44% and 21.03±0.32%, respectively and categorized as silt loam and loam in texture. The soil was moderately acidic in pH (5.67±0.09, low in organic matter (0.74±0.04% and available Sulphur (0.8± 0.1 ppm. The total nitrogen (0.06±0.001%, available boron (0.59±0.08ppm and available zinc (0.51±0.05ppm were low. Furthermore, available potassium (50.26±2.95ppm, available calcium (1674.6±46.3ppm and available magnesium (175.43± 8.93ppm were medium. Moreover, available copper (1.36±0.06 ppm and available manganese (16.52±1.12 ppm were high, while, available phosphorus (77.55±6.65 ppm and available iron (85.88±7.05 ppm were found high. It is expected that the present study would help to guide practices required for sustainable soil fertility management and developing future agricultural research strategy in the farm.

  9. Assessment of soil fertility status of Agriculture Research Station, Belachapi, Dhanusha, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil test-based fertility management is important for sustainable soil management. This study was carried out to determine the soil fertility status of the Agriculture Research Station, Belachapi, Dhanusha, Nepal. Using soil sampling auger 25 soil samples were collected randomly from a depth of 0-20 cm. Soil sampling points were identified using GPS device. Following standard methods adopted by Soil Science Division laboratory, Khumaltar, the collected soil samples were analyzed to find out their texture, pH, N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and organic matter status. The soil fertility status maps were made using Arc-GIS 10.1 software. The observed data revealed that soil was grayish brown in colour and sub-angular blocky in structure. The sand, silt and clay content were 36.03±3.66%, 50.32±2.52% and 25.42±2.25%, respectively and categorized as eight different classes of texture. The soil was acidic in pH (5.61±0.14. The available sulphur (0.73±0.09 ppm status was very low, whereas organic matter (1.34±0.07%, available boron (0.56±0.10 ppm, available zinc (0.54±0.22 ppm and available copper (0.30±0.01 ppm were low in status. The extractable potassium (95.52±13.37 ppm and extractable calcium (1264.8±92.80ppm exhibited medium in status. In addition, available phosphorus (33.25±6.97 ppm, available magnesium (223.20±23.65 ppm and available manganese (20.50±2.43 ppm were high in status. Furthermore, available iron (55.80±8.89 ppm status was very high. To improve the potentiality of crops (maize, rice, wheat etc. for studied area, future research strategy should be made based on its soil fertility status.

  10. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  11. Research at United States Antarctic stations during the International Magnetosphere Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) the U.S. operated programs at McMurdo, Siple, South Pole, and Palmer stations and at the Soviet Vostok station. Details concerning measurement locations are considered, and program summaries are provided. The programs are related to the study of geomagnetic variations, magnetic pulsations in the polar cap, cosmic noise absorption, VLF radio waves, auroral photometry, the morphology and dynamics of visible auroral forms, cosmic ray intensity variations, and auroral infrasonic waves. One program is based on the utilization of VHF Doppler auroral radar

  12. the Preliminary Research Based on Seismic Signals Generated by Hutubi Transmitting Seismic Station with One Large-volume Airgun Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Su, J.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, W.; Wang, H.; Wang, B.; Ji, Z.

    2017-12-01

    For studying the subsurface structure and its subtle changes, we built the Hutubi transmitting seismic station with one large-volume airgun array at one artificial water pool in the northern segment of Tianshan mountain, where earthquakes occurred frequently. The airgun array consists of six airguns with every airgun capacity of 2000in3, and the artificial water pool with the top diameter of 100m, bottom diameter of 20m and the depth of 18m.We started the regular excitation experiment with the large-volume airgun source every week since June, 2013. Using seismic signals geneated by the Hutubi airgun source, we made the preliminary research on the airgun source, waveform characteristics and the subsurface velocity changes in the northern Tiansh mountain. The results are as follows: The seismic signal exited by the airgun source is characteristic of low-frequency ,and the dominant frequency is in the range of 2 6Hz. The Hutubi transmitting seismic station can continuously generate long-distance detectable and highly repeatable signals, and the correlation coefficient of sigals is greater than 0.95; and the longest propagation distance arrives to 380km, in addition, the 5000-shot stacked sigal using the phase weighted stack technique can be identified in the station, which is about 1300km from the Hutubi transmitting seismic station. Hutubi large-volume airgun source is fitted to detect and monitor the regional-scale subsurface stress state. Applying correlation test method, we measured weak subsurface velocity changes in the northern Tianshan mountain, and found that the several stations, which are within 150km from the the Hutubi transmitting seismic station, appeared 0.1 0.2% relative velocity changes before the Hutubi MS6.2 earthquake on Dec.8, 2016.

  13. Managing multiple projects: a literature review of setting priorities and a pilot survey of healthcare researchers in an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert Borden; Campbell, Kaitryn; O'Reilly, Daria; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Bowen, Jim; Blackhouse, Gord; Goerre, Ron

    2007-05-16

    To summarize and then assess with a pilot study the use of published best practice recommendations for priority setting during management of multiple healthcare research projects, in a resource-constrained environment. Medical, economic, business, and operations literature was reviewed to summarize and develop a survey to assess best practices for managing multiple projects. Fifteen senior healthcare research project managers, directors, and faculty at an urban academic institution were surveyed to determine most commonly used priority rules, ranking of rules, characteristics of their projects, and availability of resources. Survey results were compared to literature recommendations to determine use of best practices. Seven priority-setting rules were identified for managing multiple projects. Recommendations on assigning priorities by project characteristics are presented. In the pilot study, a large majority of survey respondents follow best practice recommendations identified in the research literature. However, priority rules such as Most Total Successors (MTS) and Resource Scheduling Method (RSM) were used "very often" by half of the respondents when better performing priority rules were available. Through experience, project managers learn to manage multiple projects under resource constraints. Best practice literature can assist project managers in priority setting by recommending the most appropriate priority given resource constraints and project characteristics. There is room for improvement in managing multiple projects.

  14. Ames Culture Chamber System: Enabling Model Organism Research Aboard the international Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, physiological, and behavioral effects of spaceflight on living organisms and elucidating the molecular mechanisms that underlie these effects are high priorities for NASA. Certain organisms, known as model organisms, are widely studied to help researchers better understand how all biological systems function. Small model organisms such as nem-atodes, slime mold, bacteria, green algae, yeast, and moss can be used to study the effects of micro- and reduced gravity at both the cellular and systems level over multiple generations. Many model organisms have sequenced genomes and published data sets on their transcriptomes and proteomes that enable scientific investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptations of these organisms to space flight.

  15. CONSIDER - Core Outcome Set in IAD Research: study protocol for establishing a core set of outcomes and measurements in incontinence-associated dermatitis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bussche, Karen; De Meyer, Dorien; Van Damme, Nele; Kottner, Jan; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2017-10-01

    This study protocol describes the methodology for the development of a core set of outcomes and a core set of measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis. Incontinence is a widespread disorder with an important impact on quality of life. One of the most common complications is incontinence-associated dermatitis, resulting from chemical and physical irritation of the skin barrier, triggering inflammation and skin damage. Managing incontinence-associated dermatitis is an important challenge for nurses. Several interventions have been assessed in clinical trials, but heterogeneity in study outcomes complicates the comparability and standardization. To overcome this challenge, the development of a core outcome set, a minimum set of outcomes and measurements to be assessed in clinical research, is needed. A project team, International Steering Committee and panelists will be involved to guide the development of the core outcome set. The framework of the Harmonizing Outcomes Measures for Eczema roadmap endorsed by Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative, is used to inform the project design. A systematic literature review, interviews to integrate the patients' perspective and a consensus study with healthcare researchers and providers using the Delphi procedure will be performed. The project was approved by the Ethics review Committee (April 2016). This is the first project that will identify a core outcome set of outcomes and measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis research. A core outcome set will reduce possible reporting bias, allow results comparisons and statistical pooling across trials and strengthen evidence-based practice and decision-making. This project has been registered in the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database and is part of the Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Soil Fertility Assessment and Mapping of Agricultural Research Station, Jaubari, Illam, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility evaluation is a prerequisite factor for sustainable planning of a particular region. Considering this, a study was conducted to determine the soil fertility status of the Agricultural Research Station, Jaubari, Illam, Nepal. In total, 78 soil samples were collected using soil sampling auger randomly from a depth of 0-20 cm. The texture, pH, OM, N, P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn status of the samples were analyzed in the laboratory of Soil Science Division, Khumaltar by following standard analytical methods. The soil fertility maps of the observed parameters were prepared through Arc-GIS 10.1 software. The observed data revealed that soil was brown (10YR 4/3, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4 and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6 in colour, and the structure was granular. Similarly, the sand, silt and clay content were 53.84±1.06%, 34.34±0.83% and 11.82±0.47%, respectively and were indicated as sandy loam and loam in texture. The soil was very acidic (pH 3.85±0.04, and very low in available boron (0.26±0.06mg/kg and available sulphur (0.59±0.15mg/kg. The available calcium (188.7±31.30mg/kg, available magnesium (50.98±5.0mg/kg and available manganese (5.16±0.90mg/kg were low. Likewise, available potassium (110.91±7.30mg/kg, available zinc (1.19±0.31mg/kg and available copper (0.95±0.05mg/kg content were medium. Similarly, organic matter (7.88±0.32%, total nitrogen (0.27±0.01% and available phosphorus (36.53±5.66mg/kg were high, and available iron (39.5±2.17 mg/kg was very high.  International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-3, Jun-Aug 2017, page: 46-70

  17. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS shall... authorized to utilize RSA, based on the selection criteria described in the RFP. (d) NMFS shall consider each...

  18. Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to Build Research-grade Weather Stations and Environmental Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many plant, soil, and surface-boundary-layer processes in the geosphere are governed by the microclimate at the land-air interface. Environmental monitoring is needed at smaller scales and higher frequencies than provided by existing weather monitoring networks. The objective of this project was to design, prototype, and test a research-grade weather station that is based on open-source hardware/software and off-the-shelf components. The idea is that anyone could make these systems with only elementary skills in fabrication and electronics. The first prototypes included measurements of air temperature, humidity, pressure, global irradiance, wind speed, and wind direction. The best approach for measuring precipitation is still being investigated. The data acquisition system was deigned around the Arduino microcontroller and included an LCD-based user interface, SD card data storage, and solar power. Sensors were sampled at 5 s intervals and means, standard deviations, and maximum/minimums were stored at user-defined intervals (5, 30, or 60 min). Several of the sensor components were printed in plastic using a hobby-grade 3D printer (e.g., RepRap Project). Both passive and aspirated radiation shields for measuring air temperature were printed in white Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). A housing for measuring solar irradiance using a photodiode-based pyranometer was printed in opaque ABS. The prototype weather station was co-deployed with commercial research-grade instruments at an agriculture research unit near Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Excellent agreement was found between Arduino-based system and commercial weather instruments. The technology was also used to support air quality research and automated air sampling. The next step is to incorporate remote access and station-to-station networking using Wi-Fi, cellular phone, and radio communications (e.g., Xbee).

  19. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, pfair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  20. Research on efficiency test of a turbine in Khan Khwar hydropower station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H K; Liang, Z; Deng, M G; Liu, X B; Wang, H Y; Liu, D M

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency test is an important indicator to evaluate the energy conversion performance of a hydraulic turbine. For hydropower stations which do not have the direct flow measurement conditions, whether the characteristic curve of a turbine obtained through similarity theory conversion by using the comprehensive characteristic curve of the turbine can correctly reflect the operating performance of the prototype unit is a key issue in this industry. By taking the No.1 unit of Khan Khwar hydropower station as the example, the efficiency test of this turbine was studied on the site, including the measurement method of test parameters, the configuration of the computer test system, as well as the processing and analysis of test data.

  1. A checklist for health research priority setting: nine common themes of good practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research priority setting processes assist researchers and policymakers in effectively targeting research that has the greatest potential public health benefit. Many different approaches to health research prioritization exist, but there is no agreement on what might constitute best practice. Moreover, because of the many different contexts for which priorities can be set, attempting to produce one best practice is in fact not appropriate, as the optimal approach varies per exercise. Therefore, following a literature review and an analysis of health research priority setting exercises that were organized or coordinated by the World Health Organization since 2005, we propose a checklist for health research priority setting that allows for informed choices on different approaches and outlines nine common themes of good practice. It is intended to provide generic assistance for planning health research prioritization processes. The checklist explains what needs to be clarified in order to establish the context for which priorities are set; it reviews available approaches to health research priority setting; it offers discussions on stakeholder participation and information gathering; it sets out options for use of criteria and different methods for deciding upon priorities; and it emphasizes the importance of well-planned implementation, evaluation and transparency.

  2. A checklist for health research priority setting: nine common themes of good practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; Olifson, Sylvie; Ghaffar, Abdul; Terry, Robert F

    2010-12-15

    Health research priority setting processes assist researchers and policymakers in effectively targeting research that has the greatest potential public health benefit. Many different approaches to health research prioritization exist, but there is no agreement on what might constitute best practice. Moreover, because of the many different contexts for which priorities can be set, attempting to produce one best practice is in fact not appropriate, as the optimal approach varies per exercise. Therefore, following a literature review and an analysis of health research priority setting exercises that were organized or coordinated by the World Health Organization since 2005, we propose a checklist for health research priority setting that allows for informed choices on different approaches and outlines nine common themes of good practice. It is intended to provide generic assistance for planning health research prioritization processes. The checklist explains what needs to be clarified in order to establish the context for which priorities are set; it reviews available approaches to health research priority setting; it offers discussions on stakeholder participation and information gathering; it sets out options for use of criteria and different methods for deciding upon priorities; and it emphasizes the importance of well-planned implementation, evaluation and transparency.

  3. Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Ghulam; Nader, Ronnie; Koudelka, Otto

    2011-09-01

    Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC) available for public use. The gateway has a maximum range of tracking and detection of 22,000 km and sensitivity such that it can receive and discriminate the signals from a satellite transmitter with power˜0.1 W. The capability is enough to receive the faintest low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. This gateway virtually connects participating internet clients around the world to a remote satellite ground station (GS), providing a broad community for multinational cooperation. The goal of the GS is to lower financial and engineering barriers that hinder access to science and engineering data from orbit. The basic design of the virtual GS on a user side is based on free software suites. Using these and other software tools the GS is able to provide access to orbit for a multitude of users without each having to go through the costly setups. We present the design and implementation of the virtual GS in a higher education and scientific outreach settings. We also discuss the basic architecture of the single existing system and the benefits of a proposed distributed system. Details of the software tools and their applicability to synchronous round-the-world tracking, monitoring and processing performed by students and teams at Graz University of Technology, Austria, EXA-Ecuador, University of Michigan, USA and JAXA who have participated in various mission operations and have investigated real-time satellite data download and image acquisition and processing. Students and other remote users at these

  4. Prototype Software for Future Spaceflight Tested at Mars Desert Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maaretn; Alena, Rick; Dowding, John; Garry, Brent; Scott, Mike; Tompkins, Paul; vanHoof, Ron; Verma, Vandi

    2006-01-01

    NASA scientists in MDRS Crew 49 (April 23-May 7, 2006) field tested and significantly extended a prototype monitoring and advising system that integrates power system telemetry with a voice commanding interface. A distributed, wireless network of functionally specialized agents interacted with the crew to provide alerts (e.g., impending shut-down of inverter due to low battery voltage), access md interpret historical data, and display troubleshooting procedures. In practical application during two weeks, the system generated speech over loudspeakers and headsets lo alert the crew about the need to investigate power system problems. The prototype system adapts the Brahms/Mobile Agents toolkit to receive data from the OneMeter (Brand Electronics) electric metering system deployed by Crew 47. A computer on the upper deck was connected to loudspeakers, four others were paired with wireless (Bluetooth) headsets that enabled crew members to interact with their personal agents from anywhere in the hab. Voice commands and inquiries included: 1. What is the {battery | generator} {volts | amps | volts and amps}? 2. What is the status of the {generator | inverter | battery | solar panel}? 3. What is the hab{itat} {power usage | volts | voltage | amps | volts and amps}? 4. What was the average hab{itat} {amps | volts | voltage} since {AM | PM)? 5. When did the {generator | batteries} change status? 6. Tell {me I | everyone} when{ ever} the generator goes offline. 7. Tell {me | | everyone} when the hab{itat} {amps | volts | voltage} {exceeds | drops brelow} . 8. {Send | Take | Record} {a} voice note {(for | to} } {at }. This research demonstrates the principles of design in the context of use, investigating requirements through experimental use of prototype systems in an analog setting, and use of MDRS as a research facility for designing and implementing new systems.

  5. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  6. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Martines, José; Lawn, Joy E

    2016-01-01

    for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities...... for 2013-2025. METHODS: We used adapted Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methods for this prioritization exercise. We identified and approached the 200 most productive researchers and 400 program experts, and 132 of them submitted research questions online. These were collated...... into a set of 205 research questions, sent for scoring to the 600 identified experts, and were assessed and scored by 91 experts. RESULTS: Nine out of top ten identified priorities were in the domain of research on improving delivery of known interventions, with simplified neonatal resuscitation program...

  7. Creating a Research Agenda and Setting Research Priorities for Clinical Nurse Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jan; Bautista, Cynthia; Ellstrom, Kathleen; Kalowes, Peggy; Manning, Jennifer; Pasek, Tracy Ann

    The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution and results of the process for establishing a research agenda and identification of research priorities for clinical nurse specialists, approved by the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists (NACNS) membership and sanctioned by the NACNS Board of Directors. Development of the research agenda and identification of the priorities were an iterative process and involved a review of the literature; input from multiple stakeholders, including individuals with expertise in conducting research serving as task force members, and NACNS members; and feedback from national board members. A research agenda, which is to provide an enduring research platform, was established and research priorities, which are to be applied in the immediate future, were identified as a result of this process. Development of a research agenda and identification of research priorities are a key method of fulfilling the mission and goals of NACNS. The process and outcomes are described in this article.

  8. Ancillary care in public health intervention research in low-resource settings: researchers' practices and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W; Mullany, Luke C

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about researchers' practices regarding the provision of ancillary care (AC) in public health intervention studies they have conducted and the factors that influence their decisions about whether to provide ancillary care in low-resource settings. We conducted 52 in-person in-depth interviews with public health researchers. Data analysis was iterative and led to the identification of themes and patterns among themes. We found that researchers who conduct their research in the community setting are more likely to identify and plan for the AC needs of potential research subjects before a study begins, whereas those affiliated with a permanent facility are more likely to deliver AC to research subjects on an ad hoc basis. Our findings suggest that on the whole, at least for public health intervention research in low-resource settings, researchers conducting research in the community setting confront more complex ethical and operational challenges in their decision-making about AC than do researchers conducting facility-based studies.

  9. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  10. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  11. Safety research of insulating materials of cable for nuclear power generating station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. K.; Choi, J. H.; Kong, Y. K.; Chang, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The polymers PE, EPR, PVC, Neoprene, CSP, CLPE, EP and other similar substances are frequently used as insulation and protective covering for cables used in nuclear power generating stations. In order to test these materials for flame retardation, environmental resistance, and cable specifications, they were given the cable normal test, flame test, chemical tests, and subjected to design analysis and loss of coolant accident tests. Material was collected on spark tests and actual experience standards were established through these contributions and technology was accumulated.

  12. The centrifuge facility - A life sciences research laboratory for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles A.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the centrifugal facility that is presently being developed by NASA for studies aboard the Space Station Freedom on the role of gravity, or its absence, at varying intensities for varying periods of time and with multiple model systems. Special attention is given to the design of the centrifuge system, the habitats designed to hold plants and animals, the glovebox system designed for experimental manipulations of the specimens, and the service unit. Studies planned for the facility will include experiments in the following disciplines: cell and developmental biology, plant biology, regulatory physiology, musculoskeletal physiology, behavior and performance, neurosciences, cardiopulmonary physiology, and environmental health and radiation.

  13. Beryllium-7 in Usnea antarctica Du Rietz from the Machu Picchu Antarctic Research Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of Be-7 in Usnea antarctica (lichen) collected during the austral summer of 2013 in the Antarctic Scientific Station 'Machu Picchu' were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry, obtaining values between 366.5 and 515.1 Becquerels per kilogram dry weight. The analysis of variance shows no significant difference in the concentrations of Be-7 between sampling areas located at different heights. The average value of Be-7 for 2013 is significantly higher to other sampling years, except for 1996. (authors).

  14. Internet Research Ethics and the Policy Gap for Ethical Practice in Online Research Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Jacqueline G.; Jacobsen, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of education and social science researchers design and conduct online research. In this review, the Internet Research Ethics (IRE) policy gap in Canada is identified along with the range of stakeholders and groups that either have a role or have attempted to play a role in forming better ethics policy. Ethical issues that current…

  15. Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

  16. Geocam Space: Enhancing Handheld Digital Camera Imagery from the International Space Station for Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Lee, Yeon Jin; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Handheld astronaut photography of the Earth has been collected from the International Space Station (ISS) since 2000, making it the most temporally extensive remotely sensed dataset from this unique Low Earth orbital platform. Exclusive use of digital handheld cameras to perform Earth observations from the ISS began in 2004. Nadir viewing imagery is constrained by the inclined equatorial orbit of the ISS to between 51.6 degrees North and South latitude, however numerous oblique images of land surfaces above these latitudes are included in the dataset. While unmodified commercial off-the-shelf digital cameras provide only visible wavelength, three-band spectral information of limited quality current cameras used with long (400+ mm) lenses can obtain high quality spatial information approaching 2 meters/ground pixel resolution. The dataset is freely available online at the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth site (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov), and now comprises over 2 million images. Despite this extensive image catalog, use of the data for scientific research, disaster response, commercial applications and visualizations is minimal in comparison to other data collected from free-flying satellite platforms such as Landsat, Worldview, etc. This is due primarily to the lack of fully-georeferenced data products - while current digital cameras typically have integrated GPS, this does not function in the Low Earth Orbit environment. The Earth Science and Remote Sensing (ESRS) Unit at NASA Johnson Space Center provides training in Earth Science topics to ISS crews, performs daily operations and Earth observation target delivery to crews through the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility on board ISS, and also catalogs digital handheld imagery acquired from orbit by manually adding descriptive metadata and determining an image geographic centerpoint using visual feature matching with other georeferenced data, e.g. Landsat, Google Earth, etc. The lack of full geolocation

  17. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Simkiss, Doug; Busk, Mary; Morris, Maureen; Allard, Amanda; Denness, Jacob; Janssens, Astrid; Stimson, Anna; Coghill, Joanna; Robinson, Kelly; Fenton, Mark; Cowan, Katherine

    2015-01-28

    To engage young people, parent carers and clinicians in a systematic process to identify and prioritise research questions regarding ways to improve the health and well-being of children and young people with neurodisability. British Academy of Childhood Disability (BACD)-James Lind Alliance research priority setting partnership bringing together patients, carers and clinicians as equal stakeholders. UK health service and community. The BACD Strategic Research Group formed the partnership. A Steering Group was established; charity and professional partner organisations were recruited. Suggestions were gathered in an open survey and from research recommendations for statutory guidance. Items were aggregated to formulate indicative research questions and verified as uncertainties from research evidence. An interim survey was used to rank the questions to shortlist topics. A mixed group of stakeholders discussed the top 25 questions at the final priority setting workshop agreeing a final rank order and the top 10 research priorities. Partner organisations were 13 charities and 8 professional societies. 369 people submitted suggestions (40% non-clinicians). 76 people participated in the interim prioritisation (26 parents, 1 young person, 10 charity representatives, 39 clinicians); 22 took part in the final workshop (3 young people, 7 parents, 3 charity representatives, 9 professionals). The top three research priorities related to (1) establishing the optimal frequency and intensity (dose) for mainstream therapies, (2) means for selecting and encouraging use of communication strategies and (3) ways to improve children's attitudes towards disability. The top 10 included evaluating interventions to promote mobility, self-efficacy, mental health, continence, physical fitness, educational inclusion and reduce impacts of sleep disturbance. The methodology provided a systematic and transparent process to identify research priorities that included stakeholders that have

  18. Glocalized New Age Spirituality: A Mental Map of the New Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, Deciphered through Its Visual Codes and Based on Ethno-Visual Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Peshat, Malka; Sitton, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    We present here the findings of an ethno-visual research study involving the creation of a mental map of images, artifacts and practices in Tel Aviv's New Central Bus Station. This huge and complex building, part bus station, part shopping mall, has become a stage for multicultural encounters and interactions among diverse communities of users.…

  19. Setting Priorities in Global Child Health Research Investments: Guidelines for Implementation of the CHNRI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Gibson, Jennifer L.; Ameratunga, Shanthi; El Arifeen, Shams; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Black, Maureen; Black, Robert E.; Brown, Kenneth H.; Campbell, Harry; Carneiro, Ilona; Chan, Kit Yee; Chandramohan, Daniel; Chopra, Mickey; Cousens, Simon; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Gardner, Julie Meeks; Hess, Sonja Y.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Kapiriri, Lydia; Kosek, Margaret; Lanata, Claudio F.; Lansang, Mary Ann; Lawn, Joy; Tomlinson, Mark; Tsai, Alexander C.; Webster, Jayne

    2008-01-01

    This article provides detailed guidelines for the implementation of systematic method for setting priorities in health research investments that was recently developed by Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI). The target audience for the proposed method are international agencies, large research funding donors, and national governments and policy-makers. The process has the following steps: (i) selecting the managers of the process; (ii) specifying the context and risk management preferences; (iii) discussing criteria for setting health research priorities; (iv) choosing a limited set of the most useful and important criteria; (v) developing means to assess the likelihood that proposed health research options will satisfy the selected criteria; (vi) systematic listing of a large number of proposed health research options; (vii) pre-scoring check of all competing health research options; (viii) scoring of health research options using the chosen set of criteria; (ix) calculating intermediate scores for each health research option; (x) obtaining further input from the stakeholders; (xi) adjusting intermediate scores taking into account the values of stakeholders; (xii) calculating overall priority scores and assigning ranks; (xiii) performing an analysis of agreement between the scorers; (xiv) linking computed research priority scores with investment decisions; (xv) feedback and revision. The CHNRI method is a flexible process that enables prioritizing health research investments at any level: institutional, regional, national, international, or global. PMID:19090596

  20. Locating the timacum maius station on the roman road lissus-naissus-ratiaria: New archaeological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the exact location of two Timacum stations remains an open issue, the results of the latest archaeological investigations in the environs of Svrljig, southeast Serbia, seem to offer some corroborative evidence for the hypothesis proposed in our previous contribution that this might be the location of Roman Timacum Maius. A small-scale trial excavation was undertaken on the Roman site at Kalnica in the Niševac village area in July 2008. A trench 4 by 2m was opened in the zone of the site that had yielded plentiful fragments of building debris as well as small finds. A massive wall over 1m thick was found immediately beneath the surface. Built of bro­ken limestone and pebbles bound with lime mortar, it obviously was part of a larger structure. To the northeast of the wall was an area covered with fragmented roof tiles. The discovery of two ceramic tumuli embedded in the wall, indicating a wall-heating system so far unregistered on the representative Roman urban and settlement sites in Serbia, gives additional grounds to presume that this was a larger Roman settlement extending over an area of more than 5ha, possibly Timacum Maius, a station on the Roman road Lissus-Ratiaria-Naissus.

  1. Compensating citizens for poor service delivery: experimental research in public and private settings

    OpenAIRE

    Thomassen, JP; Leliveld, MC; Van de Walle, Steven; Ahaus, K

    2017-01-01

    After a service failure, citizens expect a recovery strategy that restores perceived justice and places a reasonable value on their loss. Offering monetary compensation is a strategy commonly used in private settings, but less so in public settings. To date compensation effects have not been researched in public settings. To investigate citizens’ evaluations of perceived justice, negative emotions and post-recovery satisfaction we used a 2 (sector: public, private) by 2 (compensation promised...

  2. Patient involvement in research programming and implementation: a responsive evaluation of the Dialogue Model for research agenda setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abma, T.A.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; Visse, M.; Elberse, J.E.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Dialogue Model for research agenda-setting, involving multiple stakeholders including patients, was developed and validated in the Netherlands. However, there is little insight into whether and how patient involvement is sustained during the programming and implementation of research

  3. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  4. RESEARCH PRIORITY-SETTING IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA: POLICIES, METHODS AND PRACTICALITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Omuru, Eric; Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural research priority-setting at best promotes the effective and efficient use of scarce research resources. This paper reviews firstly the priority-setting methods used in Papua New Guinea for agricultural R&D and examines the practicalities of implementing these and other methods. Secondly, this paper reports on key factors affecting the strategic directions for agricultural R&D in Papua New Guinea. These factors include:(i) the long term trends in international crop prices; (ii) l...

  5. Global health trials methodological research agenda:results from a priority setting exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Blazeby, Jane; Nasser, Mona; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Sydes, Matthew R.; Zhang, Junhua; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundMethodological research into the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of trials is essential to optimise the process. UK specialists in the field have established a set of top priorities in aid of this research. These priorities however may not be reflected in the needs of similar research in low to middle income countries (LMICs) with different healthcare provision, resources and research infrastructure. The aim of the study was to identify the top priorities for methodological ...

  6. Setting research priorities across science, technology, and health sectors: the Tanzania experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Sylvia; Kingamkono, Rose; Tindamanyire, Neema; Mshinda, Hassan; Makandi, Harun; Tibazarwa, Flora; Kubata, Bruno; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2015-03-12

    Identifying research priorities is key to innovation and economic growth, since it informs decision makers on effectively targeting issues that have the greatest potential public benefit. As such, the process of setting research priorities is of pivotal importance for favouring the science, technology, and innovation (STI)-driven development of low- and middle-income countries. We report herein on a major cross-sectoral nationwide research priority setting effort recently carried out in Tanzania by the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) in partnership with the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) and the NEPAD Agency. The first of its type in the country, the process brought together stakeholders from 42 sub-sectors in science, technology, and health. The cross-sectoral research priority setting process consisted of a 'training-of-trainers' workshop, a demonstration workshop, and seven priority setting workshops delivered to representatives from public and private research and development institutions, universities, non-governmental organizations, and other agencies affiliated to COSTECH. The workshops resulted in ranked listings of research priorities for each sub-sector, totalling approximately 800 priorities. This large number was significantly reduced by an expert panel in order to build a manageable instrument aligned to national development plans that could be used to guide research investments. The Tanzania experience is an instructive example of the challenges and issues to be faced in when attempting to identify research priority areas and setting an STI research agenda in low- and middle-income countries. As countries increase their investment in research, it is essential to increase investment in research management and governance as well, a key and much needed capacity for countries to make proper use of research investments.

  7. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: III. Involving stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Yoshida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting health research priorities is a complex and value–driven process. The introduction of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI method has made the process of setting research priorities more transparent and inclusive, but much of the process remains in the hands of funders and researchers, as described in the previous two papers in this series. However, the value systems of numerous other important stakeholders, particularly those on the receiving end of health research products, are very rarely addressed in any process of priority setting. Inclusion of a larger and more diverse group of stakeholders in the process would result in a better reflection of the system of values of the broader community, resulting in recommendations that are more legitimate and acceptable.

  8. CFD research on runaway transient of pumped storage power station caused by pumping power failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L G; Zhou, D Q

    2013-01-01

    To study runaway transient of pumped storage power station caused by pumping power failure, three dimensional unsteady numerical simulations were executed on geometrical model of the whole flow system. Through numerical calculation, the changeable flow configuration and variation law of some parameters such as unit rotate speed,flow rate and static pressure of measurement points were obtained and compared with experimental data. Numerical results show that runaway speed agrees well with experimental date and its error was 3.7%. The unit undergoes pump condition, brake condition, turbine condition and runaway condition with flow characteristic changing violently. In runaway condition, static pressure in passage pulses very strongly which frequency is related to runaway speed

  9. DC-DC power converter research for Orbiter/Station power exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, M.

    1993-01-01

    This project was to produce innovative DC-DC power converter concepts which are appropriate for the power exchange between the Orbiter and the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The new converters must interface three regulated power buses on SSF, which are at different voltages, with three fuel cell power buses on the Orbiter which can be at different voltages and should be tracked independently. Power exchange is to be bi-directional between the SSF and the Orbiter. The new converters must satisfy the above operational requirements with better weight, volume, efficiency, and reliability than is available from the present conventional technology. Two families of zero current DC-DC converters were developed and successfully adapted to this application. Most of the converters developed are new and are presented.

  10. Research on H2 speed governor for diesel engine of marine power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Man-Lei

    2007-09-01

    The frequency stability of a marine power system is determined by the dynamic characteristic of the diesel engine speed regulation system in a marine power station. In order to reduce the effect of load disturbances and improve the dynamic precision of a diesel engine speed governor, a controller was designed for a diesel engine speed regulation system using H2 control theory. This transforms the specifications of the system into a standard H2 control problem. Firstly, the mathematical model of a diesel engine speed regulation system using an H2 speed governor is presented. To counter external disturbances and model uncertainty, the design of an H2 speed governor rests on the problem of mixed sensitivity. Computer simulation verified that the H2 speed governor improves the dynamic precision of a system and the ability to adapt to load disturbances, thus enhancing the frequency stability of marine power systems.

  11. Conducting Research on the International Space Station using the EXPRESS Rack Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sean W.; Lake, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Eight "Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station" (EXPRESS) Rack facilities are located within the International Space Station (ISS) laboratories to provide standard resources and interfaces for the simultaneous and independent operation of multiple experiments within each rack. Each EXPRESS Rack provides eight Middeck Locker Equivalent locations and two drawer locations for powered experiment equipment, also referred to as sub-rack payloads. Payload developers may provide their own structure to occupy the equivalent volume of one, two, or four lockers as a single unit. Resources provided for each location include power (28 Vdc, 0-500 W), command and data handling (Ethernet, RS-422, 5 Vdc discrete, +/- 5 Vdc analog), video (NTSC/RS 170A), and air cooling (0-200 W). Each rack also provides water cooling for two locations (500W ea.), one vacuum exhaust interface, and one gaseous nitrogen interface. Standard interfacing cables and hoses are provided on-orbit. One laptop computer is provided with each rack to control the rack and to accommodate payload application software. Four of the racks are equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System to reduce vibration between the ISS and the rack. EXPRESS Racks are operated by the Payload Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center and the sub-rack experiments are operated remotely by the investigating organization. Payload Integration Managers serve as a focal to assist organizations developing payloads for an EXPRESS Rack. NASA provides EXPRESS Rack simulator software for payload developers to checkout payload command and data handling at the development site before integrating the payload with the EXPRESS Functional Checkout Unit for an end-to-end test before flight. EXPRESS Racks began supporting investigations onboard ISS on April 24, 2001 and will continue through the life of the ISS.

  12. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  13. Measuring the Value of Research Data: A Citation Analysis of Oceanographic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of scientific research is becoming increasingly reliant on publication-based bibliometric indicators, which may result in the devaluation of other scientific activities - such as data curation – that do not necessarily result in the production of scientific publications. This issue may undermine the movement to openly share and cite data sets in scientific publications because researchers are unlikely to devote the effort necessary to curate their research data if they are unlikely to receive credit for doing so. This analysis attempts to demonstrate the bibliometric impact of properly curated and openly accessible data sets by attempting to generate citation counts for three data sets archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center. My findings suggest that all three data sets are highly cited, with estimated citation counts in most cases higher than 99% of all the journal articles published in Oceanography during the same years. I also find that methods of citing and referring to these data sets in scientific publications are highly inconsistent, despite the fact that a formal citation format is suggested for each data set. These findings have important implications for developing a data citation format, encouraging researchers to properly curate their research data, and evaluating the bibliometric impact of individuals and institutions. PMID:24671177

  14. Clinical code set engineering for reusing EHR data for research: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Buchan, Iain; Peek, Niels

    2017-06-01

    The construction of reliable, reusable clinical code sets is essential when re-using Electronic Health Record (EHR) data for research. Yet code set definitions are rarely transparent and their sharing is almost non-existent. There is a lack of methodological standards for the management (construction, sharing, revision and reuse) of clinical code sets which needs to be addressed to ensure the reliability and credibility of studies which use code sets. To review methodological literature on the management of sets of clinical codes used in research on clinical databases and to provide a list of best practice recommendations for future studies and software tools. We performed an exhaustive search for methodological papers about clinical code set engineering for re-using EHR data in research. This was supplemented with papers identified by snowball sampling. In addition, a list of e-phenotyping systems was constructed by merging references from several systematic reviews on this topic, and the processes adopted by those systems for code set management was reviewed. Thirty methodological papers were reviewed. Common approaches included: creating an initial list of synonyms for the condition of interest (n=20); making use of the hierarchical nature of coding terminologies during searching (n=23); reviewing sets with clinician input (n=20); and reusing and updating an existing code set (n=20). Several open source software tools (n=3) were discovered. There is a need for software tools that enable users to easily and quickly create, revise, extend, review and share code sets and we provide a list of recommendations for their design and implementation. Research re-using EHR data could be improved through the further development, more widespread use and routine reporting of the methods by which clinical codes were selected. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Setting global standards for stem cell research and clinical translation : The 2016 ISSCR guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daley, George Q.; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F.; Barker, Roger A.; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L.; Breuer, Christopher K.; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E.; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T.; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E.; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M.; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of

  16. Setting Priorities for Gerontological Social Work Research: A National Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Denise; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Chen, Li-Mei

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: An increasingly important task for all disciplines involved in aging research is to identify and prioritize areas for investigation. This article reports the results of a national Delphi study on setting research priorities for gerontological social work. Design and Methods: Delphi methodology, a structured process for eliciting and…

  17. Towards deep inclusion for equity-oriented health research priority-setting: A working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Merritt, Maria; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-02-01

    Growing consensus that health research funders should align their investments with national research priorities presupposes that such national priorities exist and are just. Arguably, justice requires national health research priority-setting to promote health equity. Such a position is consistent with recommendations made by the World Health Organization and at global ministerial summits that health research should serve to reduce health inequalities between and within countries. Thus far, no specific requirements for equity-oriented research priority-setting have been described to guide policymakers. As a step towards the explication and defence of such requirements, we propose that deep inclusion is a key procedural component of equity-oriented research priority-setting. We offer a model of deep inclusion that was developed by applying concepts from work on deliberative democracy and development ethics. This model consists of three dimensions--breadth, qualitative equality, and high-quality non-elite participation. Deep inclusion is captured not only by who is invited to join a decision-making process but also by how they are involved and by when non-elite stakeholders are involved. To clarify and illustrate the proposed dimensions, we use the sustained example of health systems research. We conclude by reviewing practical challenges to achieving deep inclusion. Despite the existence of barriers to implementation, our model can help policymakers and other stakeholders design more inclusive national health research priority-setting processes and assess these processes' depth of inclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During the Assembly Years: An Analysis of Results from 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Crespo-Richey, Jessica; Baumann, David; Rhatigan, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes research accomplishments on the International Space Station (ISS) through the first 15 Expeditions. When research programs for early Expeditions were established, five administrative organizations were executing research on ISS: bioastronautics research, fundamental space biology, physical science, space product development, and space flight. The Vision for Space Exploration led to changes in NASA's administrative structures, so we have grouped experiments topically by scientific themes human research for exploration, physical and biological sciences, technology development, observing the Earth, and educating and inspiring the next generation even when these do not correspond to the administrative structure at the time at which they were completed. The research organizations at the time at which the experiments flew are preserved in the appendix of this document. These investigations on the ISS have laid the groundwork for research planning for Expeditions to come. Humans performing scientific investigations on ISS serve as a model for the goals of future Exploration missions. The success of a wide variety of investigations is an important hallmark of early research on ISS. Of the investigations summarized here, some are completed with results released, some are completed with preliminary results, and some remain ongoing.

  19. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  20. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: IV. Key conceptual advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI started as an initiative of the Global Forum for Health Research in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim was to develop a method that could assist priority setting in health research investments. The first version of the CHNRI method was published in 2007–2008. The aim of this paper was to summarize the history of the development of the CHNRI method and its key conceptual advances.

  1. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5{beta}(H)-cholestan-3{beta}-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5{alpha}-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall.

  2. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5β(H)-cholestan-3β-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5α-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

  3. The application research of MACCS in consequence assessment of the attacked Dayabay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuan; Dong Binjiang

    2003-01-01

    The method of radiological consequence assessment as Dayabay nuclear power station being attacked in war is studied in this paper. The Models and software of calculation and the parameters which have been chosen are also studied in this paper. This study estimates the off-site consequences of two different types of being attack accidents spectrum and the spent fuel pool being attacked accidents spectrum. This study calculated the distributing of radiological consequence in different weather. According to the analyse of the consequence, we get such result that the radiate consequence of nuclear reactor of Daya Bay nuclear power plant being attack in war is the same as the consequence of nuclear accident, but the consequence of spent fuel pool being attacked is very serious. If the spent fuel pool was attacked by the enemy, the contaminated area is very large. The effective dose within 30 km under the wind will exceed 1 Sv. Based in part upon the above information the recommendation is made that the Daya Bay nuclear power plant should be closed or run in low power. and the nuclear island should be protected in war. (authors)

  4. Research on Francis Turbine Modeling for Large Disturbance Hydropower Station Transient Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangtao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of hydropower station transient process simulation (HSTPS, characteristic graph-based iterative hydroturbine model (CGIHM has been widely used when large disturbance hydroturbine modeling is involved. However, by this model, iteration should be used to calculate speed and pressure, and slow convergence or no convergence problems may be encountered for some reasons like special characteristic graph profile, inappropriate iterative algorithm, or inappropriate interpolation algorithm, and so forth. Also, other conventional large disturbance hydroturbine models are of some disadvantages and difficult to be used widely in HSTPS. Therefore, to obtain an accurate simulation result, a simple method for hydroturbine modeling is proposed. By this method, both the initial operating point and the transfer coefficients of linear hydroturbine model keep changing during simulation. Hence, it can reflect the nonlinearity of the hydroturbine and be used for Francis turbine simulation under large disturbance condition. To validate the proposed method, both large disturbance and small disturbance simulations of a single hydrounit supplying a resistive, isolated load were conducted. It was shown that the simulation result is consistent with that of field test. Consequently, the proposed method is an attractive option for HSTPS involving Francis turbine modeling under large disturbance condition.

  5. IMP: Using microsat technology to support engineering research inside of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kieran A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an International Space Station (ISS) experiment-support facility being developed by Dynacon for the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), based on microsatellite technology. The facility is called the ``Intravehicular Maneuverable Platform,'' or IMP. The core of IMP is a small, free-floating platform (or ``bus'') deployed inside one of the pressurized crew modules of ISS. Exchangeable experimental payloads can then be mounted to the IMP bus, in order to carry out engineering development or demonstration tests, or microgravity science experiments: the bus provides these payloads with services typical of a standard satellite bus (power, attitude control, etc.). The IMP facility takes advantage of unique features of the ISS, such as the Shuttle-based logistics system and the continuous availability of crew members, to greatly reduce the expense of carrying out space engineering experiments. Further cost reduction has been made possible by incorporating technology that Dynacon has developed for use in a current microsatellite mission. Numerous potential payloads for IMP have been identified, and the first of these (a flexible satellite control experiment) is under development by Dynacon and the University of Toronto's Institute for Aerospace Studies, for the CSA. .

  6. Involving citizens in priority setting for public health research: Implementation in infection research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Timothy M; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Charani, Esmita; Husson, Fran; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Ahmad, Raheelah

    2018-02-01

    Public sources fund the majority of UK infection research, but citizens currently have no formal role in resource allocation. To explore the feasibility and willingness of citizens to engage in strategic decision making, we developed and tested a practical tool to capture public priorities for research. A scenario including six infection themes for funding was developed to assess citizen priorities for research funding. This was tested over two days at a university public festival. Votes were cast anonymously along with rationale for selection. The scenario was then implemented during a three-hour focus group exploring views on engagement in strategic decisions and in-depth evaluation of the tool. 188/491(38%) prioritized funding research into drug-resistant infections followed by emerging infections(18%). Results were similar between both days. Focus groups contained a total of 20 citizens with an equal gender split, range of ethnicities and ages ranging from 18 to >70 years. The tool was perceived as clear with participants able to make informed comparisons. Rationale for funding choices provided by voters and focus group participants are grouped into three major themes: (i) Information processing; (ii) Knowledge of the problem; (iii) Responsibility; and a unique theme within the focus groups (iv) The potential role of citizens in decision making. Divergent perceptions of relevance and confidence of "non-experts" as decision makers were expressed. Voting scenarios can be used to collect, en-masse, citizens' choices and rationale for research priorities. Ensuring adequate levels of citizen information and confidence is important to allow deployment in other formats. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An Analytical Framework for Delirium Research in Palliative Care Settings: Integrated Epidemiologic, Clinician-Researcher, and Knowledge User Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammed; Hosie, Annmarie; Kanji, Salmaan; Momoli, Franco; Bush, Shirley H.; Watanabe, Sharon; Currow, David C.; Gagnon, Bruno; Agar, Meera; Bruera, Eduardo; Meagher, David J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.J.A.; Adamis, Dimitrios; Caraceni, Augusto; Marchington, Katie; Stewart, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium often presents difficult management challenges in the context of goals of care in palliative care settings. Objectives The aim was to formulate an analytical framework for further research on delirium in palliative care settings, prioritize the associated research questions, discuss the inherent methodological challenges associated with relevant studies, and outline the next steps in a program of delirium research. Methods We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and knowledge users at an international delirium study planning meeting, relevant literature searches, focused input of epidemiologic expertise, and a meeting participant and coauthor survey to formulate a conceptual research framework and prioritize research questions. Results Our proposed framework incorporates three main groups of research questions: the first was predominantly epidemiologic, such as delirium occurrence rates, risk factor evaluation, screening, and diagnosis; the second covers pragmatic management questions; and the third relates to the development of predictive models for delirium outcomes. Based on aggregated survey responses to each research question or domain, the combined modal ratings of “very” or “extremely” important confirmed their priority. Conclusion Using an analytical framework to represent the full clinical care pathway of delirium in palliative care settings, we identified multiple knowledge gaps in relation to the occurrence rates, assessment, management, and outcome prediction of delirium in this population. The knowledge synthesis generated from adequately powered, multicenter studies to answer the framework’s research questions will inform decision making and policy development regarding delirium detection and management and thus help to achieve better outcomes for patients in palliative care settings. PMID:24726762

  8. Assessment of wind speed and wind power through three stations in Egypt, including air density variation and analysis results with rough set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.; Embaby, M.; Marrouf, A.A.; Koza, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the wind energy potential is proportional to both air density and the third power of the wind speed average over a suitable time period. The wind speed and air density have random variables depending on both time and location. The main objective of this work is to derive the most general wind energy potential of the wind formulation putting into consideration the time variable in both wind speed and air density. The correction factor is derived explicitly in terms of the cross-correlation and the coefficients of variation.The application is performed for environmental and wind speed measurements at the Cairo Airport, Kosseir and Hurguada, Egypt. Comparisons are made between Weibull, Rayleigh, and actual data distributions of wind speed and wind power of one year 2005. A Weibull distribution is the best match to the actual probability distribution of wind speed data for most stations. The maximum wind energy potential was 373 W/m 2 in June at Hurguada (Red Sea coast) where the annual mean value was 207 W/m 2 . By Using Rough Set Theory, We Find That the Wind Power Depends on the Wind Speed with greater than air density

  9. Determination of neutron energy spectrum at a pneumatic rabbit station of a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkawi, S.R.; Ahmad, N.

    2002-01-01

    The method of multiple foil activation was used to measure the neutron energy spectrum, experimentally, at a rabbit station of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), which is a typical swimming pool type material test research reactor. The computer codes MSITER and SANDBP were used to adjust the spectrum. The pre-information required by the adjustment codes was obtained by modelling the core and its surroundings in three-dimensions by using the one dimensional transport theory code WIMS-D/4 and the multidimensional finite difference diffusion theory code CITATION. The input spectrum covariance information required by MSITER code was also calculated from the CITATION output. A comparison between calculated and adjusted spectra shows a good agreement

  10. A validated set of tool pictures with matched objects and non-objects for laterality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ark; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging research has established that knowledge related to tool use and tool recognition is lateralized to the left cerebral hemisphere. Recently, behavioural studies with the visual half-field technique have confirmed the lateralization. A limitation of this research was that different sets of stimuli had to be used for the comparison of tools to other objects and objects to non-objects. Therefore, we developed a new set of stimuli containing matched triplets of tools, other objects and non-objects. With the new stimulus set, we successfully replicated the findings of no visual field advantage for objects in an object recognition task combined with a significant right visual field advantage for tools in a tool recognition task. The set of stimuli is available as supplemental data to this article.

  11. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  12. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site's total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside

  13. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Valentin; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc

    2010-05-01

    A new, long open-path instrument for monitoring of path-averaged methane and water vapor concentrations will be presented. The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver - distant retroreflector). A VCSEL tunable diode laser (TDL) with a central wavelength of 1654 nm is used as a light source. A specially designed, single-cell, hollow-cube retroreflector with 150 mm aperture will be installed at 1200 m from the transceiver in the final deployment at Jungfraujjoch and 100 mm retroreflectors will be used in the other applications. The receiver is built around a 20 cm Newtonian telescope. To avoid distortions in the shape of a methane line, caused by atmospheric turbulences, the line is scanned within 1 µs. Fast InGaAs photodiodes and 200 MHz are used to achieve this scanning rate. The expected concentration resolution for the above mentioned path lengths is of the order of 2 ppb. The instrument is developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland and will be used within the GAW+ CH program for long-term monitoring of background methane concentration in the Swiss Alps. After completing the initial tests at EPFL the instrument will be installed in 2012 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (HARSJ) located at 3580 m ASL. The HARSJ is one of the 24 global GAW stations and carries on continuous observations of a number of trace gasses, including methane. One of the goals of the project is to compare path-averaged to ongoing point measurements of methane in order to identify possible influence of the station. Future deployments of a copy of the instrument include the Colombian part of Amazonia and Siberian wetlands.

  14. Paediatric obesity research in early childhood and the primary care setting: the TARGet Kids! research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinis, Julia; Maguire, Jonathon; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian W; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2012-04-01

    Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada--TARGet Kids!--to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.

  15. Paediatric Obesity Research in Early Childhood and the Primary Care Setting: The TARGet Kids! Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Birken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.

  16. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  17. Ethics and equity in research priority-setting: stakeholder engagement and the needs of disadvantaged groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Rana, Sangeeta; Karimkhani, Chante; Welch, Vivian; Armstrong, Rebecca; Pottie, Kevin; Dellavalle, Robert; Dhakal, Purushottam; Oliver, Sandy; Francis, Damian K; Nasser, Mona; Crowe, Sally; Aksut, Baran; Amico, Roberto D

    2015-01-01

    A transparent and evidence-based priority-setting process promotes the optimal use of resources to improve health outcomes. Decision-makers and funders have begun to increasingly engage representatives of patients and healthcare consumers to ensure that research becomes more relevant. However, disadvantaged groups and their needs may not be integrated into the priority-setting process since they do not have a "political voice" or are unable to organise into interest groups. Equitable priority-setting methods need to balance patient needs, values, experiences with population-level issues and issues related to the health system.

  18. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: IV. Key conceptual advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor

    2016-06-01

    Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) started as an initiative of the Global Forum for Health Research in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim was to develop a method that could assist priority setting in health research investments. The first version of the CHNRI method was published in 2007-2008. The aim of this paper was to summarize the history of the development of the CHNRI method and its key conceptual advances. The guiding principle of the CHNRI method is to expose the potential of many competing health research ideas to reduce disease burden and inequities that exist in the population in a feasible and cost-effective way. The CHNRI method introduced three key conceptual advances that led to its increased popularity in comparison to other priority-setting methods and processes. First, it proposed a systematic approach to listing a large number of possible research ideas, using the "4D" framework (description, delivery, development and discovery research) and a well-defined "depth" of proposed research ideas (research instruments, avenues, options and questions). Second, it proposed a systematic approach for discriminating between many proposed research ideas based on a well-defined context and criteria. The five "standard" components of the context are the population of interest, the disease burden of interest, geographic limits, time scale and the preferred style of investing with respect to risk. The five "standard" criteria proposed for prioritization between research ideas are answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for disease burden reduction and the effect on equity. However, both the context and the criteria can be flexibly changed to meet the specific needs of each priority-setting exercise. Third, it facilitated consensus development through measuring collective optimism on each component of each research idea among a larger group of experts using a simple scoring system. This enabled the use of the knowledge of

  19. Sports clubs as settings for health promotion: fundamentals and an overview to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami

    2014-11-01

    This paper explores the efficacy and value of sports clubs as a setting for health promotion. Sports clubs for children and adolescents are the primary focus of the paper, and the aims are two-fold. Firstly, the paper aims to review the basis for and elements of the health promoting sports club (HPSC) concept. Secondly, the aim is to overview the international evolution of the HPSC concept and its usefulness in the research. The settings-based health promotion approach forms the basis for the HPSC concept and it is introduced first. Thereafter, both obligating and prospecting factors, to justify the importance for sports clubs to address health promotion, are expressed. Major prospecting factors relate to the facts that sports club activities reach a lot of children and adolescents, and that its educational nature is informal due to voluntary participation. The paper also presents multilevel structure of sports clubs, as well as the determinants affecting the settings-based work. The research concerning health promotion in sports-related settings is evolving worldwide, and Nordic countries are in the front line of this new-wave of settings-based health promotion. Indeed, it has been claimed that, for the settings approach to assimilate to current societal challenges, there is a need to widen the reach of the approach to non-traditional, non-institutional settings, like sports clubs. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Research Priority Setting for Social Determinants of Health Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: It is obvious that, because of the lack of resources, we should devote our limited resources to priorities in order to reach an acceptable level of health. The objective of this study was to research priority setting for Pediatric Surgery Research Center; with the participation of all stakeholders.Material and Methods: This is a Health System Research (HSR project in order to apply governance and leadership issues with the participation of 41 people including faculty members in Pediatric Surgery Research Center, Shahid Beheshti Medical University and the other pediatric specialists and health system stakeholders as well as the people associated with health system inside & outside the university. This was performed in 2010 using the Council on Health Research for Development COHRED( model with little change. Based on the model, at first the stakeholders were identified and the field situation of Pediatric Surgery was analyzed. Then, research areas and titles were specified and research priorities were set out by giving scores according to the criteria.Results: The seven obtained research areas in priority order are included pediatric trauma, pediatric cancers, pediatric urology diseases, undescended testicles in children, developmental genetics & congenital defects, emergency in children and application of laparoscopic surgery in children. Because each of the research areas is composed of multiple subareas, we managed to finally specify 43 research subareas as research priorities. These subareas included epidemiology, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment. They also included follow-up, complications, knowledge & attitudes of parents, quality of life, economy aspects and data bank for further research.Conclusion: In this project, research priorities were set out for Pediatric Surgery Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, with the participation of all the stakeholders

  1. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martines

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013–2025.

  2. Alterations of Cellular Immune Reactions in Crew Members Overwintering in the Antarctic Research Station Concordia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Feuerecker, Matthias; Moreels, Marjan; Crucian, Brian; Kaufmann, Ines; Salam, Alex Paddy; Rybka, Alex; Ulrike, Thieme; Quintens, Roel; Sams, Clarence F.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concordia Station is located inside Antarctica about 1000km from the coast at an altitude of 3200m (Dome C). Hence, individuals living in this harsh environment are exposed to two major conditions: 1.) hypobaric hypoxia and 2.) confinement and extreme isolation. Both hypoxia and confinement can affect human immunity and health, and are likely to be present during exploration class space missions. This study focused on immune alterations measured by a new global immunity test assay, similar to the phased out delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. Methods: After informed written consent 14 healthy male subjects were included to the CHOICE-study (Consequences-of-longterm-Confinement-and-Hypobaric-HypOxia-on-Immunity-in-the Antarctic-Concordia-Environment). Data collection occurred during two winter-over periods lasting each one year. During the first campaign 6 healthy male were enrolled followed by a second campaign with 8 healthy males. Blood was drawn monthly and incubated for 48h with various bacterial, viral and fungal antigens followed by an analysis of plasma cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL2, IFN-gamma, IL10). As a control, blood was incubated without stimulation ("resting condition"). Goals: The scope of this study was to assess the consequences of hypoxia and confinement on cellular immunity as assessed by a new in vitro DTH-like test. Results: Initial results indicate that under resting conditions the in vitro DTH-like test showed low cytokine levels which remained almost unchanged during the entire observation period. However, cytokine responses to viral, bacterial and fungal antigens were remarkably reduced at the first month after arrival at Concordia when compared to levels measured in Europe prior to departure for Antarctica. With incrementing months of confinement this depressed DTH-like response tended to reverse, and in fact to show an "overshooting" immune reaction after stimulation. Conclusion: The reduced in vitro DTH-like test

  3. A Decision Support Framework for Feasibility Analysis of International Space Station (ISS) Research Capability Enhancing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott,Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the ISS has generated significant challenges that have ultimately impacted resources available to the program's primary mission: research. To address this, program personnel routinely perform trade-off studies on alternative options to enhance research. The approach, content level of analysis and resulting outputs of these studies vary due to many factors, however, complicating the Program Manager's job of selecting the best option. To address this, the program requested a framework be developed to evaluate multiple research-enhancing options in a thorough, disciplined and repeatable manner, and to identify the best option on the basis of cost, benefit and risk. The resulting framework consisted of a systematic methodology and a decision-support toolset. The framework provides quantifiable and repeatable means for ranking research-enhancing options for the complex and multiple-constraint domain of the space research laboratory. This paper describes the development, verification and validation of this framework and provides observations on its operational use.

  4. Overcoming practical challenges to conducting clinical research in the inpatient stroke rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Grace B; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Whyte, Ellen M; Matthews, Judith T

    2015-10-01

    There is a shortage of published empirical studies conducted in acute inpatient stroke rehabilitation, though such studies are greatly needed in order to shed light on the most efficacious inpatient stroke rehabilitation interventions. The inherent challenges of inpatient research may dissuade researchers from undertaking this important work. This paper describes our institution's experience devising practical solutions to research barriers in this setting. Through concentrated efforts to overcome research barriers, such as by cultivating collaborative relationships and capitalizing on unanticipated benefits, we successfully facilitated conduct of five simultaneous inpatient stroke studies. Tangible benefits realized include increased effectiveness of research participant identification and enrollment, novel collaborative projects, innovative clinical care initiatives, and enhanced emotional and practical support for patients and their families. We provide recommendations based on lessons learned during our experience, and discuss benefits of this collaboration for our research participants, clinical staff, and the research team.

  5. Developing Research Collaborations in an Academic Clinical Setting: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahs, John A; Nicasio, Andel V; Storey, Joan E; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Research collaboration in "real world" practice settings may enhance the meaningfulness of the findings and reduce barriers to implementation of novel intervention strategies. This study describes an initiative to integrate research into a hospital-based outpatient psychiatric clinic within an academic medical center, focusing on collaborative processes across three research projects. We report on the varied outcomes of the projects and utilize data from two focus groups to identify the key elements that contributed to the challenges and successes. We identify barriers to practice-research collaborations that emerged even when the initial circumstances of the partnership were favorable. These barriers include the presence of varied agendas across clinicians and investigators, resource constraints, limited staff buy-in, and staff turnover. In highlighting the lessons learned in this collaborative process, we hope to facilitate successful partnerships in other clinical settings.

  6. Involving healthcare professionals and family carers in setting research priorities for end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffin, Janet; Spence, Michael; Spencer, Rebecca; Mellor, Peter; Grande, Gunn

    2017-02-02

    It is important to ensure regional variances are considered when setting future end-of-life research priorities, given the differing demographics and service provision. This project sought to identify end-of-life research priorities within Greater Manchester (United Kingdom). Following an initial scoping exercise, six topics within the 10 national priorities outlined by The Palliative and end-of-life care Priority Setting Partnership were selected for exploration. A workshop involving 32 healthcare professionals and a consultation process with 26 family carers was conducted. Healthcare professionals and carers selected and discussed the topics important to them. The topics selected most frequently by both healthcare professionals and carers were 'Access to 24 hour care', 'Planning end-of-life care in advance' and 'Staff and carer education'. Healthcare professionals also developed research questions for their topics of choice which were refined to incorporate carers' views. These questions are an important starting point for future end-of-life research within Greater Manchester.

  7. Research Regarding High Gravity Brewing in the Pilot Station USAMV Cluj-Napoca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Borsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present preliminary research results obtained while developing and implementing a high gravity beer fermentation process. Production trials were performed in brewery pilot plant from University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Food Science and Technology. The tehnological parameters were adapted and monitored during the making.

  8. Evaluation of tele-ultrasound as a tool in remote diagnosis and clinical management at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the McMurdo Research Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian; Shemenski, Ron; Scott, Jessica M; Hartshorn, Jeanette; Bishop, Sheryl; Viegas, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Background: A large number of Antarctic stations do not utilize ultrasound for medical care. Regular use of ultrasound imaging at South Pole and McMurdo Stations first began in October 2002. To date, there has been no evaluation of medical events requiring ultrasound examination from this remote environment. Additionally, the importance of tele-ultrasound for clinical management in Antarctica has not yet been assessed. We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis of all ultrasound exams performed at South Pole and McMurdo Stations between October 2002 and October 2003. Radiology reports and patient charts were reviewed for pre- and post-ultrasound diagnosis and treatment. Sixty-six ultrasound exams were conducted on 49 patients. Of the exams, 94.0% were interpreted by the store-and-forward method, whereas 6.0% were interpreted in "real-time" format. Abdominal, genitourinary, and gynecology ultrasound exams accounted for 63.6% of exams. Ultrasound examination prevented an intercontinental aeromedical evacuation in 25.8% of cases, and had a significant effect on the diagnosis and management of illness in patients at South Pole and McMurdo research stations. These findings indicate that diagnostic ultrasound has significant benefits for medical care at Antarctic stations and that tele-ultrasound is a valuable addition to remote medical care for isolated populations with limited access to tertiary-healthcare facilities.

  9. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Bhandari, Nita; Biloglav, Zrinka; Edmond, Karen; Iyengar, Sharad; Kramer, Michael; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D S; Mori, Rintaro; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Sachdev, H P S; Singhal, Nalini; Tomlinson, Mark; Victora, Cesar; Williams, Anthony F; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4. We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. In the process coordinated by the World Health Organization in 2007-2008, 21 researchers with interest in child, maternal and newborn health suggested 82 research ideas that spanned across the broad spectrum of epidemiological research, health policy and systems research, improvement of existing interventions and development of new interventions. The 82 research questions were then assessed for answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for mortality reduction and the effect on equity using the CHNRI method. The top 10 identified research priorities were dominated by health systems and policy research questions (eg, identification of LBW infants born at home within 24-48 hours of birth for additional care; approaches to improve quality of care of LBW infants in health facilities; identification of barriers to optimal home care practices including care seeking; and approaches to increase the use of antenatal corticosteriods in preterm labor and to improve access to hospital care for LBW infants). These were followed by priorities for improvement of the existing interventions (eg, early initiation of breastfeeding, including feeding mode and techniques for those unable to suckle directly from the breast; improved cord care, such as chlorhexidine application; and alternative methods to Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) to keep LBW infants warm in community settings). The highest-ranked epidemiological question suggested improving criteria for identifying LBW infants who need to be cared for in a hospital. Among the new interventions, the greatest support was shown for the development of

  10. The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: An integrative review of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Mikael; Eriksson, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this review is to compile and identify key issues in international research about youth sports clubs as health-promoting settings, and then discuss the results of the review in terms of a framework for the youth sports club as a health-promoting setting. Methods: The framework guiding this review of research is the health-promoting settings approach introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The method used is the integrated review. Inclusion criteria were, first, that the studies concerned sports clubs for young people, not professional clubs; second, that it be a question of voluntary participation in some sort of ongoing organized athletics outside of the regular school curricula; third, that the studies consider issues about youth sports clubs in terms of health-promoting settings as described by WHO. The final sample for the review consists of 44 publications. Results: The review shows that youth sports clubs have plentiful opportunities to be or become health-promoting settings; however this is not something that happens automatically. To do so, the club needs to include an emphasis on certain important elements in its strategies and daily practices. The youth sports club needs to be a supportive and healthy environment with activities designed for and adapted to the specific age-group or stage of development of the youth. Conclusions: To become a health-promoting setting, a youth sports club needs to take a comprehensive approach to its activities, aims, and purposes. PMID:23349167

  11. Considerations, clues and challenges: Gaining Ethical and Trust research approval when using the NHS as a research setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker, Leon, E-mail: leon.jonker@cumbria.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Cumbria, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Research and Development Department, North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust, Carlisle CA2 7HY (United Kingdom); Cox, Diane; Marshall, Gill [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Cumbria, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Substantial changes have been made in recent years to the process of obtaining ethical and research governance approval for research projects in the NHS. The advent of the Integrated Research Application System (IRAS) has streamlined the process, providing a single point of entry. Ethical approval gained in one part of the country is now valid throughout the UK. The previous process of gaining research governance approval in NHS Trusts was maligned and it has been overhauled with the introduction of the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Coordinated System for gaining NHS Permission. In addition to updating the reader about the new processes around gaining ethical and Trust approval for research within an NHS setting, essential research project documentation needed for submission are discussed. The aspects of a proposal that Ethics Committees and Trust R and D Departments consider when reviewing applications are highlighted. The implemented changes to the research approval processes will mostly benefit large multi-centre studies; small scale unfunded studies and student projects are potentially at risk of being marginalised in the quest for a streamlined ethics and NHS Trust research governance approval process. However, researchers' familiarity with the approval system should minimise rejection rates and delays.

  12. Considerations, clues and challenges: Gaining Ethical and Trust research approval when using the NHS as a research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, Leon; Cox, Diane; Marshall, Gill

    2011-01-01

    Substantial changes have been made in recent years to the process of obtaining ethical and research governance approval for research projects in the NHS. The advent of the Integrated Research Application System (IRAS) has streamlined the process, providing a single point of entry. Ethical approval gained in one part of the country is now valid throughout the UK. The previous process of gaining research governance approval in NHS Trusts was maligned and it has been overhauled with the introduction of the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Coordinated System for gaining NHS Permission. In addition to updating the reader about the new processes around gaining ethical and Trust approval for research within an NHS setting, essential research project documentation needed for submission are discussed. The aspects of a proposal that Ethics Committees and Trust R and D Departments consider when reviewing applications are highlighted. The implemented changes to the research approval processes will mostly benefit large multi-centre studies; small scale unfunded studies and student projects are potentially at risk of being marginalised in the quest for a streamlined ethics and NHS Trust research governance approval process. However, researchers' familiarity with the approval system should minimise rejection rates and delays.

  13. Power Trip Set-points of Reactor Protection System for New Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Yang, Soohyung

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the trip set-point related to the reactor power considering the reactivity induced accident (RIA) of new research reactor. The possible scenarios of reactivity induced accidents were simulated and the effects of trip set-point on the critical heat flux ratio (CHFR) were calculated. The proper trip set-points which meet the acceptance criterion and guarantee sufficient margins from normal operation were then determined. The three different trip set-points related to the reactor power are determined based on the RIA of new research reactor during FP condition, over 0.1%FP and under 0.1%FP. Under various reactivity insertion rates, the CHFR are calculated and checked whether they meet the acceptance criterion. For RIA at FP condition, the acceptance criterion can be satisfied even if high power set-point is only used for reactor trip. Since the design of the reactor is still progressing and need a safety margin for possible design changes, 18 MW is recommended as a high power set-point. For RIA at 0.1%FP, high power setpoint of 18 MW and high log rate of 10%pp/s works well and acceptance criterion is satisfied. For under 0.1% FP operations, the application of high log rate is necessary for satisfying the acceptance criterion. Considering possible decrease of CHFR margin due to design changes, the high log rate is suggested to be 8%pp/s. Suggested trip set-points have been identified based on preliminary design data for new research reactor; therefore, these trip set-points will be re-established by considering design progress of the reactor. The reactor protection system (RPS) of new research reactor is designed for safe shutdown of the reactor and preventing the release of radioactive material to environment. The trip set point of RPS is essential for reactor safety, therefore should be determined to mitigate the consequences from accidents. At the same time, the trip set-point should secure margins from normal operational condition to avoid

  14. Setting priorities for zinc-related health research to reduce children's disease burden worldwide: an application of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative's research priority-setting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Boy, Erick; Gibson, Rosalind S; Horton, Susan; Osendarp, Saskia J; Sempertegui, Fernando; Shrimpton, Roger; Rudan, Igor

    2009-03-01

    To make the best use of limited resources for supporting health-related research to reduce child mortality, it is necessary to apply a suitable method to rank competing research options. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) developed a new methodology for setting health research priorities. To broaden experience with this priority-setting technique, we applied the method to rank possible research priorities concerning the control of Zn deficiency. Although Zn deficiency is not generally recognized as a direct cause of child mortality, recent research indicates that it predisposes children to an increased incidence and severity of several of the major direct causes of morbidity and mortality. Leading experts in the field of Zn research in child health were identified and invited to participate in a technical working group (TWG) to establish research priorities. The individuals were chosen to represent a wide range of expertise in Zn nutrition. The seven TWG members submitted a total of ninety research options, which were then consolidated into a final list of thirty-one research options categorized by the type of resulting intervention. The identified priorities were dominated by research investment options targeting Zn supplementation, and were followed by research on Zn fortification, general aspects of Zn nutrition, dietary modification and other new interventions. In general, research options that aim to improve the efficiency of an already existing intervention strategy received higher priority scores. Challenges identified during the implementation of the methodology and suggestions to modify the priority-setting procedures are discussed.

  15. Foreign board members and firm innovativeness: An exploratory analysis for setting a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan; Habersetzer, Antoine

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to assess the often repeated, but empirically unconfirmed, supposition that there is a positive connection between foreign board members (FBMs) and firm innovativeness and to set a research agenda for future studies on the topic. Design/methodology/approach The analyses ar...

  16. RANKED SET SAMPLING FOR ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH: ACCOUNTING FOR THE TOTAL COSTS OF SAMPLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers aim to design environmental studies that optimize precision and allow for generalization of results, while keeping the costs of associated field and laboratory work at a reasonable level. Ranked set sampling is one method to potentially increase precision and reduce ...

  17. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, J.E.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products

  18. Refining Video Game Use Questionnaires for Research and Clinical Application: Detection of Problematic Response Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Kyle A.; Faust, David; Baker, Aaron M.; Meyer, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Even when relatively infrequent, deviant response sets, such as defensive and careless responding, can have remarkably robust effects on individual and group data and thereby distort clinical evaluations and research outcomes. Given such potential adverse impacts and the widespread use of self-report measures when appraising addictions and…

  19. Research on Role Sets and Emotional Relationships in Military Personnel Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazina, Elmira I.; Minullina, Aida F.

    2016-01-01

    An urgent demand of society to conduct effective work with the family substantiates the relevance of the research. The article provides the investigation of role sets and emotional relationships in marriage through the study of military personnel and nonmilitary personnel families. Practical implementation of psychological ideas represents one of…

  20. Breeding ecology of buff-breasted babbler (Pellorneum tickelli at Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Research Station, Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchareeyaporn Panyaarj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the buff-breasted babbler (Pellorneum tickelli was recorded from April 2010 to May 2012 along creeks in Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Research Station, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Fifteen nests of the buff-breasted babbler were found on four creeks: Maeka, Maemard, Ong and Sikrobkrua. The general behavior of birds included foraging, excretion, locomotion, preening and vigilance. The complete breeding cycle of the buff-breasted babbler in this study was almost 1 mth. Egg clutch size was in the range 3–4 and the nestlings hatched almost simultaneously. The eggs were incubated by both the males and the females. After hatching, both parents invested in intensive parental care. As well as providing food, they also protected their nestlings. This information can be used to help with conservation planning in the area and elsewhere. Keywords: Bird nest, Breeding birds, Nestling, Parental care, Riparian

  1. The research station "Vaskiny Dachi", Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia – a review of 25 years of permafrost studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina O. Leibman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research station "Vaskiny Dachi" on the Yamal Peninsula was established in 1988. Activities aimed at monitoring of permafrost and related environmental features under a relatively low level of nature disturbances caused by gas field development. Cryogenic processes that may affect the environment and their structures have been of primary interest. Landslides are the most common cryogenic processes in Central Yamal in general and also in the proximity of the station. Field surveys of numerous landslides, analysis of their dependence on climatic parameters and their fluctuations resulted in novel classification of cryogenic landslides based on mechanisms of their development. Dating by radiocarbon and dendrochronology allows the separation of cycles of landslide activation. Cryogenic landslides control the development of other processes, such as thermal erosion, river channel erosion and thermokarst. It also affects topography, vegetation pattern, geochemistry of vegetation, ground water and soils. As a result, permafrost parameters, specifically active layer depth and ground temperature, moisture and ice content in the active layer, depend indirectly on landsliding. Monitoring within the framework of the main programs of the International Permafrost Association, such as Circumarctic Active Layer Monitoring (CALM, since 1993 and Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP, since 2011, play an important role among the research activities. From the collected data one can conclude that ground temperature increased on average by about 1 °C since the 1990s. At the same time, active layer fluctuations do not exactly follow the air temperature changes. Spatial changes in ground temperature are controlled by the redistribution of snow which is resulting from strong winds characteristic for tundra environments and the highly dissected relief of Central Yamal. Temporal variations rather depend on air temperature fluctuations but the rate differs in various

  2. Fifteen Challenges in Establishing a Multidisciplinary Research Program on eHealth Research in a University Setting: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönqvist, Helena; Olsson, Erik Martin Gustaf; Johansson, Birgitta; Held, Claes; Sjöström, Jonas; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Hovén, Emma; Sanderman, Robbert; van Achterberg, Theo; von Essen, Louise

    2017-05-23

    U-CARE is a multidisciplinary eHealth research program that involves the disciplines of caring science, clinical psychology, health economics, information systems, and medical science. It was set up from scratch in a university setting in 2010, funded by a governmental initiative. While establishing the research program, many challenges were faced. Systematic documentation of experiences from establishing new research environments is scarce. The aim of this paper was to describe the challenges of establishing a publicly funded multidisciplinary eHealth research environment. Researchers involved in developing the research program U-CARE identified challenges in the formal documentation and by reflecting on their experience of developing the program. The authors discussed the content and organization of challenges into themes until consensus was reached. The authors identified 15 major challenges, some general to establishing a new research environment and some specific for multidisciplinary eHealth programs. The challenges were organized into 6 themes: Organization, Communication, Implementation, Legislation, Software development, and Multidisciplinarity. Several challenges were faced during the development of the program and several accomplishments were made. By sharing our experience, we hope to help other research groups embarking on a similar journey to be prepared for some of the challenges they are likely to face on their way. ©Helena Grönqvist, Erik Martin Gustaf Olsson, Birgitta Johansson, Claes Held, Jonas Sjöström, Annika Lindahl Norberg, Emma Hovén, Robbert Sanderman, Theo van Achterberg, Louise von Essen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 23.05.2017.

  3. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q. Daley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  4. Doing Fieldwork on State Organizations in Democratic Settings: Ethical Issues of Research in Refugee Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tomkinson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By drawing on eighteen months of ethnographic fieldwork and my field diaries in refugee decision-making in Canada, I make three arguments in this article. First, the binary of research in closed vs. open settings may have contributed to overlooking of ethical challenges of research in state organizations in democratic settings. We have to overcome this binary by opening a dialogue among ethnographers. Second, despite well-developed and diverse nature of scholarship on Research Ethics' Board's (REB formal practices and their negative impact on ethnographers' research proposals, the scarcity of scholarship on "ethics in practice" or "everyday ethics" show that we seem to forget that ethnographers, after receiving research ethics approval, still have to do considerable interpretation for what "being ethical" means. Finally, paying attention to "ethically important moments" during research practice may help us bridge the gap between principles of formal ethics and ethics in practice. Using field diaries in these reflections instead of more sanitized subsequent accounts illustrates the immediacy and importance of ethical concerns during research practice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150168

  5. Authentic scientific research in an international setting as a path toward higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Palomo, M.; Casad, B.; Pietruschka, B.; Buckley, C.

    2016-12-01

    Studies have shown that undergraduate research opportunities foster student interest in research, encourage minority students to seek advanced degrees, and put students on a path toward higher education. It has been further suggested that engineering projects in international settings address issues of sustainability and promote a connection between engineering and social welfare that may compel students to seek future research opportunities. In this study, we explored the role that authentic research experiences in an international setting play in promoting higher education for students from groups typically under-represented in engineering and sciences. We hypothesized that the international context of the research experiences will provide undergraduate and graduate students with a global perspective of water reuse challenges and promote increased interest in pursuing a higher degree in engineering. Through the Sustainable Sanitation International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) Program, US students conducting research in Durban, South Africa in 2015 and 2016, were tasked with leading 6-week long research projects, collaborating with partners at the University of KwaZulu Natal, and producing papers and presentations for regional and international scientific conferences. All undergraduate participants were from groups under-represented in the sciences. Pre- and post-program survey results revealed that, after completing the program, participants of Cohort 1 had 1) greater research skills, 2) greater identification as an engineer, and 3) stronger intentions to pursue a PhD in engineering. Survey data were also used to evaluate comfort with cultural diversity before and after the international program and the effect of pairing US with South African student researchers. Our results indicate that students' awareness of societal needs and engineering challenges faced in Durban resulted in a positive impact on each student. The benefits gained from the

  6. Research on Automatic Ticketing Interface Design of Tianjin South Station under the Background of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenghui, Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Based on the context of increasingly serious aging problem in China, the psychological characteristics of elders in using public self-service facilities and the development status and the future trend of public self-service ticketing service. The approach is analysing physiological and psychological characteristics, education level of the elderly and studying its characteristics of consumer psychology and regional cultural characteristics profoundly before conducting comprehensive analysis and research in combination with the interface features of public self-service ticketing machine. The interface design will be more personalized, intelligent, regional and international. Strategies of caring for the elderly in the regional public self-service facility interface design innovation develops the concept of taking care of the elderly in the entire region as an indispensable people-benefiting optimization system in the modern social services.

  7. Research on the technologies of cracking-resistance of mass concrete in subway station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yanmin; Li, Shujin; Jiang, Guoquan; Shi, Xiaoqing; Yang, Zhu; Zhu, Zhihang

    2018-03-01

    This paper takes the theory of multi-field coupling and the model of hydration-temperature-humidity-constraint to assess the effect of cracking-resistance on structural concrete and optimize the controlling index of crack resistance. The effect is caused by structure, material and construction, etc. The preparation technology of high cracking-resistance concrete is formed through the researching on the temperature rising and deformation over the controlling influence of new anti-cracking materials and technologies. A series of technologies on anti-cracking and waterproof in underground structural concrete of urban rail transit are formed based on the above study. The technologies include design, construction, materials and monitoring. Those technologies are used in actual engineering to improve the quality of urban rail transit and this brings significant economic and social benefits.

  8. The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyeki, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Jost, D.T.; Weingartner, E.; Colbeck, I.

    1997-01-01

    Aerosol physical parameter measurements are reported here for the first full annual set of data from the Jungfraujoch site. Comparison to NOAA background and regional stations indicate that the site may be designated as 'clean continental' during the free tropospheric influenced period 03:00 -09:00. (author) figs., tab., refs

  9. The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyeki, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Jost, D.T.; Weingartner, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Colbeck, I. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Aerosol physical parameter measurements are reported here for the first full annual set of data from the Jungfraujoch site. Comparison to NOAA background and regional stations indicate that the site may be designated as `clean continental` during the free tropospheric influenced period 03:00 -09:00. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  10. An Emergency Medicine Research Priority Setting Partnership to establish the top 10 research priorities in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Keating, Liza; Flowerdew, Lynsey; O'Brien, Rachel; McIntyre, Sam; Morley, Richard; Carley, Simon

    2017-07-01

    Defining research priorities in a specialty as broad as emergency medicine is a significant challenge. In order to fund and complete the most important research projects, it is imperative that we identify topics that are important to all clinicians, society and to our patients. We have undertaken a priority setting partnership to establish the most important questions facing emergency medicine. The top 10 questions reached through a consensus process are discussed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Development of a new model to engage patients and clinicians in setting research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Alex; St George, Bridget; Fenton, Mark; Crowe, Sally; Firkins, Lester

    2014-01-01

    Equitable involvement of patients and clinicians in setting research and funding priorities is ethically desirable and can improve the quality, relevance and implementation of research. Survey methods used in previous priority setting projects to gather treatment uncertainties may not be sufficient to facilitate responses from patients and their lay carers for some health care topics. We aimed to develop a new model to engage patients and clinicians in setting research priorities relating to life after stroke, and to explore the use of this model within a James Lind Alliance (JLA) priority setting project. We developed a model to facilitate involvement through targeted engagement and assisted involvement (FREE TEA model). We implemented both standard surveys and the FREE TEA model to gather research priorities (treatment uncertainties) from people affected by stroke living in Scotland. We explored and configured the number of treatment uncertainties elicited from different groups by the two approaches. We gathered 516 treatment uncertainties from stroke survivors, carers and health professionals. We achieved approximately equal numbers of contributions; 281 (54%) from stroke survivors/carers; 235 (46%) from health professionals. For stroke survivors and carers, 98 (35%) treatment uncertainties were elicited from the standard survey and 183 (65%) at FREE TEA face-to-face visits. This contrasted with the health professionals for whom 198 (84%) were elicited from the standard survey and only 37 (16%) from FREE TEA visits. The FREE TEA model has implications for future priority setting projects and user-involvement relating to populations of people with complex health needs. Our results imply that reliance on standard surveys may result in poor and unrepresentative involvement of patients, thereby favouring the views of health professionals.

  12. Setting research priorities to improve global newborn health and prevent stillbirths by 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Martines, José; Lawn, Joy E; Wall, Stephen; Souza, Joăo Paulo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon; Aaby, Peter; Adam, Ishag; Adhikari, Ramesh Kant; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Arifeen, Shams Ei; Aryal, Dhana Raj; Asiruddin, Sk; Baqui, Abdullah; Barros, Aluisio Jd; Benn, Christine S; Bhandari, Vineet; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Robert E; Blencowe, Hannah; Bose, Carl; Brown, Justin; Bührer, Christoph; Carlo, Wally; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; Cheung, Po-Yin; Clark, Robert; Colbourn, Tim; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Corbett, Erica; Czeizel, Andrew E; Das, Abhik; Day, Louise Tina; Deal, Carolyn; Deorari, Ashok; Dilmen, Uğur; English, Mike; Engmann, Cyril; Esamai, Fabian; Fall, Caroline; Ferriero, Donna M; Gisore, Peter; Hazir, Tabish; Higgins, Rosemary D; Homer, Caroline Se; Hoque, D E; Irgens, Lorentz; Islam, M T; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Joshua, Martias Alice; Keenan, William; Khatoon, Soofia; Kieler, Helle; Kramer, Michael S; Lackritz, Eve M; Lavender, Tina; Lawintono, Laurensia; Luhanga, Richard; Marsh, David; McMillan, Douglas; McNamara, Patrick J; Mol, Ben Willem J; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Mukasa, G K; Mutabazi, Miriam; Nacul, Luis Carlos; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Narayanan, Indira; Olusanya, Bolajoko; Osrin, David; Paul, Vinod; Poets, Christian; Reddy, Uma M; Santosham, Mathuram; Sayed, Rubayet; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E; Singhal, Nalini; Smith, Mary Alice; Smith, Peter G; Soofi, Sajid; Spong, Catherine Y; Sultana, Shahin; Tshefu, Antoinette; van Bel, Frank; Gray, Lauren Vestewig; Waiswa, Peter; Wang, Wei; Williams, Sarah LA; Wright, Linda; Zaidi, Anita; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhong, Nanbert; Zuniga, Isabel; Bahl, Rajiv

    2016-06-01

    In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013-2025. We used adapted Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methods for this prioritization exercise. We identified and approached the 200 most productive researchers and 400 program experts, and 132 of them submitted research questions online. These were collated into a set of 205 research questions, sent for scoring to the 600 identified experts, and were assessed and scored by 91 experts. Nine out of top ten identified priorities were in the domain of research on improving delivery of known interventions, with simplified neonatal resuscitation program and clinical algorithms and improved skills of community health workers leading the list. The top 10 priorities in the domain of development were led by ideas on improved Kangaroo Mother Care at community level, how to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by community health workers, and perinatal audits. The 10 leading priorities for discovery research focused on stable surfactant with novel modes of administration for preterm babies, ability to diagnose fetal distress and novel tocolytic agents to delay or stop preterm labour. These findings will assist both donors and researchers in supporting and conducting research to close the knowledge gaps for reducing neonatal mortality, morbidity and long term impairment. WHO, SNL and other partners will work to generate interest among key national

  13. The metalcasting industry and future research on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santner, Joe; Overfelt, Tony

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen million tons of castings are used annually in ninety percent of all manufactured goods and in all manufacturing machinery making metalcasting the manufacturing backbone of America. There are approximately 3,000 foundries located in 49 states directly providing employment to 200,000 people and indirectly supporting transportation, petrochemical, construction, and other end-user industries. The Solidification Design Center (SDC) began a pioneering effort to address metalcasting industry technical needs to maintain US global leadership in quality, price, and delivery. While individual companies have interacted in the past with the Auburn University SDC, eighty-percent of the foundries employ less than 100 individuals while only six-percent of the foundries employ more than 250 persons. The American Foundrymen's Society (AFS) formed the Solidification Design and Control Consortium to reach the small businesses in the U.S. metalcasting industry. Over a century of operation has proved the AFS committee structure to be a robust management tool. The recognized metalcasting industry technical needs and the unique opportunities that low earth orbit offers foundry process research are described in the present paper. In addition, the metalcasting approach to prioritize proposals, transfer technology developed within the small business community, and the metalcasting industry concerns regarding working with a government aerospace program are also discussed

  14. Aerostructural Level Set Topology Optimization for a Common Research Model Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to use level set topology optimization to improve the design of a representative wing box structure for the NASA common research model. The objective is to minimize the total compliance of the structure under aerodynamic and body force loading, where the aerodynamic loading is coupled to the structural deformation. A taxi bump case was also considered, where only body force loads were applied. The trim condition that aerodynamic lift must balance the total weight of the aircraft is enforced by allowing the root angle of attack to change. The level set optimization method is implemented on an unstructured three-dimensional grid, so that the method can optimize a wing box with arbitrary geometry. Fast matching and upwind schemes are developed for an unstructured grid, which make the level set method robust and efficient. The adjoint method is used to obtain the coupled shape sensitivities required to perform aerostructural optimization of the wing box structure.

  15. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, William; Gawne, Carrie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, Mark W.; Stewart, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    dominant by biomass. Age-2+ Yellow Perch and White Perch diets from our western basin trawl had highest occurrences of benthic invertebrates in spring and fall. Hexagenia spp. accounted for >25% of Yellow Perch and White Perch diet composition (dry weight) in spring. We conducted an analysis using data from the past 6 years of our East Harbor survey to determine to what degree our new research vessel and trawl is affecting our ability to detect trends across the 50+ year time series. We also evaluated trends in water temperatue, dissolved oxygen, secchi depth and total Phosphorus from our LTLA sites near Vermilion, Ohio. Within the following report sections, we describe specific results from our primary surveys conducted in 2014.

  16. The prefabricated building risk decision research of DM technology on the basis of Rough Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z. L.; Zhang, W. B.; Ma, L. H.

    2017-08-01

    With the resources crises and more serious pollution, the green building has been strongly advocated by most countries and become a new building style in the construction field. Compared with traditional building, the prefabricated building has its own irreplaceable advantages but is influenced by many uncertainties. So far, a majority of scholars have been studying based on qualitative researches from all of the word. This paper profoundly expounds its significance about the prefabricated building. On the premise of the existing research methods, combined with rough set theory, this paper redefines the factors which affect the prefabricated building risk. Moreover, it quantifies risk factors and establish an expert knowledge base through assessing. And then reduced risk factors about the redundant attributes and attribute values, finally form the simplest decision rule. This simplest decision rule, which is based on the DM technology of rough set theory, provides prefabricated building with a controllable new decision-making method.

  17. Variations of surface ozone at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea and the influence of Asian outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.

    2015-11-01

    Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a minimum in August (37 ppbv) and two peaks in April and October (62 ppbv), and was largely affected by the seasonal wind pattern over east Asia. At IORS, six types of air masses were distinguished with different levels of O3 concentrations by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air masses from the Pacific Ocean represent a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32 ppbv, which was most frequently observed in summer (July-August). In spring (March-April) and winter (December-February), the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 62 and 49 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS and its extent was dependent on meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.

  18. Operation of TUT Solar PV Power Station Research Plant under Partial Shading Caused by Snow and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Torres Lobera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV research facility equipped with comprehensive climatic and electric measuring systems has been designed and built in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT. The climatic measuring system is composed of an accurate weather station, solar radiation measurements, and a mesh of irradiance and PV module temperature measurements located throughout the solar PV facility. Furthermore, electrical measurements can be taken from single PV modules and strings of modules synchronized with the climatic data. All measured parameters are sampled continuously at 10 Hz with a data-acquisition system based on swappable I/O card technology and stored in a database for later analysis. The used sampling frequency was defined by thorough analyses of the PV system time dependence. Climatic and electrical measurements of the first operation year of the research facility are analyzed in this paper. Moreover, operation of PV systems under partial shading conditions caused by snow and building structures is studied by means of the measured current and power characteristics of PV modules and strings.

  19. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: I. Involving funders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 and 2008, the World Health Organization's Department for Child and Adolescent Health and Development commissioned five large research priority setting exercises using the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method. The aim was to define research priorities related to the five major causes of child deaths for the period up to the year 2015. The selected causes were childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea, birth asphyxia, neonatal infections and preterm birth/low birth weight. The criteria used for prioritization in all five exercises were the “standard” CHNRI criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, potential for mortality burden reduction and the effect on equity. Having completed the exercises, the WHO officers were left with another question: how “fundable” were the identified priorities, i.e. how attractive were they to research funders?

  1. Building clinicians-researchers partnerships: lessons from diverse natural settings and practice-oriented initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G; Youn, Soo Jeong; Xiao, Henry; Muran, J Christopher; Barber, Jacques P

    2015-01-01

    In this concluding paper, we identify the type of studies conducted by 11 teams of contributors to a special issue on building clinicians-researchers partnerships. Those studies were conducted across a variety of clinical settings. We also integrate the lessons that have emerged from their collaborative initiatives in terms of obstacles faced, strategies adopted to address these challenges, benefits gained, and general recommendations offered to facilitate studies conducted with or by clinicians. The paper ends with the authors' thoughts about the future success of practice-oriented research in general.

  2. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research.

  3. Setting up an ethics of ecosystem research structure based on the precautionary principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Ethical practices in ecological field research differ from those in laboratory research in more than the technical setting and the important distinction between population-level and individual-based concerns. The number of stakeholders affected by the conduct of field research is far larger; private landholders, public water utilities, public land managers, local industries, and communities large and small are only some of those who may be impacted. As research review boards move to establish specific ethical practices for field biologists, the process of identifying appropriate standards will affect the degree to which research will ultimately be disrupted. Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key interests are not likely to be sustainable. Already, standards that have conflicted with the primary values of a key interest have resulted in disruptions to research and scientific progress. One way to manage this problem of deeply competing interests is to avoid the deepest offenses to any relevant interest group in the design of a proposed study. This is an application of the precautionary principle and is likely to generate a more sustainable balance among competing interests. Unfortunately, this process is also likely to be a never-ending, consensus-seeking process. Fortunately, scientists can have enormous influence on the process if they choose to engage in it early. If scientists use their expertise to function as honest brokers among affected interests, their own interest in scientific research progress is likely to be better met.

  4. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-09-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements six months into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Analysis and repair attempts of the VLA used in the deep water deployment during October 2003 have been completed; Definition of an interface protocol for the VLA DATS to the SFO has been established; Design modifications to allow integration of the VLA to the SFO have been made; Experience gained in the deployments of the first VLA is being applied to the design of the next VLAs; One of the two planned new VLAs being modified to serve as an Oceanographic Line Array (OLA). (2) Progress on the Sea Floor Probe: The decision to replace the Sea Floor Probe technology with the borehole emplacement of a geophysical array was reversed due to the 1300m water depth at the

  5. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-11-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements one year into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (1a) Repair attempts of the VLA cable damaged in the October >1000m water depth deployment failed; a new design has been tested successfully. (1b) The acoustic modem damaged in the October deployment was repaired successfully. (1c) Additional acoustic modems with greater depth rating and the appropriate surface communications units have been purchased. (1d) The VLA computer system is being modified for real time communications to the surface vessel using radio telemetry and fiber optic cable. (1e) Positioning sensors--including compass and tilt sensors--were completed and tested. (1f) One of the VLAs has been redesigned to collect near sea floor geochemical data. (2

  6. Priority setting partnership to identify the top 10 research priorities for the management of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Katherine H O; Flaherty, Helen; Daley, David J; Pascoe, Roland; Penhale, Bridget; Clarke, Carl E; Sackley, Catherine; Storey, Stacey

    2014-12-14

    This priority setting partnership was commissioned by Parkinson's UK to encourage people with direct and personal experience of the condition to work together to identify and prioritise the top 10 evidential uncertainties that impact on everyday clinical practice for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD). The UK. Anyone with experience of PD including: people with Parkinson's (PwP), carers, family and friends, healthcare and social care professionals. Non-clinical researchers and employees of pharmaceutical or medical devices companies were excluded. 1000 participants (60% PwP) provided ideas on research uncertainties, 475 (72% PwP) initially prioritised them and 27 (37% PwP) stakeholders agreed a final top 10. Using a modified nominal group technique, participants were surveyed to identify what issues for the management of PD needed research. Unique research questions unanswered by current evidence were identified and participants were asked to identify their top 10 research priorities from this list. The top 26 uncertainties were presented to a consensus meeting with key stakeholders to agree the top 10 research priorities. 1000 participants provided 4100 responses, which contained 94 unique unanswered research questions that were initially prioritised by 475 participants. A consensus meeting with 27 stakeholders agreed the top 10 research priorities. The overarching research aspiration was an effective cure for PD. The top 10 research priorities for PD management included the need to address motor symptoms (balance and falls, and fine motor control), non-motor symptoms (sleep and urinary dysfunction), mental health issues (stress and anxiety, dementia and mild cognitive impairments), side effects of medications (dyskinesia) and the need to develop interventions specific to the phenotypes of PD and better monitoring methods. These research priorities identify crucial gaps in the existing evidence to address everyday practicalities in the management of the

  7. Chemical composition, mixing state, size and morphology of Ice nucleating particles at the Jungfraujoch research station, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Martin; Worringen, Annette; Kandler, Konrad; Weinbruch, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig; Mertes, Stephan; Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Frank, Fabian; Nilius, Björn; Danielczok, Anja; Bingemer, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    An intense field campaign from the Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT) was performed in January and February of 2013 at the High-Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland). Main goal was the assessment of microphysical and chemical properties of free-tropospheric ice-nucelating particles. The ice-nucleating particles were discriminated from the total aerosol with the 'Fast Ice Nucleation CHamber' (FINCH; University Frankfurt) and the 'Ice-Selective Inlet' (ISI, Paul Scherer Institute) followed by a pumped counter-stream virtual impactor. The separated ice-nucleating particles were then collected with a nozzle-type impactor. With the 'FRankfurt Ice nuclei Deposition freezinG Experiment' (FRIDGE), aerosol particles are sampled on a silicon wafer, which is than exposed to ice-activating conditions in a static diffusion chamber. The locations of the growing ice crystals are recorded for later analysis. Finally, with the ICE Counter-stream Virtual Impactor (ICE-CVI) atmospheric ice crystals are separated from the total aerosol and their water content is evaporated to retain the ice residual particles, which are then collected also by impactor sampling. All samples were analyzed in a high-resolution scanning electron microscope. By this method, for each particle its size, morphology, mixing-state and chemical composition is obtained. In total approximately 1700 ice nucleating particles were analyzed. Based on their chemical composition, the particles were classified into seven groups: silicates, metal oxides, Ca-rich particles, (aged) sea-salt, soot, sulphates and carbonaceous matter. Sea-salt is considered as artifact and is not regarded as ice nuclei here. The most frequent ice nucleating particles/ice residuals at the Jungfraujoch station are silicates > carbonaceous particles > metal oxides. Calcium-rich particles and soot play a minor role. Similar results are obtained by quasi-parallel measurements with an online single particle laser ablation

  8. Research priorities in mesothelioma: A James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, R J; Whiting, C; Cowan, K

    2015-08-01

    In the UK, despite the import and use of all forms of asbestos being banned more than 15 years ago, the incidence of mesothelioma continues to rise. Mesothelioma is almost invariably fatal, and more research is required, not only to find more effective treatments, but also to achieve an earlier diagnosis and improve palliative care. Following a debate in the House of Lords in July 2013, a package of measures was agreed, which included a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership, funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The partnership brought together patients, carers, health professionals and support organisations to agree the top 10 research priorities relating to the diagnosis, treatment and care of patients with mesothelioma. Following the established James Lind Alliance priority setting process, mesothelioma patients, current and bereaved carers, and health professionals were surveyed to elicit their concerns regarding diagnosis, treatment and care. Research questions were generated from the survey responses, and following checks that the questions were currently unanswered, an interim prioritisation survey was conducted to identify a shortlist of questions to take to a final consensus meeting. Four hundred and fifty-three initial surveys were returned, which were refined into 52 unique unanswered research questions. The interim prioritisation survey was completed by 202 responders, and the top 30 questions were taken to a final meeting where mesothelioma patients, carers, and health professionals prioritised all the questions, and reached a consensus on the top 10. The top 10 questions cover a wide portfolio of research (including assessing the value of immunotherapy, individualised chemotherapy, second-line treatment and immediate chemotherapy, monitoring patients with pleural thickening, defining the management of ascites in peritoneal mesothelioma, and optimising follow-up strategy). This list is an invaluable resource, which should be

  9. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shanda L; Bakker, Caitlin J

    2018-04-01

    The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience sampling. One-on-one interviews, held November 2016 to January 2017, were audio-recorded. Qualitative analyses were conducted using NVivo 11 Pro and were based on the principles of grounded theory. The data revealed that a broad range of skill levels among participants (e.g., literature searching) and areas of misunderstanding (e.g., current publishing landscape, open access options). Overall, data management was an afterthought. Few participants were fully aware of the breadth of librarian knowledge and skill sets, although many did express a desire for further skill development in information science. Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment.

  10. Community Priority Index: utility, applicability and validation for priority setting in community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamisu M. Salihu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.

  11. Assessing data quality and the variability of source data verification auditing methods in clinical research settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Lauren; Probst, Yasmine; Martin, Allison

    2018-05-18

    Data audits within clinical settings are extensively used as a major strategy to identify errors, monitor study operations and ensure high-quality data. However, clinical trial guidelines are non-specific in regards to recommended frequency, timing and nature of data audits. The absence of a well-defined data quality definition and method to measure error undermines the reliability of data quality assessment. This review aimed to assess the variability of source data verification (SDV) auditing methods to monitor data quality in a clinical research setting. The scientific databases MEDLINE, Scopus and Science Direct were searched for English language publications, with no date limits applied. Studies were considered if they included data from a clinical trial or clinical research setting and measured and/or reported data quality using a SDV auditing method. In total 15 publications were included. The nature and extent of SDV audit methods in the articles varied widely, depending upon the complexity of the source document, type of study, variables measured (primary or secondary), data audit proportion (3-100%) and collection frequency (6-24 months). Methods for coding, classifying and calculating error were also inconsistent. Transcription errors and inexperienced personnel were the main source of reported error. Repeated SDV audits using the same dataset demonstrated ∼40% improvement in data accuracy and completeness over time. No description was given in regards to what determines poor data quality in clinical trials. A wide range of SDV auditing methods are reported in the published literature though no uniform SDV auditing method could be determined for "best practice" in clinical trials. Published audit methodology articles are warranted for the development of a standardised SDV auditing method to monitor data quality in clinical research settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Evaluations of Sexual Assault Prevention Programs in Military Settings: A Synthesis of the Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Prisock, Kara; Borsari, Brian; Kazemi, Donna M

    2018-03-01

    The prevention of sexual assault (SA) in the U.S. military is a significant priority. This study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to a literature search that identified research evaluating SA prevention programs conducted within military settings. Only six studies published between 2005 and 2016 met criteria for inclusion in the review. Studies demonstrated high heterogeneity in the: (1) conceptual framework of the prevention approach; (2) target population and timing of administration; (3) study recruitment methods; (4) methodological design; (5) method of delivery, program dosage and theory of change; and (6) outcome administration and efficacy. Scientific rigor according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine was also variable. Several gaps in the research base were identified. Specifically, research evaluating SA prevention programs have only been conducted among U.S. Army and U.S. Navy samples. Most studies did not examine whether program participation was associated with reductions in rates of sexual violence. Studies also lacked utilization of a long-term follow-up period. Additionally, studies did not reflect the types of SA prevention programs currently being implemented in military settings. Taken together, further research is needed to enhance the evidence base for SA prevention in the military, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approaches currently being conducted with service members.

  13. Promoting Shifts in Preservice Science Teachers' Thinking through Teaching and Action Research in Informal Science Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an integrated experiential learning and action research project on preservice science teachers' developing ideas about science teaching, learning, and action research itself. The qualitative, interpretive study examined the action research of 10 master's degree students who were involved in service learning with children in informal education settings. Results indicated that all of the participants enhanced their knowledge of children as diverse learners and the importance of prior knowledge in science learning. In-depth case studies for three of the participants indicated that two developed deeper understandings of science learners and learning. However, one participant was resistant to learning and gained more limited understandings.

  14. A standardized set of 3-D objects for virtual reality research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, David

    2018-06-01

    The use of immersive virtual reality as a research tool is rapidly increasing in numerous scientific disciplines. By combining ecological validity with strict experimental control, immersive virtual reality provides the potential to develop and test scientific theories in rich environments that closely resemble everyday settings. This article introduces the first standardized database of colored three-dimensional (3-D) objects that can be used in virtual reality and augmented reality research and applications. The 147 objects have been normed for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, visual complexity, and corresponding lexical characteristics of the modal object names. The availability of standardized 3-D objects for virtual reality research is important, because reaching valid theoretical conclusions hinges critically on the use of well-controlled experimental stimuli. Sharing standardized 3-D objects across different virtual reality labs will allow for science to move forward more quickly.

  15. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21(st) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-06-01

    Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001-2014. A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion ("consultation process") but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face-to-face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed-indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well-defined structure - such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix - it is likely that the Delphi method and non-replicable consultation processes will gradually be replaced by these emerging tools, which offer more

  17. Approaches, tools and methods used for setting priorities in health research in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo

    2016-01-01

    Background Health research is difficult to prioritize, because the number of possible competing ideas for research is large, the outcome of research is inherently uncertain, and the impact of research is difficult to predict and measure. A systematic and transparent process to assist policy makers and research funding agencies in making investment decisions is a permanent need. Methods To obtain a better understanding of the landscape of approaches, tools and methods used to prioritize health research, I conducted a methodical review using the PubMed database for the period 2001–2014. Results A total of 165 relevant studies were identified, in which health research prioritization was conducted. They most frequently used the CHNRI method (26%), followed by the Delphi method (24%), James Lind Alliance method (8%), the Combined Approach Matrix (CAM) method (2%) and the Essential National Health Research method (priorities were set. A further 19% used a combination of expert panel interview and focus group discussion (“consultation process”) but provided few details, while a further 2% used approaches that were clearly described, but not established as a replicable method. Online surveys that were not accompanied by face–to–face meetings were used in 8% of studies, while 9% used a combination of literature review and questionnaire to scrutinise the research options for prioritization among the participating experts. Conclusion The number of priority setting exercises in health research published in PubMed–indexed journals is increasing, especially since 2010. These exercises are being conducted at a variety of levels, ranging from the global level to the level of an individual hospital. With the development of new tools and methods which have a well–defined structure – such as the CHNRI method, James Lind Alliance Method and Combined Approach Matrix – it is likely that the Delphi method and non–replicable consultation processes will gradually be

  18. Investigation of microbial diversity in a desert Mars-like environment: Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Maria Susana; Staats, Martijn; Foing, Bernard H.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Roling, Wilfred

    The Utah Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) harbours geo-morphology and geo-processes analogues to the planet Mars. Soil samples were collected during the EuroGeoMars campaign (from 24 January to 1 March 2009) from different locations and depths [1]. Samples were distributed among scientific collaborator institutes for analysis of microbial diversity, amino acid content and degradation, content of PAH or larger organic molecules, and respective soil properties. Our sample analysis had the objective of characterizing the microbial communities in this Mars analogue: DNA isolation, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) using primers for DNA amplification of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments, DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and clone library construction with the final aim of sequencing. Results indicate that life is present in all the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), while the most diversity was found in the domain Bacteria. Microorgan-isms are heterogeneously present and their identities are currently investigated. The obtained information will be later related to the other scientific analysis in order to obtain a better understanding of this Mars analogue site, which in turn will provide important information for the search for life on Mars. [1] Foing, B.H. et al . (2009). Exogeolab lander/rover instruments and EuroGeoMars MDRS campaign. LPI, 40, 2567.

  19. Boveri's research at the Zoological Station Naples: Rediscovery of his original microscope slides at the University of Würzburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Ulrich

    2018-02-14

    Eric Davidson once wrote about Theodor Boveri: "From his own researches, and perhaps most important, his generalized interpretations, derive the paradigms that underlie modern inquiries into the genomic basis of embryogenesis" (Davidson, 1985). As luck would have it, the "primary data" of Boveri's experimental work, namely the microscope slides prepared by him and his wife Marcella during several stays at the Zoological Station in Naples (1901/02, 1911/12 and 1914), have survived at the University of Würzburg. More than 600 slides exist and despite their age they are in a surprisingly good condition. The slides are labelled and dated in Boveri's handwriting and thus can be assigned to his published experimental work on sea urchin development. The results allowed Boveri to unravel the role of the cell nucleus and its chromosomes in development and inheritance. Here, I present an overview of the slides in the context of Boveri's work along with photographic images of selected specimens taken from the original slides. It is planned to examine the slides in more detail, take high-resolution focal image series of significant specimens and make them online available. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geologic setting of the proposed West Flank Forge Site, California: Suitability for EGS research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Andrew; Blake, Kelly; Lazaro, Mike; Blankenship, Douglas; Kennedy, Mack; McCullough, Jess; DeOreo, S.B.; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kaven, Joern; Williams, Colin F.; Phelps, Geoffrey; Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Siler, Drew; Robertson-Tait, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The proposed West Flank FORGE site is within the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), China Lake, CA. The West Flank is west of the Coso geothermal field, an area of China Lake NAWS dominated by the Quaternary Coso volcanic field largely comprised of rhyolite domes and their volcaniclastic and epiclastic horizons. The largest dome flow complex, Sugarloaf Mountain, marks the northwestern margin of the geothermal field. The West Flank is situated due west of Sugarloaf. The geologic setting of the West Flank was determined from one deep well (83-11) drilled as a potential production hole in 2009. The bottom-hole temperature (BHT) of well 83-11 approaches 600 oF (315˚C), but flow tests demonstrate very low, non-commercial permeabilities. With the exception of the upper 600 feet of volcaniclastic alluvium, well 83-11 is completed in granitic basement. The West Flank possesses the primary attributes of a FORGE site: non-commercial permeability (geothermal fieldThe Coso Mountains host the Coso volcanic field and are within a right-releasing stepover between the dextral Airport Lake (ALF) and Little Lake fault zones (LLFZ) and the Wild Horse Mesa and Owens Valley faults. Two distinct fault populations have been identified at Coso: WNW-trending and antithetical, NE-trending strike-slip faults and N- to NNE-trending normal faults. These faults are both high permeability drilling targets at depth within the main (productive) geothermal field and they locally segment the field into distinct hydrothermal regimes. The West Flank may be segmented from the rest of the field by one such northerly trending fault. The overall minimum principal stress orientation in the main geothermal field varies from 103˚ to 108˚; however, the minimum horizontal principal stress in 83-11 is rotated to 081˚.

  1. From a Viewpoint of Clinical Settings: Pharmacoepidemiology as Reverse Translational Research (rTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiology research may converge in practise. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of pharmacotherapy and risk management in patient groups. For many drugs, adverse reaction(s) that were not seen and/or clarified during research and development stages have been reported in the real world. Pharmacoepidemiology can detect and verify adverse drug reactions as reverse translational research. Recently, development and effective use of medical information databases (MID) have been conducted in Japan and elsewhere for the purpose of post-marketing safety of drugs. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan has been promoting the development of 10-million scale database in 10 hospitals and hospital groups as "the infrastructure project of medical information database (MID-NET)". This project enables estimation of the frequency of adverse reactions, the distinction between drug-induced reactions and basal health-condition changes, and usefulness verification of administrative measures of drug safety. However, because the database information is different from detailed medical records, construction of methodologies for the detection and evaluation of adverse reactions is required. We have been performing database research using medical information system in some hospitals to establish and demonstrate useful methods for post-marketing safety. In this symposium, we aim to discuss the possibility of reverse translational research from clinical settings and provide an introduction to our research.

  2. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  3. Research on Natural Settings: Observing Adolescent Mothers and Infants throughout the First Postpartum Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Silvia H

    2018-03-01

    This manuscript aims to present and discuss challenges regarding naturalistic observation of adolescent mothers and their infants throughout the first postpartum year. Case illustrations were the object to discuss methodological options and issues faced during an observational and longitudinal research. The participants live in vulnerability in a metropolitan area in Southern Brazil. Data collection challenges led to reflections about naturalistic observation and methodological procedures, which were affected by setting characteristics and by the need of adapting to them. Most methodological difficulties were linked to naturalistic observations of mothers and their infants. Personal and contextual aspects of these settings must be taken into account in order to enhance result reliability and the knowledge about cultural idiosyncrasies.

  4. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: (1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, (2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field, (3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, (4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and (5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as (a) wind and solar energy, (b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, (c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, (d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland.

  5. Recommendations regarding problems of research policy relating to the establishment and operation of atomic power stations in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report, which was submitted by the Danish Planning Council for Research to the Parliamentary Committee on Scientific Research, is based on reports from the DANISH Atomic Energy Commission. and on a sub-committee appointed by the Planning Council, as well as on the comments of the Danish Research Council on these reports. The Planning Council submit that: 1) the question of the introduction and scope of Danish utilization of atomic energy should be considered as a link in setting up a total plan for energy policy elucidating the possibilities in the energy field from both aspects of supply and demand, 2) that there is a continuous interaction between energy policy and research policy in the subject field 3) that the total resources for energy research and development should be considerably increased, 4) that investigations into the economy of atomic power should be intensified, and 5) that investigations of possibilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste in Denmark should be speeded up. Further, the Planning Council points out the need for research in areas such as a) wind and solar energy, b) the environmental impact of utilizing atomic power in relation to that of utilizing other forms of power, c) economic and social effects of different forms of energy supply, as well as the problems of siting, decision taking and public information and participation and finally, d) the utilization of the energy raw materials found in Greenland. (B.P.)

  6. The relationship between characteristics of context and research utilization in a pediatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta G; Hutchinson, Alison M; Scott, Shannon D; Norton, Peter G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2010-06-16

    Research utilization investigators have called for more focused examination of the influence of context on research utilization behaviors. Yet, up until recently, lack of instrumentation to identify and quantify aspects of organizational context that are integral to research use has significantly hampered these efforts. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was developed to assess the relationships between organizational factors and research utilization by a variety of healthcare professional groups. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a pilot study using the ACT to elicit pediatric and neonatal healthcare professionals' perceptions of the organizational context in which they work and their use of research to inform practice. Specifically, we report on the relationship between dimensions of context, founded on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework, and self-reported research use behavior. A cross-sectional survey approach was employed using a version of the ACT, modified specifically for pediatric settings. The survey was administered to nurses working in three pediatric units in Alberta, Canada. Scores for three dimensions of context (culture, leadership and evaluation) were used to categorize respondent data into one of four context groups (high, moderately high, moderately low and low). We then examined the relationships between nurses' self-reported research use and their perceived context. A 69% response rate was achieved. Statistically significant differences in nurses' perceptions of culture, leadership and evaluation, and self-reported conceptual research use were found across the three units. Differences in instrumental research use across the three groups of nurses by unit were not significant. Higher self-reported instrumental and conceptual research use by all nurses in the sample was associated with more positive perceptions of their context. Overall, the results of this study lend support to

  7. The relationship between characteristics of context and research utilization in a pediatric setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research utilization investigators have called for more focused examination of the influence of context on research utilization behaviors. Yet, up until recently, lack of instrumentation to identify and quantify aspects of organizational context that are integral to research use has significantly hampered these efforts. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT was developed to assess the relationships between organizational factors and research utilization by a variety of healthcare professional groups. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a pilot study using the ACT to elicit pediatric and neonatal healthcare professionals' perceptions of the organizational context in which they work and their use of research to inform practice. Specifically, we report on the relationship between dimensions of context, founded on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework, and self-reported research use behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey approach was employed using a version of the ACT, modified specifically for pediatric settings. The survey was administered to nurses working in three pediatric units in Alberta, Canada. Scores for three dimensions of context (culture, leadership and evaluation were used to categorize respondent data into one of four context groups (high, moderately high, moderately low and low. We then examined the relationships between nurses' self-reported research use and their perceived context. Results A 69% response rate was achieved. Statistically significant differences in nurses' perceptions of culture, leadership and evaluation, and self-reported conceptual research use were found across the three units. Differences in instrumental research use across the three groups of nurses by unit were not significant. Higher self-reported instrumental and conceptual research use by all nurses in the sample was associated with more positive perceptions of their context

  8. Research priorities for the influence of gender on diagnostic imaging choices in the emergency department setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashurst, John V; Cherney, Alan R; Evans, Elizabeth M; Kennedy Hall, Michael; Hess, Erik P; Kline, Jeffrey A; Mitchell, Alice M; Mills, Angela M; Weigner, Michael B; Moore, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is a cornerstone of patient evaluation in the acute care setting, but little effort has been devoted to understanding the appropriate influence of sex and gender on imaging choices. This article provides background on this issue and a description of the working group and consensus findings reached during the diagnostic imaging breakout session at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." Our goal was to determine research priorities for how sex and gender may (or should) affect imaging choices in the acute care setting. Prior to the conference, the working group identified five areas for discussion regarding the research agenda in sex- and gender-based imaging using literature review and expert consensus. The nominal group technique was used to identify areas for discussion for common presenting complaints to the emergency department where ionizing radiation is often used for diagnosis: suspected pulmonary embolism, suspected kidney stone, lower abdominal pain with a concern for appendicitis, and chest pain concerning for coronary artery disease. The role of sex- and gender-based shared decision-making in diagnostic imaging decisions is also raised. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. Research of vibration resistance of non-rigid shafts turning with various technological set-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevykh Sergey L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the definition of the stability range of a dynamic system for turning non-rigid shafts with different technological set-ups: standard and developed ones; they are improved as a result of this research. The topicality of the study is due to the fact that processing such parts is associated with significant difficulties caused by deformation of the workpiece under the cutting force as well as occurrence of vibration of the part during processing, they are so intense and in practice they force to significantly reduce the cutting regime, recur to multiple-pass operation, lead to premature deterioration of the cutter, as a result, reduce the productivity of machining shafts on metal-cutting machines. In this connection, the purpose of the present research is to determine the boundaries of the stability regions with intensive turning of non-rigid shafts. In the article the basic theoretical principles of construction of a mathematical system focused on the process of non-free cutting of a dynamic machine are justified. By means of the developed mathematical model interrelations are established and legitimacies of influence of various technological set-ups on stability of the dynamic system of the machine-tool-device-tool-blank are revealed. The conducted researches allow to more objectively represent difficult processes that occur in a closed dynamic system of a machine.

  10. A wide variety of putative extremophiles and large beta-diversity at the Mars Desert Research Station (Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Susana O. L.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Marees, Andries; Staats, Martijn; Foing, Bernard; Röling, Wilfred F. M.

    2011-07-01

    Humankind's innate curiosity makes us wonder whether life is or was present on other planetary bodies such as Mars. The EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign was organized at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) to perform multidisciplinary astrobiology research. MDRS in southeast Utah is situated in a cold arid desert with mineralogy and erosion processes comparable to those on Mars. Insight into the microbial community composition of this terrestrial Mars analogue provides essential information for the search for life on Mars: including sampling and life detection methodology optimization and what kind of organisms to expect. Soil samples were collected from different locations. Culture-independent molecular analyses directed at ribosomal RNA genes revealed the presence of all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), but these were not detected in all samples. Spiking experiments revealed that this appears to relate to low DNA recovery, due to adsorption or degradation. Bacteria were most frequently detected and showed high alpha- and beta-diversity. Members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gemmatimonadetes phyla were found in the majority of samples. Archaea alpha- and beta-diversity was very low. For Eukarya, a diverse range of organisms was identified, such as fungi, green algae and several phyla of Protozoa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles, mainly Bacteria but also Archaea and Eukarya. These comprised radioresistant, endolithic, chasmolithic, xerophilic, hypolithic, thermophilic, thermoacidophilic, psychrophilic, halophilic, haloalkaliphilic and alkaliphilic micro-organisms. Overall, our data revealed large difference in occurrence and diversity over short distances, indicating the need for high-sampling frequency at similar sites. DNA extraction methods need to be optimized to improve extraction efficiencies.

  11. Research priority setting in Barrett's oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, James; Gadeke, Lisa; Lovat, Laurence; Hamdy, Shaheen; Hawkey, Chris; McLaughlin, John; Ang, Yeng

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus is increasing. Barrett's oesophagus is the main precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which has a poor prognosis. In view of the vast potential burden of these diseases on patients and health-care resources, there is a real need to define and focus research efforts. This priority setting exercise aimed to produce a list of the top ten uncertainties in the field that reflect the priorities of patients and health-care providers. We adopted the robust and transparent methodologies previously outlined by the James Lind Alliance. This qualitative approach firstly involves an ideas gathering survey that, once distilled, generates a longlist of research uncertainties. These uncertainties are then prioritised via an interim ranking survey and a final workshop to achieve consensus agreement. The initial 629 uncertainties, generated from a survey of 170 individual respondents (47% professional, 53% non-professional) and one workshop, were narrowed down to the final top ten uncertainties of priority for future research. These priorities covered a range of issues, including a need for improved patient risk stratification, alternative diagnostic and surveillance tests, efficacy of a dedicated service for Barrett's oesophagus, cost-effectiveness and appropriateness of current surveillance, advances in development of non-drug treatments for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, safety of long-term drug treatment, and questions regarding the durability and role of different endoscopic therapies for dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus. This is the first patient-centred assessment of priorities for researchers in this chronic disease setting. We hope that recognition and dissemination of these results will shape the future direction of research and translate into meaningful gains for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, C.R.; Clarke, J.; Oliveira Lebre Direito, M.S.; Martin, K.; Zavaleta, J.; Blake, D.; Foing, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to

  13. Safety analysis report: A comparison of incidents from Safety Years 2006 through 2010, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station Inventory and Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devon Donahue

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of 5 years of accident data for the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Inventory and Monitoring (IM) Program that identifies past trends, allows for standardized self-comparison, and increases our understanding of the true costs of injuries and accidents. Measuring safety is a difficult task. While most agree that...

  14. Massage Therapy and Canadians’ Health Care Needs 2020: Proceedings of a National Research Priority Setting Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Trish; Sumpton, Bryn; Shipwright, Stacey; Kahn, Janet; Reece, Barbara (Findlay)

    2014-01-01

    Background The health care landscape in Canada is changing rapidly as forces, such as an aging population, increasingly complex health issues and treatments, and economic pressure to reduce health care costs, bear down on the system. A cohesive national research agenda for massage therapy (MT) is needed in order to ensure maximum benefit is derived from research on treatment, health care policy, and cost effectiveness. Setting A one-day invitational summit was held in Toronto, Ontario to build strategic alliances among Canadian and international researchers, policy makers, and other stakeholders to help shape a national research agenda for MT. Method Using a modified Delphi method, the summit organizers conducted two pre-summit surveys to ensure that time spent during the summit was relevant and productive. The summit was facilitated using the principles of Appreciative Inquiry which included a “4D” strategic planning approach (defining, discovery, dreaming, designing) and application of a SOAR framework (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results). Participants Twenty-six researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders actively participated in the events. Results Priority topics that massage therapists believe are important to the Canadian public, other health care providers, and policy makers and massage therapists themselves were identified. A framework for a national massage therapy (MT) research agenda, a grand vision of the future for MT research, and a 12-month action plan were developed. Conclusion The summit provided an excellent opportunity for key stakeholders to come together and use their experience and knowledge of MT to develop a much-needed plan for moving the MT research and professionalization agenda forward. PMID:24592299

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersing, Linn; Caplehorn, John R M; Clausen, Thomas

    2010-02-10

    Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times.

  16. Agenda Setting and Evidence in Maternal Health: Connecting Research and Policy in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kayli; Kelly, Paul; Barclay, Lesley; Martins, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-based policy (EBP) movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature; however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low- and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors, and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organization representatives, and United Nations advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops, and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this ethnographic case study demonstrate that although the post-conflict context opened up space for new policy ideas senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors had the most power in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial, and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.

  17. Research on benefits of canine-assisted therapy for adults in nonmilitary settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisely, Janet S; Barker, Sandra B; Barker, Randolph T

    2012-01-01

    Research has examined the physiological and psychosocial impact of animal-assisted activities (AAA) and animal-assisted therapy (AAT). The current review article summarizes the benefits of AAA and AAT for hospitalized patients with medical disorders, psychiatric patients, and residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities. The literature regarding inclusion of animals in business and organizational settings is also reviewed. Although there is clear evidence of improved physical and psychological health from AAA and AAT in the civilian population, there is a dearth of published findings of the evaluation of such benefits for military personnel.

  18. Decommissioning situation and research and development for the decommissioning of the commercial nuclear power station in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tatsumi.

    1996-01-01

    There are 48 commercial nuclear power stations in operation in Japan as of January 1, 1995, which supplies about 28% (2.2 x 10 8 MWh) of total annual electricity generation in FY 1992. Accordingly, as the nuclear power contributes so much in electricity generation, there is a growing concern in the public toward the safety on decommissioning nuclear power station. It is gravely important to secure the safety throughout the decommissioning. This paper discusses: the decommissioning situation in Japan; the Japanese national policy for decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations; R and D for decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations in Japan; and the present conditions of low-level radioactive wastes disposal in Japan

  19. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring the background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, V.; van den Bergh, H.; Parlange, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    A new long-open-path instrument developed at EPFL for methane and water vapor observation will be presented. The instrument is developed and will be used within the GAW+ CH program and aims at long-term monitoring of background methane concentration at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 mASL). The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver -distant retroreflector) using a 1.65 nm tunable diode laser (TDL) and a retroreflector at 1200 m from the transceiver. The data will be compared with in-situ measurements to evaluate the effect of the station on the in-situ data.

  20. Neutron polarizing set-up of the Sofia IRT research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krezhov, K.; Mikhajlova, V.; Okorokov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron polarizing set-up of one of the horizontal beam tubes of the IRT-200 research reactor of the Bulgarian Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy is presented. Neutron mirrors are extensively used in an effort to compensate the moderate reactor beam intensity by the high reflected intensity and wide-band transmittance of the mirror neutron guides. Time-to-flight technique using a slotted neutron absorbing chopper with a horizontal rotation axis has been applied to obtain the exit neutron spectra. Beam polarization and flipping ratios have been determined. Cadmium ratio in the polarized beam has been found almost 10 4 and the average polarization has been measured to be higher than 96%. 3 figs, 3 refs

  1. The trials methodological research agenda: results from a priority setting exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Research into the methods used in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials is essential to ensure that effective methods are available and that clinical decisions made using results from trials are based on the best available evidence, which is reliable and robust. Methods An on-line Delphi survey of 48 UK Clinical Research Collaboration registered Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) was undertaken. During round one, CTU Directors were asked to identify important topics that require methodological research. During round two, their opinion about the level of importance of each topic was recorded, and during round three, they were asked to review the group’s average opinion and revise their previous opinion if appropriate. Direct reminders were sent to maximise the number of responses at each round. Results are summarised using descriptive methods. Results Forty one (85%) CTU Directors responded to at least one round of the Delphi process: 25 (52%) responded in round one, 32 (67%) responded in round two, 24 (50%) responded in round three. There were only 12 (25%) who responded to all three rounds and 18 (38%) who responded to both rounds two and three. Consensus was achieved amongst CTU Directors that the top three priorities for trials methodological research were ‘Research into methods to boost recruitment in trials’ (considered the highest priority), ‘Methods to minimise attrition’ and ‘Choosing appropriate outcomes to measure’. Fifty other topics were included in the list of priorities and consensus was reached that two topics, ‘Radiotherapy study designs’ and ‘Low carbon trials’, were not priorities. Conclusions This priority setting exercise has identified the research topics felt to be most important to the key stakeholder group of Directors of UKCRC registered CTUs. The use of robust methodology to identify these priorities will help ensure that this work informs the trials methodological research agenda, with

  2. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shanda L.; Bakker, Caitlin J.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Methods Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience sampling. One-on-one interviews, held November 2016 to January 2017, were audio-recorded. Qualitative analyses were conducted using NVivo 11 Pro and were based on the principles of grounded theory. Results The data revealed that a broad range of skill levels among participants (e.g., literature searching) and areas of misunderstanding (e.g., current publishing landscape, open access options). Overall, data management was an afterthought. Few participants were fully aware of the breadth of librarian knowledge and skill sets, although many did express a desire for further skill development in information science. Conclusions Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment. PMID:29632441

  3. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Aileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hoffman, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, and Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  4. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C.; Hoffman, Karen; Tina Shih, Ya-Chen; Smith, Benjamin D.; Yu, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  5. Geologic setting of the proposed Fallon FORGE Site, Nevada: Suitability for EGS research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, James E.; Blankenship, Douglas; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Sabin, Andrew; Nordquist, Josh; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kennedy, Mack; Siler, Drew; Robinson-Tait, Ann; Williams, Colin F.; Drakos, Peter; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    The proposed Fallon FORGE site lies within and adjacent to the Naval Air Station Fallon (NASF) directly southeast of the town of Fallon, Nevada, within the large basin of the Carson Sink in west-central Nevada. The site is located on two parcels that include land owned by the NASF and leased and owned by Ormat Nevada, Inc. The Carson Sink in the vicinity of the Fallon site is covered by Quaternary deposits, including alluvial fan, eolian, and lacustrine sediments. Four wells penetrate the entire Neogene section and bottom in Mesozoic basement. Late Miocene to Quaternary basin-fill sediments are 0.5 to >1 km thick and overlie Oligocene-Miocene volcanic and lesser sedimentary rocks. The volcanic section is 0.5 to 1.0 km thick and dominated by Miocene mafic lavas. The Neogene section rests nonconformably on heterogeneous Mesozoic basement, which consists of Triassic-Jurassic metamorphic rocks intruded by Cretaceous granitic plutons. The structural framework is dominated by a gently west-tilted half graben cut by moderately to steeply dipping N- to NNEstriking normal faults that dip both east and west. Quaternary faults have not been observed within the proposed FORGE site. Fallon was selected for a potential FORGE site due to its extensional tectonic setting, abundance of available data, existing infrastructure, and documented temperatures, permeability, and lithologic composition of potential reservoirs that fall within the ranges specified by DOE for FORGE. Since the early 1970s, more than 45 wells have been drilled for geothermal exploration within the area. Four exploration wells within the FORGE site are available for use in the project. Several additional wells are available for monitoring outside the central FORGE site within the NASF and Ormat lease area, including numerous temperature gradient holes. There is an existing, ten-station micro-seismic earthquake (MEQ) array that has been collecting data since 2001; the MEQ array can be expanded to encompass the

  6. Ethical considerations in HIV prevention and vaccine research in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Samual A; Anude, Chuka J; Adams, Elizabeth; Dawson, Liza

    2014-09-01

    HIV prevention research has been facing increasing ethical and operational challenges. Factors influencing the design and conduct of HIV prevention trials include a rapidly changing evidence base, new biomedical prevention methods and modalities being tested, a large diversity of countries, sites and populations affected by HIV and participating in trials, and challenges of developing and making available products that will be feasible and affordable for at-risk populations. To discuss these challenges, a meeting, Ethical considerations around novel combination prevention modalities in HIV prevention and vaccine trials in resource-limited settings, was convened by NIH/NIAID/Division of AIDS on April 22-23, 2013. Several themes emerged from the meeting: (1) because of both trial design and ethical complexities, choosing prevention packages and designing combination prevention research trials will need to be evaluated on a case by case basis in different clinical trials, countries, and health systems; (2) multilevel stakeholder engagement from the beginning is vital to a fair and transparent process and also to designing ethical and relevant trials; (3) research should generally be responsive to a host country's needs, and sponsors and stakeholders should work together to address potential barriers to future access; and finally, (4) another meeting including a broader group of stakeholders is needed to address many of the outstanding ethical issues raised by this meeting. We offer an overview of the meeting and the key discussion points and recommendations to help guide the design and conduct of future HIV prevention and vaccine research in resource-limited settings.

  7. Developing professional habits of hand hygiene in intensive care settings: An action-research intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Giuseppe; Berto, Giuliana; Bazzo, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    To explore perceptions and unconscious psychological processes underlying handwashing behaviours of intensive care nurses, to implement organisational innovations for improving hand hygiene in clinical practice. An action-research intervention was performed in 2012 and 2013 in the intensive care unit of a public hospital in Italy, consisting of: structured interviews, semantic analysis, development and validation of a questionnaire, team discussion, project design and implementation. Five general workers, 16 staff nurses and 53 nurse students participated in the various stages. Social handwashing emerged as a structured and efficient habit, which follows automatically the pattern "cue/behaviour/gratification" when hands are perceived as "dirty". The perception of "dirt" starts unconsciously the process of social washing also in professional settings. Professional handwashing is perceived as goal-directed. The main concern identified is the fact that washing hands requires too much time to be performed in a setting of urgency. These findings addressed participants to develop a professional "habit-directed" hand hygiene procedure, to be implemented at beginning of workshifts. Handwashing is a ritualistic behaviour driven by deep and unconscious patterns, and social habits affect professional practice. Creating professional habits of hand hygiene could be a key solution to improve compliance in intensive care settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The experimental set for in situ research of benthic communities in marine and freshwater ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornijów Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented system of experimental trays permits conducting field experiments at considerable depths, all year round, and with no application of diving techniques. The deployed set can be entirely hidden under water, which is an advantage in crowded areas. The set is composed of single units, each composed of a tray filled with a substrate, four-legged bridles, and a hanging rope with a removable marker float fixed on top by means of a carabiner clip. The float provides information on the location of deployed trays, and permits proper distribution of next trays to be deployed. After deployment from a boat, the units are connected with a rope, extended on one end by a sinking retrieval rope. The floats are removed immediately after deployment. Any number of units can be deployed to the bottom. It depends on the experimental design and the number of replicates. Retrieval of the set starts with locating the trays by means of GPS, and searching for the retrieval rope by means of a grappling hook dragged behind the boat. Based on our own experience and the literature, the possibilities of development of the described system are proposed depending on the local field conditions and research objectives.

  9. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  10. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  11. Developing the Role of a Health Information Professional in a Clinical Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Seeley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This paper examines the role of a health information professional in a large multidisciplinary project to improve services for head injury.Methods ‐ An action research approach was taken, with the information professional acting as co‐ordinator. Change management processes were guided by theory and evidence. The health information professional was responsible for an ongoing literature review on knowledge management (clinical and political issues, data collection and analysis (from patient records, collating and comparing data (to help develop standards, and devising appropriate dissemination strategies.Results ‐ Important elements of the health information management role proved to be 1 co‐ordination; 2 setting up mechanisms for collaborative learning through information sharing; and 3 using the theoretical frameworks (identified from the literature review to help guide implementation. The role that emerged here has some similarities to the informationist role that stresses domain knowledge, continuous learning and working in context (embedding. This project also emphasised the importance of co‐ordination, and the ability to work across traditional library information analysis (research literature discovery and appraisal and information analysis of patient data sets (the information management role.Conclusion ‐ Experience with this project indicates that health information professionals will need to be prepared to work with patient record data and synthesis of that data, design systems to co‐ordinate patient data collection, as well as critically appraise external evidence.

  12. Measuring Data Quality Through a Source Data Verification Audit in a Clinical Research Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Lauren; Probst, Yasmine; Humphries, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Health data has long been scrutinised in relation to data quality and integrity problems. Currently, no internationally accepted or "gold standard" method exists measuring data quality and error rates within datasets. We conducted a source data verification (SDV) audit on a prospective clinical trial dataset. An audit plan was applied to conduct 100% manual verification checks on a 10% random sample of participant files. A quality assurance rule was developed, whereby if >5% of data variables were incorrect a second 10% random sample would be extracted from the trial data set. Error was coded: correct, incorrect (valid or invalid), not recorded or not entered. Audit-1 had a total error of 33% and audit-2 36%. The physiological section was the only audit section to have <5% error. Data not recorded to case report forms had the greatest impact on error calculations. A significant association (p=0.00) was found between audit-1 and audit-2 and whether or not data was deemed correct or incorrect. Our study developed a straightforward method to perform a SDV audit. An audit rule was identified and error coding was implemented. Findings demonstrate that monitoring data quality by a SDV audit can identify data quality and integrity issues within clinical research settings allowing quality improvement to be made. The authors suggest this approach be implemented for future research.

  13. Setting the stage for a business case for leadership diversity in healthcare: history, research, and leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Ebbin; Nuru-Jeter, Amani

    2012-01-01

    Leveraging diversity to successfully influence business operations is a business imperative for many healthcare organizations as they look to leadership to help manage a new era of culturally competent, patient-centered care that reduces health and healthcare disparities. This article presents the foundation for a business case in leadership diversity within healthcare organizations and describes the need for research on managerial solutions to health and healthcare disparities. It provides a discussion of clinical, policy, and management implications that will help support a business case for improving the diversity of leadership in healthcare organizations as a way to reduce health and healthcare disparities. Historical contexts introduce aspects of the business case for leveraging leadership diversity based on a desire for a culturally competent care organization. Little research exists on the impact that the role of leadership plays in addressing health disparities from a healthcare management perspective. This article provides practitioners and researchers with a rationale to invest in leadership diversity. It discusses three strategies that will help set the stage for a business case. First, provide empirical evidence of the link between diversity and performance. Second, link investments in diversity to financial outcomes and organizational metrics of success. Third, make organizational leadership responsible for cultural competence as a performance measure. In order to address health and healthcare disparities, collaborations between researchers and practitioners are necessary to effectively implement these strategies.

  14. Defining Priorities for Future Research: Results of the UK Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon R; Metcalfe, Leanne; O'Donoghue, Katriona; Ball, Simon T; Beale, Angela; Beale, William; Hilton, Rachel; Hodkinson, Keith; Lipkin, Graham W; Loud, Fiona; Marson, Lorna P; Morris, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the research priorities of those funding and performing research in transplantation may differ from those of end service users such as patients, carers and healthcare professionals involved in day-to-day care. The Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was established with the aim of involving all stakeholders in prioritising future research in the field. The PSP methodology is as outlined by the James Lind Alliance. An initial survey collected unanswered research questions from patients, carers and clinicians. Duplicate and out-of-scope topics were excluded and the existing literature searched to identify topics answered by current evidence. An interim prioritisation survey asked patients and professionals to score the importance of the remaining questions to create a ranked long-list. These were considered at a final consensus workshop using a modified nominal group technique to agree a final top ten. The initial survey identified 497 questions from 183 respondents, covering all aspects of transplantation from assessment through to long-term follow-up. These were grouped into 90 unanswered "indicative" questions. The interim prioritisation survey received 256 responses (34.8% patients/carers, 10.9% donors and 54.3% professionals), resulting in a ranked list of 25 questions that were considered during the final workshop. Participants agreed a top ten priorities for future research that included optimisation of immunosuppression (improved monitoring, choice of regimen, personalisation), prevention of sensitisation and transplanting the sensitised patient, management of antibody-mediated rejection, long-term risks to live donors, methods of organ preservation, induction of tolerance and bioengineering of organs. There was evidence that patient and carer involvement had a significant impact on shaping the final priorities. The final list of priorities relates to all stages of the transplant process, including access to

  15. The use of questionnaires in colour research in real-life settings : In search of validity and methodological pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; Vink, P.; de Boon, J

    2014-01-01

    This research discusses the validity of applying questionnaires in colour research in real life settings.
    In the literature the conclusions concerning the influences of colours on human performance and well-being are often conflicting. This can be caused by the artificial setting of the test

  16. The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS programme protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Lorna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is

  17. Seasonal variations in aerosol particle composition at the puy-de-Dôme research station in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Freney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed investigations of the chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles were performed at the puy-de-Dôme (pdD research station (1465 m in autumn (September and October 2008, winter (February and March 2009, and summer (June 2010 using a compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (cToF-AMS. Over the three campaigns, the average mass concentrations of the non-refractory submicron particles ranged from 10 μg m−3 up to 27 μg m−3. Highest nitrate and ammonium mass concentrations were measured during the winter and during periods when marine modified airmasses were arriving at the site, whereas highest concentrations of organic particles were measured during the summer and during periods when continental airmasses arrived at the site. The measurements reported in this paper show that atmospheric particle composition is strongly influenced by both the season and the origin of the airmass. The total organic mass spectra were analysed using positive matrix factorisation to separate individual organic components contributing to the overall organic particle mass concentrations. These organic components include a low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol particle (LV-OOA and a semi-volatile organic aerosol particle (SV-OOA. Correlations of the LV-OOA components with fragments of m/z 60 and m/z 73 (mass spectral markers of wood burning during the winter campaign suggest that wintertime LV-OOA are related to aged biomass burning emissions, whereas organic aerosol particles measured during the summer are likely linked to biogenic sources. Equivalent potential temperature calculations, gas-phase, and LIDAR measurements define whether the research site is in the planetary boundary layer (PBL or in the free troposphere (FT/residual layer (RL. We observe that SV-OOA and nitrate particles are associated with air masses arriving from the PBL where as particle composition measured from RL

  18. Management Of Competition And Besting Among Crew Members: A Study At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of competition and besting among crewmembers in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. Furthermore, the study investigates the effects associated with both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Suggestions on how to manage competition and besting within a crew were investigated by implementing preand intra-mission awareness strategies as well as group participation in the development and implementation of countermeasures to manage crewmember tendency towards competition and besting to promote the development of positive group functioning. Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research findings and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and competition and besting. Results: Anecdotal data obtained from personal interviews with crewmembers strongly showed that pre-mission discussions regarding competition and besting provided awareness that allowed crewmembers to continually self-assess to prevent this tendency from surfacing during the mission. The assessment data results showed support for recorded diary materials which indicated crewmembers felt strongly that continual reminders of the besting concept, along with being allowed to participate in the development and

  19. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VI. Quantitative properties of human collective opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly important tool to address many problems - from government elections in democracies, stock market prices, to modern online tools such as TripAdvisor or Internet Movie Database (IMDB). The CHNRI method (the acronym for the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component, which it uses to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. We conducted a series of analyses using data from a group of 91 scorers to explore the quantitative properties of their collective opinion. We were interested in the stability of their collective opinion as the sample size increases from 15 to 90. From a pool of 91 scorers who took part in a previous CHNRI exercise, we used sampling with replacement to generate multiple random samples of different size. First, for each sample generated, we identified the top 20 ranked research ideas, among 205 that were proposed and scored, and calculated the concordance with the ranking generated by the 91 original scorers. Second, we used rank correlation coefficients to compare the ranks assigned to all 205 proposed research ideas when samples of different size are used. We also analysed the original pool of 91 scorers to to look for evidence of scoring variations based on scorers' characteristics. The sample sizes investigated ranged from 15 to 90. The concordance for the top 20 scored research ideas increased with sample sizes up to about 55 experts. At this point, the median level of concordance stabilized at 15/20 top ranked questions (75%), with the interquartile range also generally stable (14-16). There was little further increase in overlap when the sample size increased from 55 to 90. When analysing the ranking of all 205 ideas, the rank correlation coefficient increased as the sample size increased, with a median correlation of 0.95 reached at the sample size of 45 experts (median of the rank

  20. Locating assistive technology research in a clinical setting: an occupational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Davis, Sally; Evans, Laura; Cudd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Peer research was used to identify the experience and perceptions of assistive technology and telecare adoption in a UK healthcare context. A narrative account of participation and learning is intended to provoke further dialogue. There have been a range of policy and implementation initiatives that are within the direct experience of organisational actors over the last 15 years and this engagement allows for specific reflection on the service achievements and some of the barriers to implementation of technology changes in rehabilitation practice and service design. Insights are presented that suggest a reification of research priorities and a need to align technology, through patient and public engagement, to provider priorities. In addition, an improvement in adoption would be based on sustained capacity building within the Occupational Therapy workforce and a re-focus on specific knowledge sharing and learning about technology. Given the shared desire to promote the sustained adoption of appropriate technology for assistance and rehabilitation it is suggested the voice of practitioners is strengthened through research and knowledge exchange in the clinical setting.

  1. The Visual Matrix Method: Imagery and Affect in a Group-Based Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Froggett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual matrix is a method for researching shared experience, stimulated by sensory material relevant to a research question. It is led by imagery, visualization and affect, which in the matrix take precedence over discourse. The method enables the symbolization of imaginative and emotional material, which might not otherwise be articulated and allows "unthought" dimensions of experience to emerge into consciousness in a participatory setting. We describe the process of the matrix with reference to the study "Public Art and Civic Engagement" (FROGGETT, MANLEY, ROY, PRIOR & DOHERTY, 2014 in which it was developed and tested. Subsequently, examples of its use in other contexts are provided. Both the matrix and post-matrix discussions are described, as is the interpretive process that follows. Theoretical sources are highlighted: its origins in social dreaming; the atemporal, associative nature of the thinking during and after the matrix which we describe through the Deleuzian idea of the rhizome; and the hermeneutic analysis which draws from object relations theory and the Lorenzerian tradition of scenic understanding. The matrix has been conceptualized as a "scenic rhizome" to account for its distinctive quality and hybrid origins in research practice. The scenic rhizome operates as a "third" between participants and the "objects" of contemplation. We suggest that some of the drawbacks of other group-based methods are avoided in the visual matrix—namely the tendency for inter-personal dynamics to dominate the event. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150369

  2. Concluding report by the committee of experts on the Brunsbuettel and Kruemmel nuclear power stations. Vattenfall to implement the set of measures and all recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassa, R.

    2007-01-01

    The independent Committee of Experts appointed by Vattenfall Europe after the events of June 28, 2007 in the Brunsbuettel and Kruemmel nuclear power stations concluded its investigations. The Committee had been asked to investigate and evaluate the situation associated with the events, and to elaborate proposals for improvement on this basis. The analysis by the Committee of Experts boils down to the finding that the Brunsbuettel and Kruemmel nuclear power stations represent a modern standard as far as design concepts and technical safety features are concerned. Besides technical preconditions, also the administrative features are in place for safe plant oepration. No indications were found of any deficits in safety culture which would justify doubt about the reliability of the operator or the staff responsible under the Atomic Energy Act, nor is there any doubt about the level of technical expertise. Vattenfall directly ordered the findings to be implemented by applying, for part of the technical measures, for implementation with the Kiel State Ministry for Social Affairs as the competent regulatory agency. The Vattenfall Group is going to establish a new safety organization and safety controlling for the nuclear power plants operated by the company. These measures are to ensure an optimum safety level and the highest safety standards. With Vattenfall, safety enjoys top priority. (orig.)

  3. Biomedical research on the International Space Station postural and manipulation problems of the human upper limb in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Gianluca; Zolesi, Valfredo

    2000-01-01

    Accumulated evidence, based on information gathered on space flight missions and ground based models involving both humans and animals, clearly suggests that exposure to states of microgravity conditions for varying duration induces certain physiological changes; they involve cardiovascular deconditioning, balance disorders, bone weakening, muscle hypertrophy, disturbed sleep patterns and depressed immune responses. The effects of the microgravity on the astronauts' movement and attitude have been studied during different space missions, increasing the knowledge of the human physiology in weightlessness. The purpose of the research addressed in the present paper is to understand and to assess the performances of the upper limb, especially during grasp. Objects of the research are the physiological changes related to the long-term duration spaceflight environment. Specifically, the changes concerning the upper limb are investigated, with particular regard to the performances of the hand in zero-g environments. This research presents also effects on the Earth, improving the studies on a number of pathological states, on the health care and the rehabilitation. In this perspective, a set of experiments are proposed, aimed at the evaluation of the effects of the zero-g environments on neurophysiology of grasping movements, fatigue assessment, precision grip. .

  4. Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the nuclear power station in the fiscal year 2015 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro; Mori, Airi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Shimada, Kazumasa; Hirouchi, Jun; Urabe, Yoshimi; Nakanishi, Chika; Yamada, Tsutomu; Iwai, Takeyuki; Matsunaga, Yuki; Toyoda, Masayuki; Tobita, Shinichiro; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Ishida, Mutsushi; Sato, Yoshiharu; Sasaki, Miyuki; Hirayama, Hirokatsu; Takamura, Yoshihide; Nishihara, Katsuya; Imura, Mitsuo; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. In addition, background dose rate monitoring was conducted around the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. These results of the aerial radiation monitoring using the manned helicopter in the fiscal 2015 were summarized in the report. In addition, we developed the discrimination technique of the Rn-progenies and the evaluation of radiation attenuation by snow. (author)

  5. Setting Priorities for Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research and Identifying Evidence Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jimmy T; Hutfless, Susan; Li, Tianjing; Bressler, Neil M; Heyward, James; Bittner, Ava K; Glassman, Adam; Dickersin, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing comparative effectiveness research may contribute to obtaining answers that clinicians perceive they need and may minimize research that could be considered wasteful. Our objective was to identify evidence gaps and set priorities for new systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials for managing diabetic retinopathy (DR), including diabetic macular edema (DME). Cross-sectional study. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) investigators. We provided recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2012 Preferred Practice Patterns for Diabetic Retinopathy as 91 answerable clinical research questions about intervention effectiveness to 410 DRCR.net investigators to rate each question's importance from 0 (not important) to 10 (very important) using a 2-round Delphi survey and to suggest additional questions. We considered questions as high priority if at least 75% of respondents to both rounds assigned an importance rating of 5 or more in round 2. We also extracted outcome measures relevant to DR and asked respondents to identify those that must be measured in all studies. We mapped Cochrane reviews published up to March 2016 to high-priority clinical research questions. Ranking of importance of each clinical question. Thirty-two individuals completed rounds 1 and 2 and suggested 15 questions. Among the final list of 106 clinical research questions, 22 questions met our definition of high priority: 9 of 22 concerned the effectiveness of anti-VEGF therapy, and 13 of 22 focused on how often patients should be followed up (re-examination) and treatment effectiveness in patients with specific characteristics (e.g., DME). Outcomes that 75% or more of respondents marked as "must be measured in all studies" included visual acuity and visual loss, death of participants, and intraocular pressure. Only 1 prioritized question was associated with conclusive evidence from a Cochrane systematic review. A limited response rate among

  6. Camelias: a tool for the management of a complex set of γ spectrometry stations for the on-line monitoring of a reactor severe accident simulation in the framework of the Phebus FP programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantera, L.; Cornu, B.

    2003-01-01

    During a PHEBUS PF experiment, the on-line fission product release measurement is carried out by a set of seven γ stations supervised by a computer network. These stations generate about 20000 spectra for each experiment. These spectra are obtained under complex experimental conditions (high count rate, constrained nuclear environment and large diversity of configuration). The objective is to perform a quantitative γ-spectrometry analysis. The possibly complex use of self-attenuation models as well as the large volume of data to be treated led its to consider a flexible and generic method to manage the whole set of stations. The γ station calibration is carried out on-site. For each case, the developed methodology strictly uses the same approach for collecting data during the calibration phase, for calculations and for the software environment: that is the CAMELIAS application. The on-site calibration methodology is based on the use of a linear reference source allowing to reduce the 3D calculations to 2D calculations to obtain the reference efficiency function and the collimation function. Additional calculations then allow computing the efficiency function associated with the actual source. To centralize and to guarantee the coherence of the large volume of data collected during the calibration phase, we use a relational database management system. The computation of the self-attenuation coefficients associated with the actual source is performed by considering a simple model of self-attenuation along a straight line. The method, which can be generalized, is further applied to the delayed analysis of samplings and experimental devices of all the programs managed by the laboratory. (authors)

  7. Determinants of Children's Mental Health in War-Torn Settings: Translating Research Into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E; Jordans, Mark J D

    2016-06-01

    Research on the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of children in conflict-affected settings has undergone a significant paradigm shift in recent years. Earlier studies based on a war exposure model primarily emphasized the effects of direct exposure to armed conflict; this has gradually given way to a broader understanding of the diverse pathways by which organized violence affects children. A robustly supported comprehensive model includes risk factors at multiple points in time (prior war exposure, ongoing daily stressors) and at all levels of the social ecology. In particular, findings suggest that material deprivation and a set of family variables, including harsh parenting, parental distress, and witnessing intimate partner violence, are important mediators of the relationship between armed conflict and children's wellbeing. To date, however, interventions aimed at supporting war-affected children's wellbeing, both preventive and treatment-focused, have focused primarily on direct work with children, while paying only modest attention to ongoing risk factors in their families and broader environments. Possible reasons for the ongoing prioritization of child-focused interventions are considered, and examples are provided of recent evidence-based interventions that have reduced toxic stressors (harsh parenting and the use of violent discipline by teachers) in conflict-affected communities.

  8. Setting the top 10 research priorities to improve the health of people with Type 2 diabetes: a Diabetes UK-James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, S; Robb, P; Cowan, K; Daly, A; Shah, K; Farmer, A

    2018-07-01

    To describe processes and outcomes of a priority setting partnership to identify the 'top 10 research priorities' in Type 2 diabetes, involving people living with the condition, their carers, and healthcare professionals. We followed the four-step James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership process which involved: gathering uncertainties using a questionnaire survey distributed to 70 000 people living with Type 2 diabetes and their carers, and healthcare professionals; organizing the uncertainties; interim priority setting by resampling of participants with a second survey; and final priority setting in an independent group of participants, using the nominal group technique. At each step the steering group closely monitored and guided the process. In the first survey, 8227 uncertainties were proposed by 2587 participants, of whom 18% were from black, Asian and minority ethnic groups. Uncertainties were formatted and collated into 114 indicative questions. A total of 1506 people contributed to a second survey, generating a shortlist of 24 questions equally weighted to the contributions of people living with diabetes and their carers and those of healthcare professionals. In the final step the 'top 10 research priorities' were selected, including questions on cure and reversal, risk identification and prevention, and self-management approaches in Type 2 diabetes. Systematic and transparent methodology was used to identify research priorities in a large and genuine partnership of people with lived and professional experience of Type 2 diabetes. The top 10 questions represent consensus areas of research priority to guide future research, deliver responsive and strategic allocation of research resources, and improve the future health and well-being of people living with, and at risk of, Type 2 diabetes. © 2018 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  9. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  10. Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Promote Research Uptake in Child Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Set-up and calibration of an outdoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies at the Masse experimental station (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Todisco, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the technical characteristics and the preliminary calibration of a rainfall simulator recently installed by the Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (Perugia University) at the Masse experimental station located 20 km south of Perugia, in the region of Umbria (central Italy). The site includes some USLE plots of different length λ = 11 and 22 m and width w = 2, 4 and 8 m, oriented parallel to a 16 % slope and kept free of vegetation by frequent ploughing. Since 2008, the station enabled to collect data from more than 80 erosive events, that were mainly used to investigate the relationship between rainfall characteristics and soil loss. The relevant soil loss variability that characterizes erosive storm events with similar overall characteristics (duration and/or depth) can be explained by the different rainfall profile of erosive storms and by the different antecedent soil aggregate stability. To analyse in more detail these aspects, recently, the Masse experimental station has been equipped with a semi-portable rainfall simulator placed over two micro-plots of 1x1 m each, having the same topographic and pedologic conditions of the adjacent USLE plots. The rainfall simulator consists of four full-cone spray nozzles for each micro-plot, placed at the angles of a 0.18-m square, centred over the plot at a height of 2.7 m above the ground. The operating pressure is regulated by pressure regulating valves and checked by pressure gauges mounted in correspondence of each nozzle. An electronic control unit regulates the start and stop of the inlet solenoid valves. A range of rainfall intensities can be achieved, by activating different combinations of nozzles (15 different intensities) also during the same simulation trial. The particular design of the plots allows to collect separately the runoff volume deriving from the plots and the water volume fallen outside of the plot. In this way it is possible to derive, by

  12. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Johanna M; Rowley, Kevin G; Anderson, Ian Ps

    2009-11-20

    Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH)'s experience in setting and meeting priorities.Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met.In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities.This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled researchers and stakeholders to come

  13. Setting and meeting priorities in Indigenous health research in Australia and its application in the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ian PS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Priority setting is about making decisions. Key issues faced during priority setting processes include identifying who makes these decisions, who sets the criteria, and who benefits. The paper reviews the literature and history around priority setting in research, particularly in Aboriginal health research. We explore these issues through a case study of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health (CRCAH's experience in setting and meeting priorities. Historically, researchers have made decisions about what research gets done. Pressures of growing competition for research funds and an increased public interest in research have led to demands that appropriate consultation with stakeholders is conducted and that research is of benefit to the wider society. Within Australian Aboriginal communities, these demands extend to Aboriginal control of research to ensure that Aboriginal priorities are met. In response to these demands, research priorities are usually agreed in consultation with stakeholders at an institutional level and researchers are asked to develop relevant proposals at a project level. The CRCAH's experience in funding rounds was that scientific merit was given more weight than stakeholders' priorities and did not necessarily result in research that met these priorities. After reviewing these processes in 2004, the CRCAH identified a new facilitated development approach. In this revised approach, the setting of institutional priorities is integrated with the development of projects in a way that ensures the research reflects stakeholder priorities. This process puts emphasis on identifying projects that reflect priorities prior to developing the quality of the research, rather than assessing the relevance to priorities and quality concurrently. Part of the CRCAH approach is the employment of Program Managers who ensure that stakeholder priorities are met in the development of research projects. This has enabled

  14. Research on the optimization of air quality monitoring station layout based on spatial grid statistical analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Zhou, Xing Chen; Ikhumhen, Harrison Odion; Difei, An

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, with the significant increase in urban development, it has become necessary to optimize the current air monitoring stations to reflect the quality of air in the environment. Highlighting the spatial representation of some air monitoring stations using Beijing's regional air monitoring station data from 2012 to 2014, the monthly mean particulate matter concentration (PM10) in the region was calculated and through the IDW interpolation method and spatial grid statistical method using GIS, the spatial distribution of PM10 concentration in the whole region was deduced. The spatial distribution variation of districts in Beijing using the gridding model was performed, and through the 3-year spatial analysis, PM10 concentration data including the variation and spatial overlay (1.5 km × 1.5 km cell resolution grid), the spatial distribution result obtained showed that the total PM10 concentration frequency variation exceeded the standard. It is very important to optimize the layout of the existing air monitoring stations by combining the concentration distribution of air pollutants with the spatial region using GIS.

  15. Distribution of VOCs between air and snow at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station, Switzerland, during CLACE 5 (winter 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Starokozhev

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were analyzed in air and snow samples at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station in Switzerland as part of CLACE 5 (CLoud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment during February/March 2006. The fluxes of individual compounds in ambient air were calculated from gas phase concentrations and wind speed. The highest concentrations and flux values were observed for the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene (14.3 μg.m−2 s−1, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (5.27 μg.m−2 s−1, toluene (4.40 μg.m−2 −1, and the aliphatic hydrocarbons i-butane (7.87 μg.m−2 s−1, i-pentane (3.61 μg.m−2 s−1 and n-butane (3.23 μg.m−2 s−1. The measured concentrations and fluxes were used to calculate the efficiency of removal of VOCs by snow, which is defined as difference between the initial and final concentration/flux values of compounds before and after wet deposition. The removal efficiency was calculated at −24°C (−13.7°C and ranged from 37% (35% for o-xylene to 93% (63% for i-pentane. The distribution coefficients of VOCs between the air and snow phases were derived from published poly-parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER data, and compared with distribution coefficients obtained from the simultaneous measurements of VOC concentrations in air and snow at Jungfraujoch. The coefficients calculated from pp-LFER exceeded those values measured in the present study, which indicates more efficient snow scavenging of the VOCs investigated than suggested by theoretical predictions.

  16. Seasonal and diurnal variations of particulate nitrate and organic matter at the IfT research station Melpitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate and several organic compounds such as dicarboxylic acids (e.g. succinic acid, glutaric acid, some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs or some n-alkanes are semi-volatile. The transition of these compounds between the gas and particulate phase may significantly change the aerosol particles radiative properties, the heterogeneous chemical properties, and, naturally, the total particulate mass concentration. To better assess these time-dependent effects, three intensive field experiments were conducted in 2008–2009 at the Central European EMEP research station Melpitz (Germany using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. Data from all seasons highlight organic matter as being the most important particulate fraction of PM1 in summer (59% while in winter, the nitrate fraction was more prevalent (34.4%. The diurnal variation of nitrate always showed the lowest concentration during the day while its concentration increased during the night. This night increase of nitrate concentration was higher in winter (ΔNO3 = 3.6 μg m−3 than in summer (ΔNO3 = 0.7 μg m−3. The variation in particulate nitrate was inherently linked to the gas-to-particle-phase equilibrium of ammonium nitrate and the dynamics of the atmosphere during day. The results of this study suggest that during summer nights, the condensation of HNO3 and NH3 on pre-existing particles represents the most prevalent source of nitrate, whereas during winter, nighttime chemistry is the predominant source of nitrate. During the summer 2008's campaign, a clear diurnal evolution in the oxidation state of the organic matter became evident (Organic Mass to Organic Carbon ratio (OM/OC ranging from 1.65 during night to 1.80 during day and carbon oxidation state (OSc from −0.66 to −0.4, which could be correlated to hydroxyl radical (OH and ozone

  17. The new dedicated PIXE set-up at the National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Ka ring re; Waahlin, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen was in the beginning of the 70'es one of the early places for PIXE. Contributions were made to the theoretical interpretation of the PIXE spectra as well as the practical application. The home-made 4 MV van de Graaff accelerator at the Niels Bohr Institute was an excellent tool for PIXE. The accelerator, which was used for many years, has now found its place on a museum after more than 40 years of active service. A dedicated PIXE set-up has now been established at the National Environmental Research Institute using a new 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron (5SDH) from NEC. The main application is elemental analysis of outdoor aerosols. The main work is unsophisticated macro analyses, which do not push the equipment to its limits. This enables automated analysis of about 10,000 samples per year using very limited manpower resources. The research focuses on the contribution from various source types to the atmosphere over Europe, the North Atlantic and Greenland. Source compositions and their temporal variations are studied

  18. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  19. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ganghua; Wang, Xiao Fan; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Suo; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Tlatov, Andrey; Demidov, Mihail; Borovik, Aleksandr; Golovko, Aleksey

    2017-06-01

    This article introduces our ongoing project "Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research". Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a time span of more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant signs of progress are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  20. White Mountain Research Station: 25 years of high-altitude research. [organization and functions of test facility for high altitude research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    The organization and functions of a test facility for conducting research projects at high altitudes are discussed. The projects conducted at the facility include the following: (1) bird physiology, (2) cardiorespiratory physiology, (3) endocrinological studies, (4) neurological studies, (5) metabolic studies, and (6) geological studies.

  1. How Iranian Medical Trainees Approach their Responsibilities in Clinical Settings; A Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Asemani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.

  2. Value-based integrated (renal) care: setting a development agenda for research and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, Pim P; Biermann, Claus; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2016-08-02

    Integrated care services are considered a vital strategy for improving the Triple Aim values for people with chronic kidney disease. However, a solid scholarly explanation of how to develop, implement and evaluate such value-based integrated renal care services is limited. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to identify the strategies and outcomes for the implementation of value-based integrated renal care. First, the theoretical foundations of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care and the Triple Aim were united into one overarching framework through an iterative process of key-informant consultations. Second, a rapid review approach was conducted to identify the published research on integrated renal care, and the Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, and Business Source Premier databases were searched for pertinent articles published between 2000 and 2015. Based on the framework, a coding schema was developed to synthesis the included articles. The overarching framework distinguishes the integrated care domains: 1) type of integration, 2) enablers of integration and the interrelated outcome domains, 3) experience of care, 4) population health and 5) costs. The literature synthesis indicated that integrated renal care implementation strategies have particularly focused on micro clinical processes and physical outcomes, while little emphasis has been placed on meso organisational as well as macro system integration processes. In addition, evidence regarding patients' perceived outcomes and economic outcomes has been weak. These results underscore that the future challenge for researchers is to explore which integrated care implementation strategies achieve better health and improved experience of care at a lower cost within a specific context. For this purpose, this study's framework and evidence synthesis have set a developmental agenda for both integrated renal care practice and research. Accordingly, we plan further work to develop an implementation

  3. The collocated station Košetice - Kešín u Pacova, Czech Republic: an important research infrastructure in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorska, Alice; Milan, Váňa; Vlastimil, Hanuš; Marian, Pavelka

    2013-04-01

    The collocated station Košetice - Křešín u Pacova, central Czech Republic, is a major research and monitoring infrastructure in the Czech Republic and central Europe. It consists of two basic components: the observatory Košetice run since 1988 by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and the atmospheric station (AS) Křešín u Pacova starting operation in 2013. The AS is built and run by CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and is situated 100 m far from the observatory. There are three research and monitoring activities at the collocated station providing data necessary for the research on climate and related changes. The AS Křešín u Pacova consists of a 250 m tall tower serving for ground-based and vertical gradient measurements of (i) concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, total gaseous mercury and tropospheric ozone (continuously), (ii) elemental and organic carbon (semicontinuously), (iii) carbon and oxygen isotopes, radon, N2O, SF6 and other species (episodically), (iv) optical properties of atmospheric aerosols and (v) meteorological parameters and the boundary layer height. Further, eddy covariance measurements in the nearby agroecosystem provide data on CO2 and H2O fluxes between the atmosphere and the ecosystem. Finally, monitoring activities at the nearby small hydrological catchment Anenské povodí run under the GEOMON network enables studying local hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. These measurements are supported by the long-term monitoring of meteorological and air quality parameters at the observatory Košetice, that are representative for the central European background. The collocated station provides a big research opportunity and challenge due to (i) a broad spectra of monitored chemical species, meteorological, hydrological and other parameters, (ii) measurements in various environmental compartments and especially the atmosphere, (iii) provision of data suitable for conducting

  4. Single-site community consultation for emergency research in a community hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kyle L; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Little, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate community member feedback from community consultation and public disclosure activities performed for a clinical investigation involving a device designed to treat traumatic brain injury in prehospital contexts. The clinical investigation of that device was to be performed under the federal regulations providing an exception from prospective informed consent requirements in emergency settings. Secondarily, we sought to assess the community consultation process by measuring the levels of outreach provided by the different communication methods used in these activities, with special attention to the effectiveness of social media for community outreach. The medical device investigation consists of a single-site pilot study based at a 345-bed community hospital in east central Illinois, which also serves as the area's only level I trauma center. Investigators, in collaboration with the local institutional review board, fulfilled community consultation and public disclosure requirements through four public town hall meetings, seven targeted focus groups, targeted mailings to 884 community leaders and researchers, a press conference and press release, internal and external websites, and multiple postings to the hospital's Facebook and Twitter accounts. Community members provided feedback by completing paper or electronic comment cards. A total of 428 community members attended the four town hall meetings and seven focus group sessions. Attendance at each meeting ranged from 4 to 20 attendees for the town hall meetings and 8 to 140 attendees for the focus groups. The investigation's external website received 626 unique visitors and the intranet website received 528 unique visits. Social media postings on Facebook and Twitter received six comments and eight "likes" to indicate that an individual read the posting. In total, attendees completed 175 comment cards to provide their feedback. Community member attitudes regarding the

  5. Analysis of technological innovation in Danish wind turbine industry - including the Test Station for Windturbines dual roll as research institution and certification authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannemand Andersen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the interactions between the Danish wind turbine industry and the Test Station for Wind Turbines. Because these interactions are concerning technological innovation, it follows that the innovation processes within the enterprises must be analyzed and modelled. The study is carried out as an iterative model-developing process using case study methods. The findings from some less structured interviews are discussed with literature and forms a basis for models and new interviews. The thesis is based on interviews with 20 R and D engineers in the Danish wind turbine industry, 7 engineers at The Test Station and 7 people involved in wind power abroad (American and British). The theoretical frame for this thesis is sociology/organizational theory and industrial engineering. The thesis consists of five main sections, dealing with technology and knowledge, innovation processes, organizational culture, innovation and interaction between the Test Station's research activities and the companies' innovation processes, and finally interaction through the Test Stations certification activity. First a taxonomy for technology and knowledge is established in order to clarify what kind of technology the interactions are all about, and what kind of knowledge is transferred during the interactions. This part of the thesis also contains an analysis of the patents drawn by the Danish wind turbine industry. The analysis shows that the Danish wind turbine industry do not use patents. Instead the nature of the technology and the speed of innovation are used to protect the industry's knowledge. (EG) (192 refs.)

  6. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  7. Akttvitas Selulase, Amilase Dan Invertase Pada Tanah Kebun Biologi Wamena*[cellulase, Amylase and Invertase Activities Achieved From Soil of Wamena Biological Research Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmansyah, M; Latupapua, HJD

    2003-01-01

    Enzymatic activities in soil as due to microbes action in organic matter degradation, lead to propose as indicators for determining soil degree enrichment.In this work, the enzymatic activities of cellulase, invertase and amylase were determined in tropical soil collected from Biological Research Station in Wamena. Result of measurement on five soil samples showed that cellulase activity occurred between 0.10 - 0.31 mg reducing sugar/g soil/hour in 2% Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) substrate, a...

  8. Counseling in the clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy: an evidence-based research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Merry K; Bartholomew, Neva E; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2003-02-01

    Unintended pregnancies account for about half of all pregnancies in the United States and, in 1995, numbered nearly 3 million pregnancies. They pose appreciable medical, emotional, social and financial costs on women, their families and society. The US is not attaining national goals to decrease unintended pregnancies, and little is known about effective means for reducing unintended pregnancy rates in adults or adolescents.To examine the evidence about the effectiveness, benefits and harms of counseling in a clinical setting to prevent unintended pregnancy in adults and adolescents and to use the evidence to propose a research agenda.We identified English-language articles from comprehensive searches of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychLit and other databases from 1985 through May 2000; the main clinical search terms included pregnancy (mistimed, unintended, unplanned, unwanted), family planning, contraceptive behavior, counseling, sex counseling, and knowledge, attitudes and behavior. We also used published systematic reviews, hand searching of relevant articles, the second Guide to Clinical Preventive Services and extensive peer review to identify important articles not otherwise found and to assure completeness. Of 673 abstracts examined, we retained 354 for full article review; of these, we used 74 for the systematic evidence review and abstracted data from 13 articles for evidence tables. Four studies addressed the effectiveness of counseling in a clinical setting in changing knowledge, skills and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy; all had poor internal validity and generalizability and collectively did not provide definitive guidance about effective counseling strategies. Nine studies (three in teenage populations) addressed the relationship of knowledge on contraceptive use and adherence. Knowledge of correct contraceptive methods may be positively associated with appropriate use, but reservations about the method itself, partner support of the method

  9. [STEM on Station Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  10. A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multimodality research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Hannah; Zhang, Yakun; Bond, Jason; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Samei, E.; Segars, W. P.; Minhas, Anum; Frush, D.; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors previously developed an adult population of 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms for multimodality imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a reference set of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms consisting of male and female anatomies at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years. These models will serve as the foundation from which the authors will create a vast population of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric CT imaging protocols. Methods: Each phantom was based on a unique set of CT data from a normal patient obtained from the Duke University database. The datasets were selected to best match the reference values for height and weight for the different ages and genders according to ICRP Publication 89. The major organs and structures were segmented from the CT data and used to create an initial pediatric model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. The CT data covered the entire torso and part of the head. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the top of the head and the arms and legs using scaled versions of the XCAT adult models or additional models created from cadaver data. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from a template XCAT phantom (male or female 50th percentile adult) to the target pediatric model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. The masses of the organs in each phantom were matched to the reference values given in ICRP Publication 89. The new reference models were checked for anatomical accuracy via visual inspection. Results: The authors created a set of ten pediatric reference phantoms that have the same level of detail and functionality as the original XCAT phantom adults. Each consists of thousands of anatomical structures and includes parameterized models

  11. A set of 4D pediatric XCAT reference phantoms for multimodality research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Hannah, E-mail: Hannah.norris@duke.edu; Zhang, Yakun; Bond, Jason; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Samei, E.; Segars, W. P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Minhas, Anum; Frush, D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I. [Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed an adult population of 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms for multimodality imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a reference set of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms consisting of male and female anatomies at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years. These models will serve as the foundation from which the authors will create a vast population of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric CT imaging protocols. Methods: Each phantom was based on a unique set of CT data from a normal patient obtained from the Duke University database. The datasets were selected to best match the reference values for height and weight for the different ages and genders according to ICRP Publication 89. The major organs and structures were segmented from the CT data and used to create an initial pediatric model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. The CT data covered the entire torso and part of the head. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the top of the head and the arms and legs using scaled versions of the XCAT adult models or additional models created from cadaver data. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from a template XCAT phantom (male or female 50th percentile adult) to the target pediatric model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. The masses of the organs in each phantom were matched to the reference values given in ICRP Publication 89. The new reference models were checked for anatomical accuracy via visual inspection. Results: The authors created a set of ten pediatric reference phantoms that have the same level of detail and functionality as the original XCAT phantom adults. Each consists of thousands of anatomical structures and includes parameterized models

  12. Elementary and Secondary Educational Services of Public Television Grantees: Highlights from the 1997 Station Activities Survey. CPB Research Notes, No. 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This report provides a summary of K-12 educational services offered by Corporation for Public Broadcasting-supported television stations from CPB's annual Station Activities Survey. Stations are broken into cohorts by license type and budget size. The 1997 Station Activities Survey asked public television stations whether they provided…

  13. Quality of Care and Job Satisfaction in the European Home Care Setting: Research Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Van Eenoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy, meso-level (care organisations and micro-level (clients are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe.

  14. Quality of Care and Job Satisfaction in the European Home Care Setting: Research Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roest, Henriëtte; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy), meso-level (care organisations) and micro-level (clients) are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe. PMID:28435423

  15. Binge Drinking Episodes in Young Adults: How Should We Measure Them in a Research Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Mariann R; Mazzuco, Adriana; Kang, Minkyung; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, consequences of binge drinking are a major health and policy concern. This article reviews contemporary binge drinking definitions as well as different questionnaires and biomarkers that have been used in research settings to examine binge drinking behavior among young adults. A review of electronic databases was conducted for binge drinking definitions, questionnaires, and biomarkers for the measurement of binge drinking in young adults (18-30 years). Binge drinking is often defined as four or more drinks for females and five or more drinks for males on an occasion or in one sitting within a designated time frame (2 weeks vs. past 30 days). Several tools and questionnaires are available to identify young adult repeated binge drinkers. Biomarkers have been used to corroborate self-reported alcohol consumption, of which direct biomarkers such as phosphatidylethanol may be useful in confirming recent heavy drinking. It is important to measure binge drinking along a continuum and to use questions that allow for assessment of intensity, frequency, duration, and daily versus weekend consumption patterns. Open-ended questions that allow for intensity (number of drinks) and frequency can be used to determine dose-response relationships with respect to specific outcome measures. Direct alcohol biomarkers reflecting alcohol consumption over a period of several days are useful in conjunction with questionnaire data for identifying young adult binge drinkers.

  16. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces our ongoing project “Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research”. Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a timespan more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant progresses are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  17. [Violence against the elderly in domestic care settings : Short profile of an interdisciplinary research project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedler, Anna; Konopik, Nadine; Heber, Lukas; Wellenhofer, Marina; Oswald, Frank; Zenz, Gisela; Salgo, Ludwig

    2017-06-01

    Most elderly people wish to remain and be cared for in their own home. Approximately 1.38 million people in Germany are cared for without professional support. However, domestic care by relatives can be a risk factor for violence against the elderly. This research project deals with the issue from a legal and social sciences perspective. The aim of the project is to develop a regulatory framework providing aid-oriented prevention and intervention in the family care of vulnerable elderly people by public agencies and courts. Firstly, empirical data on the situation in family care will be analyzed; secondly, the existing legal framework will be examined. In a third step, recommendations for legislation and administration will be developed in collaboration with practitioners. Initial findings show that, although various support, advice, and training services exist, the situation at home is not always safe. There is a lack of legal regulation on the issue of abuse in the family care setting, especially compared with German legislation on child protection. Thus, the legal framework should reinforce the prevention of care problems by giving more efficient support to carers and permitting legal intervention in the case of abuse. However, at the same time, the proposed legislation should take into account the importance of the individual's right to self-determination.

  18. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

  19. ANCESTORS OF VEGETABLE BREEDING IN ROMANIA: GLICHERIA AND EMIL TĂLPĂLARU, RESEARCHERS AT EXPERIMENTAL STATION ŞTEFĂNEŞTI- ARGEŞ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Scurtu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glicheria and Emil Talpalaru are two of the first breeders in our country, which during 1963-1984 worked at Stefanesti - Arges Experiment Station and has achieved remarkable results in improving vegetables. Talpalaru Emil attended the Faculty of Agronomy in Iaşi, and Mrs. Glicheria Talpalaru graduated the Faculty of Agriculture in Bucharest (1952. In 1957 both became researchers at Vegetable Experiment Station Ţigăneşti, Ilfov. From 1963 until their retirement (1984 worked at the Research Station Ştefăneşti and obtained the most important achievements . There are authors and co-authors of a series of books, papers or brochures on studying the phenomenon heterosis, hybrid tomato and seed production, vegetable technology and other issues. They are created the first F1 tomato varieties and hybrids that were cultivated many years in our country: Arges 1 (F1, Arges 450 ( F1, Arges 400 ( F1 and Arges 428 variety . In the same time Mrs. Talpalaru and she is co-author of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, but obtained, two varietes for lettuce and one for red cabbage.

  20. Using the Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist as a tool for evaluating the research priority setting process of a provincial research and program evaluation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mador, Rebecca L; Kornas, Kathy; Simard, Anne; Haroun, Vinita

    2016-03-23

    Given the context-specific nature of health research prioritization and the obligation to effectively allocate resources to initiatives that will achieve the greatest impact, evaluation of priority setting processes can refine and strengthen such exercises and their outcomes. However, guidance is needed on evaluation tools that can be applied to research priority setting. This paper describes the adaption and application of a conceptual framework to evaluate a research priority setting exercise operating within the public health sector in Ontario, Canada. The Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist, described by Viergever et al. (Health Res Policy Syst 8:36, 2010) was used as the conceptual framework to evaluate the research priority setting process developed for the Locally Driven Collaborative Projects (LDCP) program in Ontario, Canada. Multiple data sources were used to inform the evaluation, including a review of selected priority setting approaches, surveys with priority setting participants, document review, and consultation with the program advisory committee. The evaluation assisted in identifying improvements to six elements of the LDCP priority setting process. The modifications were aimed at improving inclusiveness, information gathering practices, planning for project implementation, and evaluation. In addition, the findings identified that the timing of priority setting activities and level of control over the process were key factors that influenced the ability to effectively implement changes. The findings demonstrate the novel adaptation and application of the 'Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist' as a tool for evaluating a research priority setting exercise. The tool can guide the development of evaluation questions and enables the assessment of key constructs related to the design and delivery of a research priority setting process.

  1. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  2. Research priority setting for health policy and health systems strengthening in Nigeria: the policymakers and stakeholders perspective and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Oyibo, Patrick Gold; Onwe, Friday; Aulakh, Bhupinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the low and middle income countries (LMICs) facing severe resource constraint, making it impossible for adequate resources to be allocated to the health sector. Priority setting becomes imperative because it guides investments in health care, health research and respects resource constraints. The objective of this study was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of policymakers on research priority setting and to conduct a research priority setting exercise. A one-day evidence-to-policy research priority setting meeting was held. The meeting participants included senior and middle level policymakers and key decision makers/stakeholders in the health sector in Ebonyi State southeastern Nigeria. The priorities setting meeting involved a training session on priority setting process and conduction of priority setting exercise using the essential national health research (ENHR) approach. The focus was on the health systems building blocks (health workforce; health finance; leadership/governance; medical products/technology; service delivery; and health information/evidence). Of the total of 92 policymakers invited 90(97.8%) attended the meeting. It was the consensus of the policymakers that research should focus on the challenges of optimal access to health products and technology; effective health service delivery and disease control under a national emergency situation; the shortfalls in the supply of professional personnel; and the issues of governance in the health sector management. Research priority setting exercise involving policymakers is an example of demand driven strategy in the health policymaking process capable of reversing inequities and strengthening the health systems in LMICs.

  3. Reflections on the conceptualization and operationalization of a set-theoretic approach to employee motivation and performance research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Christopher Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current commentary offers a reflection on the conceptualizations of Lee and Raschke's (2016 proposal for a set-theoretic approach to employee motivation and organizational performance. The commentary is informed by the current author's operationalization of set-theoretic research on employee motivation which occurred contemporaneously to the work of Lee and Raschke. Observations on the state of current research on employee motivation, development of motivation theory and future directions of set-theoretic approaches to employee motivation and performance are offered.

  4. Exploring the challenge of health research priority setting in partnership: reflections on the methodology used by the James Lind Alliance Pressure Ulcer Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Morley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The James Lind Alliance (JLA) brings patients, carers and clinicians together in Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify and prioritise shared uncertainties about the effects of treatment. The JLA emerged from the evidence-informed healthcare movement to address a concern that the research being carried out on treatment effectiveness is not that of most importance to patients and health professionals. In the JLA PSPs, 'hard' evidence-informed ideals meet 'soft' participatory practices. This article explores the challenges of putting co-production methods into practice by reflecting on the methods used by the JLA Pressure Ulcer PSP (JLAPUP). The JLA principles are transparency, inclusivity and avoiding waste in research. This means paying the same close critical attention to how PSPs are designed and run, as is desired in the health research which the JLA seeks to influence. JLAPUP showed that it was possible to work in partnership in a field where patients are often elderly, immobile, unrepresented and particularly unwell, many of whom are living with more than one long term condition. However, for those unfamiliar with it, 'uncertainty' was a difficult term to get to grips with. Also, it was harder for some people than others to take part and to have their voices heard and understood. In keeping with other PSPs, JLAPUP found that the nature and quality of research into pressure ulcer prevention and treatment did not reflect the priorities of those who took part. ᅟ. Studies identifying a mismatch between the priorities of academics and clinicians and those of people with direct experience of a health condition pose a challenge to the assumption that professional researchers can represent the interests of patients and the public in setting priorities for health research. The James Lind Alliance (JLA) brings patients, carers and clinicians together in Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify and prioritise shared uncertainties about the effects of

  5. Integrating cross-case analyses and process tracing in set-theoretic research: Strategies and parameters of debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Rohlfing, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the combination of two methods on the basis of set theory. In our introduction and this special issue, we focus on two variants of cross-case set-theoretic methods - Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and typological theory...... – and their combination with process tracing. Our goal is to broaden and deepen set-theoretic empirical research and equip scholars with guidance on how to implement it in multi-method research (MMR). At first glance, set-theoretic cross-case methods and process tracing seem to be highly compatible when causal...... relationships are conceptualized in terms of set-theory. However, multiple issues have not so far been thoroughly addressed. Our paper builds on the emerging MMR literature and seeks to enhance it in four ways. First, we offer a comprehensive and coherent elaboration of the two sequences in which case studies...

  6. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2011-10-29

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  8. The solution to avoid protection fuses' failure of the driving motor of the turbine-generator set during its startup in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jisheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of the inter-relationship in the current, voltage, electromagnetic torque and ratio of the difference between the speed of rotor and the speed of rotary magnetic field to the later in the motor, the root cause was point out, which leads to the protection fuses' failure of the motor in the starting stage, which drives the turbine-generator set to rotate at low speed before its startup. Two solutions to avoid the situation are proposed, too. (authors)

  9. Fire Stations, LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including the locations and building footprints of schools, churches, government buildings, law enforcement and emergency response offices, pha, Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Fire Stations dataset current as of 2011. LAGIC is consulting with local parish GIS departments to create spatially accurate point and polygons data sets including...

  10. Establishment of Karadeniz Technical University Permanent GNSS Station as Reactivated of TRAB IGS Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazancı Selma Zengin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS have gained great importance in terms of the benefi ts it provides such as precise geodetic point positioning, determining crustal deformations, navigation, vehicle monitoring systems and meteorological applications etc. As in Turkey, for this purpose, each country has set up its own GNSS station networks like Turkish National Permanent RTK Network analyzed precise station coordinates and velocities together with the International GNSS Service, Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network and Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network (TNPGN stations not only are utilized as precise positioning but also GNSS meteorology studies so total number of stations are increased. This work is related to the reactivated of the TRAB IGS station which was established in Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering. Within the COST ES1206 Action (GNSS4SWEC KTU analysis center was established and Trop-NET system developed by Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP, RIGTC in order to troposphere monitoring. The project titled “Using Regional GNSS Networks to Strengthen Severe Weather Prediction” was accepted to the scientifi c and technological research council of Turkey (TUBITAK. With this project, we will design 2 new constructed GNSS reference station network. Using observation data of network, we will compare water vapor distribution derived by GNSS Meteorology and GNSS Tomography. At this time, KTU AC was accepted as E-GVAP Analysis Centre in December 2016. KTU reference station is aimed to be a member of the EUREF network with these studies.

  11. Establishment of Karadeniz Technical University Permanent GNSS Station as Reactivated of TRAB IGS Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazancı, Selma Zengin; Kayıkçı, Emine Tanır

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have gained great importance in terms of the benefi ts it provides such as precise geodetic point positioning, determining crustal deformations, navigation, vehicle monitoring systems and meteorological applications etc. As in Turkey, for this purpose, each country has set up its own GNSS station networks like Turkish National Permanent RTK Network analyzed precise station coordinates and velocities together with the International GNSS Service, Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network and Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network (TNPGN) stations not only are utilized as precise positioning but also GNSS meteorology studies so total number of stations are increased. This work is related to the reactivated of the TRAB IGS station which was established in Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering. Within the COST ES1206 Action (GNSS4SWEC) KTU analysis center was established and Trop-NET system developed by Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP, RIGTC) in order to troposphere monitoring. The project titled "Using Regional GNSS Networks to Strengthen Severe Weather Prediction" was accepted to the scientifi c and technological research council of Turkey (TUBITAK). With this project, we will design 2 new constructed GNSS reference station network. Using observation data of network, we will compare water vapor distribution derived by GNSS Meteorology and GNSS Tomography. At this time, KTU AC was accepted as E-GVAP Analysis Centre in December 2016. KTU reference station is aimed to be a member of the EUREF network with these studies.

  12. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  13. Compensating citizens for poor service delivery : Experimental research in public and private settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Jean Pierre; Leliveld, Marijke C.; Van de Walle, Steven; Ahaus, Kees

    2017-01-01

    After a service failure, citizens expect a recovery strategy that restores perceived justice and places a reasonable value on their loss. Offering monetary compensation is a strategy commonly used in private settings, but less so in public settings. To date, compensation effects have not been

  14. Comparison of national health research priority-setting methods and characteristics in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Elias, Vanessa; Terry, Robert F; Alger, Jackeline; Becerra-Posada, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    To compare health research priority-setting methods and characteristics among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2002 - 2012. This was a systematic review that identified national health research policies and priority agendas through a search of ministry and government databases related to health care institutions. PubMed, LILACS, the Health Research Web, and others were searched for the period from January 2002 - February 2012. The study excluded research organized by governmental institutions and specific national strategies on particular disease areas. Priority-setting methods were compared to the "nine common themes for good practice in health research priorities." National health research priorities were compared to those of the World Health Organization's Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Of the 18 Latin American countries assessed, 13 had documents that established national health research priorities; plus the Caribbean Health Research Council had a research agenda for its 19 constituents. These 14 total reports varied widely in terms of objectives, content, dissemination, and implementation; most provided a list of strategic areas, suggestions, and/or sub-priorities for each country; however, few proposed specific research topics and questions. Future reports could be improved by including more details on the comprehensive approach employed to identify priorities, on the information gathering process, and on practices to be undertaken after priorities are set. There is a need for improving the quality of the methodologies utilized and coordinating Regional efforts as countries strive to meet the MDG.

  15. Comparison of national health research priority-setting methods and characteristics in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2002 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reveiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare health research priority-setting methods and characteristics among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2002 - 2012. METHODS: This was a systematic review that identified national health research policies and priority agendas through a search of ministry and government databases related to health care institutions. PubMed, LILACS, the Health Research Web, and others were searched for the period from January 2002 - February 2012. The study excluded research organized by governmental institutions and specific national strategies on particular disease areas. Priority-setting methods were compared to the "nine common themes for good practice in health research priorities." National health research priorities were compared to those of the World Health Organization's Millennium Development Goals (MDG. RESULTS: Of the 18 Latin American countries assessed, 13 had documents that established national health research priorities; plus the Caribbean Health Research Council had a research agenda for its 19 constituents. These 14 total reports varied widely in terms of objectives, content, dissemination, and implementation; most provided a list of strategic areas, suggestions, and/or sub-priorities for each country; however, few proposed specific research topics and questions. CONCLUSIONS: Future reports could be improved by including more details on the comprehensive approach employed to identify priorities, on the information gathering process, and on practices to be undertaken after priorities are set. There is a need for improving the quality of the methodologies utilized and coordinating Regional efforts as countries strive to meet the MDG.

  16. Research on Fault Diagnosis for Pumping Station Based on T-S Fuzzy Fault Tree and Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Bi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of fault diagnosis for pumping station, such as the complex structure, multiple mappings, and numerous uncertainties, a new approach combining T-S fuzzy gate fault tree and Bayesian network (BN is proposed. On the one hand, traditional fault tree method needs the logical relationship between events and probability value of events and can only represent the events with two states. T-S fuzzy gate fault tree method can solve these disadvantages but still has weaknesses in complex reasoning and only one-way reasoning. On the other hand, the BN is suitable for fault diagnosis of pumping station because of its powerful ability to deal with uncertain information. However, it is difficult to determine the structure and conditional probability tables of the BN. Therefore, the proposed method integrates the advantages of the two methods. Finally, the feasibility of the method is verified through a fault diagnosis model of the rotor in the pumping unit, the accuracy of the method is verified by comparing with the methods based on traditional Bayesian network and BP neural network, respectively, when the historical data is sufficient, and the results are more superior to the above two when the historical data is insufficient.

  17. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  18. Involving burn survivors in agenda setting on burn research: an added value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, J.E.W.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Van Rensen, A.J.M.L.; De Haan, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim: The role of burn survivors in burn research is usually restricted to being objects of study and beneficiaries of research results, while decision-making on research is traditionally the domain of a small group of experts, mainly scientists. In this article we compare the research

  19. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda L. Hunt

    2018-04-01

    Conclusions: Libraries can engage more public health researchers by utilizing targeted and individualized marketing regarding services. We can promote open science by educating researchers on publication realities and enhancing our data visualization skills. Libraries might take an institution-wide leadership role on matters of data management and data policy compliance. Finally, as team science emerges as a research priority, we can offer our networking expertise. These support services may reduce the stresses that public health researchers feel in the current research environment.

  20. Hydrogeology, groundwater seepage, nitrate distribution, and flux at the Raleigh hydrologic research station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2013-01-01

    rom 2005 to 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, conducted a study to describe the geologic framework, measure groundwater quality, characterize the groundwater-flow system, and describe the groundwater/surface-water interaction at the 60-acre Raleigh hydrogeologic research station (RHRS) located at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant in eastern Wake County, North Carolina. Previous studies have shown that the local groundwater quality of the surficial and bedrock aquifers at the RHRS had been affected by high levels of nutrients. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data were collected from 3 coreholes, 12 wells, and 4 piezometers at 3 well clusters, as well as from 2 surface-water sites, 2 multiport piezometers, and 80 discrete locations in the streambed of the Neuse River. Data collected were used to evaluate the three primary zones of the Piedmont aquifer (regolith, transition zone, and fractured bedrock) and characterize the interaction of groundwater and surface water as a mechanism of nutrient transport to the Neuse River. A conceptual hydrogeologic cross section across the RHRS was constructed using new and existing data. Two previously unmapped north striking, nearly vertical diabase dikes intrude the granite beneath the site. Groundwater within the diabase dike appeared to be hydraulically isolated from the surrounding granite bedrock and regolith. A correlation exists between foliation and fracture orientation, with most fractures striking parallel to foliation. Flowmeter logging in two of the bedrock wells indicated that not all of the water-bearing fractures labeled as water bearing were hydraulically active, even when stressed by pumping. Groundwater levels measured in wells at the RHRS displayed climatic and seasonal trends, with elevated groundwater levels occurring during the late spring and declining to a low in the late fall. Vertical

  1. How Are Health Research Priorities Set in Low and Middle Income Countries? A Systematic Review of Published Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Skye; Henderson, Klara J.; Kaldor, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority setting is increasingly recognised as essential for directing finite resources to support research that maximizes public health benefits and drives health equity. Priority setting processes have been undertaken in a number of low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, using a variety of methods. We undertook a critical review of reports of these processes. Methods and Findings We searched electronic databases and online for peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed literature. We found 91 initiatives that met inclusion criteria. The majority took place at the global level (46%). For regional or national initiatives, most focused on Sub Saharan Africa (49%), followed by East Asia and Pacific (20%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (18%). A quarter of initiatives aimed to cover all areas of health research, with a further 20% covering communicable diseases. The most frequently used process was a conference or workshop to determine priorities (24%), followed by the Child Health and Nutrition Initiative (CHNRI) method (18%). The majority were initiated by an international organization or collaboration (46%). Researchers and government were the most frequently represented stakeholders. There was limited evidence of any implementation or follow-up strategies. Challenges in priority setting included engagement with stakeholders, data availability, and capacity constraints. Conclusions Health research priority setting (HRPS) has been undertaken in a variety of LMIC settings. While not consistently used, the application of established methods provides a means of identifying health research priorities in a repeatable and transparent manner. In the absence of published information on implementation or evaluation, it is not possible to assess what the impact and effectiveness of health research priority setting may have been. PMID:25275315

  2. Setting Priorities For Large Research Facility Projects Supported By the National Science Foundation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ...) level has stalled in the face of a backlog of approved but unfunded projects. Second, the rationale and criteria used to select projects and set priorities among projects for MREFC funding have not been clearly and publicly articulated...

  3. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  4. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: V. Quantitative properties of human collective knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Wazny, Kerri; Chan, Kit Yee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The CHNRI method for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component. It uses the collective opinion of a group of experts to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. It is difficult to compare the accuracy of human individual and collective opinions in predicting uncertain future outcomes before the outcomes are known. However, this limitation does not apply to existing knowledge, which is an important component underlying opinion. In this paper, we report several experiments to explore the quantitative properties of human collective knowledge and discuss their relevance to the CHNRI method. We conducted a series of experiments in groups of about 160 (range: 122-175) undergraduate Year 2 medical students to compare their collective knowledge to their individual knowledge. We asked them to answer 10 questions on each of the following: (i) an area in which they have a degree of expertise (undergraduate Year 1 medical curriculum); (ii) an area in which they likely have some knowledge (general knowledge); and (iii) an area in which they are not expected to have any knowledge (astronomy). We also presented them with 20 pairs of well-known celebrities and asked them to identify the older person of the pair. In all these experiments our goal was to examine how the collective answer compares to the distribution of students' individual answers. When answering the questions in their own area of expertise, the collective answer (the median) was in the top 20.83% of the most accurate individual responses; in general knowledge, it was in the top 11.93%; and in an area with no expertise, the group answer was in the top 7.02%. However, the collective answer based on mean values fared much worse, ranging from top 75.60% to top 95.91%. Also, when confronted with guessing the older of the two celebrities, the collective response was correct in 18/20 cases (90%), while the 8 most successful individuals among the

  5. Closing the mental health gap in low-income settings by building research capacity: perspectives from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetland, Annika C; Oquendo, Maria A; Sidat, Mohsin; Santos, Palmira F; Vermund, Sten H; Duarte, Cristiane S; Arbuckle, Melissa; Wainberg, Milton L

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide, accounting for 22.7% of all years lived with disability. Despite this global burden, fewer than 25% of affected individuals ever access mental health treatment; in low-income settings, access is much lower, although nonallopathic interventions through traditional healers are common in many venues. Three main barriers to reducing the gap between individuals who need mental health treatment and those who have access to it include stigma and lack of awareness, limited material and human resources, and insufficient research capacity. We argue that investment in dissemination and implementation research is critical to face these barriers. Dissemination and implementation research can improve mental health care in low-income settings by facilitating the adaptation of effective treatment interventions to new settings, particularly when adapting specialist-led interventions developed in high-resource countries to settings with few, if any, mental health professionals. Emerging evidence from other low-income settings suggests that lay providers can be trained to detect mental disorders and deliver basic psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions when supervised by an expert. We describe a new North-South and South-South research partnership between Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique), Columbia University (United States), Vanderbilt University (United States), and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Brazil), to build research capacity in Mozambique and other Portuguese-speaking African countries. Mozambique has both the political commitment and available resources for mental health, but inadequate research capacity and workforce limits the country's ability to assess local needs, adapt and test interventions, and identify implementation strategies that can be used to effectively bring evidence-based mental health interventions to scale within the public sector. Global training and

  6. Improving Station Performance by Building Isolation Walls in the Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Horn, Nikolaus; Leohardt, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Conrad Observatory is situated far away from roads and industrial areas on the Trafelberg in Lower Austria. At the end of the seismic tunnel, the main seismic instrument of the Observatory with a station code CONA is located. This station is one of the most important seismic stations in the Austrian Seismic Network (network code OE). The seismic observatory consists of a 145m long gallery and an underground laboratory building with several working areas. About 25 meters away from the station CONA, six temporary seismic stations were implemented for research purposes. Two of them were installed with the same equipment as CONA, while the remaining four stations were set up with digitizers having lower noise and higher resolution (Q330HR) and sensors with the same type (STS-2). In order to prevent possible disturbances by air pressure and temperature fluctuation, three walls were built inside of the tunnel. The first wall is located ca 63 meters from the tunnel entrance, while a set of double walls with a distance of 1.5 meters is placed about 53 meters from the first isolation wall but between the station CONA and the six temporary stations. To assess impact of the isolation walls on noise reduction and detection performance, investigations are conducted in two steps. The first study is carried out by comparing the noise level and detection performance between the station CONA behind the double walls and the stations in front of the double walls for verifying the noise isolation by the double walls. To evaluate the effect of the single wall, station noise level and detection performance were studied by comparing the results before and after the installation of the wall. Results and discussions will be presented. Additional experiment is conducted by filling insulation material inside of the aluminium boxes of the sensors (above and around the sensors). This should help us to determine an optimal insulation of the sensors with respect to pressure and temperature

  7. Software development assurance for special control computer sets on the base of the Electronica-60M microcomputer in the stations of fuel element nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'kova, A.D.; Grachev, S.N.; Salakatova, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    A special computational control complex (SCCC) including the ''Elektronika-60M'' microcomputer, a device for communication with an object (DCO) based on the typical microprocessing set (TMS) based on LIUS-2 KTS means and an adapter for communication of the ''Elektronika-60M'' microcomputer bus with IK1 TMS bus developed for their conjugation is used for development of nondestructive control post software. An instrumental SCCC including SM-4 microcomputer, TMS units as DCO, an adapter for communication of the common bus of the SM-4 minicomputer with the IK1 TMS bus developed for their conjugation and devices for simulation of the facility operation is suggested to increase labour productivity of programmers. The SM-4 microcomputer permits to develop programs in the FORTRAN language and to carry out their effective adjustment. A subprogram library for communication with TMS units is compiled, and the technique for testing FORTRAN programs in programmable read-only memory TMS as well as start of these programs are developed

  8. Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutken, Carol [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States). Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology (CMRET)

    2013-07-31

    A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station

  9. Elementary and Secondary Educational Services of Public Television Grantees: Highlights from the 1998 Station Activities Survey. CPB Research Notes, No. 116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This report is a summary of a variety of educational services offered by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) supported television stations as reported in CPB's annual Station Activities Survey (1998). Highlights from the data include: 141 stations (80% of all CPB supported stations) provide educational services to elementary or secondary…

  10. Performance of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) and other hardware in the microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert P.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) and General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) plus other associated hardware during the recent flight of Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1). The RAHF was developed to provide proper housing (food, water, temperature control, lighting and waste management) for up to 24 rodents during flights on the Spacelab. The GPWS was designed to contain particulates and toxic chemicals generated during plant and animal handling and dissection/fixation activities during space flights. A history of the hardware development involves as well as the redesign activities prior to the actual flight are discussed.

  11. Commentary: Leapfrogging as a Principle for Research on Children and Youth in Majority World Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This commentary was written while the author was visiting the 30th International Congress of Psychology in Cape Town, South Africa. Looking at the program, he could see that psychological research on non-Western populations and internationally comparative research seems to be much "en vogue"! However, much of the research he has seen…

  12. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  13. Identifying research priorities in anaesthesia and perioperative care: final report of the joint National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia/James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Boney, O.; Bell, M.; Bell, N.; Conquest, A.; Cumbers, M.; Drake, S.; Galsworthy, M.; Gath, J.; Grocott, M. P.; Harris, E.; Howell, S.; Ingold, A.; Nathanson, M. H.; Pinkney, T.; Metcalf, L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify research priorities for Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine. Design Prospective surveys and consensus meetings guided by an independent adviser. Setting UK. Participants 45 stakeholder organisations (25 professional, 20 patient/carer) affiliated as James Lind Alliance partners. Outcomes First ?ideas-gathering? survey: Free text research ideas and suggestions. Second ?prioritisation? survey: Shortlist of ?summary? research questions (derived from the first survey) rank...

  14. Investing in nursing research in practice settings: a blueprint for building capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Smith, Orla; Beswick, Susan; Maoine, Maria; Ferris, Ella

    2013-12-01

    Engaging clinical nurses in practice-based research is a cornerstone of professional nursing practice and a critical element in the delivery of high-quality patient care. Practising staff nurses are well suited to identify the phenomena and issues that are clinically relevant and appropriate for research. In response to the need to invest in and build capacity in nursing research, hospitals have developed creative approaches to spark interest in nursing research and to equip clinical nurses with research competencies. This paper outlines a Canadian hospital's efforts to build research capacity as a key strategy to foster efficacious, safe and cost-effective patient care practices. Within a multi-pronged framework, several strategies are described that collectively resulted in enhanced research and knowledge translation productivity aimed at improving the delivery of safe and high-quality patient care.

  15. Research on Standard and Automatic Judgment of Press-fit Curve of Locomotive Wheel-set Based on AAR Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xiao, Jun; Gao, Dong Jun; Zong, Shu Yu; Li, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    In the production of the Association of American Railroads (AAR) locomotive wheel-set, the press-fit curve is the most important basis for the reliability of wheel-set assembly. In the past, Most of production enterprises mainly use artificial detection methods to determine the quality of assembly. There are cases of miscarriage of justice appear. For this reason, the research on the standard is carried out. And the automatic judgment of press-fit curve is analysed and designed, so as to provide guidance for the locomotive wheel-set production based on AAR standard.

  16. Discussion of the design of satellite-laser measurement stations in the eastern Mediterranean under the geological aspect. Contribution to the earthquake prediction research by the Wegener Group and to NASA's Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, A.; Pavoni, N.

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted for determining the location of stations for measuring crustal dynamics and predicting earthquakes is discussed. Procedural aspects, the extraregional kinematic tendencies, and regional tectonic deformation mechanisms are described.

  17. ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  18. Building Surgical Research Capacity Globally: Efficacy of a Clinical Research Course for Surgeons in Low-Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore A. Miclau

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal injury confers an enormous burden of preventable disability and mortality in low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs. Appropriate orthopedic and trauma care services are lacking. Leading international health agencies emphasize the critical need to create and sustain research capacity in the developing world as a strategic factor in the establishment of functional, independent health systems. One aspect of building research capacity is partnership between developing and developed countries, and knowledge sharing via these collaborations. This study evaluated the efficacy of a short, intensive course designed to educate surgeons on fundamental aspects of clinical research using evidence-based medicine (EBM principles. Orthopedic surgeons from the United States and Canada presented a one-day course on the fundamentals of clinical research in Havana, Cuba. Knowledge acquisition was assessed on the part of course participants and surveyed current involvement with and attitudes toward clinical research. Questionnaires were presented to participants immediately preceding and following the course. The mean pre-test score was 43.9% (95% CI: 41.1–46.6%. The mean post-test score was 59.3% (95% CI: 56.5–62.1%. There were relative score increases in each subgroup based on professional level, subjective level of familiarity with EBM concepts, and subjective level of experience in research. This study establishes the short-term efficacy of an intensive course designed to impart knowledge in EBM and clinical research. Further study is necessary to determine the long-term benefits of this type of course. This may be a useful part of an overall strategy to build health research capacity in LMICs, ultimately contributing to improved access to high-quality surgical care.

  19. Building Surgical Research Capacity Globally: Efficacy of a Clinical Research Course for Surgeons in Low-Resource Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore A. Miclau; Kathryn Chomsky-Higgins; Alfredo Ceballos; Roberto Balmaseda; Saam Morshed; Mohit Bhandari; Fernando de la Huerta; Theodore Miclau

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injury confers an enormous burden of preventable disability and mortality in low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs). Appropriate orthopedic and trauma care services are lacking. Leading international health agencies emphasize the critical need to create and sustain research capacity in the developing world as a strategic factor in the establishment of functional, independent health systems. One aspect of building research capacity is partnership between developing and deve...

  20. The research on electronic commerce security payment system based on set protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongliang

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, online transactions have become more and more common. In this paper, we firstly introduce the principle and the basic principal and technical foundation of SET, and then we analyze the progress of designing a system in the foundation of the procedure of the electronic business based on SET. On this basis, we design a system of the Payment System for Electronic Business. It will not only take on crucial realism signification for large-scale, medium-sized and mini-type corporations, but also provide guide meaning with programmer and design-developer to realize Electronic Commerce (EC).

  1. Action research as a method for changing patient education practice in a clinical diabetes setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Jane Rohde; Hansen, Ulla M.; Glindorf, Mette

    2014-01-01

    with researchers developed and implemented a participatory, group-based diabetes education program in a diabetes clinic in the Danish health care system. The research process included a variety of qualitative methods: workshops, classroom observations, video recordings and semi-structured interviews. These methods......Action research is potentially a useful method for changing clinical practice by involving practitioners in the process of change. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of action research in bridging the gap between research and practice. Diabetes educators in collaboration...... aimed at obtaining contextual sensitivity, allowing dynamic interactions with educators and people with diabetes. Despite challenges, the study demonstrates how action research methods contribute to development and change of diabetes education practice while simultaneously adding knowledge to the action...

  2. Setting priorities for a research agenda to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, B; Nair, D; Ramalingam, S; Perez-Velez, C M; Becerra, M C; Swaminathan, S

    2015-12-21

    Numerous knowledge gaps hamper the prevention and treatment of childhood drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Identifying research priorities is vital to inform and develop strategies to address this neglected problem. To systematically identify and rank research priorities in childhood drug-resistant TB. Adapting the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology, we compiled 53 research questions in four research areas, then classified the questions into three research types. We invited experts in childhood drug-resistant TB to score these questions through an online survey. A total of 81 respondents participated in the survey. The top-ranked research question was to identify the best combination of existing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis. Highly ranked treatment-related questions centred on the reasons for and interventions to improve treatment outcomes, adverse effects of drugs and optimal treatment duration. The prevalence of drug-resistant TB was the highest-ranked question in the epidemiology area. The development type questions that ranked highest focused on interventions for optimal diagnosis, treatment and modalities for treatment delivery. This is the first effort to identify and rank research priorities for childhood drug-resistant TB. The result is a resource to guide research to improve prevention and treatment of drug-resistant TB in children.

  3. An Exploratory Study of the Conflict Management Styles of Department Heads in a Research University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christine A.; Algert, Nancy E.

    2007-01-01

    Conflict in the university setting is an inherent component of academic life. Leaders spend more than 40% of their time managing conflict. Department heads are in a unique position--they encounter conflict from individuals they manage and from others to whom they report such as a senior administrator in the position of dean. There are very few…

  4. Using the AHP in a Workshop Setting to Elicit and Prioritize Fire Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    1997-01-01

    The benefits of convening a group of knowledgeable specialists together in a workshop setting to tackle a difficult problem can often be offset by an over-abundance of unfocused and rambling discussion and by counterproductive group dynamics. In light of this workshop paradox, we have created a generic workshop framework based on the analytic hierarchy process, that...

  5. Lesbian and Gay Parents in Early Childhood Settings: A Systematic Review of the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Paige; Hegde, Archana; Smith, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the first systematic review of all the existing peer-reviewed literature (n = 20) on gay and lesbian parents and their children in early childhood education settings. The review includes articles that were empirical or pedagogical practice oriented, focused exclusively on early childhood education (Birth to 5 years), and…

  6. On the Demand for Consumer Credit: an Islamic Setting (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Bendjilali, Boualem

    1995-01-01

    The study discusses the economic implication of the main axioms that govern the consumer credit in an Islamic framework. It derives the demand function for consumer credit, using the Murabaha modes. A simple econometric model is built to estimate the demand for credit in an Islamic setting.

  7. Proceedings of the First International Research Workshop for Process Improvement in Small Settings, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NeedsCONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT CYCLE Banco de Datos Organizaci ón Data Bank of the Organization ’s Projects Project Data Established Improvements Te m pl at es Te...25 From Bedini G, Alejandro. Calidad y conocimiento , Cartagena de Indias Colombia. CMU/SEI-2006-SR...135 4.3 A Pattern- Based Approach to Deploy Process Improvements in Small Settings

  8. Artful Dodgers: An Arts Education Research Project in Early Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Nóirín; Maguire, Jackie; Corcoran, Lucie; O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Artful Dodgers is an arts education project developed by two artists and delivered in two early years settings located in two areas of urban disadvantage. It is a music and visual arts programme designed and implemented with early years teachers of children aged 3-5 years. It explored whether the provision of high-quality arts experiences could…

  9. Relative solidarity: Conceptualising communal participation in genomic research among potential research participants in a developing Sub-Saharan African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi; Woolfall, Kerry; Gabbay, Mark; Frith, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    As genomic research gathers momentum in sub-Saharan Africa, it has become increasingly important to understand the reasons why individuals wish to participate in this kind of medical research. Against the background of communitarianism conceived as typical of African communities, it is often suggested that individuals consent to participate on the grounds of solidarity and to further the common good. In this paper, we seek to explore this contention by presenting data from focus groups with potential research participants about what would influence their decisions to participate in genomic research. These focus groups were conducted as part of a larger qualitative study with a purposively selected group of participants from a community situated in south west Nigeria. We conducted fifteen focus group sessions comprising 50 participants organized by age and sex, namely: 1) adult (>30 years) males, 2) adult females, 3) youth (18-30 years) males, and 4) youth females. A mixed age-group was conducted to probe different views between the age groups. There was discordance and clear division between the adults and youths regarding the decision to participate in genomic research based on commitment to communal values. Adults based their decision to participate on altruism and furthering the common good while youths based their decisions on personal benefits and preferences and also took into account the views and welfare of family members and neighbours. This discordance suggests a 'generational shift' and we advance a model of 'relative solidarity' among the youths, which is different from the communal solidarity model typical of African communitarianism. Our findings suggest the need for a closer look at strategies for implementation of community engagement and informed consent in genomic research in this region, and we recommend further studies to explore this emerging trend.

  10. Tether applications for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, W.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of space station applications for tethers were reviewed. Many will affect the operation of the station itself while others are in the category of research or scientific platforms. One of the most expensive aspects of operating the space station will be the continuing shuttle traffic to transport logistic supplies and payloads to the space station. If a means can be found to use tethers to improve the efficiency of that transportation operation, it will increase the operating efficiency of the system and reduce the overall cost of the space station. The concept studied consists of using a tether to lower the shuttle from the space station. This results in a transfer of angular momentum and energy from the orbiter to the space station. The consequences of this transfer is studied and how beneficial use can be made of it.

  11. CROWN initiative and preterm birth prevention: researchers and editors commit to implement core outcome sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hooft, J.; Alfirevic, Z.; Asztalos, E. V.; Biggio, J. R.; Dugoff, L.; Hoffman, M.; Lee, G.; Mol, B. W.; Pacagnella, R. C.; Pajkrt, E.; Saade, G. R.; Shennan, A. H.; Vayssière, C.; Khan, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    The emphasis on research quality has taken great strides in recent years. Publication of clinical trial protocols (i.e. SPIRIT guideline), prospective registration (e.g. ClinicalTrials. gov, WHO registry), high standards in research conduct (i.e. ICH-Good Clinical Practice guidelines) and

  12. Spring Research Festival Set for May 4–7; Registration Deadline April 17 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer The 19th Annual Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR), will be held May 4–7, at the same location as last year: just off Porter Street, in the back parking lot of Building 1507 (Odom Fitness Center).

  13. NICBR-Sponsored Spring Research Festival Set for May 8 and 9 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer For the first time, the Spring Research Festival (SRF), scheduled for May 8 and 9, will be sponsored by all of the agencies that are part of the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR).

  14. Authentic Collaborative Inquiry: Initiating and Sustaining Partner Research in the PDS Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jennifer Hauver; Kobe, Jessica; Shealey, Glennda; Foretich, Rita; Sabatini, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This is the story of our collaborative work as educators and researchers. Because writing as a collective is challenging, we have elected Jenn to serve as narrator, but the story is ours collectively. We are Glennda and Rita, elementary school teachers, Ellen, principal, and Jess, graduate research assistant. The story told here is distilled from…

  15. The Untapped Promise of Secondary Data Sets in International and Comparative Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudagr, Amita; Luschei, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this commentary is to call attention to the feasibility and importance of large-scale, systematic, quantitative analysis in international and comparative education research. We contend that although many existing databases are under- or unutilized in quantitative international-comparative research, these resources present the…

  16. Enablers and Inhibitors to English Language Learners' Research Process in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Un

    2015-01-01

    This researcher sought to examine enablers and inhibitors to English language learner (ELL) students' research process within the framework of Carol C. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP). At a high school forty-eight ELL students in three classes, an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher, and a biology teacher participated in the…

  17. Quality Improvement in Home-Based Child Care Settings: Research Resources to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This "Topic of Interest" provides a comprehensive list of research in the Research Connections collection that was published in 2005 or later addressing issues related to quality improvement specifically in home-based child care. The resources are grouped under the following headings: Overviews, Summaries, and Reviews of Quality…

  18. Insider Research as Part of a Master's Programme: Opportunities Lost and Found within Action Learning Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Chloe; Lawless, Aileen; Eades, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This account explores the role of action learning during and after an educational programme. We focus on the final stage of a master's programme and the insider research that is a key feature in many UK universities. Researching within one's own organization should lead to individual and organizational learning. However, there is relatively little…

  19. Setting and measuring team goals and objectives for improved management of forestry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott J. Josiah

    1999-01-01

    As our world becomes more complex and diverse, many forestry research organizations are responding by adopting more interdisciplinary and collaborative research programs. Our rapidly increasing knowledge of the ecological, social, and economic factors affecting forestry and natural resource management makes it simply untenable to expect that complex problems can be...

  20. Research on Motivation in Educational Settings: Implications for Hearing-Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Michael

    Part of a collection of papers commissioned by Foundations (a project designed to determine the career development needs of deaf postsecondary students), the paper reviews research on student motivation. The first section addresses research on normally hearing students in classrooms with different motivational orientations. Advantages and…

  1. Health Care Workers and Researchers Traveling to Developing-World Clinical Settings: Disease Transmission Risk and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    INVITED ARTICLE James M. Hughes and Mary E. Wilson, Section Editors Health Care Workers and Researchers Traveling to Developing-World Clinical...for risk mitigation. Few data on the epidemiology of infectious diseases occurring among traveling health care workers (HCWs) exist. Surveillance... Health Care Workers and Researchers Traveling to Developing-World Clinical Settings: Disease Transmission Risk and Mitigation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Urine testing and urinary tract infections in febrile infants seen in office settings: the Pediatric Research in Office Settings' Febrile Infant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B; Bernzweig, Jane A; Takayama, John I; Finch, Stacia A; Wasserman, Richard C; Pantell, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    To determine the predictors and results of urine testing of young febrile infants seen in office settings. Prospective cohort study. Offices of 573 pediatric practitioners from 219 practices in the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings' research network. A total of 3066 infants 3 months or younger with temperatures of 38 degrees C or higher were evaluated and treated according to the judgment of their practitioners. Urine testing results, early and late urinary tract infections (UTIs), and UTIs with bacteremia. Fifty-four percent of the infants initially had urine tested, of whom 10% had a UTI. The height of the fever was associated with urine testing and a UTI among those tested (adjusted odds ratio per degree Celsius, 2.2 for both). Younger age, ill appearance, and lack of a fever source were associated with urine testing but not with a UTI, whereas lack of circumcision (adjusted odds ratio, 11.6), female sex (adjusted odds ratio, 5.4), and longer duration of fever (adjusted odds ratio, 1.8 for fever lasting > or = 24 hours) were not associated with urine testing but were associated with a UTI. Bacteremia accompanied the UTI in 10% of the patients, including 17% of those younger than 1 month. Among 807 infants not initially tested or treated with antibiotics, only 2 had a subsequent documented UTI; both did well. Practitioners order urine tests selectively, focusing on younger and more ill-appearing infants and on those without an apparent fever source. Such selective urine testing, with close follow-up, was associated with few late UTIs in this large study. Urine testing should focus particularly on uncircumcised boys, girls, the youngest and sickest infants, and those with persistent fever.

  3. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechopoulos, I.; Ali, E.S.; Badal, A.; Badano, A.; Boone, J.M.; Kyprianou, I.S.; Mainegra-Hing, E.; McMillan, K.L.; McNitt-Gray, M.F.; Rogers, D.W.; Samei, E.; Turner, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type

  4. Identifying the barriers to conducting outcomes research in integrative health care clinic settings - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay-Reece Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrative health care (IHC is an interdisciplinary blending of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM with the purpose of enhancing patients' health. In 2006, we designed a study to assess outcomes that are relevant to people using such care. However, we faced major challenges in conducting this study and hypothesized that this might be due to the lack of a research climate in these clinics. To investigate these challenges, we initiated a further study in 2008, to explore the reasons why IHC clinics are not conducting outcomes research and to identify strategies for conducting successful in-house outcomes research programs. The results of the latter study are reported here. Methods A total of 25 qualitative interviews were conducted with key participants from 19 IHC clinics across Canada. Basic content analysis was used to identify key themes from the transcribed interviews. Results Barriers identified by participants fell into four categories: organizational culture, organizational resources, organizational environment and logistical challenges. Cultural challenges relate to the philosophy of IHC, organizational leadership and practitioner attitudes and beliefs. Participants also identified significant issues relating to their organization's lack of resources such as funding, compensation, infrastructure and partnerships/linkages. Environmental challenges such as the nature of a clinic's patient population and logistical issues such as the actual implementation of a research program and the applicability of research data also posed challenges to the conduct of research. Embedded research leadership, integration of personal and professional values about research, alignment of research activities and clinical workflow processes are some of the factors identified by participants that support IHC clinics' ability to conduct outcomes research. Conclusions Assessing and enhancing the broader

  5. Soil and land use research in Europe: Lessons learned from INSPIRATION bottom-up strategic research agenda setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Stephan; Boekhold, Alexandra E; Brils, Jos; Grimski, Detlef; Ferber, Uwe; Gorgon, Justyna; Guérin, Valérie; Makeschin, Franz; Maring, Linda; Nathanail, C Paul; Villeneuve, Jacques; Zeyer, Josef; Schröter-Schlaack, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the INSPIRATION bottom-up approach for the development of a strategic research agenda for spatial planning, land use and soil-sediment-water-system management in Europe. Research and innovation needs were identified by more than 500 European funders, endusers, scientists, policy makers, public administrators and consultants. We report both on the concept and on the implementation of the bottom-up approach, provide a critique of the process and draw key lessons for the development of research agendas in the future. Based on identified strengths and weaknesses we identified as key opportunities and threats 1) a high ranking and attentiveness for the research topics on the political agenda, in press and media or in public awareness, 2) availability of funding for research, 3) the resources available for creating the agenda itself, 4) the role of the sponsor of the agenda development, and 5) the continuity of stakeholder engagement as bases for identification of windows of opportunity, creating ownership for the agenda and facilitating its implementation. Our derived key recommendations are 1) a clear definition of the area for which the agenda is to be developed and for the targeted user, 2) a conceptual model to structure the agenda, 3) making clear the expected roles, tasks, input formats regarding the involvement and communication with the stakeholders and project partners, 4) a sufficient number of iterations and checks of the agenda with stakeholders to insure completeness, relevance and creation of co-ownership for the agenda, and 5) from the beginning prepare the infrastructure for the network to implement the agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Research and Applications of Chemical Sciences in Forestry: Proceedings of the 4th Southern Station Chemical Sciences Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Vozzo; [Compiler

    1994-01-01

    This proceedings is the result of 65 scientists representing 34 facilities reported in 28 presentations. As titled, Research and Applications of Chemical Sciences in Forestry, the contributors represent academic, basic, and applied researchers from universities and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their presence and experience represent a significant showing toward...

  7. Setting priorities for research in medical nutrition education: an international approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Barnes, Katelyn; Laur, Celia; Crowley, Jennifer; Ray, Sumantra

    2016-12-14

    To identify the research priorities for medical nutrition education worldwide. A 5-step stakeholder engagement process based on methodological guidelines for identifying research priorities in health. 277 individuals were identified as representatives for 30 different stakeholder organisations across 86 countries. The stakeholder organisations represented the views of medical educators, medical students, doctors, patients and researchers in medical education. Each stakeholder representative was asked to provide up to three research questions that should be deemed as a priority for medical nutrition education. Research questions were critically appraised for answerability, sustainability, effectiveness, potential for translation and potential to impact on disease burden. A blinded scoring system was used to rank the appraised questions, with higher scores indicating higher priority (range of scores possible 36-108). 37 submissions were received, of which 25 were unique research questions. Submitted questions received a range of scores from 62 to 106 points. The highest scoring questions focused on (1) increasing the confidence of medical students and doctors in providing nutrition care to patients, (2) clarifying the essential nutrition skills doctors should acquire, (3) understanding the effectiveness of doctors at influencing dietary behaviours and (4) improving medical students' attitudes towards the importance of nutrition. These research questions can be used to ensure future projects in medical nutrition education directly align with the needs and preferences of research stakeholders. Funders should consider these priorities in their commissioning of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Method research of fault diagnosis based on rough set for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhihui; Xia Hong

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power equipment fault feature is complicated and uncertain. Rough set theory can express and deal with vagueness and uncertainty, so that it can be introduced nuclear power fault diagnosis to analyze and process historical data to find rule of fault feature. Rough set theory treatment step: Data preprocessing, attribute reduction, attribute value reduction, rule generation. According to discernibility matrix definition and nature, we can utilize discernibility matrix in reduction algorithm that make attribute and attribute value reduction, so that it can minish algorithmic complication and simplify programming. This algorithm is applied to the nuclear power fault diagnosis to generate rules of diagnosis. Using these rules, we have diagnosed five kinds of model faults correctly. (authors)

  9. "Economic microscope": The agent-based model set as an instrument in an economic system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Akenov, Serik

    2017-07-01

    To create a valid model of a social or economic system one must consider a lot of parameters, conditions and restrictions. Systems and, consequently, the corresponding models are proved to be very complicated. The problem of such system model engineering can't be solved only with mathematical methods usage. The decision could be found in computer simulation. Simulation does not reject mathematical methods, mathematical expressions could become the foundation for a computer model. In these materials the set of agent-based computer models is under discussion. All the set models simulate productive agents communications, but every model is geared towards the specific goal, and, thus, has its own algorithm and its own peculiarities. It is shown that computer simulation can discover new features of the agents' behavior that can not be obtained by analytical solvation of mathematical equations and thus plays the role of some kind of economic microscope.

  10. Research of Strategic Alliance Stable Decision-making Model Based on Rough Set and DEA

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yi

    2013-01-01

    This article uses rough set theory for stability evaluation system of strategic alliance at first. Uses data analysis method for reduction, eliminates redundant indexes. Selected 6 enterprises as a decision-making unit, then select 4 inputs and 2 outputs indexes data, using DEA model to calculate, analysis reasons for poor benefit of decision-making unit, find out improvement direction and quantity for changing, provide a reference for the alliance stability.

  11. A Clinical Librarian-Nursing Partnership to Bridge Clinical Practice and Research in an Oncology Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginex, Pamela K; Hernandez, Marisol; Vrabel, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nurses in clinical settings in which evidence-based, individualized care is expected are often the best resource to identify important clinical questions and gaps in practice. These nurses are frequently challenged by a lack of resources to fully develop their questions and identify the most appropriate methods to answer them. A strategic and ongoing partnership between medical library services and nursing can support nurses as they embark on the process of answering these questions and, ultimately, improving patient care and clinical outcomes

  12. Managing Ethical Challenges to Mental Health Research in Post‐Conflict Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recently the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the need to strengthen mental health systems following emergencies, including natural and manmade disasters. Mental health services need to be informed by culturally attuned evidence that is developed through research. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish rigorous ethical research practice to underpin the evidence‐base for mental health services delivered during and following emergencies. PMID:25580875

  13. “Think Research” in Everyday Clinical Practice: Fostering Research Culture in Health Care Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsa Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available “No development without research; No research without development” Yvo Nuyens1TThe quest for knowledge has helped mankind evolve over the years, from discovery of fire through Dolly the sheep clone to Chandrayan moon mission, leaving behind a record of discoveries and inventions in science and technology. Each generation can begin the search for knowledge where the last one left off and contribute their share to the benefit of humanity, cutting across culture and boundaries.

  14. Massage therapy and canadians' health care needs 2020: proceedings of a national research priority setting summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Trish; Sumpton, Bryn; Shipwright, Stacey; Kahn, Janet; Reece, Barbara Findlay

    2014-03-01

    The health care landscape in Canada is changing rapidly as forces, such as an aging population, increasingly complex health issues and treatments, and economic pressure to reduce health care costs, bear down on the system. A cohesive national research agenda for massage therapy (MT) is needed in order to ensure maximum benefit is derived from research on treatment, health care policy, and cost effectiveness. A one-day invitational summit was held in Toronto, Ontario to build strategic alliances among Canadian and international researchers, policy makers, and other stakeholders to help shape a national research agenda for MT. Using a modified Delphi method, the summit organizers conducted two pre-summit surveys to ensure that time spent during the summit was relevant and productive. The summit was facilitated using the principles of Appreciative Inquiry which included a "4D" strategic planning approach (defining, discovery, dreaming, designing) and application of a SOAR framework (strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results). Twenty-six researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders actively participated in the events. Priority topics that massage therapists believe are important to the Canadian public, other health care providers, and policy makers and massage therapists themselves were identified. A framework for a national massage therapy (MT) research agenda, a grand vision of the future for MT research, and a 12-month action plan were developed. The summit provided an excellent opportunity for key stakeholders to come together and use their experience and knowledge of MT to develop a much-needed plan for moving the MT research and professionalization agenda forward.

  15. A qualitative analysis of the information science needs of public health researchers in an academic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Shanda L. Hunt; Caitlin J. Bakker

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The University of Minnesota (UMN) Health Sciences Libraries conducted a needs assessment of public health researchers as part of a multi-institutional study led by Ithaka S+R. The aims of the study were to capture the evolving needs, opportunities, and challenges of public health researchers in the current environment and provide actionable recommendations. This paper reports on the data collected at the UMN site. Methods: Participants (n=24) were recruited through convenience ...

  16. Reflectometer end station for synchrotron calibrations of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility flight optics and for spectrometric research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessle, D.E.; Fitch, J.J.; Ingram, R.; Zhang Juda, J.; Blake, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Preparations have been underway to construct and test a facility for grazing incidence reflectance calibrations of flat mirrors at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The purpose is to conduct calibrations on witness flats to the coating process of the flight mirrors for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The x-ray energy range required is 50 eV--12 keV. Three monochromatic beamlines (X8C, X8A, U3A) will provide energy tunability over this entire range. The goal is to calibrate the AXAF flight mirrors with uncertainties approaching 1%. A portable end station with a precision-positioning reflectometer has been developed for this work. We have resolved the vacuum cleanliness requirements to preserve the coating integrity of the flats with the strict grazing-angle certainty requirements placed on the rotational control system of the reflectometer. A precision positioning table permits alignment of the system to the synchrotron beam to within 10 arcsec; the reflectometer's rotational control system can then produce grazing angle accuracy to within less than 2 arcsec, provided that the electron orbit is stable. At 10--12 keV, this degree of angular accuracy is necessary to achieve the calibration accuracy required for AXAF. However the most important energy regions for the synchrotron calibration are in the 2000--3200 eV range, where the M-edge absorption features of the coating element, iridium, appear, and the 300--700 eV range of the Ir N edges. The detail versus energy exhibited in these features cannot be traced adequately without a tunable energy source, which necessitates a synchrotron for this work. We present the mechanical designs, motion control systems, detection and measurement capabilities, and selected procedures for our measurements, as well as reflectance data

  17. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  18. Genomic Research Data Generation, Analysis and Sharing – Challenges in the African Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mulder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomics is the study of the genetic material that constitutes the genomes of organisms. This genetic material can be sequenced and it provides a powerful tool for the study of human, plant and animal evolutionary history and diseases. Genomics research is becoming increasingly commonplace due to significant advances in and reducing costs of technologies such as sequencing. This has led to new challenges including increasing cost and complexity of data. There is, therefore, an increasing need for computing infrastructure and skills to manage, store, analyze and interpret the data. In addition, there is a significant cost associated with recruitment of participants and collection and processing of biological samples, particularly for large human genetics studies on specific diseases. As a result, researchers are often reluctant to share the data due to the effort and associated cost. In Africa, where researchers are most commonly at the study recruitment, determination of phenotypes and collection of biological samples end of the genomic research spectrum, rather than the generation of genomic data, data sharing without adequate safeguards for the interests of the primary data generators is a concern. There are substantial ethical considerations in the sharing of human genomics data. The broad consent for data sharing preferred by genomics researchers and funders does not necessarily align with the expectations of researchers, research participants, legal authorities and bioethicists. In Africa, this is complicated by concerns about comprehension of genomics research studies, quality of research ethics reviews and understanding of the implications of broad consent, secondary analyses of shared data, return of results and incidental findings. Additional challenges with genomics research in Africa include the inability to transfer, store, process and analyze large-scale genomics data on the continent, because this requires highly specialized skills

  19. NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

  20. Differences between patients' and clinicians' research priorities from the Anaesthesia and Peri-operative Care Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boney, O; Nathanson, M H; Grocott, M P W; Metcalf, L

    2017-09-01

    The James Lind Alliance Anaesthesia and Peri-operative Care Priority Setting Partnership was a recent collaborative venture bringing approximately 2000 patients, carers and clinicians together to agree priorities for future research into anaesthesia and critical care. This secondary analysis compares the research priorities of 303 service users, 1068 clinicians and 325 clinicians with experience as service users. All three groups prioritised research to improve patient safety. Service users prioritised research about improving patient experience, whereas clinicians prioritised research about clinical effectiveness. Clinicians who had experience as service users consistently prioritised research more like clinicians than like service users. Individual research questions about patient experience were more popular with patients and carers than with clinicians in all but one case. We conclude that patients, carers and clinicians prioritise research questions differently. All groups prioritise research into patient safety, but service users also favour research into patient experience, whereas clinicians favour research into clinical effectiveness. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: the International Collaborative on Progressive MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert J; Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-11-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS.

  2. Setting the research agenda for induced abortion in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel H; Filippi, Veronique; Moore, Ann M; Acharya, Rajib; Bankole, Akinrinola; Calvert, Clara; Church, Kathryn; Cresswell, Jenny A; Footman, Katharine; Gleason, Joanne; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Marston, Cicely; Mbizvo, Mike; Musheke, Maurice; Owolabi, Onikepe; Palmer, Jennifer; Smith, Christopher; Storeng, Katerini; Yeung, Felicia

    2018-05-10

    Provision of safe abortion is widely recognized as vital to addressing the health and wellbeing of populations. Research on abortion is essential to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Researchers in population health from university, policy, and practitioner contexts working on two multidisciplinary projects on family planning and safe abortion in Africa and Asia were brought together for a workshop to discuss the future research agenda on induced abortion. Research on care-seeking behavior, supply of abortion care services, and the global and national policy context will help improve access to and experiences of safe abortion services. A number of areas have potential in designing intervention strategies, including clinical innovations, quality improvement mechanisms, community involvement, and task sharing. Research on specific groups, including adolescents and young people, men, populations affected by conflict, marginalized groups, and providers could increase understanding of provision, access to and experiences of induced abortion. Methodological and conceptual advances, for example in the measurement of induced abortion incidence, complications, and client satisfaction, conceptualizations of induced abortion access and care, and methods for follow-up of patients who have induced abortions, will improve the accuracy of measurements of induced abortion, and add to understanding of women's experiences of induced abortions and abortion care. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: The International Collaborative on Progressive MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS. PMID:22917690

  4. Research of hydroelectric generating set low-frequency vibration monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, ShuJuan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Chang

    2017-10-01

    In order to satisfy hydroelectric generating set low-frequency vibration monitoring, the design of Passive low-frequency vibration monitoring system based on Optical fiber sensing in this paper. The hardware of the system adopts the passive optical fiber grating sensor and unbalanced-Michelson interferometer. The software system is used to programming by Labview software and finishing the control of system. The experiment show that this system has good performance on the standard vibration testing-platform and it meets system requirements. The frequency of the monitoring system can be as low as 0.2Hz and the resolution is 0.01Hz.

  5. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  6. The kidney cancer research priority-setting partnership: Identifying the top 10 research priorities as defined by patients, caregivers, and expert clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer; Bhatt, Jaimin; Avery, Jonathan; Laupacis, Andreas; Cowan, Katherine; Basappa, Naveen; Basiuk, Joan; Canil, Christina; Al-Asaaed, Sohaib; Heng, Daniel; Wood, Lori; Stacey, Dawn; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Jewett, Michael A S

    2017-12-01

    It is critically important to define disease-specific research priorities to better allocate limited resources. There is growing recognition of the value of involving patients and caregivers, as well as expert clinicians in this process. To our knowledge, this has not been done this way for kidney cancer. Using the transparent and inclusive process established by the James Lind Alliance, the Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada (KCRNC) sponsored a collaborative consensus-based priority-setting partnership (PSP) to identify research priorities in the management of kidney cancer. The final result was identification of 10 research priorities for kidney cancer, which are discussed in the context of current initiatives and gaps in knowledge. This process provided a systematic and effective way to collaboratively establish research priorities with patients, caregivers, and clinicians, and provides a valuable resource for researchers and funding agencies.

  7. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  8. A Trend Analysis of Participant and Setting Characteristics in Autism Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The current trend analysis was conducted to empirically document the characteristics of individuals with autism who participated in intervention research published between 1995 and 2009 in three journals ("Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," and "Focus on Autism and Other…

  9. Too much coffee... - Negotiation of Knowledge Forms in Participatory Research Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context...

  10. Short Research Report: Cyberbullying Levels of Impact in a Special School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Paula; Hallet, Fiona; Hawkins, Claire; Hewitson, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as "an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him or herself" (Smith et al., 2008, p. 376). There are many quantitative studies on cyberbullying, but now researchers argue that we need…

  11. Spring Research Festival Set for May 3 and 4; Registration Deadline April 15 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SRF, which is celebrating its 20th anniversary this year, aims to “acquaint our [NCI at Frederick and Fort Detrick] neighbors––scientists, citizens, and especially students––with the nature of our research and to facilitate collaboration between partner agencies.” The event is open to the Fort Detrick and NCI at Frederick communities and invited guests.

  12. Lyme disease in the Dutch policy context: patient consultation in government research agenda setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Oudendammer, W.M.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of Lyme disease (LD) is increasing in the Netherlands. The Dutch Association for Lyme Disease Patients (NVLP) presented a petition to the Dutch Parliament for more LD research and political attention. The Parliament requested advice from the Health Council of the Netherlands, which among

  13. Research priorities by professional background - A detailed analysis of the James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Reay, Hannah; Brett, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    The Intensive Care Foundation, in partnership with the James Lind Alliance, has supported a national project to identify and prioritise unanswered questions about adult intensive care that are important to people who have been critically ill, their families, and the health professionals who care for them. We conducted a secondary analysis to explore differences in priorities determined by different respondent groups in order to identify different groups' perceptions of gaps in knowledge. There were two surveys conducted as part of the original project. Survey 1 comprised a single open question to identify important research topics; survey 2 aimed to prioritise these topics using a 10-point Likert scale. In survey 1, despite clear differences in suggestions amongst the respondent groups, themes of comfort/communication and post-ICU rehabilitation were the within the top 2 suggestions across all groups. Patients and relatives suggested research topics to which they could easily relate, whereas there was a greater breadth of suggestions from clinicians. In survey 2, the number of research priorities that received a mode score of 10 varied from 1 to 36. Patients scored 36 out of the 37 topics with a mode score of 10. All other groups scored topics with more discrimination, with the number of topics with a mode score of 10 ranging from 1 to 20. Differences in the proportions of the representative groups are therefore unlikely to have translated to an impartial conclusion. Clinicians, patients, and family members have jointly identified the research priorities for UK ICM practice.

  14. Setting Global Research Priorities for Developmental Disabilities, Including Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, M.; Yasamy, M. T.; Emerson, E.; Officer, A.; Richler, D.; Saxena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of intellectual disabilities (ID) has been estimated at 10.4/1000 worldwide with higher rates among children and adolescents in lower income countries. The objective of this paper is to address research priorities for development disabilities, notably ID and autism, at the global level and to propose the more rational…

  15. Place visitation, place avoidance, and attitudinal ambivalence: new concepts for place research in urban recreation settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Klenosky; Christine A. Vogt; Herbert W. Schroeder; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on recent developments in research on consumer behavior and attitudes to better understand the range of behaviors and attitudes inherent in a diverse urban area. Using a mail survey of Chicago-area residents, we collected data (1) to examine residents' past visitation behavior and recommendations of places to visit and to avoid for a range of...

  16. Preparing for Portfolio Careers in Australian Music: Setting a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Bennett, Dawn; Bridgstock, Ruth; Draper, Paul; Harrison, Scott; Schippers, Huib

    2012-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, Australian musicians increasingly maintain "portfolio" careers, in which they combine diverse employment arrangements and activities. Often, these incorporate industry sectors outside of music. This career pattern is widespread but not well understood, largely because of the limitations of existing research.…